Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Third Edition Chapter 2 Linux Installation and Usage.

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  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Third EditionChapter 2Linux Installation and Usage

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*ObjectivesInstall Red Hat Fedora Linux using good practicesOutline the structure of the Linux interfaceEnter basic shell commands and find command documentationProperly shut down the Linux operating system

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Installing Linux: Preparing for InstallationAll OSs require a minimum set of hardware components to function properlyCan be obtained from manual or file in DVD of OS, or from vendor websiteEach individual hardware component should be checked against the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) found on the vendors Web siteLinux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Installing Linux: Preparing for Installation (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Table 2-1 Fedora 13 hardware requirements

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Installing Linux: Preparing for Installation (continued)Need to identify software that will be used in the Linux operating systemComputers host nameNetwork configuration parametersSpecific software packages to be installedCreate preinstallation checklist to document hardware and software informationLinux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Table 2-2 Sample preinstallation checklist

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Installing Linux: Installation MethodsDVD mediaFTP serverHTTP Web serverNFS serverSMB serverPackages on hard diskCD-ROM media

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Starting the Installation and Checking Media for ErrorsBoot from first Red Hat Fedora Linux DVDA Welcome screen is displayed, can select option:Default graphical installationInstallation with basic video driverRescue installed itemsBoot from local driveMemory testCheck media for errors prior to installationOptional, but recommended

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Starting the Installation and Checking Media for Errors (continued)Figure 2-1: Beginning a Fedora installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Starting the Installation and Checking Media for Errors (continued)Figure 2-3: Testing DVD media

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Choosing the Language, Keyboard, and Storage TypeAllowed to choose installation languageChoose keyboard configurationKeyboard model and layout automatically detectedSelect types of storage devices used to host the Linux OSFor internal or locally attached hard drive installation, select Basic Storage DevicesFor installation on SAN or DASD, select Specialized Storage Devices

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Choosing the Language, Keyboard, and Storage Type (continued)Figure 2-4: Selecting an installation language

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Choosing the Language, Keyboard, and Storage Type (continued)Figure 2-5: Verifying keyboard configuration

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root PasswordSupply a host name that will identify system on the networkBy default use localhost.localdomainImportant to select correct time zone for the local systemAuthentication: Users log in via valid user name and passwordConfigure two user accountsAdministrator account (root): full rights to systemRegular user account

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Figure 2-7: Selecting a host name

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password (continued)Figure 2-8: Selecting a time zone

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password (continued)Figure 2-9: Setting a root password

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring Storage DevicesMost common storage devices for storing Linux OS are hard disksParallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA)Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)Each hard disk is divided into partitionsPartitions formatted with filesystemsMaximum four primary partitionsExtended partition can be divided into logical drives

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Configuring Storage Devices (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Table 2-3: PATA hard disk configurations

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Configuring Storage Devices (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Table 2-4: Example of a partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE hard disk

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Configuring Storage Devices (continued)Filesystems can be accessed if attached (mounted) to a directoryMinimum of two partitionsPartition for root directoryPartition for virtual memory (swap memory)Area on hard disk used to store information normally residing in physical memory (RAM)Automatic or manual partitioningBetter to manually partitionLinux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Table 2-5: Common Linux filesystems and sizes

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring Storage Devices (continued)Different types of filesystemsExt2: used on most Linux computersExt3, Ext4: performs journalingVfat: compatible with Windows FAT filesystemREISER: performs journalingJournaling: keeps track of the information written to the hard drive

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring Storage Devices (continued)Figure 2-10: Selecting a partition strategy

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring Storage Devices (continued)When creating a partition, specify the partition technologyFor standard disk partitions need to provide information regarding size, filesystem type, encryption options and mount pointInstead of standard partitions, can create volumes that span multiple disksLogical Volume Manager (LVM)Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring the Boot LoaderBoot loader: program started by BIOS at system startupLoads Linux kernel into memory from hard diskCan also boot other existing OSsGRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB): boot loader configured during Fedora Linux installationDual booting: choose OS to boot at startup

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring the Boot Loader (continued)Figure 2-14: Configuring a boot loader

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Configuring the Boot Loader (continued)Boot loader usually resides on the MBR or on first sector of / or /boot partition Kernel parameters: information passed to Linux kernel via the boot loaderLarge Block Addressing 32-bit (LBA32): enables Large Block Addressing in boot loaderFor large hard disks not fully supported by the BIOS

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Selecting and Installing PackagesFigure 2-15: Selecting system role and software repositories

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Selecting and Installing Packages (continued)Figure 2-16: Selecting individual packages

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Completing the Firstboot WizardComplete the installationLicense agreementUser accounts and authenticationDate and timeNetwork Time Protocol (NTP)Confirmation of hardware to be usedLog in with user account for daily tasksUse Network Login: authenticate users based on an external database

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)Figure 2-18: Creating a regular user account

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)Figure 2-19: Choosing authentication options

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)Figure 2-20: Advanced authentication options

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)Figure 2-21: Setting the date and time

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)Figure 2-22: Viewing the hardware profile

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the KernelTerminal: channel allowing users to log on to the kernel locally or across a networkShell: user interface which accepts user inputs and transfers them to the kernel BASH Shell (Bourne Again Shell): default Linux shellCommand line shellLinux allows multiple terminals, each with its own shell

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)Figure 2-23: Shells, terminals, and the kernel

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)Graphical interfaceStart GUI environment on top of BASH shellOr, switch to a graphical terminale.g., GNOME Display Manager (gdm)From the local server, use key combinations to change to separate terminalCommand-line terminal may be accessed from GUI environmentCommand line prompt:Root user: #Regular user: $

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)Table 2-6: Common Linux terminals

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)Figure 2-25: Accessing a command-line terminal in a GUI environment

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Shell CommandsCommands: indicate name of program to execute Case sensitiveOptions: specific letters starting with - appearing after command name Alter way command worksArguments: specify a commands specific working parameters

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Basic Shell Commands (continued)Table 2-7: Some common Linux commands

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Shell MetacharactersMetacharacters: characters with a special meaninge.g., $Refers to a variableAvoid use of metacharacters when typing commands unless using their special functionalitySingle quotation marks protect metacharacter from being interpreted specially by the shell

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Shell Metacharacters (continued)Table 2-8: Common BASH Shell metacharacters

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Getting Command HelpManual (man) pages: most common form of documentation for Linux commandsAt command prompt, type man followed by command nameContain different sectionsSearchable by keywordInfo pages: set of local, easy-to-read command syntax documentationAt command prompt, type info followed by a command name

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Getting Command Help (continued)Table 2-9: Manual page section numbers

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Shutting Down the Linux SystemTable 2-10: Commands to halt and reboot the Linux operating system

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*SummaryPrior to installationVerify hardware requirements using HCLCreate preinstallation checklistDVDbased installationEasiestMost common

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Summary (continued)Installation prompts for language, host name, date, time zone, keyboard layout, user account configuration, storage configuration, boot loader configuration, and package selectionUsers must log in to a terminal and receive a shell before they are able to interact with the Linux system and kernel

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Summary (continued)From any type of terminal you can enter commands, options, and arguments at a shell prompt to perform system tasks, obtain command help, or shut down the Linux systemThe shell is case sensitive and understands a variety of special characters called shell metacharacters, which should be protected if their special meaning is not required

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

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