Long-Term English Language Learners and Strategies for Engaging Them with the Common Core . Kenji Hakuta Stanford University. Purposes of this Session. Set some key points for understanding long-term EL issue Explore some data analyses on definitions and characteristics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Long-Term English Language Learners and Strategies for Engaging Them with the Common Core
Kenji HakutaStanford University2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaPurposes of this SessionSet some key points for understanding long-term EL issueExplore some data analyses on definitions and characteristicsDiscuss how state and district systems and practices can be more responsive to current LTELs: prevention, acceleration, caution
WestEd.orgEducators Have a Dual Obligation to English LearnersProvide meaningful access to grade-level academic content via appropriate instruction Develop students academic English language proficiency
(Lau v. Nichols; Castaeda v. Pickard; NCLB)Interconnected, not separate! Simultaneous, not sequential!2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / Atlanta
Common Core Standards: Major Shifts2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaThe vast majority of states have voluntarily signed on to these fewer, clearer, higher standardsSeveral major shifts in the standards that have big implications for ELs:Increased emphasis on informational text, specification of literacy skills in history/social studies, science, and technologyMuch greater emphasis on text complexity [scaffolding systematically removed].Huge emphasis on arguing from evidence [Not just personal experience]
The New Paradigm: Language Uses within Content Practices
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaDefinitions and Characteristics2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaCA ELs and former ELs (RFEP) by grade Source: CDE DataQuest, 2010-11 CELDT & CSTEver-ELK-56-12TotalEL86%43%1,435,734RFEP14%57%794,467Courtesy: Robert Linquanti (WestEd)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaOverall (K-12): EL: 64%, RFEP: 36%7District A ELs, Long-Term ELs and Former ELs (RFEP) by gradeLTEL:EL Ratio 2:13:13:13.5:13:12:12:13.5:1Long-term EL: 6 or more years in LEAEver EL45%18%37%Current EL33%67%Courtesy: Robert Linquanti (WestEd)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaLongitudinal Attainment of Language and Content Criteria (Thompson, 2012)
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaInitial L1 and English Proficiency as Strong Predictors of Reclassification (Thompson, 2012)
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaLegislated Definition of EL at Risk of Becoming LTEL (AB 2193)English learner at risk of becoming a long-term English learner means an English learner who is enrolled in any of grades 5 to 11, inclusive, in schools in the United States for four years, scores at the intermediate level or below on the English language development test identified or developed pursuant to Section 60810, or any successor test, and scores in the fourth year at the below basic or far below basic level on the English language arts standards-based achievement test administered pursuant to Section 60640, or any successor test.
(Cal. Ed. Code 313.1, 2012)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / Atlanta
Students meeting various criteria for Californias Long-Term English Learner Definition (SY 2010-11)Source: CEPA at Stanford University (Thompson et al., 2013)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaStrategizing: PreventionKnow your studentsInitial ELP and L1 levelEntry grade/time in the districtFocus on time: Set clear expectations for linguistic and academic progress Monitor every students progress relative to expectations
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / Atlanta
(Olsen 2010)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaSome characteristics (Olsen 2010)High functioning in social situations in both their home language and in EnglishWeak in academic uses of language, with gaps in literacy skillsProgress stopped on key reclass criteriaDeveloped habits of non-engagement, learned passivity and invisibility
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaSome characteristicsUnaware that academic skills, record and courses place them in academic jeopardySignificant gaps in academic background knowledge (Olsen 2010)More likely to be US-bornMuch more likely to be classified Special EdSpeech or language impairment (SLI) Specific learning disability (SLD)
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaLong-Term Special Ed ELs: Peel Back the Layers.When identified for Special Ed?Were early reading difficulties misinterpreted as second-language features?Does later special ed referral reflect earlier lack of RTI and/or rigorous content instruction, ELD?Other hypotheses to investigate?
?2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaIn classes with newcomer and normatively developing English Learners by CELDT levelUnprepared teachersNo electives and limited access to the full curriculumOver-assigned and inadequately served in intervention and reading support classesTypical placement/services .(Olsen 2010)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaGuiding principlesUrgency, acceleration and focusAddress distinct needsOral language and literacy developmentAcademic gapsInvitation and supportIntegration into school community and access to rigorous core curriculum(Olsen 2010)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaSome program elementsSpecialized English Language Development course (ALD)Clustered placement in heterogeneous, rigorous grade-level content classes mixed with English-proficient students, with differentiated instructional strategiesExplicit language and literacy development across the curriculum (CCSS)Dynamic placement for accelerated progress and maximum rigorFormal systems for monitoring progress
(Olsen 2010)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / Atlanta
LAUSD 2012 EL Master PlanCourtesy: Robert Linquanti (WestEd)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaDont ignore needs of Reclassified Students:CAs Former ELs (RFEPs) needing academic support after exitingRFEPs in CA: CST-ELA, 2010-1179% of all former ELs tested are in grades 6-1137% of former ELs score below grade level on CST-ELA examSource: CDE 2011Courtesy: Robert Linquanti (WestEd)2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaCAUTION: Consciously avoid cultivating a double stigma in our language and thinking The only thing worse than being an EL is being a long-term EL.Youre a long-term English learner.Youre at risk of becoming LTEL.Theyre lifers.Courtesy: Robert Linquanti (WestEd)WestEd.orgTake-AwaysLeverage language shifts related to Common Core to engage all teachers and leaders with LTELs.Work on integrating policies and practices with early childhood and special education sectors.Cultivate a research base on program effectiveness.Be aware of unintended consequences of LTEL label.
2/8/2013CCSSO ICCS SCASS / AtlantaContentDiscourseComplex textsExplanationArgumentationText typesSentence structuresVocabularypractices
DiscourseComplex textsExplanationArgumentationText typesSentence structuresVocabularypractices
DiscourseComplex textsExplanationArgumentationText typesSentence structuresVocabularypracticesMathLanguage ArtsScienceLanguageThe new paradigm raises the level of vocabulary but also adds high complex functions of language. The overlap is greatly increased.