Mandziak A. S. The World Encyclopedia of Wrestling

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The World Encyclopedia of Wrestling is an unparalleled reference book including more than 500 types of international, national and folk styles of wrestling. In addition to the technical description of various wrestling styles the encyclopedia covers a wide range of historical, ethnographical, anthropological, religious and other facts about the described nationalities. It would be of great interest not only to academic researchers, professional athletes and instructors, but also to all who are interested in the culture and traditions of world martial arts and sports. The bibliography covers about 3000 reference sources written in 26 languages. , 500 . , -, , . . , , , , . 3000 , 26 .

Transcript

.., .. , 2010.. . .., ../..,... , 2010. 562 ., 538 . , 500.,-, , . .,,,, . 3000 , 26 ... , 2010. .. , 2010.lexey Mandziak and Oleg ArtemenkoThe World Encyclopedia of WrestlingMINSK, 2010Thispublicationisincopyright.Subjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionsofrelevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without thewritten permission of the authors.TheWorldEncyclopediaof Wrestling/AlexeyMandziak andOlegArtemenko.Minsk,2010. 562 p., 538 il.The World Encyclopedia of Wrestling is an unparalleled reference book including more than 500typesofinternational,nationalandfolkstylesofwrestling.Inadditiontothetechnicaldescriptionofvariouswrestlingstylestheencyclopediacoversawiderangeofhistorical,ethnographical,anthropological,religiousandotherfactsaboutthedescribednationalities.Itwould be of great interest not only to academic researchers, professional athletes and instructors,butalso to allwho are interested in the culture and traditions ofworld martialarts and sports.The bibliography covers about 3000 reference sources written in 26 languages.Copyright Alexey Mandziak, 2010.Copyright Oleg Artemenko, 2010. ,,-,.- , ., , :RokovorVihienuo(,),AndrewHeavens(-),CalMerege(-),MohammadRakibulHasan(),ThierryLabrouze(-),(),(), (), () .Thise-Bookisanon-commercialillustratedprojectfocusedonthepromotingandpopularizingtraditionalculture,nationalgamesandindigenoussportsofmanyethniccommunitiesaroundtheglobe.ThepresentEditioncouldbedisseminatedintheInternetonacompletely free basis provided the authors copyright to be preserved.The authors would like to express theirsincere acknowledgements toall researchers andphotographers who have generously provided their artworks from personal archives, in particularto: Rokovor Vihienuo (Nagaland, India),Andrew Heavens (UK- Ethiopia), Cal Merege (USA-Brazil),MohammadRakibulHasan(Bangladesh),ThierryLabrouze(France-Sudan),SergeiRomanenko(Russia),AndyuPetryan(Russia),TarasKalyandruk(Ukraine),GennadyAdamovich (Belarus) among many others. , :normanjy@rambler.ruPlease, send all your comments and suggestions to the following address:normanjy@rambler.ru : (, 1930- ).Front cover: The statuette of two paiwan wrestlers (Taiwan, 1930-th).6,.-,(,,.),HomoSapiens., , - , .,, XIX .,.-,.,,,.,-,- , 1. , , ..,,,, .2,,,-. , ( ) ; ( , ); (.,),(,,..);(,,,.), , , ..:(/1 /...,....:, 1981. . 162.2 :..-( ). ... . . . , 1965; ........ . . ., 1970; .. 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(,).,, ,.,.,- . .. , , . .(Ringen)(Ringkampf).. .(XIII.),,. ., ,., , . Thierry Labrouze. .., .. 398 (, , ), .,.,, .-,(freierringkampf freistilringen),,,,,,.-,, (Grtelringen Grtel (, , )), . , .., II715. ,.(1388.) (1388 .).,.(1443.),.,..:. , , .,.,,,,!. , . ,() . , , ., , .715 1212 1250. , . .., .. 39935,,,.. ; ; .:,,.,.,,., ,. , , . , 716.,,1459. , 1467 . , . , 1511.() . (Das Fechtbuch) (1471-1528),,.,, , . .35,().120, 80. 1512 ., .. . ,,. I , , . , , .,,716 .. // . , 1994. 5. . 54-55. . 1400- . .., .. 400,.717.27.85,- . , , ,.1570. . ( , , , , ).,,.,,,(). , -,- . , . XIX . ,.,1887-(!) . . 1901 .1907. .717 .. // . .XI. , 1978. . 148-152. . 1898 . .., .. 401 . 1925 . Alte undneuneKampfkunst ( ) .-.,, .,(Volksringen; Nationalringen), (. ), (.), , . Das Landshuter Ringerbuch, 1507 . .., .. 402(ristynes)(tautikosiosimtynes)., : , , (,),(kojoskiimas)(pakirtimas),,.-. : ,.;:,.718., ,- , .() (. ). . - , , .,,: 719. , . ,, . 720., , , -.. .. :718 .//.-. . . IV. , 1961.719 . ..720 . // . . 3. , 1976. . 107.. 1950- . . , . .., .. 403.- : , , ? ? ? : , , , . 721.--(ruru-palooza), .,.- (rarakana) (kondya), ..,.,,.. , .,. , . ,-,,722.,:(,,,).,:().().,.,,,.,,..721 ..// . . 2. , 1925.722 . // . ., 1995. 9. . 6. . ... .., .. 404(1914..) , () . ,..15.,..,() . . :1. .2. .3. ..,.,.,,,,723., ., ,..:- ,,724. ,,...,, , 725. .,,,..,,,, , , . ,... .723 . // . . ., 1998. . 40-41.724 ...,XIX XX .... . , 2002.725 . . , 1968. . .. . .., .. 405.,,(,l), (l ). ..:3 ,1 1,5 ,8-10.,, , , . , , , , ,..,,,726.:l.-,. 727.()- ...,:,.,,.,.,,728. ; ; ; ; ; ; ;; ; ., . : .726 .. . , 1988. . 113-142.727 ..// . , 1987. . 74.728 .. // - . 1975 .., 1977. . 32.. .., .. 406:,(),, 729.,,-, ( ) . : 730.,,.: .,,., 731.,.(,, ), , . ...: . .-., 732. :., . .,,.- .,.. 18 6 , 10 .729 .. . 1. // , . . V. . 1. ., 1877. . 143.730 ..// . LXVIII. 4. , 1901. . 92.731 . // . - - . . 2. .: , 1954. . 187.732 .. ( .) // . ., 1994. 4. . 96. . .., .. 407 . , :),;), 6 ; ) 30. , . : : ) (), ;),."" . :) , , ; ) , 20 .:),,;), 10 20 ., 733.(.()()()),20-30-..(),().,, , ()733 ..,..,:. ., 1995. . 40. , 1917 . .., .. 408, , , : , , , , , 734.,(1892-1937)., (.)...1911-19142-.20-.,,-., . 1930 . ,.,()735.1937 . , ,..,..,..,.. , .. ... , , - . ,,,;(,,,,); ., ,-,-,(1883-1943).20-30-. -,,().734 . .735 , . .., .. 409:,,,,(),., . 1927-1928 .,1933 . ,,., .,..(..,..,.,..),,.1930. (.), 1932 . 2- ., 1920-. () ( ). 1935 . ,1936 , , . 1938 . (5-6 ) -.....--,, . 30- . (.. 1937.) . , , , , ., . 161938.,, . (,), . 1920- . .., .. 410736,.(..,..),1938.,16 .1939.,56. 1945 .,.1940 .....,..,,.19411945. , 1946 . (1959.).,, . ..,. ,,... , 1982..... ,, . , ,,,,;,,().,,,,. 5 4 .9.:737 , ().,-,, . ,,,, , ., 5: ,(),( , ), 736 .. .737 . .., .. 411(,, ) .:;;;,;();;;;.:(,,, ); ( (),(),); ( , , , ). : ;;();();( ); ( ( (, ),, , ), ( (),(),(,)); ; . , : ();;;(; ; , ). ( 9 : 52100),.1966. ,1972..1972. .1973.(),91. () 1985...40 .1981 , - .738 ( ;),738 . 1920- . .., .. 412(,,,..),;,,;,(,..);(; ; ..). ,,., . ,, .,,,, .. (1881-1973),,.:. ,.. , .,,,,. , ; , .,,., , 739.,,.,,. , , , . , - .739 . .: . 1997. . 52. , . .., .. 413 (sib qhau), (sib ntaus) ,,,,. ..,, (ndrualdluad),--,.-....,, . ,,--, , ..(jafunumbi) . , , . ,. (buku) . . . ., . , ,.-, , .,, , . , ,,,.,,, . . , . .., .. 414 , .,,,. .. : ,740 ,.,. , 999 .,,,,,,,.-: ?, , , , . ,,,, . , , , ,. , . , : ? , : . ? .,. .,,, .. . , ,,, , , 741.XIX.,.. , 1841 ., :,-,,.,.,,,,.,,. . ,, 742.740 ..741 .. : . .: , 1983.742 .. . . ., 1999. . 135. .., .. 415 (Scottishwrestling). . ,,..,, 743. , , , Scottishstylewrestling(),..XIX.:,,,,,,,,- ..,, , 744.: 745, catch-as-catch-can,746. 747., -. (. backhold)gleachd..(,.), . . carachd uibhist. -,-. .XIX ., Dinnistyle() Dinniwrestling(). (1837-1916), ,.743 .. 10 . .: , 1982. . 51.744 .. . . . , 1898.745 . .746 . .747 Kent G. A pictorial history of Wrestling. London et al: Spring Books, 1968. P. 125. . .., .. 416..:-, .. 748. , , ,:, ,-., 30 .1877 ,,, . Dinnistyle . 1916 .... , , (Loosehold).,, , -. carachdbharraidh.,..(sosanngs,),.,..,. .748 . . .., .. 417Ccupi+rpannnnonnaxoptanKopee.3ropasnonnnnocrtnoxcnooptt,nxoropoopnt,ynepxnnaxnpyrnpyrasaopnrnnantntnoxc(camna)oepnyrtnoxpyrrannn n enep, ntramrcx nonannrt npyr npyra na semnm, ncnontsyx npn +rom camte pasno-opasnte npnemt optt nontnoro crnnx.Cnono ccupi+ n nepornnnuecxo sanncn749 nnmercx remn xe snaxamn, uro n xnon-cxaxoptacv+o(cm. Cv+o),onnaxonoxoxe,uro+rorrepmnnncexenesanmcrnonannmecrecnepornnnuecxonnctmennocrtmnsKnrax,anmeeropnrnnantnoenponcxoxne-nne.Hanpnmep, nmxno-xopecxonponnnnnn Kencannornaronccnpynna oosnauaercxnarnrtcx npyr sa npyra n oportcx. C reuennem npemenn or +roro rnarona opasonanoctcymecrnnrentnoeccnpym,xoropoecranoynorpenxnoctnnxoosnauennxrpannnnonnooptt ccupi+. 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B uerneprt ron npannennx uxynxe 4noxpxxopontnmecrecnonunnenntmnnpomencxnoroponcxnmynnnam,nocmorpenxexxynxaxuuoxn754nnarpannncnnaueorartmnnonap-xamn755.Pasnnrne optt ccupi+nocrnrnocnoero maxcnmymanrontnpannennxnocnennexopecxonnnacrnnuocon(1392-1910).Honrnepxnennem+romyxnnxercxontmoexonnuecrnonoxymenronnpncynxonoopte.Buacrnocrn,ncrounnxomnnopmannnoccupi+xnnxercxHeronnctncropnnxoponeuocon,rneecrtsannctornepnororonanpannennxxoponxCenxona(1419):15nmnxTxenxonnCenxonnocemaxnponnnnnmuonxa,cnycrnnnnonxynanonynnauannnnp.Hnoromnaeperypexnonnynnnennopnon756.Paneeraxxennmercx,uro:HannenannaromronynpannennxxoponxCenxona(1430)nnexapemonaxnonmennCanruxonrnopteynncnoeronpornnnnxanrFoxCana;onnpnnxnnacexorner-crnennocrtconepmennoro,nonocxont-xy.+rotnnonnnantntecopenno-nannx, yncrna on ne npnsnan n ne tnnaxasan,arocynapcrnoonnarnnonoxopontynroro.HanxrtronnpannennxXenuxona(1664)nmaennponnnnnnKnanruonuonxaonnnnsopnonnecmornoennrtnsapesan752 Hasnanne Kope xnnxercx coxpamennem or Korype, onnoro ns rpex panneeonantntx rocynapcrn Kopen,oennnenntx rocynapcrnom Cnnna n 668 rony. Conpemennoe nasnanne Kopex nponcxonnr or cnono Kope.753 Ponxnocrn nomomnnxon xoponx. Hpu+.aem.754 Ppyrne repmnnt nnx oosnauennx optt. Hpu+.aem755 Ssireum // Hnrepner-pecypc: http://www.sportsy2k.com/sport_dic/ssireum/history.htm(na xop.xs.)756 Ssireum // Hnrepner-pecypc: http://www.sportsy2k.com/sport_dic/ssireum/history.htm(na xop.xs.)Cvuecmevem npaeocmopouuu uueeocmopouuu ccupm+.Ha npuse eepxo+ - noeumeuo ccupm+ mpauuuouuonouvuau e uaepav mua. .., .. 421npornnnnxa noxom757.Haocnonannn+rnxnoxymenronmoxnocnenartntnon,uro,nnnnmo,optatnanocrarouno nonynxpna n ynopcrno, c xoroptm opnt xorenn ntnrpart, noxonnno nnnort noyncrna conepnnxa. Ho+romy na nxrnannart ron npannennx Xenuxona (1674) npannrent-crno onnnantnosanpernno opty.BectmanmontrntecnenennxooptencpennenexonoKopeemoxnonarnnnoenntxnnennnxaxxopecxoroanmnpanaHnCynCnna,reopxHmnxnncxonont1592r.758.Bonpemxnontcnonneoptatnaennncrnenntmpasnneuennemnnxconnarnnepeptnax mexny nrnamn. 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Copannct pasnte cnnaun, cenn nntnnnnnoxpyry4pasa.Haonnomnsxpyronoxnnn,uroHmIeXenrnonyunnnepnoemecro.Hosnnenoutmornycrnnconnarnennxroro,urotcamomyornoxnyrt,aurotconnart, crpanammne or nrn, ornoxnynn764.Poxymenrt nosnneronepnona +noxn uocon (ox. 17001850),nxoroptx ronopnrcx oopte +ro xponnxn Conrxenrnxn, Tonrryrc+cnrn,Kenrnouanun, X+nonrryrun nnp.Bnnxecrtynomnnannxorom,uroopta ccupi+tnaouentnonynxpnannaponenotunonpononnnactnanpasnnnxnrano,n+xuynnuxycox765nanecuanomeperypexn nnn nepenencxo nnomann. Hoennrent n xauecrne npnsa nonyuan txa n oesxan nanem ncm nepennm nemoncrpnpyx cnon nocrnxennx.B xnnre onncannx xopecxnx opxnon n npasnnnxon Tonrryrc+cnrn ronopnrcx, uro5maxnanentTanon15anrycrananpasnnnxuycox,nmnnnacnaxnannctorntxom,copennonanactn rarurxu (r.e.opte),nsyuanneemerontnrexnnxy.BxponnxeX+nonrryrun,rneonncantnannonantnteotuannnncrpymenrt,raxxeecrtsannctorom, uro nmnn nmnnn sannmartcx opto n nenart cranxn na noennrenx.Ocoennoynnexarentntmntnncopennonannxno ccupi+nnocnennnnepnonuocon,xoroptenpononnnnctnarpanxnomnonenenanexoorConrxenr766nmecreuxenon757 Tam xe.758B15921597rr.xnoncxncerynXnn+ecnToeromnneonnoxparnoconepmannananennxnaKopem,sapyunnmnctnonnepxxoxnoncxnxeonantntxxnxse-namenncnontsyxnonyuennteornopryrantnenpyxtx. 3ror nepnon nocnr nasnanne Hmnxnncxo nnn Cemnnerne nont.759 1594 r.760 Hasnanne noenno nonxnocrn npn renepane. Hpu+.aem.761 1595 r.762 Honunnennte Hpu+.aem.763 1596 r.764 Ssireum // Hnrepner-pecypc: http://www.sportsy2k.com/sport_dic/ssireum/history.htm(na xop.xs.)765Bxopecxonannonantnorpannnnnnonontnomnoroxanennapntxnpasnnnxon,nsxoroptx3rnanntxnpasnnnxa rona: P+optm 15- nent nepno nynt (nepnoe nonnonynne rona); uxycox 15- nent 8- nynt(npasnnnxypoxaxnnoxnonennxnpenxam)nnernnnpasnnnxTano5-nent5-romecxnanonynnomyxanennapm (npasnnnx oxonuannx nocenntx paor).766 Ppennee nasnanne Ceyna. Hpu+.aem .., .. 422nasnannemCannan.Ecrtcnenennx,uronmaenanpasnnnxTanonootuaxmKtmcana767nmnnconpannctnaunxunca768nsannmannctopto,npn+romnmnnnpntnannnsnanexa n xaxnt ron spnrene nacunrtnanoct oxono rtcxun uenonex769.K+romyxenepnonyornocnrcxsnamennrtpncynoxxynoxnnxaXVIII n.KnmXonPo,naxoropomnsopaxenacnenaopttonnnopenaraxyernpyroro,oxnarnneronconpaxct pocnrt na semnm. Vuacrnnxn, oxpyxennte spnrenxmn, opmrcx n rpannnnonnoxopecxo onexne n ocnxom, npnuem xapaxrepnte sanxsxn na mranax y mnxonorox nosno-nxmryrnepxnart,uronacnenensopaxenaraxnastnaemaxuecrnaxopta,xoropotna nonynxpnax na cenepe mro-sananno nponnnnnn uonnano.KnauanyXXn. ccupi+neyrparnncnoenonynxpnocrn,nocannexcneKopennonne n 1910 r. on nonan non xecrxn xonrpontxnoncxnx nnacre,xoropte sanpemannmnornenannonantnterpannnnnnnpnnnocnnncnonxyntrypntenennocrn.Ho+romy,uacrnuno, ccupi+ncentcxomecrnocrnnomenncocranxopecxnxnannonantntxnrpnopxnon, raxnx xax mrnopn, uanrn, nontrnnrn n xtn+rnnrn.Onnnantntecopennonannxno ccupi+nnepntetnnnponenentn1912r.nnepennenonnasnannemTanconca,a27nexapx1927r.nCeynetnacosnananepnaxnKopeeAcconnannxopttuocon770.Honeepyxononcrnomn1928r.nHenrpexpncrnancxomononexntnnnponenentBcrpeuaopnonuocon.Ionomnosxetnnponenennepntrypnnpnoccupi+vcpenncnoprcmenonuocon,xoroptecnoncnponannAcconnannxopttuoconncnoprnnnaxoprannsannxuocon.Hoennrenemtnoxnnen H Po Ham ns Xamxtna. uro xacaercx nantnemnx copennonann no ccnptm, ro n1936r.ynomxnyrontmeAcconnannenaxronomsanensnecrnorasertuoconHntotnnponenen nropo ncexopecxn rypnnp,n xoropomyuacrnanano oxono 100uenonex nnxoropomnoennnXenMernXonsXamxtna.Hocne+roroc1937no1939rr.oprannsannxrypnnponnpononxnnactnnreuennerpexnernoennrenemtnopenCynrHenrIynsXnanruy. B nocnenoennte rony ccnptm nauan nospoxnartcx npn nonnepxxe rocynapcrna n nnacroxmeenpemxxnnxercxnpoeccnonantntmnnnomcnopra,xoroptouentnonynxpencpenn nacenennx.BconpemennoCenepnoKopee(KHPP) ccupi+raxxexyntrnnnpyercxncopenno-nannxno+rooptencronnneHxentxneuacronpoxonxrnonpemxrpannnnontxnpasn-nnxon na rope Mopanonr, xnnxmmecx mecrom orntxa n naponntx rynxnn.767 Conpemennt r. uxynuxon na cenepo-nocroxe or Ceyna. Hpu+.aem768 Hasnanne mecrnocrn. Hpu+.aem.769 Ssireum // Hnrepner-pecypc: http://www.sportsy2k.com/sport_dic/ssireum/history.htm(na xop.xs.)770 Hasnanne Kopen.Bepcua Ccupm+ pacnpocmpaueuuaa e CeeepuoKopee. 0omoepaqua cepeuum XX e.Copeeuoeauua no mpauuuouuo opoe, CeeepuaaKopea, cepeuua XX e. .., .. 423Hnomanxa nnx optt ccnptm, nastnaemax ccupi+ oraue nactnnax, nmeer opmyxpyra c nnamerpom 7 m n npnnonnxra nan semne na 70 cm, uro nosnonxer spnrenxm nyumennnert nponcxonxmee. Inynna cnox necxa cocrannxer or 10 no 20 cm.Hacopennonannxxyuacrnnxnntcrynamrocnxom,onerterontxonxoporxne opnoncxne nnanxn-rpnxo, nonepxxoroptxnonxsanocnonnonncrpymenropnon ccupi+ noxc, nastnaemt camoa.Oncnenannsnpou-noroxnonxannmeernnnny oxono nnyx merpon, a na ero nsroron-nennenpyunymyxonnrnopxnxannyxnenent771.Tpannnnonntenneracaraaent, uepnt, xpacnt nnn cnnn. Camoaxnnxercxnsoperennem20-xrr.XXcr.,xornaccupi+crannpenpamartcxnpasno-nnnnocrtnpoeccnonantnooptt.Po+roronnxsaxnarancnontsonannctnannxnnonxaranntxmrannn,xax+ronpaxrnxy-ercxnmnenapcxoopteueuueeu(cm.Leuueeu). Camoanonxstnaercxraxnmopasom,urooxnartnaernpanoeenpoopnaxontnom,saxoropoentnonnxercxsaxnar,anoromnnernoxpyrnoxcnnnt.Hpennpnnnmanmnecxnnocnennnerontnontrxnnepnyrtcxxcrapoynnopmeneynenuannctycnexom,nocxontxyncnontso-nanne camoanosnonxernsxrtopnyouentnanexntsaxnar,uroncnomouepentcxastnaercx na rexnnxe.uroxacaercxcamorosaxnara,rontnenxmrnpantccnptm,xornanpanaxpyxayxaxnoronsopnonnexnrnonepxnenopyxnconepnnxannentccnptm,xornanaoopor, nenax pyxa nexnr nonepx npano. 3ro pasnnune nocnr reppnropnantnt xapaxrepn sanncnmocrn or nponnnnnn, rne npononxrcx cocrxsannx.Pnx noent neoxonnmo sacrannrt npornnnnxa xocnyrtcx semnn nmo uacrtm renantmexonena.Bornnuneorxnoncxoro cv+ontranxnnanneconepnnxasanpenentorpannuennosontnoenonecunraercx.Braxomcnyuaeopnonnpocronosnpamamrnncxonnoenonoxenne.Fopnt ccupi+nnanoneenonynxpnorxxenoneconoxareropnnnmemrnpnmepnoraxymxeconnnnymxomnnexnnmxaxnxnoncxnecymoncrt(cm. Cv+o),onnaxoxopecxaxoptarpeyerropasnoontmensnuecxocnntncxnarxens-saneoxonnmocrn nepxart saxnar sa noxc.Camaoptanaunnaercxcroro,uroconepnnxncranonxrcxnaxonennnnenrpeoraueanepyroomnntsaxnar,npn+romnpanopyxosaxnartnamrnoxcnarannnconepnnxa,anenonernmnoxcanaeronpanomenpe.3aremopntnonnnmamrcxncroxynxnyrcnrnanaxnauanycxnarxn,npononxnrentnocrtxoropococrannxer3mnnyrt. B cnyuae, ecnn nnxro ns yuacrnnxon ne nponen nn onnoro rexnnuecxoro necrnnx,nasnauamrcxnononnnrentnte3mnnyrt.Bcnyuaenonropnonnute,noexnaeropenonee nerxoro neca. Hoennrent rpex ns nxrn cxnarox ntxonnr n cnenymmn xpyr copenno-nann.771Paxennamnnnnc ccupi+cnxsanomnoronmontrntxnonepnnxopecxomomecrne.Tax,xopecxnexenmnnt, xenammne ponnrt mantunxa, uro ncerna npnnercrnonanoct n rpannnnonnom omecrne, cnennantnonocxrentecmnroensnponnrannororpynontmnoromnoxcaopnaccnptm.Cunraercx,uronoxcaxxymynnpyer n cee momnym myxcxym +neprnm nonna-noennrenx.1exuuua opom ccupm+. .., .. 424B ccupi+sanpementynapt,nnnxnnoramnnonentenpnemtnacycrant,nonycxamrcx rontxo pocxn c npnmenennem xopnyca, enep, pyx n nor. Hocxontxy saxnar sanoxc-cara coxpanxercx nnnort no nponenennx xaxoro-nno pocxa, saxnart pyxamn sa nornn ccupi+nenpaxrnxymrcx.Bnpoeccnonantnomccupi+cymecrnyerpasnenennenanecontexareropnn,xoroptxncerorpn:nerxnnec(xau)a),rxxentnec(nororv)naconmrnaxneconaxxareropnx(:vuxa)772.Cynxroptyuernepocyneonnnnenocpen-crnenno n pnnre nnx optt, a ocrantnte rpn nne ero.Copennonannxno opte ouent nonynxpntnKopee n no+romy uacro npononxrcx naontmnxcrannonax.Hpoeccnonantntexomanntopnon ccuip+cnoncnpymrraxnemxnoxopecxne npomtmnennte rnranrt xax Xenn+, Camcynr, LG group n np.Kapmuua Bopeu, 2008 eo. Xvoxuuu Ku+ Mo Pau, KHBP.Cv+o nannonantnax xnoncxax opta, ncroxn xoropo nocxonxr x npennexnoncxoxocmoronnuecxomnonornn,orpaxennonnpennnxnnctmenntxnamxrnnxaxKonsnxn(3anncn o nexnnxx npennocrn, VII n.) n Hnxonrn (Annant nonnn, VIII n.).Tax,nuacrnocrn,cornacnoHnxonrnn230r.non.+.nnponnnnnnHnsymococroxnnctcocrxsannxcv+onnpncyrcrnnnnmneparopaCynnn,xornaopenK+xaxnsTansnmancrpernncxcnpencrannrenemnsHnsymoHomn-noCyxyn+.BxecroxocxnarxeHomn-noCyxyn+cnomannoxcnnnyconepnnxynnoennn,crannnantnememcnxmenntmnoxponnrenem ncex xnoncxnx opnon. Onnctnaemt n xponnxax nonont napnanr opttcv+onastnancxmurapa-rvpaoo(consmepennecnn)(cm. Turapa-rvpaoo).Bnpnnnnne,nnepnon III-VI nn. opta n nonnn yxe tna nonontno pacnpocrpanenntm xnnennem, o uemcnnnerentcrnymrnanenntenmornntntxxypranax+noxnKoyn(250552rr.)rnnnxnte772 H+xnxy n Xanna oosnauamr nanannx nnyx camtx ntcoxnx ropntx nepmnn n Kopee, a cnono uynxanocnonno nepenonnrcx non neecamn. Hpnm.anr. .., .. 425nrypxnxannna,nsopaxammneopnon,araxxernnnxnaxnocynacopnoncxnmncmxeramn.Honynerennapntnepnonpasnnrnxopttmurapa-rvpaoocmennncxnV-VInn.+ranomcranonnennx cv+ononnasnannemcv+au.Cv+auyxnantnoosnauanooxonuanneyopxnpncantnocnxsanocnporpammonaponnoroecrnnanxoxonuannxnonentxpaorannauanaocennTanaara:Cunranoct,urocymonecrno,yronnoe oxecrnam, a noromy cxnarxn npononnnn nxauecrnenaronapennxsaypoxa.Taxoenecrnonananonaocent.Bnauanenecntnopesyntraramcxnarxnonpenenxnnnnntnaypoxa.Hononteranannxnpononnnnctnnpnrocynapenomnnope.Orxptroenpocrpancrnonepennnopnomnennnnnanneuacrnnocrounymnsanannym.Hpopnnarentonpenenxn,xaxaxnsnnxxnnxercxcuacrnnnno(ypoxano)nacnenymmnron.Fopntraxxenennnnctnannexomanntnocrounymnsanannym.Cunranoctxenarentntm,urotnoennnaxomanna,xoropaxsamnmanaypoxanymcropony.Hceronnxopntnepennauanomnoennnxasannmamrnocrounymnsanannym cropont apent773.HepntmncropnuecxnnocronepntmaxromonponenennnrypnnpanocymocnyxnrynomnnanneonemnAnnanaxnonnn,rnennmercx,uroxnoncxnnmneparopKorexynnepntroncnoeronpannennx(642r.)npnnnmannocnannnxansKopen.Buecrt+rorocotrnxnpnnnopetnoprannsonanrypnnpnoopte.Hepornnnuecxoenanncannenasnannxcv+oconnanaercnasnannemxnracxoopttcunv(cm. Lvau;o),annpyrom napnanre c xnracxo naponno optou;moou,uroyxastnaernaeronosmoxnoeponcrnocv+ocnpennexnracxoopto.Texnnxapan-nero cv+otnanonontnonpnmnrnnna,nocnnancxnmunrentnocnnonoxapaxrepnnxnmuanancexcnannnannx,ronuxn,npocremnepocxn,araxxe nnnxn noramn.Coxonuannem+noxnHapa(710794)naunnaeropmnponartcxnpnnnopntpnryannnnespennx cymo (cv+o-uo comuo).B 821r.npnnmneparopeCara(809823)rypnnpt cv+o-uocomuotnnonnnantnosanxcnponantxaxuacrtnpnnnopnoronepemonnana,ycrpannaemoronenocpencrnennonnmneparopcxomnnopne.Homnmopnyantnoroxapaxrepacamoronecrna,npnsnannoroymnnocrnnnrtoronnnxnaponannxxopomeroypoxax,na+rnxrypnnpaxornpannctrenoxpannrennnnxnmneparopanapncroxpa-rnuecxonepxymxnomecrna.Cynnnnnoennnxnnoennte unnonnnxn n cam nmneparop.B+noxyX+an(7941185)comnmpacnneromncxyccrnnxyntrypt, cv+onpouno773 Memepxxon A.H. Cymo // nonnx. Hyrt xncrn n meua. 2003. N4 (8). C.3.Hpue+ us apceuaua opom cv+o.Huumcmpauua us pvuonucu XVI e.Hpue+ us apceuaua opom cv+o.Huumcmpauua us pvuonucu XVI e. .., .. 426nomnontrxnonnen.Mnorouncnenntenpasnnecrnancnnroncrcxnxxpamaxconpo-noxnannct oxsarentntmn noenno-cnoprnnntmn nrpamn: cxauxamn, crpento ns nyxa n np.B roponax n cenennxx nonnt, pemecnennnxn, xynnt n xpecrtxne yuacrnonann n nepnencrnaxno cv+oesncxxnxcocnonntxpasrpannuenn.Hpnnnopnterypnnptcymon+noxyX+annpononxrcx yxe necxontxo pas n rony, a. rnannt rypnnp oprannsontnancx 7-ro uncna, 7-romecxnanuecrtnerennapnoronoennnxamexnyHomn-nocyxyn+nTama-noK+xax.Vuacrnnxoncocrxsannntcmnenpnnnopnteunntornpannnoncecrpanensuncnacnntnemnxopnon(cv+auoumo).Bnentrypnnpaopnonycnonnonennnn nannaxptnanenoe nnpanoe (nonenymnnpanympyxyornmneparopa),xoroptenanepnom+raneoponnctrontxomexnycoo.Kaxntcv+auoumosanpemxrypnnpanpononnnoxononnannarnnoennnxon.B+rornepnonraxxecnoxnnactrypnnpnaxcncrema,npannnacynecrnanopmaopnon,xoroptentxonnnnnanoennnxnnnaenpenntxnonxsxax(mocaeu).Hoennrenemnnoennnxecranonnncxopen,xoroptonpoxnntnancnoeroconepnnxanasemnmInanntmornnunemx+ancxorocv+ooreronosnnecpennenexontxnconpemenntxananorontnoorcyrcrnneuerxnxnpannn,opntsauacrymncnontsonannynaptpyxamnnnoramn,uronpnnonnnoxrxxentmrpanmam.KxonnyXIIn.nanoneeonacntenpnemttnnsanpementncnoxnncxnaoprexnnuecxnxnecrnnnpaxrnuecxnnnenrnunt conpemennomy cv+o.B+noxyKamaxypa(11851333),xornancrpaneoxonuarentnoycranannnnaercxnnacrtnoennoro nepxonnoro npannrentcrna (cerynara), cv+o mnpoxo pacnpocrpanxercx xaxnnn npnxnannoro oenoro ncxyccrna n cpene nonncxoro cocnonnx camypaen n na ero ocnoneopmnpyercxncxyccrnoopttnnocnexaxpourv+uvmu.Hpnnnopnterypnnptcrannnpononnrtcxcontmnmnnepeptnamn,an4-ron+noxnCean(1174r.)nepemonnannnnespennxcymotnnponenenonnocnennnpas.B+rorxenepnonsaxnantnamrcxocnontpasnenennxcymonapnryantnoennpnxnannoe.Hosxe,n+noxyMypomarn(13921568) npn cerynax Acnxara cymo ocotm nouerom ne nontsonanoct, no, rem ne menee,pnryant,npannnaopttncynecrnonpononxannconepmencrnonartcx.TaxnpnxpameXarnmanrynoxnnxmrcxnaxecnennantntecnxmennocnyxnrenn(cv+ocrv),xoropteorneuann sa nponenenne rypnnpon no cymo.Bopoa cv+omopu. Cmapuuum pucvuou. .., .. 427BnepnonnommmnxnapcrnC+nroxynsnna(14671568)cymocranonnrcxmaccontmnaponntmspennmem.Hapxnycnpnxnanntm,nonncxnmnnnomcv+omnpoxopacnpocrpanxercxnaponnoecv+o,nenymeenponcxoxnenneorpnryanonnpononnmtxnnnnnpasnnecrn.Typnnptno opte,nocnxmenntecopyypoxax,nauany crponrentcrnannpyrnmsnaunmtmcotrnxmcrannnpononnrtcxnoncenonnn.Bnnxyuacrnonannxpecrtxne,pemecnennnxn,ropronntnnpyronmn.Hoennnxnuacronpoxonnnnnpxmonaynnnax n nnomanxx roponon n nepenent n conpann ontmoe uncno spnrene. Hoennrenem(cynecrnoorcyrcrnonano)cranonnncxror,xroonpoxnntnanconepnnxanasemnmnnnntranxnnaneronronnyspnrene.Kpynnteeonantntexnxstx(name),narononnnmnecv+o, ycrpannann y cex samxax ntmnte macconte rypnnpt, n xoroptx npnnnmano yuacrnenonecxontxocoropnon.Taxontmnmnmnrenem cv+otnnoenntnpannrentcerynOna Hoynara (15321582), xoropt n 15701581 rr. neonnoxparno ycrpannan macmranterypnnpt.TontxonerosamxenAnsyrntnocopanooxonononyropartcxuopnon.Bxonne+roxe+noxnnosnnxamrnepntenpoeccnonantnteoennnennxopnoncv+o,xnnxmmnxcxnpoopasomconpemenntxmxon cv+o(cv+o-oo),xoroptxcnoncnponannmecrnte name.B+noxy3no(16031867)nacrynnnnonnnnntpacnnercv+ooptanapxnycrearpomKayxnnpenparnnactnnmnmemeepasnneuenneropoxan.CycranonnennemmnpancrpanenocnemnorouncnenntxmexnyycontxnonneeoennnennxycnnnxmncerynaToxyranaH+xcy,nnonnncxnantnaercxnonaxnonnrnuecxaxnconnantno-+xonomnuecxaxcnryannx,xoropaxnaronpnxrcrnonanapasnnrnmropronnn,pemecennncxyccrn. Cv+o cranonnrcxnonynxpntmnpemxnponoxnennemropoxan.Hoxnnnnctnpoeccnonantnte nexonte oennnennx oponon cv+o, ntcrynnennx xoroptx npnnnexannmnorouncnenntxspnrene.Hmennon+noxy3nocopmnponannct48xanonnuecxnxnpnemon(pocxn,nonnoxxn,nonceuxn,sanent,saxnart,ronuxnnr.n.)774,cocrannnmnxocnonyconpemennoro cv+o,yrnepnnncxpnryannyconepmencrnonannctrpannnnonntenpannnacopennonann,xoroptenpaxrnuecxnnnensmennomnnnecoxpannnnctnonamnxnne.Taxxe crannycrpannartcxrypnnpt no rauo;uu o;v+o: (xpamonoe cymo) nnx copanoxeprnonannnacrponrentcrnonnnpemonrxpamon,araxxennxnponenennx774 B nacroxmee npemx cv+o nacunrtnaer oxono 70 pasnnuntx rexnnx n necxontxo coren nx napnanron. 1vpuup uuuespeuua cv+o npu u+nepamopcuo+ eope. C pucvuua IX e. .., .. 428xanennapntx npasnnnxon, mnneen n r.n.. Hosxe npononnmte non +rnm nasnannem rypnnptncnontsonannct rontxo nnx sapaorxa opnon.Cv+o, 1880-e ee. 0omoepaq Ku++ Kvcaua+.KcepennneXVIIIn.yrnepnnnactrpannnnxnponenennxnnyxexeronntxncexnoncxnx uemnnonaron no cymo n roponax Ocaxa n 3no (ntnemnn Toxno), rne xomanntrpannnnonno nennnnct na rpynnt Bocrox n 3anan. Hepnoe npemx nomnnnponann opntnsOcaxa,xoroptxnonnepxnnannxynnt-menenart.Hs-sasanperonnpannrentcrnomcerynaran16481720rr.ynnunorocymo (cxnarox,ycrpannaemtxponxunmncamypaxmnnnpyrnmnmnom,nonpemxxoroptxnosnnxannnpaxnnnpouneecnopxnxn),3nononroenpemxorcrananonxyntrnnnponannncv+o.Onnaxonocnecnxrnxsanperonontmnncrno .., .. 429opnonntcoxoroxnaccanepepanoct ncronnny,ac1791r. cv+onpenparnnoctnnexontnpomtcen.Bntcrynnennxxponxunxopnonsanpemenotnonontsonartcxnpnemamncv+o. Ono crano neoremnemo uacrtm xnsnn xnoncxoro napona n oxasano cnntnoe nnnxnnenaxyntrypynncxyccrnocrpant.Hoxnnxmrcxnnreparypntenponsnenennxconncannemrypnnpon cv+o, a n rpannnnonnom xnoncxom rearpe Kayxn n n xanpe xnoncxo rpanmptyxne-+ noxnnxmrcx mnorouncnennte nepconaxn opnt cv+o (cv+omopu nnn purucu).BnepnonPecranpannnM+nsn(1868r.)corcranxonpannrentcrnacerynarancranonnennemxannranncrnuecxnxornomennnomecrne,nnxcv+onacrynnnnrxxentenpemena.Ftnnnpennpnnxrtnontrxnsanpera+roopttxaxeonantnoronepexnrxa,xpomeroro, cv+onnmnnoctnnanconononnepxxnnnpoeccnonantntexnytocrannctes cpencrn x cymecrnonannm. Hsnecrnte opnt tnn ntnyxnent ncxart nononnnrentntsapaorox.Tax,nToxnotnooprannsonanocamocroxrentnoenoxapnoenonpasnenenne,nBopum-cv+omopu. C qomoepaquu uauaua XX e. .., .. 430xoropomrpynnnnct56opnonnsnpoeccnonantnoronnnnsnona.Onnaxo,naronapxncenaponnononnepxxennomomncamoronmneparopa(noeronpnxasyn1885r.ncnennantnomsane3npexantnnponenennoxasarentntrypnnpcv+o),ononepexnnoxpnsnc, a coomecrno opnon cv+o tno npeopasonano n Toxncxym Acconnannm Cymo.C 1873 r. na rypnnpax no cv+o paspemnnn npncyrcrnonart xenmnnam.Po nauana Bropo mnpono nont cv+on nonnn pasnnnanoct nnonne ycnemno: n 1909r.nToxnotnnocrpoenPnopenCymo(Koxyrnxan),nxoropomcrannnpononnrtcxncerypnnpt(oac)ncronnne,an1927r.pernonantnte coomecrna cymo oennnnnnctnnpoeccnonantnymAcconnannmCymoBennxononnn.C1928r.crannocymecrnnxrtcxnpxmtepannorpancnxnnncrypnnpon no cv+o. B nocnenoennte ront cv+onnontnonneprnoctyrposesanperacocropontcroponnnxonmonepnnsannncrpant,nonmontxnonnenxcnoemynannonantnomynocroxnnmnomornnemycoxpannrtcnontcoxn craryc n n nantnemem. Becno 1946r.nToxnotnnponenennepntnocne-noenntrypnnp,ac1947r.nrypnnpaxontmoro cymo (o.o;v+o:) tn nponenen pxnpeopm: nx xonnuecrno ynennueno c 3no 6 (rpn rypnnpa nToxnon no onnomy nrr. Ocaxa,Haroxnnao.Kmcm),nemnoronsmenentnpannnanr.n.Ccepennnt60-xrononAcconnannxCymonnenxxnponaranntnaunnaerperynxpnonpononnrtnoxasarentntentcrynnennxsapyexom,ac70-xrr.nuncno purucunnonnncrannnxonnrtnpencrannrennnpyrnxrocynapcrn:nnauaneopntcIanacxnxocrponon,saremmonorontcxne cnoprcment, a ceuac yxe n npencrannrenn enponecxnx rocynapcrn.Ceronnxcv+oonnnnscamtxnonynxpntxnnmnmtxnnonnnnnnoncnopra.Omenannonantnterypnnptno cv+onpononxrtcxmecrtpasnronnconpamrorpomnoexonnuecrnospnrene,araxxerpancnn-pymrcxnonannonantnomyrenennnennm.Hsnauantno, cv+onpencrannxnocoonecnoprnnnoe cocrxsanne xax raxonoe, a pnryanopamennx x oxecrnam, no+romy no cnx nopopmaoprannsannnrypnnpon,ycrpocrnopnnran+xnnnponxaoponon,conpo-noxnammnecxnarxypnryant,araxxecamanonroronxa purucunponnxnyrapnryanamnnannonantno pennrnn xnonnen cnnro.Camannomanxannxoptt cv+o(oox:)npencrannxercoonomocr,npnmepnonamerpnpnnonnxrtnansemnennoxoxmncxnarnnnxnomynnamenre,nasaxnanxyxoroporoyxonnrno30-40ronnrnnnt.Kpyrnnxopttnnamerpomuyrtonee4,5merponoropoxenxryramnnspnconoconomt,xonntxoroptxnptrtnsemnm.Bonnopnaxcnopranan oox:nenaercxnanec,nanomnnammnnoopmexptmycnnroncrcxoroxpama,xoroptnonnemnnaercxxnoronxysana.Paneeonnonnep-Cv+o. 0omoepaqua uauaua XX e. Cv+o. 0omoepaqua uauaua XX e. .., .. 431xnnancxnoyrnamcronamn.C+roxptmn cnncamrnpannponxncuertptmxxncrxmn,cnmnonnsnpymmne npemena rona.Typnnptorxptnamrcxxpacountmnapanomyuacrnnxon oox.upu. Fopnt xomann ntxonxrnoouepennona oox:nrpannnnonntxxpacountxmenxontxnoxcax(roc:-+aeacu)nxnonamrnnanomn,urotnpnnneutnnnmanne oron. Fopnt nocxr rpannnnonnymnpnuecxycopanntenysennaremennnonoct775.Kyntmnnannenecrnaxnnxercxnoxnnenneaconmrnorouemnnona(roo;vua),xoroptntxonnrnconpo-noxnennnrnannorocyntn(mamo-e.o;u)nnnyxcnntnemnxopnon,onnnnsxoroptxnecernepemonnantntmeu.xonsynancnonnxerpnryantntereno-nnnxennxnxnonaer n nanomn, a n saxnmuenne noouepennoc cnno ronaer neno n npano noro, orronxxsntx nyxon. Taxxe xonopnrno ntrnxnxr n ntxonxmne na pnnr cyntn (e.o;u). Onexna cyntncxpoenanomonenncpennenexonoroxnoncxoroxocrmma,auepntemanouxnnanomnnamrrononnoyopcnnroncrcxorocnxmennnxa.Hsuertpexcynenpanocynnrtcxnarxyuemnnononnmeerrontxornanntcyntx(mamo-e.o;u).Cyntxntcmexareropnnnmeernpanonanomennenocxon(maou)nconomenntxcannann,ocrantntecyntnntcrynamrocnxom.Bcxnarxenpnnnmamryuacrnennoeyuacrnnxon.Hoennrenemcunraercxror,xrocymeerntronxnyrtconepnnxasanpenentapent(oox:)nnnsacrannrteroxocnyrtcxsemnnnmouacrtmrenaxpomecrynnn. Bnpennemcv+oraxxenpaxrnxonanactnopta nonnnouxy:B nexoro-ptxsemnxxtnopacnpocrpanenoonnnounoecymo,xornacxnarxycnpornnnnxomnsopaxaeronnnopen.Honacamomnene+ronecrontxocxnarxa,cxontxonononeranna,naprnepomnoxoropomy xnnxercx oxecrno776.Hacxnarxy purucuntxonxrrontxonopnoncxomnoxce mopu+aeacu,nocrnrammemnnnnny9merponn80cmnmnpnny,xoroptnonxstnaercxnoxpyrrannnnmexnynor,opasyxnononeopnoncxnxnnanox.Hepennauanomcxnarxnopntntnonnxmrpasnnuntepnryantntenecrnnx, nmemmne cnmnonnuecxoe snauenne: xonxrno oox:,pacctnaxropcrxmncontnnxounmennxmecra or sntx cnn (sa nent pacxonymr oxono 15 xrconn),ntnonnxmrcnennantntenpncenannxcuronr.n.Cxnarxenpenmecrnyerncnxonornuecxaxopta(curupu)777,xornacxanpyxnnxynaxn,opnt775VxasnmneparopaM+nsn1871r.ocrpnxxenonocxocnyncxncexxareropnrpaxnannonnn,sancxnmuennem opnon cymo.776 Memepxxon A.H. Cymo // nonnx. Hyrt xncrn n meua. 2003. N4(8). C.3.777Pantme curupunetnoorpannuenononpemennncnyuanoct,uroonnnnsyuacrnnxoncnanancxesox.Bnepnteorpannuennenonecxrnmnnyrnnennn1928 r.,asaremcoxparnnnnocemnnn1950 r. nonnyx-uertpex mnnyr.Peuu cuu+ou opuoe cv+o uauaua XX e.Bopum. 0apqopoeaa cmamv+mua, 1680 e.,Rnouua. .., .. 432mennenno cxonxrcx nourn nnnornym n npncrantno cnepnxr npyr npyra nsrnxnom (uupa+uau),ntraxct sanyrart npornnnnxa, a sarem naunnamr camy cxnarxy:Haunnaercxopta.Hpexnencero,opntepyrnscroxmennnsnxanxnnonynnonnnamrecnoereno,noromepyrnpormenorxyconn,orptnamrornncxmeryrxeymarn xnouox n ntrnpamr nm pyxn. 3arem, n npncyrcrnnn croxmero coxy +xcnepra, opntcranonxrcx npyr nepennpyrom n ocoym nosy,npn xoropo norn opnon nonxnt trt xaxmoxnoontmepaccrannent.Hocne+roro onn onycxamrcxnanxpt,ynapxxcexnanonxmnnooxam,n,naxonen,ynnpamrcxntrxnyrtmnpyxamnnsemnm.Ennanpnnxrnnonn+rynosy,xaxcpasyncnycxamr xpnx,nptramr,rounononronxnyrtenennnnmonpyxnnoncxpocrtm pocamrcx npyr na npyra. Hent raxo optt saxnmuaercx n rom, urot nonannrtconepnnxanasemnm,conmnaxnpn+romnceycranonnenntena+rorcnyuanpannna.Tonuxn,ynapt,oxcnpasntexnrpocrn,nponeroro,urotnoncrannrtnorynromynononoe crporo nocnpement778.Bnenom,cxnarxannnrtcxornecxontxnxcexynnnonecxontxnxmnnyrnnsonnyernanpxxenntmnmomenramn,uroocoennoocrpoomymaercxnaronapxncnonnncxnmpasmepamyuacrnnxon,necomnnonropanenrnepa779:Ttcxunrnasycrpemnentncxnm-unrentnonanxorpomntenrypt.Xenmnntsatnamroene,myxunnt ocnonxrpyxax,naxe nernymonxamr n nnnmarentno cmorpxr na apeny.Bo ncem +rom ontmom nomemennnnecntmnonnennnorosnyxa,nnennnoronnnxennx,rounoncxnynnxaoxamenena.Hoxaxax-ronesamernaxynonxaonnoronsopnoncnyxnrcnrnanomnnxrpomontxannonncmenron,pasnanmnxcxcpasyxaxnoxomanne.Tyrnonnennemacctnaunnaerpacrn7783.Iecce-Baprer.Fopntcymoropn.//Bceononnn(cocr.HapenaI.H.).M.:Hsn-nouonnaKanyn3onororo Bexa, 2001. C. 574.779 Ceuac pexopnnt nec nexoroptx opnon npentmaer 200 xr.48 uauouuuecuux npue+oe cv+o. 0pae+eum us vueuoeo nocoua 1910 e. .., .. 433nceontmenontme.Fopntxpenxooxnartnamrnpyrnpyra,norrpanomcrpynrcxcnxxnpntx ren, xnnt nsnynamrcx, cntmno naxe nx xoporxoe, npeptnncroe ntxanne, n nce xeonnnecxontxomnnyrocramrcxnenonnnxntmn.Onnoennasamernoennnxennecnonantstnaer+nrysnasmnynnxn,ncnonapasnamrcxannonncmenrt,ymonxnynmneraxxennesanno,xaxpasnannct.Hpnemonnoroopnannxnopaxennxnpyroroornapnponannocnennnm; naxonen onnn nauan xax ynro nonnanartcx; npyro, ne uyncrnyx npenxrcrnnx,nonancx nnepen, n ero npornnnnx tcrpo nocnontsonancx +ro cnaocrtm, urot ronono nnneuamnynapnrtnnnsxnnoranraxnepepocnrterouepescex,urororynannauernepentxn780.Pnxoyuennx opte n xnyt cv+o (cv+o:-oo) npnnnmamr yuennxon naunnax c 10-15ner.Tpennponxnn cv+o,xaxncampacnopxnoxxnsnn purucuxpanecyponte.Exennennoopntncramroxonomecrnyrpanrpennpymrcxesnepeptna4-5uacon.Fopmrcxnarpennponxaxcornacnopaspxnam.Hocne+roronnersanrpaxocnonnonpnemnnmn, no npemx xoroporo onn enxr es orpannuenn ntoxoxanopnnym nnmy (mxco, onomn,pnc).Hocxontxynecontexareropnnorcyrcrnonannccamoronauanasapoxnennxopttrnranron,rononpocnaopmacctrenaxnnxncxxnsnennonaxntmnnxopnon781,uronpnnenox ntpaorxecnennnuecxoropexnma nnrannxnrpennponox.Bceroxe cv+omopunnramrcxnnapasancyrxn.Hocnenepnoronpnemannmncnenyernnyx-rpexuacontcon,saremxparxonpemennaxrpennponxannerxnyxnn.Homnmonnrannxnaxnympontnnonroronxe nrpamr maccax n ropxune nannt (dvpo).7803.Iecce-Baprer.Fopntcymoropn.//Bceononnn(cocr.HapenaI.H.).M.:Hsn-nouonnaKanyn3onororo Bexa, 2001. C. 575.781Pxnonocv+omopusanectnepnonnonroronxnxcxnarxamna ooxynennunnaercnonauantntnecnpnmepno n nna pasa, a no oxonuannn xaptept nosnpamaer ero oparno es ncxxoro npena nnx snopontx! Taxoenomen xnnxercx cexperom nonroronxn opnon cymo.Bopoa cv+o. 0omoepaqua uouua XIX e. .., .. 434Homnmo camo optt, na rpennponxax mnoro nnnmannx ynenxercx ynpaxnennxm napasnnrne nsnuecxo cnnt, ntnocnnnocrn, a raxxe n rnxocrn, naronapx uemy maccnnnteopntnerxontnonnxrtmnarar,cranonxrtcxnarnmnacrnuecxnmocrnxnr.n.Cv+omopuntnonnxmrsarpennponxycornnorxnmannnnpncenann curo,xoroptexnnxmrcx ocnonntm ynpaxnennemn cv+o n npencrannxmr coonoouepennt nonem norncropontnamaxcnmantnymntcorycnpnnxrnemnnosnyxenosnnnnmnararnnocnenymmnmnpncenannemnaxoprouxn.Opnrnnantntmraxxexnnxercxynpaxnennemonnoynapt-ronuxnnanontmnnepenxnntcron,nxonanntnnonrpennponounorosana.Hocxontxycxnarxnncv+onaunnamrcxcroro,uroconepnnxnyxnantnontneramrnancrpeuynpyrnyprynsnosnnnnnnpncenexaxnsxaranyntrt,+ronecrnnentranxnnanneconepnnxacpasera(ovuvrapuyxn.cronxnonenne),roxexnnxercxocnonntm n rpennponxe cnnaue.Bcx xnsnt opnon cv+o pernamenrnponana mnoxecrnom pnryanon n npannn, xoropteonpenenxmrcxpanromopna.Cymecrnymrntcmnennnsmnepanrn,npn+romnuncnontcmnxnxonxrrnryntroo;vua(aconmrntuemnnon), oo;oru(uemnnon), coruearo,ro+vcvoun +aoeacupa.uertpenepntxrpynntnpencrannxmrcoo+nnry cv+o,aomeeuncnoopnonntcmnxpanroncocrannxernorpannnnn64uenonexa.Bceonnnocxrcnennuecxnenmena(curoua)ncennonnmt,xoropteopasnoxapaxrepnsymropna(nanpnmep, Hnansyma monnnx, Kamnnapn rpom, O:apacn yparan n r.n. C XVIII n.ontmnmnrnpaxamnntxonxrpexnamnteyxnert(oauo;vro)cocnncxamnopnonnoxareropnxm macrepcrna.Btcmnrnrynopnacv+oroo;vuaxnnxercxntcouamenarpanouroterosacnyxnrt, cv+omopu nonxen mnnnmym nna pasa crart uemnnonom na rypnnpax ontmorocymo n cnenymmem sa roo;vua snannn oo;oru, a raxxe nmert nocronte pexommennannn.Bcerosa300nercymecrnonannx+rorornryna,eroynocronnnctneoneenxrnnecxrnopnon.Cv+o, uoueu XIX e. 0omoepaq Aouoqo 0apcapu. .., .. 435 (h-),(). ,,..,. . . ., - .-,.,., , , , .(thabani),-..,,. , .,,.(omudiakidikathabani),- .. .., .. 436 . () . (17281779.), , . ()782 . . :,;-, taupiti, , taupiti maona, .783(, - ) -,(),().(taupirimaona)-,.(maonamehai), .,. ., :,8,10,12,., , . ,-,- . , , , .() , - , . ,,,. , , -;. , , , , , 784. ,. , . .().782 ,, (.: . 1766, 1767, 1768 1769 . ., 1961).783 William Ellis. Polynesian Researches. 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(: ; :,2002),(:,2005), : (: ,2006),:(:,2006),(:,2007).-:(:,2007).: (: , 2008).,.-, , , -(:,2001,).AlexeyMandziakisanexperiencedspecialistinthetheoryandpracticeoftraditionalmartialarts,appliedmethodsandsystemsofcombattraining.Hespentmorethan25yearspracticingandgatheringinformationaboutvariousindigeneouscombatsystemsaswellasspiritualpracticesoftheSlavicpeople.ForresearchpurposeshehadvisitedmanyCIScountriesandremoteareasoftheformerSovietUnion.Heistheauthorof MartialTraditionsofEurasia(Moscow:ASTPress; Minsk:Harvest,2002), MartialArtsofthe Europe(Minsk:TheModernWord, 2005), Martial Arts of the Slavs: from the Land Cult to Martial Combat (Minsk: Harvest,2006), MartialTraditionsoftheAryans:ontheWaytoRealitiesofUkrainianMartialarts(Ternopil:Mandrvets,2006), TheFightingMagicoftheSlavs (Minsk:Harvest,2007), FolkGamesinthePracticeofUkrainian MartialArts(Ternopil:Mandrvets,2007)and IslamicMartial Arts (Minsk: The Book House, 2008).OlegArtemenko(MA)isaphilosopherandlinguistwhotravelledintheFarEastcountriesstudyingtraditionalAsianmartialarts.Heistheauthorofnumerousacademicandpopularpublicationsin philosophical,cultural andtechnical dimensionsof Asianmartial artsand MuayThai the Free Fighting (Minsk: The Modern Word, 2001; co-authored). .., .. 560.......6......10 .554 ...559 .., .. .., .. lexey Mandziak and Oleg ArtemenkoThe World Encyclopedia of Wrestling .., ../..,... , 2010. 562 ., 538 .TheWorldEncyclopediaof Wrestling/AlexeyMandziak andOlegArtemenko.Minsk,2010. 562 p., 538 il.