Maxims, Islamic legal maxims, fiqh, qawaid

  • Published on
    23-Mar-2016

  • View
    228

  • Download
    11

DESCRIPTION

This book presents Islamic legal maxims in a form in which they should really be studied.

Transcript

ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMSImran Ahsan Khan NyazeeAdvanced Legal Studies InstituteP.O.Box 3013, IslamabadRevised edition publishedby the Federal Law House,Head Oce:Mian Plaza, Chandni Chowk,Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tel. No. (051) 4843011, 4571229Branch: 7, Turner Road, Near High CourtLahore, Pakistan. Tel. No. 0322-4843011First Published: 20132013 by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee.All rights reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, including photocopying and recording, with-out the written permission of the copyright holder.Such permission must also be obtained before anypart of this publication is stored in a retrieval systemof any nature.ISBNPrinted in PakistanbyHaji Hanif & SonsLahore, Pakistan.TABLE OF CONTENTSPREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OFLEGALMAXIMS 13Ch. 1 Introduction 151.1 The Terms Qidah and As. l in Islamic Law . 151.2 Methods in Us.l al-Fiqh Attributed to the Ju-rists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.1 The Method of the H. anafs or the Methodof the Jurists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.2 The Method of the Majority Schools or theMethod of the Mutakallimn . . . . . . 171.2.3 Method That Combines the Two PreviousMethods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.2.4 The Method of Takhrj Al al-Us.l . . . 171.2.5 The Method of Us.l Through theMaqs. id 181.2.6 Method of the Ahl H. adth? . . . . . . . 181.3 Our Analysis of the Classication of Methods 181.3.1 General Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.3.2 Analysis Relevant for Qawid Fiqhiyyah 20Ch. 2 Essential Terminology and the Nature ofRules in Islamic Law 232.1 The Multiple Meanings of the Term H. ukm . 242.2 Rules, Principles, Illah, H. ikmah and Rationale 272.2.1 The Nature of a Rule . . . . . . . . . . 272.2.2 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.2.3 The Rule and its Rationale . . . . . . . 302.3 Presumptions, Propositions and Legal Max-ims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3212 ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS C2.3.1 Presumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.3.1.1 Legislative Presumptions . . . . 332.3.1.2 Presumptions of General Applica-bility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.3.1.3 Presumption of Law . . . . . . 342.3.1.4 Presumption of Fact . . . . . . 342.3.2 Maxims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.3.3 Propositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.4 Bb, D. awbit. , Qaw,id and Naz. ariyyah . . . . 352.4.1 The Bb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.4.2 D. awbit. , Qaw,id and Naz. ariyyah . . . . 36Ch. 3 Understanding the Development ofQawid Fiqhiyyah as a Discipline 393.1 The Beginning at Kufa . . . . . . . . . . . . 393.2 The Separation of the Rules . . . . . . . . . 413.3 Sample Qawid Us.liyyah . . . . . . . . . . 423.4 Qawid Fiqhiyyah After al-Dabbs . . . . . 453.5 Qawid Fiqhiyyah in More Recent Times . . 47Ch. 4 The Interpretation of Facts and the Func-tion of the Qaw,id Fiqhiyyah 494.1 Interpreting the Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494.2 The Functions That Principles Perform in Is-lamic Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Ch. 5 Analysis ofWhat has BeenStudied so farand the Methodology Followed in ThisBook 555.1 Questioning Some Denitions . . . . . . . . 555.2 What We Cannot Study in This Subject . . . 565.3 The Overlap With Us.l al-Fiqh . . . . . . . . 585.4 The Methodology of This Book . . . . . . . 605.5 Advantages for Future Research: Legal Con-cepts and Associated Theories . . . . . . . . 62Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies InstituteC ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS 3II LEGAL MAXIMS AND LEGAL CON-CEPTS 65Ch. 6 The Sharah as a Single Bb 676.1 Siysah Shariyyah: The Legal and Social Poli-cies of the Sharah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676.1.1 The Basic Terms of This Topic . . . . . 686.1.2 The Development of the Five Principlesand Area of Operation . . . . . . . . . 706.1.3 The Content of the Policies . . . . . . . 726.1.4 Converting Policies into New Law . . . 746.2 The Role of Intentions . . . . . . . . . . . . 756.2.1 Intentions and the Hereafter . . . . . . 766.2.2 Intentions and the Law . . . . . . . . . 776.2.2.1 Acts of Worship . . . . . . . . 786.2.2.2 Marriage, Divorce and Emancipa-tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796.2.2.3 Contracts in General . . . . . . 816.2.2.4 Criminal Law and Torts . . . . 836.3 Looking at the Consequences . . . . . . . . 866.4 Trivialities to be Overlooked . . . . . . . . . 906.5 Things Occurring Usually to be Assigned theUsual Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916.6 In the Case of Substitution, the SubstitutionNeed Not be Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . 936.7 When a Part to be Considered the Whole . 946.8 When a Part of theWhole has a SeparateH. ukm 956.9 A Continuing Act May be Assigned the Ruleof the Initial State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97Ch. 7 The Bb of Ibh. ah (Permissibility) 997.1 The Governing Principle of This Bb . . . . 997.2 Liability of Human Beings in General: TheCovenant With the Creator . . . . . . . . . . 1017.2.1 The Nature of the Covenant: The Obliga-tions and the Demand for Performance 102Advanced Legal Studies Institute Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee4 ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS C7.2.2 Cases in Which Performance is not Re-quired and is Suspended or ExtinguishedAltogether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057.2.2.1 The Minor . . . . . . . . . . . 1067.2.2.2 Insanity and Idiocy . . . . . . 1067.2.2.3 Sleep and Fits of Fainting . . . . 1067.2.2.4 Forgetfulness and Mistake . . . 1077.2.2.5 Menstruation and Slavery . . . 1087.2.2.6 The Liability of Non-Muslims . 1087.2.3 How Does the Covenant Deal With theArea of Ibh. ah (Permissibility) Not Cov-ered So Far: al-h. ujaj al-aqliyyah . . . . . 1097.3 Things That Must Always beMubh. . . . . 1107.4 Things That Must Always be Prohibited . . 1127.5 Things That May Possibly be Permitted, butnot Necessarily: Understanding the MainPrinciple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115Ch. 8 Presumption of Continuity (Istis. h. b al-H. l) 1198.1 The Meaning of Istis.h. b . . . . . . . . . . . . 1198.1.1 Types of Istis.h. b and Their Legal Validity 1208.2 Doubt and Certainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1228.3 Istis.hb al-h. l (Presumption of Continuity) isa Defensive Presumption and Does not Estab-lish a Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1258.4 Miscellaneous Presumptions . . . . . . . . . 128Ch. 9 The Bb of Ibdt: Acts of Worship 131Ch. 10 The Bb of Contracts 13710.1 The Principle of Rib and Related Presump-tions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13810.2 The Principle of Contractual Liability . . . 14010.2.1 The Link With the Principle of Rib . . 14110.2.2 Passage of Title in Sales and What can beLawfully Sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies InstituteC ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS 510.2.3 Principle of Liability and Business Organi-zation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14310.3 Principle for the Sold Commodity: Owner-ship and Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14510.3.1 Things not Owned . . . . . . . . . . . 14510.3.2 Things not in Possession: Selling Food Be-fore Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14710.3.3 The Exemption in the Case of Salam . . 14810.4 The Principle of Prohibition of Gharar: TheMisunderstood Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 14910.5 Suspended (Mawqf ) Contracts and Ratica-tion: The Unauthorized Agent . . . . . . . . 15010.5.1 Building the Rules of Ratication . . . 15210.5.2 Applying the Rules of Suspended Con-tracts and Ratication . . . . . . . . . . 15710.6 Fasd, Conditions and Stipulations . . . . . 159Ch. 11 Liability in General 16511.1 Developing a Theory of Liability . . . . . . 16511.2 General Rule for Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . 16611.3 The Destruction of Property and its Compen-sation (D. amn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167Ch. 12 The Bb of Shubhah 17312.1 The Operation of Shubhah in Crimes . . . . 17312.2 Expanding the Operation of Shubhah to Fam-ily Law and Other Cases . . . . . . . . . . . 176Ch. 13 Legal Necessity, Hardhip, Need, Prohi-bitions and Permissions 17913.1 Duress Aecting Human Life and Limbs . 17913.2 Necessity as General Need . . . . . . . . . . 18313.3 Cases of Hardship: Exemptions (Rukhas. ) . . 18513.4 Prohibitions and Permissions . . . . . . . . 188Ch. 14 dah and Urf 19114.1 The Dierent Meanings of dah . . . . . . . 191Advanced Legal Studies Institute Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee6 ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS C14.1.1 dah as a Physical or Scientic Fact Situa-tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19114.1.2 dah as Commercial or Other Prac-ticeWhether Good or Bad . . . . . . 19714.2 Maxims Dealing With Urf (Usage; Custom-ary Practice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19814.2.1 Types of Urf : Division into usage andpractice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19814.2.2 Legal Maxims About Urf . . . . . . . 200Ch. 15 Drs, Jurisdiction and Non-Muslims 20715.1 The Concept of the Dr . . . . . . . . . . . . 20715.2 The Dr al-Islm and its Non-Muslim Resi-dents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212Ch. 16 Legal Rights 21716.1 Rights That Cannot be Transferred or Relin-quished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22116.1.1 Pure Rights of Allah . . . . . . . . . . 22116.1.2 Where the Right of Allah and the Right ofthe Individual are Both Involved, but theRight of Allah is Predominant . . . . . 22216.1.3 Pure Rights of the Individual . . . . . . 22216.2 Rights That Can be Transferred or Relin-quished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22316.2.1 Where the Right of Allah and the Right ofthe Individual are Both Involved, but theRight of Individual is Predominant . . 22316.2.2 Pure Rights of the Individual . . . . . . 22316.2.2.1 Rights Linked to the Ayn (Chattel) 22416.2.2.2 Rights Linked to the Dayn (De-ferred Claim) . . . . . . . . . 22516.2.2.3 Pure Rights (H. uqq Mujarradah) 22516.3 Delegating Rights Not Possessed . . . . . . 22816.4 Relinquished Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229Ch. 17 Evidence and Declarations 231Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies InstituteC ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS 717.1 General Presumption of Veracity for All Mus-lims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23117.2 Relevant Facts and Inferences to be Drawn . 23317.3 The Prima Facie Position and the Burden ofProof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234Ch. 18 Ijtihd and Fatws 23918.1 The Integrity of ijtihd . . . . . . . . . . . . 23918.2 There is no IjtihdWhen the Text is AbsolutelyClear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241Appendices 243A Us.l al-Karkh With Translation 245A.1 Introduction: Imm al-Karkh . . . . . . . . 245A.2 Preliminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246A.3 The First Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246A.4 The Second Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247A.5 The Third Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248A.6 The Fourth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249A.7 The Fifth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249A.8 The Sixth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251A.9 The Seventh Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251A.10The Eighth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252A.11The Ninth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253A.12The Tenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254A.13The Eleventh Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 254A.14The Twelfth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255A.15The Thirteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 256A.16The Fourteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 256A.17The Fifteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 257A.18The Sixteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 258A.19The Seventeenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 259A.20The Eighteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 259A.21The Nineteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 260A.22The Twentieth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 261A.23The Twentyrst Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 262A.24The Twentysecond Principle . . . . . . . . . 263Advanced Legal Studies Institute Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee8 ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS CA.25The Twentythird Principle . . . . . . . . . . 263A.26The Twentyfourth Principle . . . . . . . . . 264A.27The Twentyfth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 265A.28The Twentysixth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 266A.29The Twentyseventh Principle . . . . . . . . 267A.30The Twentyeighth Principle . . . . . . . . . 267A.31The Twentyninth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 269A.32The Thirtieth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 271A.33The Thirtyrst Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 272A.34The Thirtysecond Principle . . . . . . . . . 273A.35The Thirtythird Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 274A.36The Thirtyfourth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 275A.37The Thirtyth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 276A.38The Thirtysixth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 277A.39The Thirtyseventh Principle . . . . . . . . . 277A.40The Thirtyeighth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 278A.41The Thirtyninth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 280B Excerpts From al-Dabbss Tass al-Naz. ar 281B.1 Ab Zayd Ubayd Allh ibn Umar s al-Dabbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281B.2 The Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282B.3 Disagreement Between Ab H. anfah and theTwo Disciples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286B.4 Disagreement of AbH. anfah andAb YsufWith Muhammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292B.5 Disagreement of Ab H. anfah and Muham-mad With Ab Ysuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293B.6 Disagreement Between Ab Ysuf andMuh. ammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294B.7 Disagreement of Our Three JuristsWith Zufar 296B.8 Disagreement Between Our Three Jurists andMlik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298B.9 Disagreement Between Us and Ibn Ab Layl 298B.10 Disagreement Between Us and al-Sh . . 299B.11 Miscellaneous Principles That Have AectedIssues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies InstituteC ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS 9C Articles 2 to 100 fromMajallat al-Ah. km al-Adliyyah 303D Maxims From al-Ashbh wa-al-Naz. ir byIbn Nujaym 311D.1 The First Six Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . 311D.2 The Next Nineteen Principles . . . . . . . . 312E List of LegalMaximsDiscussed in This Book 315Bibliography 331Glossary 333Advanced Legal Studies Institute Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee10 ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS CImran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies InstitutePREFACEThe relationship between the disciplines of us.l al-qh and qawidqhiyyah is like the relationship between the two arms of the hu-man body; they cooperatewith each other to yield the rules of qh.This vital relationship has been kept concealed by separating thetwo disciplines and by severing the bond between them. Workingwith one hand is possible, but it reduces and considerably ham-pers the eciency of the system.Unfortunately, the discipline of qawid qhiyyah has beenburied under a mass of misleading detail in modern writings.Many books, and even an encyclopaedia or two, have been writ-ten. These eorts are to be appreciated, but without restoring thevital link the understanding of this discipline is not possible, andthe utility of the detail will remain questionable.The qawidwere actually, and very fruitfully, used by the ear-liest jurists, at a a time when Islamic law was growing rapidly.To understand their real worth then, the qawid have to be un-derstood within that methodology. This book tries to explain themeaning of selected qawid and their operation within this earliermethodology. Too much detail has been avoided. The idea is thatonce the reader, and the student, has grasped the vital links andthe essentials of this eld, he will be well on his way to handle allthe detail.The book has been organized around a few basic legal con-cepts. More concepts could have been added, but these have beenleft for later writers. The scholars and the researchers shoulddirect their research towards these concepts and build theoriesaround the concepts explaining themwith the help of the qawid.Another purpose is to revive genuine interest in qh. This canbe done by focusing on the essentials and by removing the unnec-essary mass that has been built around its concepts. Most writ-ers in this eld have had this goal. We will end by recording thewords of one of the greatest teachers of both qh and us.l al-qh,the illustrious Imm al-Sarakhs. The following is an excerpt fromhis book al-Mabst. . He complained that people are not givingproper attention to qh and have become involved in unnecessarydetails. Here is what he said:1112 ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS PThe Shaykh, the eminent and pious Imm, Shams al-AimmahAbBakrMuh. ammad ibn Ab Sahl al-Sarakhs, may God bless him and illuminate histomb, while he was imprisoned at zjand, said by way of dictation:Thereafter, in my own time, I saw some turning away from qh on thepart of scholars due to several reasons:1. Among these is inadequate ability on the part of some, so much sothat they have felt satised by issues comprising prolonged disputes.2. Among them is the neglect of proper guidance by teachers, who inicton them (the students) divergent issues that have no qhwithin them.3. Added to these are prolonged discussions on the part of some of theMutakallimn who have brought in philosophical concepts for elabo-rating the legal meanings thereby mixing up alien concepts with qh.Accordingly, I considered it appropriate to write a commentary on theprecis not going beyond the most relevant concepts in the elaboration ofissues being satised by what is most reliable in each section. To this Iadded the questions raised by some of my selected companions during theperiod of my imprisonment, who helped me due to their aection for me andasked me to dictate my response. I complied with their demand.The great Imm then went on to write his famous book in 30 vol-umes. May Allah bless him for his contribution. Following him,all detail has been avoided in this book.Imran Ahsan Khan NyazeeIslamabadJune, 2013Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies Institute

Recommended

View more >