Means of expressing future time

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  • 1. Means of Expressing Future TimeMeans of Expressing Future Time

2. There are a number of grammatical means thatThere are a number of grammatical means thatcan be used to express future time.can be used to express future time. Shall and will are only one form among them.Shall and will are only one form among them. So when we say that English has no futureSo when we say that English has no futuretense, we certainly do not mean that Englishtense, we certainly do not mean that Englishhas not the means of expressing future time.has not the means of expressing future time. Instead there are a number of constructionsInstead there are a number of constructionsthat can be used to denote futurity in English.that can be used to denote futurity in English. 3. Constructions denoting future timeConstructions denoting future time Future time can be expressed by means ofFuture time can be expressed by means ofmodal auxiliaries, semi-auxiliaries, the simplemodal auxiliaries, semi-auxiliaries, the simplepresent and present progressive forms.present and present progressive forms. 1)Will / shall + infinitive1)Will / shall + infinitive Will / shall + infinitive can be used to expressWill / shall + infinitive can be used to expressfuture. But in many cases, the future meaningfuture. But in many cases, the future meaningexpressed by these auxiliaries are very oftenexpressed by these auxiliaries are very oftencolored by modal meanings from prediction tocolored by modal meanings from prediction tointention and volition.intention and volition. 4. -I will be here tomorrow. (future + intention)-I will be here tomorrow. (future + intention) -Tomorrows weather will be cold and cloudy.-Tomorrows weather will be cold and cloudy.(future + assumption)(future + assumption) -When shall I see you next? (listeners-When shall I see you next? (listenersintention)intention) 2) Will / shall + progressive infinitive2) Will / shall + progressive infinitive * This construction usually implies an action* This construction usually implies an actionwhich will occur in the normal course ofwhich will occur in the normal course ofevents without any human involvement, ie.events without any human involvement, ie.without being colored by volition andwithout being colored by volition andintention.intention. -I will go to town this afternoon.-I will go to town this afternoon. 5. -Hurry up. They will be waiting.-Hurry up. They will be waiting. * This construction can also be used to denote* This construction can also be used to denoteanan action that is still going onaction that is still going on at a given futureat a given futuretime.time. -I will be studying in London during August.-I will be studying in London during August. -What will you be doing this time tomorrow-What will you be doing this time tomorrowmorning?morning? Will / shall + perfective infinitiveWill / shall + perfective infinitive This construction can be used to expressThis construction can be used to express ananaction that has just finished before a givenaction that has just finished before a givenfuture timefuture time.. -I will have completed the English course by-I will have completed the English course bythis time next year.this time next year. 6. Will / shall + perfective progressive infinitiveWill / shall + perfective progressive infinitive IfIf an action has extended for a special length ofan action has extended for a special length oftime before a given future moment and possiblytime before a given future moment and possiblycontinues at that momentcontinues at that moment, we can use this, we can use thisconstruction.construction. -At the end of this week I shall have been-At the end of this week I shall have beenstudying in this country for exactly three years.studying in this country for exactly three years. 7. 3) be going to + infinitive3) be going to + infinitive a) The uses of be going to + infinitivea) The uses of be going to + infinitive This construction is usually used to express twoThis construction is usually used to express twomeanings: intention and prediction.meanings: intention and prediction. * In its first use, the be going to form implies* In its first use, the be going to form impliesanan intention of doing something in the nearintention of doing something in the nearfuturefuture. The doer of the intended action is. The doer of the intended action isgenerally the subject of the sentence, but ingenerally the subject of the sentence, but insome contexts it may also be implied orsome contexts it may also be implied orrealized by a different element, but withrealized by a different element, but withpersonal intention.personal intention. -Next year we are going to spend our summer-Next year we are going to spend our summervacation in Sydney.vacation in Sydney. -A house is going to be built there.-A house is going to be built there. 8. In its second use, be going to can express theIn its second use, be going to can express thespeakers feeling of certainty or strongspeakers feeling of certainty or strongprobabilityprobability. The. The time is usually not mentionedtime is usually not mentioned,,but the action is expected to happen in the nearbut the action is expected to happen in the nearor immediate future. It can be used with bothor immediate future. It can be used with bothpersonal and non-personal subject.personal and non-personal subject. -She is going to have a baby.-She is going to have a baby. -It is going to rain.-It is going to rain. -He is going to arrive late at the concert.-He is going to arrive late at the concert.(context)(context) -He doesnt like music. He-He doesnt like music. He -He hasnt yet had supper. He .-He hasnt yet had supper. He . 9. b) Contrast between be going to and willb) Contrast between be going to and will *A. Be going to: premeditated intention*A. Be going to: premeditated intention Will: unpremeditated intentionWill: unpremeditated intention -She has bought some cloth; she is going to-She has bought some cloth; she is going tomake herself a dress.make herself a dress. -Where is the telephone book? Ill get it for-Where is the telephone book? Ill get it foryou.you. 10. e.g. You shall obey / are to obey / *are going toe.g. You shall obey / are to obey / *are going toobey my orders!obey my orders!(Im willing to let you obey my orders.)(Im willing to let you obey my orders.)She shant be / ?isnt to be / *isnt going to beShe shant be / ?isnt to be / *isnt going to beback late. (Im not willing to let her be back late)back late. (Im not willing to let her be back late) *B. The both forms can express prediction.*B. The both forms can express prediction. Be going to: implying that there are signs thatBe going to: implying that there are signs thatsomething will happensomething will happen Will: implying what the speaker thinks orWill: implying what the speaker thinks orbelieves will happen, no signsbelieves will happen, no signs -She is going to have a baby. (She is-She is going to have a baby. (She ispregnant.)pregnant.) 11. Look at the balck cloudsLook at the balck clouds it *will rain / is going to rain.it *will rain / is going to rain. 4) Present progressive4) Present progressive The present progressiveThe present progressive can express an actioncan express an actionthat will happen in the near future according tothat will happen in the near future according toaa present arrangement, plan, or programpresent arrangement, plan, or program.. -What time are you coming back?-What time are you coming back? As a future form, the present progressive isAs a future form, the present progressive iswidely used with verbs of movement from onewidely used with verbs of movement from oneplace to another such as go, come, leave, start,place to another such as go, come, leave, start,arrive, etc. and other dynamic verbs.arrive, etc. and other dynamic verbs. -We are leaving on Friday.-We are leaving on Friday. 12. When used to denote futurity, the futureWhen used to denote futurity, the futurereference must be clearly indicated.reference must be clearly indicated. -He is washing the dishes. (now, later)-He is washing the dishes. (now, later) Since both the be going to form and theSince both the be going to form and thepresent progressive can be used to refer to apresent progressive can be used to refer to afuture happening arising from the presentfuture happening arising from the presentdecision, the two forms are sometimesdecision, the two forms are sometimesinterchangeable for future reference.interchangeable for future reference. -She is getting married this winter.(=She is-She is getting married this winter.(=She isgoing to get married this winter.)going to get married this winter.) 13. We are going to invite / are inviting severalWe are going to invite / are inviting severalpeople to the party.people to the party.When expressing that something will probablyWhen expressing that something will probablyhappen, we often use be going to.happen, we often use be going to.-I feel dizzy. I think I am going to faint.-I feel dizzy. I think I am going to faint.*I think I am fainting.*I think I am fainting. 14. 5) Be to + infinitive5) Be to + infinitive 1) As a form expressing futurity, this construction can1) As a form expressing futurity, this construction candenotesdenotes a future happening based on a present plana future happening based on a present planor arrangementor arrangement. It is very much. It is very much used in newspapers,used in newspapers,and in headlines with the verb be omitted to saveand in headlines with the verb be omitted to savespacespace.. -The line (is) to be open to traffic on October 1.-The line (is) to be open to traffic on October 1. 2) Another use of this construction is to convey orders,2) Another use of this construction is to convey orders,instructions, or prohibitions; it can also connoteinstructions, or prohibitions; it can also connotepossibility or destiny.possibility or destiny. -You are to stand here. Do you understand? (order)-You are to stand here. Do you understand? (order) -The football match is not to be played tonight.-The football match is not to be played tonight.(possibility)(possibility) 15. The future action expressed by be to + infinitiveThe future action expressed by be to + infinitiveis usually controlled by human will. In this case,is usually controlled by human will. In this case,be to + infinitive and be going to can be usedbe to + infinitive and be going to can be usedinterchangeably, but they have differentinterchangeably, but they have differentmeanings.meanings.-I am going to play football this afternoon.-I am going to play football this afternoon.(present intention)(present intention)-I am to play football this afternoon. (planned)-I am to play football this afternoon. (planned) Be going toBe going to cannotcannot be replaced by be tobe replaced by be to+infinitive when expressing the action that is+infinitive when expressing the action that isnot controlled by human will.not controlled by human will. -He is going to be fat. *He is to be fat.-He is going to be fat. *He is to be fat. -It is going to rain. *It is to rain.-It is going to rain. *It is to rain. 16. Be about to +infinitiveBe about to +infinitive This construction expresses an immediateThis construction expresses an immediatefuture and can be used interchangeably withfuture and can be used interchangeably withbe on the point of + -ing participlebe on the point of + -ing participle and withand withbe just going to +infinitive.be just going to +infinitive. -We are just about to leave.-We are just about to leave. -The talk is just about to begin.-The talk is just about to begin. 17. 6) Simple present6) Simple present a) The future use of the simple present is morea) The future use of the simple present is morefrequentfrequent in dependent, especially conditionalin dependent, especially conditionaland temporal, clausesand temporal, clauses than in main clauses.than in main clauses. --If you try hardIf you try hard, well be able to finish the plan., well be able to finish the plan. -Mr. Smith will telephone you-Mr. Smith will telephone you as soon as heas soon as hereturns.returns. b) In main clauses, the simple present refers tob) In main clauses, the simple present refers toan immutable future event predetermined by aan immutable future event predetermined by atimetable or a schedule which is very definitetimetable or a schedule which is very definiteand unalterable.and unalterable. -Tomorrow is my birthday.-Tomorrow is my birthday. -The term starts on September 1.-The term starts on September 1. 18. For future reference, the simple present, justFor future reference, the simple present, justlike the present progressive, usually goes withlike the present progressive, usually goes withtransitional verbs withtransitional verbs with the implication of athe implication of aplan or program already made,plan or program already made, but the planbut the planimplied by the simple present is moreimplied by the simple present is moreimpersonal than that by the presentimpersonal than that by the presentprogressive, and therefore, more fixed andprogressive, and therefore, more fixed andunalterable.unalterable. 19. One day I / you / he will die.One day I / you / he will die. *One day he is going to die*One day he is going to die I shall be 25 / *am going to be 25 next week.I shall be 25 / *am going to be 25 next week. Come to the party.Come to the party. Ok, I will bring / *bring /*am going to bring myOk, I will bring / *bring /*am going to bring myboyfriend.boyfriend. 20. the simple present, the present progressive andthe simple present, the present progressive andwill + dowill + doe.g. The match starts/is starting at 2 oclock.e.g. The match starts/is starting at 2 oclock. We start / are starting for Istanbul tonight.We start / are starting for Istanbul tonight. 21. e.g. The exhibition closes / will close / *ise.g. The exhibition closes / will close / *isclosing on Friday next week.closing on Friday next week.e.g. Tomorrow is / will be / *is being Saturday.e.g. Tomorrow is / will be / *is being Saturday.Next Christmas falls/will fall/ *is falling on aNext Christmas falls/will fall/ *is falling on aThursday.Thursday. 22. PracticePractice Translate the following sentences:Translate the following sentences: 1. Eu voi merge acasa.1. Eu voi merge acasa.2. Veti desena?2. Veti desena?3. Diana wont sing.3. Diana wont sing.4. The life will be beautiful.4. The life will be beautiful.5. Noi nu vom povesti (spune).5. Noi nu vom povesti (spune).6. This cart will dissapear.6. This cart will dissapear.7. Unde veti locui?7. Unde veti locui?8. Veti semna acolo?8. Veti semna acolo?9. My mother will come.9. My mother will come.10. Nu voi mai face iar.10. Nu voi mai face iar.11. Va zbura? (11. Va zbura? (el /ea, neutruel /ea, neutru))12. I wont repeat.12. I wont repeat. 23. PracticePractice Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses:Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses: 1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper?1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper?B: I (write) a letter to my friends back home in Texas.B: I (write) a letter to my friends back home in Texas.2. A: Im about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!2. A: Im about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!B: I (get) you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up.B: I (get) you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up.3. A: I cant hear the television!3. A: I cant hear the television!B: I (turn) it up so you can hear it.B: I (turn) it up so you can hear it.4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We (visit) Paris, Nice and Grenoble.4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We (visit) Paris, Nice and Grenoble.5. Sarah (come) to the party. Oliver (be) there as well.5. Sarah (come) to the party. Oliver (be) there as well.6. Ted: It is so hot in here!6. Ted: It is so hot in here!Sarah: I (turn) the air-conditioning on.Sarah: I (turn) the air-conditioning on.7. I think he (be) the next President of the United States.7. I think he (be) the next President of the United States.8. After I graduate, I (attend) medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life.8. After I graduate, I (attend) medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life.9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people.9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people.B: That man at the service counter (help) you.B: That man at the service counter (help) you.10. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) down to the beach and go swimming.10. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) down to the beach and go swimming. 24. THE ENDTHE END

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