Paragraph Development.  4. cause and effect(p155)

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  • Paragraph Development

  • 4. cause and effect(p155)

  • Several changes have brought wild animals to the citiesForemost isthat air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control effortsMeanwhilerural areas have been built upleaving many animals on the edges of suburbsIn additionurban wildlife refuges have been createdThe Greater London Council last year spent 750,000 to buy land and build 10 permanent wildlife refuges in the cityAs a resultmany big birds are now living in the cityFor peregrine falcons cities are actually safer than rural cliff dwellingsBy 1970 the birds had died out east of the Mississippi because DDT had made their eggs too thin to support lifeThat yearscientist Tom Cade of Cornell University began raising the birds for release in citiesfor cities afforded plenty of food

  • DirectionsRead the following paragraph of cause and effectadding suitable listing signals and linking expressions

  • There are many reasons why languages change____various languages that started from the same parent developed their own uniqueness after groups of speakers drifted away from one another to establish isolatedindependent communities________is the independence of and interaction with foreign culturesoften as a result of military conquest________is rapidly expanding technology and new systems of communication that bring all cultures and languages into close contactwith borrowing between languages a common phenomenon in the contemporary worldAll languages change as the experiences of their speakers change

  • As it is known to everyonelanguages are constantly changing nowadaysThere are many reasons why languages changebut the following three major causes may help illustrate the conceptInitiallyvarious languages that started from the same parent developed their own uniqueness after groups of speakers drifted away from one another to establish isolatedindependent communitiesAnother major cause of language change is the influence of and interaction with foreign culturesoften as a result of military conquestA continuing cause for change is rapidly expanding technology and new systems of communication that bring all cultures and languages into closer contactwith borrowing between language a common phenomenon in the contemporary worldNew established communitiesthe influence of and interaction with foreign culturesthe rapid development of technology and new systems of communication contribute to language changeSo we may say all languages change as the experiences of their speakers change

  • Listingfirstsecondthirdfirstlysecondlythirdlyfirstfurthermorefinallyin the first placein the second placefinallylast but not leastfirst and most importantto begin withnextthenfinallythe formerthe latter the first stepthe second stepthe next step

  • since sothatbecause thusbecause of this/that hencebecause of the fact that thereforeas a result accordinglyas a result of otherwisebe due to be responsible forconsequently causebe a consequence of lead toas a consequence of contribute tobe the reason for result infollow from bring aboutresult from give rise to

  • Read p162-p174


  • I. Introduction: The presentation of distorted reality on TV A. Childrens limited experience B. Childrens heavy reliance on TV C. TVs distorted reality D. Thesis: The reality as presented by TV is potentially harmful.II. Different ways of distorting reality A. Portrayal of stereotypes B. Selection of the undesirableIII. TVs strong effects A. Childrens imitation of stars, actions B. Inaccurate portrayal of unfamiliar people C. Childrens acceptance of TV image as models D. Harmful effects on the childs self-image

  • 1. There are many/ different/ several/ a number +causes/ factors for the dramatic/marked/ significant+ increase/changes/decrease/ problem in+2. There are several reasons for my preference/choice/decision.3. . Why ? First, /For one thing, /One reason is Second, /For another,Finally/ Perhaps the primary/main/most important4. A number of factors could explain/result in/account for/contribute tothe success/change/choice/decision

  • 5. Comparison and Contrast

  • Life in the city is quite different from life in the suburbsPeople living in the city are constantly exposed to the hustle and bustle of urban lifeBut life in the suburbs is generally quiet and casual and generally more lowkey than in the cityIf city dwellers want to see trees and grassthey must go to one of the public parksOn the other handthe streets of many suburban communities are lined with trees and shrubsand each house has its own grassy yardA person living in the city is close to many sources of entertainmentbut people living in suburban areas must go into the city for entertainment

  • ItembyItemMotorcycle AExpense BUpkeep CSafetyAutomobile AExpense BUpkeepCSafety PointbyPointExpense AMotorcycle BAutormobileUpkeep A Motorcycle BAutormobileSafety A Motorcycle BAutormobile

  • p209

  • comparativesthe sameasbe similar toandtooandsonotandnoteithernotneitherbothandneithernorJust assoresemblehavein commonsimilarlyThere are similarities betweenandin the same wayequally importantContrastivesbeadj/adv+ erthanmorethanlessthannot soasUnlike/Contrary to/As opposed toAlthough/Whereas/Whilecontrast with/differ from/be different fromhowever/on the otherhand/in contrast

  • 1. Personally, Im in favor of/like / prefer2. When the advantages and disadvantages of are carefully compared, the most striking finding/conclusion is self-evident/obvious. 3. Despite these advantages,/Like anything else,/Good as A is, it also has/ brings its own disadvantages/ problems/harmful effects.4. The advantages of B outweigh the benefit we gain from/carry more weight than those of/ are much greater than those of A.5. . The effect of comparison/ contrast is heightened by another advantage B enjoys.

  • Sometimes, the first step is the hardest coming up with an idea. Such a concept should be like sitting on a pin it should make you jump up and do something. I have had a great many ideas over the years. Some were good; others were great, and some I would prefer to forget about. The important thing is to take your best ideas and see them though. Not all of them are going to be winners, but remember, people who succeed may have been counted out many times before. They win because they refuse to give up.

  • I. The importance of effective people managementII. The necessary skills and qualities for success in the workplace A. Being a role model B. Developing self-awareness C. Delighting in change D. Thinking positively E. Showing enthusiasm

  • The first one: Concentrate on what you are doing. If you try to do it well, you will ultimately be successful. The second one: Act boldly. Dont fear making mistakes, though if you make one, look out. In a very real sense, your graduation here today is not an ending but a beginning, literally commencement. If I may say so, that is , in fact, the first day of the rest of your lives. I realize it is startling to look at graduation this way, but I believe we must. Thank you, and lots of luck. Youll need it.

  • I. We may make the difference between two ways of reading just like we can distinguish touring with travelling. A. Touring is preferred to traveling today. B. Mechanical reading is more prevailing than intelligent reading.II. The purpose of two ways of reading is quite different. A. Mechanical reading aims at good results in examination. B. Intelligent reading is promoted by interest and done in earnestness, and certainly no end.

  • III. The courses and the results of two ways of reading are also dissimilar.A. Mechanical reading is a short tour, and intelligent reading is a long tour.B. Mechanical reading ends up in fruitlessness, but intelligent reading lasts as long as one lives.IV. Conclusion: intelligent reading demands interest and stamina, so a few people can read intelligently.

  • Compose an essay(60 points)More and more college students are now renting apartments outside campus instead of living in students dorms. Write a 300-word expository essay about your preference and reasons.

  • TOPIC: Living in students dorms is better than outside campus.Thesis: I would like to live in students dorms rather than rent apartments outside campus.I. As students without income, it is cheaper to live in students dorms.II. Because the campus has more security system than the society, it will be safer to live in students dorms. III. Living in students dorms is easier to communicate with classmate so you can make clear what you have not understood about your study.IV. Conclusion: In a word, I prefer to live in students dorms. Though more and more college students rent apartments outside campus, what we cannot deny is that the majority of the college students are living in students dorms

  • I: Thesis: There are many reasons and effects why old people should be taken care of by their family members.II: The reasons why old people should be taken care of by their family members. A. People once took care of their children when children were young. B. It is the childrens obligation to take care of their old parents. C. Because some nursing houses are not well equipped, old people can not be taken care of well. D. When people are aging, what they need is love from children.

  • III. The effects why old people should be taken care of by their family members.A. Rich living experiences of the old people keeps the family on a regular way.B. The living style of the old people brings rich happiness and peace to the family.IV. Conclusion: both in point of reasons and effects, old people should be taken care of by their family members.

  • Homework:

    Compose an essay (60 points)In China, old people are usually taken care of by their family members, but now some people send their aging parents to nursing homes. What is your opinion on this? Write a 300-word expository



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