Pension incentives to retire Edward Whitehouse Slovenia, June 2007.

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Pension incentives to retire Edward Whitehouse Slovenia, June 2007 Slide 2 Agenda When can people retire? Retirement incentives Sensitivity analysis Policy implications Slide 3 Normal pension age 55565758596061626364656667 FRA MLT SVK HUN EST CZE LAT LIT SVN PRT GRC LUX JPN ITA BEL SWE ESP FIN AUT DEU CYP POL NLD IRL GBR DNK USA Pension eligibility age for men Slide 4 Normal pension age 55565758596061626364656667 FRA MLT SVK HUN EST CZE LAT LIT SVN PRT GRC LUX JPN ITA BEL SWE ESP FIN AUT DEU CYP POL NLD IRL GBR DNK USA Pension eligibility age for men Slide 5 Normal pension age: women 55565758596061626364656667 FRA MLT SVK HUN EST CZE LAT LIT SVN PRT GRC LUX JPN ITA BEL SWE ESP FIN AUT DEU CYP POL NLD IRL GBR DNK USA Pension eligibility age for women Slide 6 Retirement windows 55565758596061626364656667 FRA MLT SVK HUN EST CZE LAT LIT SVN PRT GRC LUX JPN ITA BEL SWE ESP FIN AUT DEU CYP POL NLD IRL GBR DNK USA Pension eligibility age (early/normal) for men Slide 7 Retirement duration 1012.51517.52022.52527.530 FRA MLT SVK HUN EST CZE LAT LIT SVN PRT GRC LUX JPN ITA BEL SWE ESP FIN AUT DEU CYP POL NLD IRL GBR DNK USA Average: 17.7 years Additional life expectancy at normal pension age, men, 2004 Eurostat data Slide 8 Retirement duration: men, 2004 1012.51517.52022.52527.530 FRA MLT SVK HUN EST CZE LAT LIT SVN PRT GRC LUX JPN ITA BEL SWE ESP FIN AUT DEU CYP POL NLD IRL GBR DNK USA Average: 19.9 years Additional life expectancy at normal and early pension ages, men, 2004 Eurostat data Slide 9 Measuring incentives to retire Relationship between incomes in and out of work: out of work: retirement pension in work: earnings ratio of the two is the conventional replacement rate But extra work can give extra pension entitlement Captured by the change in pension wealth from working longer pension wealth is present value of future pension receipts an implicit tax/subsidy on remaining in work Level of pension wealth also matters Focus on age 60-64 Slide 10 Change in pension wealth Age 60-64, average earner, entry at 25 -50 -25 0 25 50 LUX HUN NLD ESP POL AUT FIN DEU CZE JPN EST DNK SVK GBR IRL LAT FRA ITA SVN LIT CYP USA PRT SWE BEL GRC MLT Annualised; per cent of annual earnings Slide 11 Level of pension wealth Age 60, average earner, entry at 25 0 5 10 15 20 GBR JPN IRL USA POL LIT DEU LAT SVK EST BEL FIN CZE FRA SWE CYP DNK ITA AUT HUN PRT SVN NLD ESP LUX GRC MLT Pension wealth at age 60, multiple of annual earnings Slide 12 Pension wealth: changes and levels Slide 13 Conclusions incentives Early retirement permitted with low (e.g. Hungary, Portugal) or zero (e.g. Belgium, Greece, Luxembourg) reduction in benefits Zero or too small increments for people deferring retirement (e.g. France, Slovenia, Spain) Earnings tests that prevent people combining work and pension (e.g. Belgium, Ireland, Malta, Luxembourg) Systems that require contributions even when little or no extra benefit is earned (e.g. maximum number of years in Belgium, Greece, Spain, United States) Resource tests can encourage retirement at earliest opportunity for low earners (e.g. France, Portugal, Sweden) Benefit formulae with higher pension accruals at younger ages (e.g. Spain) or pensions based of final or best earnings, which encourage people to retire once pay has peaked (e.g. Greece, Spain) Slide 14 Contact information Edward Whitehouse +33 1 45 24 80 79 edward.whitehouse@oecd.org ELS/SPD OECD 2 rue Andre Pascal Paris 75775 Cedex 16 France Internet: www.oecd.org/social/ageing/PaG

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