PERCEPTION!. Perception What is perception and how does it influence our perspectives? What is perception and how does it influence our perspectives?
PERCEPTION!PerceptionWhat is perception and how does it influence our perspectives?PerceptionThe process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensationAnd Rememberyour brain takes SHORTCUTS!Perceptions Influenced by:----motivation----Values----Expectations----Experience----Culture----Cognitive Style----PersonalitySelective Attentionfocus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulusVisual Capturetendency for vision to dominate the other sensesPerception tell your neighbor the definition!The process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensationGestalt Psychologists focus on how we normally perceive images as groups or as whole objects, not isolated elementsthe whole is more than the sum of itsparts ..Our brain takes shortcuts!Gestalt PsychologyFigure- Ground relationshiporganization of thevisual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)Analyzing separate information allows us to re-act to each individual object accordinglyWhat is the figure, and what is the background here?Camouflagewhen figures blend into the backgroundNo distinction between figure and groundWhere is it?Remember, Gestalt is our brains way of being efficient.We see things as wholeOur brain takes shortcuts!Gestalt Psychologysometimes this is great! Automatic processes can enhance our perception Olny srmat poelpe can raed tihs! cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!sometimes this is bad! Automatic processes can interfere with our perception REDRead the following words out loudBLUEGREENNow when you see the word, say ONLY the COLOR, not the word itselfBLUEGREENYELLOWBROWNORANGEPINKREDOur brain gets so used to seeing things as whole objects (top down), it struggles with the bottom upGestalt PerceptionOther Gestalt principles involves grouping objects together (again, seeing them as whole)Several factors influence how we will group objects:ProximitySimilarityContinuityClosureproximity- your brain likes to group nearby figures togetherHaving trouble understanding the sign?Your brain is trying to group the words based on proximitysimilarity- Objects that are similar in appearance are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same groupColor similarity we see two groups of fruit, not 10 individual onesContinuity (or continuation)The tendency to Perceivecontinuous patternsContinuation in artworkTwo objectsor three?Closure (or completeness)-The tendency to overlook incompleteness, and complete objectsWe make them fit our preconceptionsclosureDo you see a square?How many triangles?Familiar objects are easier for our mind to completeGESTALT = seeing things as wholeGestalt cues employ principle of praegnanzthe brain will always favor the simplest solution it can findThat solution is based on what you already know and expect in a given contextConstancyperceiving objects as unchanging despite changes in retinal imageThere are three types of constancy cues:Size ConstancyShape ConstancyBrightness ConstancySize ConstancyObjects closer to us will produce bigger images on our retinas, and as they move away they project a smaller image. The actual size of the object does not changeour brains assume that the guys in the background are similar in height to the other people.they are just farther awaybut look how much smaller of an image they cast on our retina.surprising isnt it?by the same token, if an object farther away WERE the same size, our brain assumes it is much larger than it actually isObjects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retina. Though we may change our position, the shape doesnt change.Shape ConstancyWe perceive it as being slanted and therefore being the same shape as the circles in the columns on the rightThe 3 columns on the left and the 3 on the right are slightly different. Does the middle column belong with the left or the right?but if you look carefully, you will notice that they are actually exactly the same as the circles on the leftBrightness/Color ConstancyWe perceive objects as having a constant color, despite lighting, shading, etc.Are all these bricks the same color?We perceive the white as a constant whiteness, regardless of the shadow, when in reality, it is the same gray as the gray squares...trust me.Depth PerceptionDepth Cues allow us to perceive the world in three dimensions.Monocular Cues are depth cues that do not depend on having two eyes working in conjunction togetherBinocular Cues are depth cues that depend on having two eyes working in conjunction with each otherRelative HeightRelative SizeTexture Gradient InterpositionRelative Clarity/ShadowingLinear PerspectiveRelative motion/motion parallax Monocular Cuesrelative sizesmaller image is more distanttexture gradientcoarse --> closefine --> distant(Look at the floor beneath you, and then across the room)Interposition/ OverlapA closer object blocks a more distant objectrelative clarity/shadowinghazy object seen as more distantLighted objects seem closerDarker objects seem further awayRelative Clarity ShadowingNotice the perception of depth changes when shading is reversedIf it doesnt worktry clicking HERERelative HeightObjects higher in our field of vision are perceived as farther awayVertical Dimensions are often perceived as longer than identical horizontal dimensionsWhos farthest away? Whos tallest?linear perspectiveparallel lines converge with distanceVanishing Point where two parallel lines connect in the distancerelative motion/ Motion Parallaxcloser objects seem to move faster(riding in a car, trees along the road vs. houses in the distance)Artists use these all the time to give their work a true feeling of depth Trompe l'oeil Check out this picturefrom a different angle!Same drawing from another angleThese visual tricks provide depth and dimension to artwork on wallsArtwork inside housesAnd of course.Classical ArtEscaping Criticism, 1874, by Pere Borrell del CasoBinocular Cuesconvergenceneuromuscular cuetwo eyes move inward for near objects(bring a pencil slowly toward your eyes- keep focusing on the pencil- feel your eyes move)(Retinal) Binocular disparityimages from the two eyes differ closer the object, the larger the disparity(Hold a pencil in front of you, close one eye, then close the other eye- you get two different images)Binocular Depth Cues: Finger SausageBelieve or not there is a three dimensional hour glass in here!MotionEye muscle activityChanging retinal imageContrast of the moving object and its stationary backgroundAll combine to bring us the perception of motionMotionStroboscopic Motion- timed flashing lights or moving pictures that give the illusion of movementFactors That Influence Perceptual InterpretationsPerceptual SetThe tendency to perceive a person or a situation in a particular way due to our past experiences with similar persons or situations Perpetual Set - UFOOriginal Image what do you see?this is the first blowup to just 500 times the original.. and addition of the cyan blue filter.. that will develop the interior of the shipBelow is the ship solarized and invert to find edges.. from the blue cyan filter.. this is just 500 times.. and for the abduction and cattle mutilation pix i had to go to 3000 times.. from the solarized version.. i go to desaturation.. of color and then increase the enlargement.. ive found for myself it is better to have the photo in black and white to see the detail.. the colors are not as clear.. and btw some of the scenes in this are sexual.. i may eventually cut some out.. but these guys are certainly preoccupied with sex.. NEXT IS CATTLE ABDUCTION FROM THE ABOVE PHOTO CUT>.this is one of the two first cuts i made and shows a horse being abducted and probably the usual cuts.. etc.. or perhaps just DNA research..see anything yet? It depends on your perceptual set I guessBelow is the same picture only OUTLINED.. and i think you can compare and see what is happening.. and certainly the ANSWER to many of the CATTLE MUTILATIONS ETC.. but i don't believe all of them.. the LIzARDS on this planet also use the horse and animals for sacrifice and ritual.. and even HANG HORSES.. these are not NOT NICE CRITTERS WHO ABUSE AND USE ALL OF THE LIFE ON THIS PLANET IN DEROGATORY METHODS...the PRIESTESS is also sometimes considered to be a REPTILIAN PRINCESS WHO TAKE CHARGE OF MUCH OF WHAT HAPPENS ON AND OFF THIS PLANET..ABDUCTIONS SHOULD ENDregardless of our perceptions, I think we all can agree on thatRight side of room get ready to close your eyes!Perceptual Set!Left side of the room - Get your pencil ready and be prepared to jot something in the margins of your notes!Right Side Close those eyes!Quick! Write down what you think this a drawing ofEveryone open your eyes!Right side of the room - Get your pencil ready and be prepared to jot something in the margins of your notes!Left Side Close those eyes!Quick! Write down what you think this a drawing ofRaise your hand if you said.Mouse!Raise your hand if you said.Face!Our expectations influence our perceptions!.FaceMousePerceptual IllusionsWhen our normal, automatic perception processes guide us to the wrong conclusionsbecause your brain takes shortcuts, what you perceive is not necessarily reality!Do you perceive a face?When our normal, automatic perception processes guide us to the wrong conclusionsbecause your brain takes shortcuts, what you perceive is not necessarily reality!Extrasensory Perception = ESPSome people claim to have extra powers of perceptionPerception not with any of your physical senses but with your mind!ParapsychologyThe study of ESP and its many forms is known as ParapsychologyPARA means alongside considered by many to be a pseudoscienceParapsychology includes the study of: telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psycho-kinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation and apparitional experiences.I see dead people.Subliminal PerceptionThresholds imply that there must be stimulus below and beyond our current levels of detection. Can human behavior be influenced by stimulus that is below or beyond our level of awareness?Study!Subliminal messagesSTUDY!Subliminal messagesSubliminal messagesPublic concern 1957 A marketing researcher claimed dramatic increases in the sales of popcorn (58% increase!)when he flashed the phrase "Eat popcorn" for 1/2000 of a second during a movie. Despite public rage over the possibilities of mind control, further research has shown no evidence that subliminal messages influence out long-term behavior.**