PO Box 658 Columbia, MO 65205 Tel: (573)387-4400 ▪ Fax: (573)387-4404 Targeting to Overshadow. slide 0

PO Box 658 Columbia, MO 65205 Tel: (573)387-4400 ▪ Fax: (573)387-4404 Targeting to Overshadow.

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PO Box 658 Columbia, MO Tel: (573) ▪ Fax: (573) Targeting to Overshadow Fears and Anxiety in Miniature Swine Rivard G.*, Brocksmith D., Stewart I., Bouchard GF. Sinclair…

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PO Box 658 Columbia, MO Tel: (573) ▪ Fax: (573) Targeting to Overshadow Fears and Anxiety in Miniature Swine Rivard G.*, Brocksmith D., Stewart I., Bouchard GF. Sinclair BioResources, LLC ABSTRACT We use targeting to overshadow fear responses in Miniature Swine (MS). Targeting is part of the unique Sinclair’s proprietary behavior program called Behavioral Enhancement System™(BES). BES is an integral approach to MS behavior instituted and developed by Sinclair to provide well-conditioned and easily trained MS to clients. We use targeting to replace an unacceptable behavior such as a fear response with an acceptable one that involves a touch in response to the same stimulus. The handler first finds highly prized reinforcers, often a food reward, and gradually teaches the MS that is afraid to interact with people to want to interact with people. In this case the MS is taught to "touch" a target-stick for food-reward. It is walked a short way following the target stick and asked to "touch" the target, then food-reward. Once the MS can predict a reward is coming when interacting with people, we can condition a MS to cooperate for SOPs such as loading a cart. Every week, technicians participate in a POC (Performance On-Cue) tournament with a MS they have trained. MS follows targeting cues to navigate through a maze of obstacles. Fears and anxiety are eliminated because the MS is taught another behavior (touch) that is more enjoyable or pleasant to exhibit in the presence of the stimulus (human interactions, obstacles, and cart) that elicits the abnormal behavior, i.e. a fear response. INTRODUCTION Targeting is part of the Sinclair’s unique proprietary behavior program called Behavioral Enhancement System™. This program is Sinclair’s commitment to provide user-friendly and cooperative animals to clients. The Performance On-Cue training that leads to proficient targeting is at the core of a POC School Program that animals graduate from on a regular basis. POC provides non-confrontational and clear communication based on predictable CRR interactions. Simply, the user engages the animal in a learned CRR interaction that solicits a choice-making process and enables the animal to predict a positive and safe outcome. POC is a simple training platform to condition MS for desired behaviors useful in husbandry, veterinary, and research SOPs such as pen cleaning, moving, cart loading, hoof trimming, sling training, injection, wound treatment, and sample collection. METHODS The handler, called a leader, uses a target-stick (Clik-Stik ® ) as a cue to elicit a touch response and MS food as reward. For Cart-Loading training, the MS is taught to "touch" the target-stick for food-reward first. Then, it is walked a short way following the target-stick and asked to "touch" the target, then given food-reward immediately. Gradually over several sessions the MS "touches" closer and eventually loads into the cart. The MS stays in the cart via a CRR interaction coming at about every three (3) seconds. Then, we add in distractions such as opening the door or people running around the cart. Caretakers train their MS and participate in a POC tournament. MS follows targeting cues from their leader to navigate through a maze of obstacles leading to a cart loaded with a jackpot of food-reward. The winner of the tournament is the leader that has the highest CRR score minus his/her MS RESULTS Even though Sinclair BioResources three (3) lineages of MS had different ability of learning on-cue performance, all MS were successfully target-trained. Surprisingly, learned targeting overshadowed fear and anxiety in MS every time a leader used it. Most leaders use auditory as well as other tactile and visual cues with their target-stick cues to manage successfully the maze of obstacles. Leaders showed variability in training ability. DISCUSSION Targeting training is easily performed and require minimal and inexpensive equipment. Staff commitment to training required minutes per day. As part of the Behavioral Enhancement System™, it improves animal welfare and benefits MS users at Sinclair BioResources and their clients. For example, cart loading no longer elicits fear and anxiety but rather a willingness to load. It seems like the MS learn to earn food- rewards. Once the MS have learned targeting behavior and a habit has been created, other forms of rewarding such as petting, back scratching, praise, and food-toys can be used successfully to maintain the behavior. All staff were highly satisfied with their performance. CONCLUSION We use targeting to replace unacceptable behavior (fear response) with acceptable behavior (targeting) that involves a aIn response to the same stimulus (cart). Fears and anxiety are eliminated because the MS are taught other behaviors (touch, following a target) that are more predictable and enjoyable in the presence of the stimulus (human interactions, cart, and obstacles) than the abnormal behavior (fear response). Targeting overshadows fear and anxiety, makes the MS cooperate in accomplishment of SOPs, increases staff motivation and satisfaction, and improves animal welfare. Cue-Reward Used Total Visual Board, Post, Gate, Paddle, Stick, Gesture, Others Taste Fruit, Vegetable, Feed, Candy, Cookie, Liquid, Others Smell Affiliate, Pheromone, Secretion, Oil, Essence, VNO obstruction, Others Audition Click, Bell, Ringtone, Whistle, Upbeat Voice, Cluck, Kiss, Others Tactile Jumpsuit, Booties, Halter, Collar, Harness, Others TOTAL Response to Obstacles Total Escape / Avoidance / Lunge Vocalization(s) Fearful Body Postures Including Cowering/Hunched Back, Slow Motion/Body Low, Averted Eyes/Brows Furrowed, Hackles, Raised/Ears to Side, Straight Tail, Others Elimination Urination, Defecation TOTAL POC Score Sheet Obstacle:Participant#:Rank: 1.EntranceTime: 2.Open-fieldHandler (Name):Judge: 3.Black Mat 4.Ramp 5.PlatformMiniature Swine (Strain/ID/Sex/Age/Name): 6.Cone 7.GateCategory 8.Barrier 9.Funnel 10.CarrierDate: Cue-Reward Score Anxiety Score TOTAL PERFORMANCE ON-CUE (POC) TOURNAMENT CART LOADING Habituation by successive approximation Target-touch in the cart, then exit Stay in the cart for a target-touch- food interaction every three seconds Add distractions TARGETING TRAINING TARGET-TOUCH-FOOD (CRR) Interaction Target Loading: Stationary/Following Anxiety score as defined by its willingness to move forward, vocalization, body posture, and elimination (see POC Score Sheet). Equal scores are ranked by best time to complete the obstacle course. *Germain Rivard, DVM, IPSAV, PhD, Animal Welfare and Veterinary Behaviorist Consultant Derek Brocksmith, General Manager, Ian Stewart, Production Manager, and Guy Bouchard, DVM, MS, DACT, President at Sinclair BioResources. Cue-Reward Used Total Visual Board, Post, Gate, Paddle, Stick, Gesture, Others Taste Fruit, Vegetable, Feed, Candy, Cookie, Liquid, Others Smell Affiliate, Pheromone, Secretion, Oil, Essence, VNO obstruction, Others Audition Click, Bell, Ringtone, Whistle, Upbeat Voice, Cluck, Kiss, Others Tactile Jumpsuit, Booties, Halter, Collar, Harness, Others TOTAL Response to Obstacles Total Escape / Avoidance / Lunge Vocalization(s) Fearful Body Postures Including Cowering/Hunched Back, Slow Motion/Body Low, Averted Eyes/Brows Furrowed, Hackles, Raised/Ears to Side, Straight Tail, Others Elimination Urination, Defecation TOTAL POC Score Sheet Obstacle:Participant#:Rank: 1.EntranceTime: 2.Open-fieldHandler (Name):Judge: 3.Black Mat 4.Ramp 5.PlatformMiniature Swine (Strain/ID/Sex/Age/Name): 6.Cone 7.GateCategory 8.Barrier 9.Funnel 10.CarrierDate: Cue-Reward Score Anxiety Score TOTAL PERFORMANCE ON-CUE (POC) TOURNAMENT CART LOADING Habituation by successive approximation Target-touch in the cart, then exit Stay in the cart for a target-touch- food interaction every three seconds Add distractions TARGETING TRAINING TARGET-TOUCH-FOOD (CRR) Interaction Target Loading: Stationary/Following Anxiety score as defined by its willingness to move forward, vocalization, body posture, and elimination (see POC Score Sheet). Equal scores are ranked by best time to complete the obstacle course. *Germain Rivard, DVM, IPSAV, PhD, Animal Welfare and Veterinary Behaviorist Consultant Derek Brocksmith, General Manager, Ian Stewart, Production Manager, and Guy Bouchard, DVM, MS, DACT, President at Sinclair BioResources.