PROBABLE CAUSES OF TYRE DAMAGE Irregular tread wear One shoulder Description: Excessive wear on ONE shoulder around the circumference of the tyre. Probable Causes: Axle geometry Axles not parallel. Incorrect wheel alignment. Excessive toe-in or toe-out. Suggested Actions: Check wheel and axle alignment. Check suspension system. Irregular tread wear Both shoulders Description: Excessive wear on BOTH shoulders around the circumference of the tyre. Probable Causes: Incorrect tyre inflation pressure. Underinflation. Suggested Actions: Look for reason of underinflation (defective valve, accidental damage or puncture, defective repair, etc.). Check vehicle manufacturers recommended inflation pressures. Irregular tread wear - Centre Description: Excessive wear in central tread area around the circumference of the tyre. Characteristic of rear drive axle fitment. Probable Causes: Incorrect tyre inflation pressure. Overinflation. Suggested Actions: Check vehicle manufacturers recommended inflation pressures. Irregular tread wear - phased Description: Excessive wear in regular angular phases or spots around the circumference. Probable Causes: Axle geometry. Mainly on non-driven rear axle. Defective suspension system. Suggested Actions: Check suspension system. Check complete axle / vehicle geometry. Irregular tread wear Localized Description: Excessive wear in one isolated localized spot Probable Causes: Extreme braking causing wheel lock. Tread separation Description: Separation of tread rubber from carcass. Probable Causes: Underinflation causing excessive flexing and heat generation leading deterioration of rubber bonding. Overloading. Incorrect application. Accidental damage to tread area resulting in water/dust penetration. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check inflation pressures. Check tyre size, load / speed correspond to manufacturers specification. Tread chipping/chunking Description: Chipping and or chunking of tread rubber. Probable Causes: Excessive use on gravel / sharp stone road. Incorrect tyre application. Incorrect inflation pressure, overinflation. Suggested Actions: Check inflation pressures. Check tyre suitability for application. Accidental tread cuts Description: Cutting or laceration of the tread rubber. Probable Causes: Accidental damage after contact with sharp object on the road surface (eg. glass, stone, nail, metal, etc.). Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service and have inspected by qualified tyre dealer to assess damage. Accidental tread impact damage Description: Disintegration of tyre structure. Probable Causes: Violent impact with road obstacle (eg. large rock, pot hole, etc.). High speed impact. Over inflation. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check inflation pressure corresponds to vehicle manufacturers recommendation. Sidewall impact damage (1) Description: Convex bulge on sidewall / shoulder area of the tyre due to broken carcass. Probable Causes: Impact with obstacle on road surface (eg. large rock, pot hole, etc.). EXTERNAL VIEW Impact against kerb stone. Suggested Actions: INTERNAL VIEW Remove tyre from service. Check inflation pressure corresponds to vehicle manufacturers recommendation. Sidewall impact damage (2) Description: Convex bulge on sidewall / shoulder area of the tyre due to broken carcass. Probable Causes: Incorrect fitting / removal procedure. EXTERNAL VIEW Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. INTERNAL VIEW Accidental sidewall damage (1) Description: Clean cuts into sidewall rubber. Probable Causes: Damages caused by impacts against sharp foreign bodies or vehicle parts. Contact with kerb or foreign object on the road. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service and have inspected by qualified tyre dealer to assess damage. Check clearance from wheel arch and ensure free rolling without interference from vehicle parts. Accidental sidewall damage (2) Description: Radial cut / break-up in the sidewall area. Probable Causes: Violent impact against foreign body. Damaged rim. Incorrect rim size. Incorrect fitting procedure,tyre not correctly seated on rim. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check tyre suitable for rim. Accidental upper sidewall damage Description: Circumferential break-up in the upper sidewall area. Probable Causes: Overloading. Under inflation. Misapplication. Stone trapping when in dual fitment. Incorrect dual spacing or underinflation causing tyre kissing . Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres. Accidental lower sidewall damage Description: Circumferential break-up in the lower sidewall area. Probable Causes: Overloading. Under inflation. Misapplication. Incorrect tyre for rim size. Incorrect fitting procedure,tyre not correctly seated on rim. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres. Check tyre suitable for rim. Accidental bead damage Description: Circumferential cracking / tearing of rubber in the bead area. Probable Causes: Overloading. Under inflation. Fitted without lubrication Incorrect tyre for rim size. Incorrect fitting procedure, tyre not correctly seated on rim. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres. Check tyre suitable for rim. Accidental run flat damage Description: Circumferential abrasion / cracking of rubber on the sidewall and inside tyre due to running at insufficient pressure. Probable Causes: Overloading / under inflation. Slow air loss due to penetration of foreign body or incorrect repair. Incorrect fitting procedure, tyre not correctly seated on rim. Slow air loss from faulty valve core (eg. dust in valve stem). Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres.
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Probable Damage Cause to Tyres

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PROBABLE CAUSES OF TYRE DAMAGE Irregular tread wear One shoulder Description: Excessive wear on ONE shoulder around the circumference of the tyre. Probable Causes: Axle geometry Axles not parallel. Incorrect wheel alignment. Excessive toe-in or toe-out. Suggested Actions: Check wheel and axle alignment. Check suspension system. Irregular tread wear Both shoulders Description: Excessive wear on BOTH shoulders around the circumference of the tyre. Probable Causes: Incorrect tyre inflation pressure. Underinflation. Suggested Actions: Look for reason of underinflation (defective valve, accidental damage or puncture, defective repair, etc.). Check vehicle manufacturers recommended inflation pressures. Irregular tread wear - Centre Description: Excessive wear in central tread area around the circumference of the tyre. Characteristic of rear drive axle fitment. Probable Causes: Incorrect tyre inflation pressure. Overinflation. Suggested Actions: Check vehicle manufacturers recommended inflation pressures. Irregular tread wear - phased Description: Excessive wear in regular angular phases or spots around the circumference. Probable Causes: Axle geometry. Mainly on non-driven rear axle. Defective suspension system. Suggested Actions: Check suspension system. Check complete axle / vehicle geometry. Irregular tread wear Localized Description: Excessive wear in one isolated localized spot Probable Causes: Extreme braking causing wheel lock. Tread separation Description: Separation of tread rubber from carcass. Probable Causes: Underinflation causing excessive flexing and heat generation leading deterioration of rubber bonding. Overloading. Incorrect application. Accidental damage to tread area resulting in water/dust penetration. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check inflation pressures. Check tyre size, load / speed correspond to manufacturers specification. Tread chipping/chunking Description: Chipping and or chunking of tread rubber. Probable Causes: Excessive use on gravel / sharp stone road. Incorrect tyre application. Incorrect inflation pressure, overinflation. Suggested Actions: Check inflation pressures. Check tyre suitability for application. Accidental tread cuts Description: Cutting or laceration of the tread rubber. Probable Causes: Accidental damage after contact with sharp object on the road surface (eg. glass, stone, nail, metal, etc.). Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service and have inspected by qualified tyre dealer to assess damage. Accidental tread impact damage Description: Disintegration of tyre structure. Probable Causes: Violent impact with road obstacle (eg. large rock, pot hole, etc.). High speed impact. Over inflation. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check inflation pressure corresponds to vehicle manufacturers recommendation. Sidewall impact damage (1) Description: Convex bulge on sidewall / shoulder area of the tyre due to broken carcass. Probable Causes: Impact with obstacle on road surface (eg. large rock, pot hole, etc.). EXTERNAL VIEW Impact against kerb stone. Suggested Actions: INTERNAL VIEW Remove tyre from service. Check inflation pressure corresponds to vehicle manufacturers recommendation. Sidewall impact damage (2) Description: Convex bulge on sidewall / shoulder area of the tyre due to broken carcass. Probable Causes: Incorrect fitting / removal procedure. EXTERNAL VIEW Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. INTERNAL VIEW Accidental sidewall damage (1) Description: Clean cuts into sidewall rubber. Probable Causes: Damages caused by impacts against sharp foreign bodies or vehicle parts. Contact with kerb or foreign object on the road. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service and have inspected by qualified tyre dealer to assess damage. Check clearance from wheel arch and ensure free rolling without interference from vehicle parts. Accidental sidewall damage (2) Description: Radial cut / break-up in the sidewall area. Probable Causes: Violent impact against foreign body. Damaged rim. Incorrect rim size. Incorrect fitting procedure,tyre not correctly seated on rim. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check tyre suitable for rim. Accidental upper sidewall damage Description: Circumferential break-up in the upper sidewall area. Probable Causes: Overloading. Under inflation. Misapplication. Stone trapping when in dual fitment. Incorrect dual spacing or underinflation causing tyre kissing . Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres. Accidental lower sidewall damage Description: Circumferential break-up in the lower sidewall area. Probable Causes: Overloading. Under inflation. Misapplication. Incorrect tyre for rim size. Incorrect fitting procedure,tyre not correctly seated on rim. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres. Check tyre suitable for rim. Accidental bead damage Description: Circumferential cracking / tearing of rubber in the bead area. Probable Causes: Overloading. Under inflation. Fitted without lubrication Incorrect tyre for rim size. Incorrect fitting procedure, tyre not correctly seated on rim. Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres. Check tyre suitable for rim. Accidental run flat damage Description: Circumferential abrasion / cracking of rubber on the sidewall and inside tyre due to running at insufficient pressure. Probable Causes: Overloading / under inflation. Slow air loss due to penetration of foreign body or incorrect repair. Incorrect fitting procedure, tyre not correctly seated on rim. Slow air loss from faulty valve core (eg. dust in valve stem). Suggested Actions: Remove tyre from service. Check load/speed and inflation pressures of remaining tyres.
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