Project Life Cycles. System development life cycle Waterfall model Spiral model Whirlpool model Rugby model OMG model.

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    02-Jan-2016

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Project Life CyclesSystem development life cycleWaterfall modelSpiral modelWhirlpool modelRugby modelOMG modelWaterfall modelProject proposal reportFunctional specificationsFeasibility reportdesign specificationsprogram specificationscodesystem performance testsaudit , feed-backprojectdefinitionsystem studydesignprogrammingInstallationPost Imple-mentation- intermediate reports- go/nogo intervals Boehms Spiral Modelprototype 1prototype 2operationalprototypeRiskAnalysisRiskAnalysisRiskAnalysisdetermine objectives,alternativesconstraintsevaluate alternativesidentify , resolve riskssimulationmodelsBenchmarksrequirements planlife cycle planconcept ofoperationSoftware designDesignvalidation and verificationintegrationtests and plandetailed designcodingintegration testsimplementationprogressthroughstepsPlannext phasesPrototype basedWhirlpool modelProject proposal reportFunctional specificationsFeasibility reportdesign specificationsprogram specificationscodesystem performance testsaudit , feed-backprojectdefinitionsystem studydesignprogrammingInstallationPost Imple-mentationAfter each phase a quick review of the previous phases is madeOO-life cycleWith the increasing complexity of the systems,the structured techniques suffer from twoillusions:The analyst knows everything and understands the problem completely before implementation startsThe users read the system analysis report and approve itOMG-model (Object Management Group )Facts:System requirements are not fully known at the startknowledge of the system grows during developmentbetter develop a system incrementallystart with some core functionsobject modellinganalysisdesignconstruction fullsystemdefinitioncoordination and reuseOMG Project ManagementIterative styledevelop a series of solutions to a problem ,each of them closer to satisfying the requirements( also called : evolutionary development )Incremental styleBuilds system functionality a little at a time.The results are not entire solutions.Matthew Pittman proposes iterative analysis and design combined with incremental development Problem is managing the reuse (by design , not by accident)How can such a project be estimated , tracked , controlled The Waterfall ModelWaterfall modelProject proposal reportFunctional specificationsFeasibility reportdesign specificationsprogram specificationscodesystem performance testsaudit , feed-backprojectdefinitionsystem studydesignprogrammingInstallationPost Imple-mentation- intermediate reports- go/nogo intervals Project definitionWhat do we want to accomplish ?- solve a new problem- incorporate new requirements- improve existing systemIs a new system the best solution ?Who will be involved ?Organizational problemSystem study : functional specs1.Activities: just a few sentences2.Logical operations ( processes): for each activity3.Details and definitions: rules, actions, controls , forms 4. Detail information: object, units, begin and end, classes, namesObjective: What is the problem ?Responsibility: The userExecution: Top-down techniqueSystem study : functional specs 2The problem definition report includes:For the input: form point of time and frequency origin responsibilityFor the output: type and layout point of time and frequency destination usageFurthermore: reasons for realization financial advantages constraints and borders of the systemSystem study : The feasibility studyResponsibility from this phase on in the ICT-department study of the existing system borders of the new system links with other systems study of different solutions division in subsystems applicability of packages estimation of personnel requirements cost-benefit analysisThe report allows the steering committee to: - fix timings - final decisionDesign : generalWhat must be done to solve the problem? function analysis inventory of the data elements data dictionary logical model of the system ( data analysis ) major algorithmscompose the working groupsplanning per departmentDesign : Detailed - interfaces with other systems- controls and checking- privacy and security aspects- hardware specifications- job flow design- Physical database design- high-level program designDetailed system and design specificationProgramming and ImplementationProgram designdiagramscodetestsdocumentationdata conversionprocedure developmentuser training- Program specifications- CodeInstallationInstallation of the hardwareInstall security proceduresTests in operational environmentTraining operations departmentTake-over in user department and EDP-departmentOperational - User documentation- Operations documentationPost-implementationAUDITcompare actual system with projected budget and timingevaluate actual operation costevaluate user satisfactionevaluate securityMAINTENANCEestablish hardware maintenance procedurestest security planestablish change management procedures

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