- Project Life Cycles. System development life cycle Waterfall model Spiral model Whirlpool model Rugby model OMG model.
Project Life Cycles. System development life cycle Waterfall model Spiral model Whirlpool model Rugby model OMG model.
Project Life CyclesSystem development life cycleWaterfall modelSpiral modelWhirlpool modelRugby modelOMG modelWaterfall modelProject proposal reportFunctional specificationsFeasibility reportdesign specificationsprogram specificationscodesystem performance testsaudit , feed-backprojectdefinitionsystem studydesignprogrammingInstallationPost Imple-mentation- intermediate reports- go/nogo intervals Boehms Spiral Modelprototype 1prototype 2operationalprototypeRiskAnalysisRiskAnalysisRiskAnalysisdetermine objectives,alternativesconstraintsevaluate alternativesidentify , resolve riskssimulationmodelsBenchmarksrequirements planlife cycle planconcept ofoperationSoftware designDesignvalidation and verificationintegrationtests and plandetailed designcodingintegration testsimplementationprogressthroughstepsPlannext phasesPrototype basedWhirlpool modelProject proposal reportFunctional specificationsFeasibility reportdesign specificationsprogram specificationscodesystem performance testsaudit , feed-backprojectdefinitionsystem studydesignprogrammingInstallationPost Imple-mentationAfter each phase a quick review of the previous phases is madeOO-life cycleWith the increasing complexity of the systems,the structured techniques suffer from twoillusions:The analyst knows everything and understands the problem completely before implementation startsThe users read the system analysis report and approve itOMG-model (Object Management Group )Facts:System requirements are not fully known at the startknowledge of the system grows during developmentbetter develop a system incrementallystart with some core functionsobject modellinganalysisdesignconstruction fullsystemdefinitioncoordination and reuseOMG Project ManagementIterative styledevelop a series of solutions to a problem ,each of them closer to satisfying the requirements( also called : evolutionary development )Incremental styleBuilds system functionality a little at a time.The results are not entire solutions.Matthew Pittman proposes iterative analysis and design combined with incremental development Problem is managing the reuse (by design , not by accident)How can such a project be estimated , tracked , controlled The Waterfall ModelWaterfall modelProject proposal reportFunctional specificationsFeasibility reportdesign specificationsprogram specificationscodesystem performance testsaudit , feed-backprojectdefinitionsystem studydesignprogrammingInstallationPost Imple-mentation- intermediate reports- go/nogo intervals Project definitionWhat do we want to accomplish ?- solve a new problem- incorporate new requirements- improve existing systemIs a new system the best solution ?Who will be involved ?Organizational problemSystem study : functional specs1.Activities: just a few sentences2.Logical operations ( processes): for each activity3.Details and definitions: rules, actions, controls , forms 4. Detail information: object, units, begin and end, classes, namesObjective: What is the problem ?Responsibility: The userExecution: Top-down techniqueSystem study : functional specs 2The problem definition report includes:For the input: form point of time and frequency origin responsibilityFor the output: type and layout point of time and frequency destination usageFurthermore: reasons for realization financial advantages constraints and borders of the systemSystem study : The feasibility studyResponsibility from this phase on in the ICT-department study of the existing system borders of the new system links with other systems study of different solutions division in subsystems applicability of packages estimation of personnel requirements cost-benefit analysisThe report allows the steering committee to: - fix timings - final decisionDesign : generalWhat must be done to solve the problem? function analysis inventory of the data elements data dictionary logical model of the system ( data analysis ) major algorithmscompose the working groupsplanning per departmentDesign : Detailed - interfaces with other systems- controls and checking- privacy and security aspects- hardware specifications- job flow design- Physical database design- high-level program designDetailed system and design specificationProgramming and ImplementationProgram designdiagramscodetestsdocumentationdata conversionprocedure developmentuser training- Program specifications- CodeInstallationInstallation of the hardwareInstall security proceduresTests in operational environmentTraining operations departmentTake-over in user department and EDP-departmentOperational - User documentation- Operations documentationPost-implementationAUDITcompare actual system with projected budget and timingevaluate actual operation costevaluate user satisfactionevaluate securityMAINTENANCEestablish hardware maintenance procedurestest security planestablish change management procedures