Rebuilding for Learning Enhancing School Improvement: Addressing Barriers to Learning And Re-engaging Students.

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Slide 1 Slide 2 Rebuilding for Learning Enhancing School Improvement: Addressing Barriers to Learning And Re-engaging Students Slide 3 The Imperative for a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Trend in NAEP reading average scores for 9-year-old students Trend in NAEP reading average scores for 13-year-old students Trend in NAEP reading average scores for 17-year-old students The Nations Report Card National Center for Education Statistics Slide 7 Three Lenses for Seeing Whats Missing in School Improvement Planning Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Caution: Dont misinterpret the termBarriers to Learning It encompasses much more than a deficit model of students. And, it is part of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance ofProtective Buffers (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency, accommodations) andPromoting Full Development Slide 13 ABOUT SCHOOL ENGAGEMENT AND RE-ENGAGEMENT A growing research literature is addressing these matters. For example, see: School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence (2004) by J. Fredricks, P. Blumenfeld, & A. Paris. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-109. These researchers conclude: Engagement is associated with positive academic outcomes, including achievement and persistence in school; and it is higher in classrooms with supportive teachers and peers, challenging and authentic tasks, opportunities for choice, and sufficient structure. Slide 14 Engagement is defined in three ways in the research literature: Behavioral engagement draws on the idea of participation; it includes involvement in academic and social or extracurricular activities and is considered crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes and preventing dropping out. Emotional engagement encompasses positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, and school and is presumed to create ties to an institution and influence willingness to do the work. Cognitive engagement draws on the idea of investment; it incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness to exert the effort necessary to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills. A Key Outcome of Engagement is Higher Achievement. The evidence from a variety of studies is summarized to show that engagement positively influences achievement A Key Outcome of Disengagement is Dropping Out. The evidence shows behavioral disengagement is a precursor of dropping out. Slide 15 Developing a System to Address Barriers to Learning and Teaching and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction Four Fundamental and Interrelated Concerns Policy Revision Framing Interventions to Address Barriers to Learning and Teaching into a Comprehensive System of Interventions Rethinking Organizational and Operational Infrastructure Developing Systemic Change Mechanisms for Effective Implementation, Sustainability, and Replication to Scale Additionally, because of the overemphasis on using extrinsic reinforcers in all aspects of efforts to improve schools, we find it essential to re-introduce a focus on intrinsic motivation. Slide 16 The real difficulty in changing the course of any enterprise lies not in developing new ideas but in escaping old ones. John Maynard Keynes Slide 17 Moving Forward: Enhancing Policy for School Improvement Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 ###################################### In 2002, the Council of Chief State School Officers has adopted the following as the organizations new mission statement: CCSSO, through leadership, advocacy, and service, assists chief state school officers and their organizations in achieving the vision of an American education system that enables all children to succeed in school, work, and life. ###################################### Slide 21 Defining a System of Learning Support for Policy Purposes* Learning supports are the resources, strategies, and practices that provide physical, social, emotional, and intellectual supports intended to enable all pupils to have an equal opportunity for success at school. To accomplish this, a comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive learning support system should be integrated with instructional efforts and interventions provided in classrooms and schoolwide to address barriers to learning and teaching. *From: Proposed legislation in California to establish a Comprehensive Pupil Learning Support System Slide 22 Slide 23 Moving Forward: Framing Interventions to Address Barriers to Learning and Teaching into a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports Slide 24 School systems are not responsible for meeting every need of their students. But... when the need directly affects learning, the school must meet the challenge. Carnegie Task Force on Education Slide 25 Examples of Initiatives, programs and services >positive behavioral supports >programs for safe and drug free schools >full service community schools & Family Resource Centers >Safe Schools/Healthy Students >School Based Health Center movement >Coordinated School Health Program >bi-lingual, cultural, and other diversity Programs >re-engaging disengaged students >compensatory education programs >special education programs >mandates stemming from the No Child Left Behind Act >And many more activities by student support staff Governance and Resource Management (Management Component) Policy Umbrella for School Improvement Planning Related to Addressing Barriers to Learning Addressing Barriers to Learning/Teaching (Enabling or Learning Supports Component an umbrella for ending marginalization by unifying the many fragmented efforts and evolving a comprehensive approach) Direct Facilitation of Learning (Instructional Component) Slide 26 Toward a Unifying Intervention Framework for a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports (1) An essential continuum of interventions conceived as three levels of interconnected systems: systems for promoting healthy development and preventing problems systems for responding to problems as soon after onset as is feasible systems for providing intensive care (2) Basic arenas for school intervention are categorized into major clusters based on content focus. For a learning supports component, the arenas are conceived as enabling a school to: >enhance classroom-based efforts to enable learning >provide support for transitions >provide prescribed student and family assistance >increase home involvement in schooling >respond to and prevent crises >outreach to increase community involvement & support (3) The combined continuum and the content areas provide the framework for a comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive system of learning supports Slide 27 To ensure all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school, a system of learning supports (an enabling component) must: (1) address interfering factors (2) re-engage students who have become disengaged from classroom instruction. Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 An Enabling or Learning Support Component Defining Major Arenas that every school needs to operationalize in order to address barriers to learning EVERY DAY Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 School Banks Police Day care Center Faith-based Institutions Higher Education Institutions Local Residents Businesses Restaurants Health & Social Services Agencies Community Based Orgs.; Civic Assn. Media Artist & Cultural Institutions Library Senior Citizens Excerpted from: J. Kretzmann & J. McKnight (1993). Building Communities from the Inside out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Communitys Assets. Chicago: ACTA Publications. Community Involvement & Engagement Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Slide 42 Slide 43 We just missed the school bus. \ Dont worry. I heard the \ principal say no child \will be left behind. / Slide 44 Moving Forward: Rethinking Organizational and Operational Infrastructure Slide 45 ################################# Developing a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports (an Enabling Component) involves reworking the organizational and operational infrastructure for >schools >feeder patterns >districts (and departments of education) >school-community collaboratives In reworking infrastructure, it is essential to remember Structure Follows Function! ################################## Slide 46 Slide 47 Key Mechanisms Administrative Leader (e.g., 50% FTE devoted to component) Staff Lead for Component Staff Workgroups Slide 48 Slide 49 Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 Slide 56 Overview of Major Phases and Steps in Establishing a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports First Phase Creating Readiness & Commitment Second Phase Start-up and Phase-in: Building Infrastructure and Capacity Third Phase Sustaining and Evolving: Enhancing Outcomes Fourth Phase Generating Creative Renewal and Replication to Scale Slide 57 Slide 58 Building Capacity for Engagement & Re-engagement: Staff Development Focusing on Intrinsic Motivation Slide 59 For Staff Development: (1) Enhancing understanding of intrinsic motivation (2) How to reduce overemphasis on behavior control to minimize psychological reactance and disengagement (3) How to re-engage students who have become disengaged Slide 60 Slide 61 E x V Expectancy times value equals motivation E represents an individual's expectations about outcome (in school this often means expectations of success or failure). V represents valuing, with valuing influenced by both what is valued intrinsically and extrinsically. Thus, in a general sense, motivation can be thought of in terms of expectancy times valuing. Such theory recognizes that human beings are thinking and feeling organisms and that intrinsic factors can be powerful motivators. This understanding of human motivation has major implications for learning, teaching, parenting, and mental health interventions. Slide 62 Slide 63 ############################### I suspect that many children would learn arithmetic, and learn it better, if it were illegal. John Holt (1989) ############################### Slide 64 Slide 65 Slide 66 Learner Options to Enhance Motivation and Learning Learner Options include: Content - Students should be able to explore content that has personal value. Expanding options to include a wide sampling of topics that are currently popular with the majority of students (e.g., animals, sports, music) Ask students to identify additional topics they would like included Options the teacher identifies as important and worthwhile. Process - Students should be helped to pursue outcomes and levels of competence that reflect their continuing interest and effort. Process outcomes can be expanded by adding procedures that are widely popular (e.g., video or audiovisual materials) those of special interest to specific students, or those newly identified by the teacher. Structure- It is expected that those with the lowest motivation are likely to need the most support and guidance. At the same time, they are likely not to seek help readily. Moreover, those with avoidance motivation tend toreact negatively to structure they perceive as used to control them. Slide 67 Decision Making to Enhance Motivation and Learning Are students competent to make good decisions? Learning to make decisions should be a basic focus of instruction. Decisions about participation are the primary foundation upon which all other decisions rest. Helping students make decisions 1. The student must understand the value of making his or her own decisions. 2. The process must include ways for students to actively sample and select from available options and to propose other when feasible. 3.Working out problem details should be done as soon as choices are made. 4.From the moment the student begins an activity, it is important to monitor motivation. Decision Making to Enhance Motivation and Learning Are students competent to make good decisions? Learning to make decisions should be a basic focus of instruction. Decisions about participation are the primary foundation upon which all other decisions rest. Helping students make decisions 1. The student must understand the value of making his or her own decisions. 2. The process must include ways for students to actively sample and select from available options and to propose other when feasible. 3.Working out problem details should be done as soon as choices are made. 4.From the moment the student begins an activity, it is important to monitor motivation. Slide 68 Intrinsic Motivation A Few References From the Center: Revisiting Learning & Behavior Problems: Moving Schools Forward (book-length) Enhancing Classroom Approaches for Addressing Barriers to Learning: Classroom-Focused Enabling (a guidebook) Accompanying Readings & Tools for Enhancing Classroom Approaches for Addressing Barriers to Learning: Classroom-Focused Enabling Classroom Changes to Enhance and Re-engage Students in Learning (a training tutorial) Re-engaging Students in Learning (a very brief Quick Training Aid) A few other general resources: Why we do what we do. By E. L. Deci with R. Flaste (1995). New York: Penguin Books. Also, a second edition of Jere Brophy''s book Motivating Students to Learn came out this year and might be of interest (Erlbaum). Engaging schools: Fostering high school students motivation to learn by National Research Council (2004). D.C.: National Academies Press. Motivation to learn: From theory to practice (3rd ed.) By D.J. Stipek (1998). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence (2004) by J. Fredericks, et al., Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-109 For both a theoretical foundation and applications to education, psychotherapy, and the workplace, see Ed Deci & Richard Ryan (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. Slide 69 Getting from Here to There enhancing understanding of systemic change taking action Implementing innovation = Systemic change = Escaping old ideas Slide 70 How do we get from here to there? Is this your systemic change process? Slide 71 Questions???? Concerns... Comments!!!!!!!!!!!!

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