Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

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Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning. Gwo-Jen Hwang Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education National Taiwan University of Science and Technology E-mail: gjhwang.academic@gmail.com http://www.idlslab.net/. M-Learning vs. U-Learning. U-Learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningGwo-Jen HwangGraduate Institute of Digital Learning and EducationNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyE-mail: gjhwang.academic@gmail.comhttp://www.idlslab.net/

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning*Gwo-Jen HwangM-Learning vs. U-LearningU-Learningemphasizing learning can be proceeded at any place and in any time.An ideal case of learningM-LearningA kind of learning using mobile technologies to facilitate students to learnemphasizing the use of mobile technologies or the mobility of students in the learning process.M-learning is a way to achieve the aim of u-learning (via using mobile technologies).

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningM-learning/u-learning with sensing technologiesSome researchers have tried to conduct m-learning or u-learning activities with sensing technologies (e.g., GPS, RFID, or QR-codes).Context-aware ubiquitous learning- the approach that uses mobile, wireless communication and sensing technologies to support real-world learning activities (Hwang, Tsai , & Yang, 2008)Gwo-Jen Hwang*, Chin-Chung Tsai and Stephen J.H. Yang (2008), Criteria, Strategies and Research Issues of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning, Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 81-91.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningUbiquitous Learning(anywhere and anytime learning)

    Mobile Learning(the use of mobile and wireless communication technologies in learning)

    Context-Aware U-Learning(Learning with mobile, wireless communications and sensing technologies)Broad sense definitionMore specific definitions of u-learningGwo-Jen Hwang*, Chin-Chung Tsai and Stephen J.H. Yang (2008), Criteria, Strategies and Research Issues of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning, Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 81-91.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningExample of a context-aware u-learning environment using RFIDOnce the student walks close to a learning target, the RFID reader can receive the information from the corresponding tag.TargetObject 1TargetObject 2TargetObject 3TargetObject 4TargetObject 5Each student has a mobile device equipped with an RFID reader and wireless communication facility. Each learning target (e.g., a plant, a building , or an object) has an RFID tag on it.The learning system is executed on the server

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningBenefits of using sensing technologies (e.g., GPS, QR-code, RFID)- although they are not always necessary The learning system is able to guide the students in the real world via detecting their locationsThe learning system can more actively provide learning supports (e.g., hints, warnings or supplementary materials) to the learners if necessaryWarn the students before something goes wrong in a dangerous chemical experiment

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningMore parameters can be recorded with the help of sensing technologiesPersonal context in the real world: learners location, time of arrival, body temperature, heartbeat, blood pressure, etc.Environmental context : the learning targets ID and location, the environmental temperature, humidity, air ingredients, and other parameters of the environment around the sensorThe data collected by the students in fields, e.g. PH value of water.Personal data in the database : learners profile and learning portfolio, such as the predefined schedule, starting time of a learning activity, the longest and shortest acceptable time period, place, learning sequences.Environmental data in the database : equipment in the lab, the rules of using the equipment, the time table of using the lab

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningResearch Issues of mobile and ubiquitous learningProposing new strategies or tools for supporting m-learning or u-learning activitiesDeveloping adaptive or collaborative m-learning or u-learning environmentsInvestigating students real-world learning status from different aspects, such as learning achievement and problem-solving skills learning style and cognitive style cognitive load, learning motivation and attitudeslearning behaviors and learning patternsRe-examining some well-recognized e-learning issues, such as TAM

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Early applications-Serving as a Tutor for Science ObservationsThe m/u-learning systems serve as a personalized tutor to guide the students to observe a set of learning targets in the real world.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningApplications in Elementary School Natural Science CoursesIn the Natural Science courses of elementary schools in Taiwanthe students need to learn to observe and classify some learning targets (e.g., plants on school campus, butterflies in the ecology garden)Such abilities (i.e., observation and classification) are important learning objectives of science education.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningTraditional Butterfly and Ecology learning activityA teacher usually needs to train 10 or more students at the same time.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningIn such a one-to-many instruction mode:It is difficult to provide personalized instructions or feedback to the students or to record their learning status.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningScenario 1: Butterfly museum Students are guided by the u-learning system to learn to identify different types of butterflies based on the appearances of the butterflies. more than 10 thousands Butterfly samples

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningLocation of the target butterflyWhat is the name of the butterfly in front of you?The most significant feature for differentiating the two butterfliesObserve and compare the target butterfly with other butterflies based on the feature.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningScenario 2: Butterfly ecology gardenThe Butterfly Ecology Garden consists of 25 ecology areas for raising host plants of butterflies.Hui-Chun Chu, Gwo-Jen Hwang*, Shu-Xian Huang and Ting-Ting Wu (2008), A Knowledge Engineering Approach to Developing E-Libraries for Mobile Learning, The Electronic Library. 26(3), 303-317.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningTAGReaderThe student holds a PDA equipped with an RFID readerEach ecology area of butterflies has an RFID tagLearning tasks or supplementary materials

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningThe students are guided by the learning system to observe the host plants and the butterfly ecology in each target area.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningSome preliminary findings in the early studiesAdvantages of the u-learning approachProviding a personalized guide for individual students in the real worldProviding supplementary materials and hints in the right place and at the right time Motivating the students to learnTo engage students in higher order thinking, more effective learning supports or knowledge construction tools are needed

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Recent applications- Leading in Mindtools for m/u-learning activities

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningDefinitions of MindtoolsJonassen (1999, p9) described Mindtools as a way of using a computer application program to engage learners in constructive, higher-order, critical thinking about the subjects they are studying.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Mindtools used in our studiesGrid-based Mindtool (i.e., repertory grid) Helping students organize the information for identify and differentiate a set of learning targets based on the features of the targetsConcept maps (a graphical tool)Helping students identify the relationships between what they have observed in the field and their prior knowledge learned from the textbooks

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningPositive (1) ------- relationship between them --------opposite(5) Grid-based Mindtool- Repertory grid Identify a set of plants in school campusElements (e.g., names of the plants)Features for identifying the plants.A 5-scale rating mechanism

    Positive feature(1)Golden Chinese banyanArigated- leaf crotonCupheaIndian almondOpposite feature(5)Leaf-shape is long and thin1225Leaf-shape is flat and roundThe leaf has a tapering point3115The leaf has a hollow pointPerfectly smooth leaf edge1141The leaf edge has deep indents

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningTwo stages for providing u-learning supports based on the repertory grid1st stage- creating the objective repertory grid by teachers2nd stage- using the objective repertory grid to help students develop their repertory grids

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningThe Objective RGThe RG constructed by the studentThe student is asked to observe the leaf shape of Lalang grass by asking a question.The learning mission: observing the leaf shape of Lalang grass and answer the following question.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Trait Construct

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Cuphea

    Indian almond

    Money Tree

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite Construct

    Leaf-shape long and thin

    1

    2

    2

    4

    2

    2

    2

    Leaf-shape flat and round

    The leaf has a tapering point

    1

    1

    1

    4

    2

    1

    3

    The leaf has a hollow point

    Perfectly smooth leaf edge

    1

    1

    4

    4

    1

    5

    1

    The leaf edge has deep indents

    The leaf vein has few branches

    5

    3

    2

    2

    3

    3

    3

    The leaf vein has many branches

    Trait Construct

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Cuphea

    Indian almond

    Money Tree

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite Construct

    Leaf-shape long and thin

    Leaf-shape flat and round

    The leaf has a tapering point

    The leaf has a hollow point

    Perfectly smooth leaf edge

    The leaf edge has deep indents

    The leaf vein has few branches

    The leaf vein has many branches

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningThe Objective RGThe RG constructed by the studentThe student has correctly answered the leaf shape of Lalang grass to be long and thin, and is asked to give more detailed descriptions.AcicularLinearLance-shaped

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Trait Construct

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Cuphea

    Indian almond

    Money Tree

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite Construct

    Leaf-shape long and thin

    1

    2

    2

    4

    2

    2,

    2

    Leaf-shape flat and round

    The leaf has a tapering point

    1

    1

    1

    4

    2

    1

    3

    The leaf has a hollow point

    Perfectly smooth leaf edge

    1

    1

    4

    1

    1

    5

    1

    The leaf edge has deep indents

    The leaf vein has few branches

    5

    3

    2

    2

    3

    3

    3

    The leaf vein has many branches

    Trait Construct

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Cuphea

    Indian almond

    Money Tree

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite Construct

    Leaf-shape is long and thin

    1

    Leaf-shape is flat and round

    The leaf has a tapering point

    The leaf has a hollow point

    Perfectly smooth leaf edge

    The leaf edge has deep indents

    The leaf vein has few branches

    The leaf vein has many branches

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningThe RG constructed by the studentThe Objective RGThe student is asked to observe the leaf shape of Lalang grass and has given an incorrect answer. The student is asked to observe the leaf shape of Indian Almond and compare it with the leaf shape of Lalang grass.Flat and roundLong and thinFlat and round

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Trait Construct

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Cuphea

    Indian almond

    Money Tree

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite Construct

    Leaf-shape long and thin

    1

    2

    2

    4

    2

    2

    2

    Leaf-shape flat and round

    The leaf has a tapering point

    1

    1

    1

    4

    2

    1

    3

    The leaf has a hollow point

    Perfectly smooth leaf edge

    1

    1

    4

    1

    1

    5

    1

    The leaf edge has deep indents

    The leaf vein has few branches

    5

    3

    2

    2

    3

    3

    3

    The leaf vein has many branches

    Trait Construct

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Cuphea

    Indian almond

    Money Tree

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite Construct

    Leaf-shape is long and thin

    4

    Leaf-shape is flat and round

    The leaf has a tapering point

    The leaf has a hollow point

    Perfectly smooth leaf edge

    The leaf edge has deep indents

    The leaf vein has few branches

    The leaf vein has many branches

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningExperiment DesignSubject unit : Knowing the plants on school campus of the Natural Science courseComparing the u-learning performance of the students who learned with/without the Mindtool

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningComparing u-Mindtool learning with u-LearningParticipants: 61 fifth gradersControl group: 29 students, learned with a conventional tour-based u-learning system that provided location guidance and supplementary materialsExperimental group: 32 students, learned with the Repertory Grid-oriented u-learning approach

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningPart of our findings-Learning Achievements Table 1. t-test of the pre-test resultsTable 2. Descriptive data, and ANCOVA of the post-test results The use of Mindtools in u-learning is effective.

    NMeanS.D.tV1control group2973.09 11.21 .591 V2experimental group3271.14 14.56

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Variable

    N

    Mean

    S.D.

    Adjusted Mean

    Std.Error.

    F value

    post-test

    Experimental group

    32

    52.69

    13.45

    52.185

    2.236

    7.533*

    Control group

    29

    44.31

    13.68

    44.652

    2.346

    *p

  • A follow-up learning activityThe students needed to determine the features for identifying the learning targets when developing repertory grids.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Trait

    Lalang Grass

    Arigated- leaf croton

    Crown of thorns

    Pink ixora

    Opposite

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ?

    ?

  • After the field trip, they can share their findings to peers via a knowledge-sharing interface.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Concept map-oriented Mindtool for u-learningResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning1. Develop concept maps in the classroom based on what they have learned from the textbooks.2. Go to the field to observe the ecology of butterflies. 3. Go back to the classroom to modify their concept maps

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningInterface for entering Chinese character s The students can browse and modify their concept maps via the mobile devices.Take notes for what they have found during the learning activities.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Experimental resultsIt was found that, with the help of the Mindtools, the students learning achievements, motivations and attitudes were significantly improved in comparisons with traditional in-field learning or tour-based u-learning.This implies the importance of providing learning supports for u-learning activities.Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Context-Aware U-Learning for complex experiment procedures

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningBackground and MotivationDevelopment of a context-aware u-learning system for training the Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction procedure in a Chemistry course.It is the most effective method for analyzing 3D structure of compound materials.The learners are graduated or PhD students in chemistry or material departments.It is time-consuming to train a new researcher (usually 6 months to 1 year)The operations could be dangerous, and hence the learner requires full-time guidance during the training process

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningMicroscopeproducts examining, selecting, crystal mountingleanerIndexing, data collectingCentering and aligning the sampleSingle Crystal X-ray DiffractometerInstructingData transmittingData transmittingPCData processing & Structure determinationPC(1)(2)(3)Location: 2nd floor, R 204Location: 2nd floor, R 203Location: 1st floor, R 126ExpertSystemUbiquitous learning environmentGive advice or hints based on the contextContext of learnerRFIDTemperature meter

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningStage 1: Select a crystal of good quality and suitable size through an optical microscope and mount the crystal on the top of the glass fiber. The expert system guides the learner to complete the procedure and check if the selected crystal is usable.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningStage 2: Analyze the crystal by operating the X-ray diffractometer to find the cell constants within acceptable deviation. This stage is very complex since there are several rules to be followed and various parameters to be considered.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningStage 3: Determine the 3D structure of the crystal-line solid using a special programThe outputs of the program include the shape, the exact distance between atoms, and other parameters for describing the structure.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningBenefits of the context-aware u-learning approachbased on the responses from 5 researchers who had 6 months experiences and the system logs of 5 new learners

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Other applications of U-Learning

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • U-learning for Local culture coursesResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningLove our ancient assets, love our local culture.Temples or ancient buildings.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Learning task 1- observe learning targetsResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningPillar with dragon statueOnly the goods for the king can have dragons with five claws on them. The background story of each learning target

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Learning task 2- read the ancient records on the learning targetsResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Learning task 3- Search for supplementary materials on the InternetResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningAncient decorations in the temple

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Learning task 4- touch and feel the material of the learning targetsResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningStone Drum

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • U-learning for nursing coursesDevelop several u-learning systems for clinical nursing courses .Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningInterview the patient and record her health status.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning*U-learning activities in a Science parkLearn to operate scientific devices with the help of the u-learning system

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Step1: guide the students to find the target deviceResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning*The device for simulate the sun in winter and summer.

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Step 2: Present the learning tasks and the complementary materialsLink the functionality of the device to the knowledge learned from the textbook

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Step 3: Ask the students to operate the devicesStudents are asked to operate the devices and record the data shown by the device to complete their learning tasks

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning*What happens to the pointer on the device?

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • If the students fail to correctly operate the device, a tutorial is given. Step 4: Provide learning guidance and feedback to the students Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning**

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Number of participants per yearResearch Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Experimental resultsAll of the experiments have been conducted by arranging experimental groups and control groups.It is found that the u-learning approach is able to assist students in improving their learning achievements, motivations, attitudes if proper learning supports are provided.Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • The on-going project*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningInquiry-based learning activities in Chi-Gu ecology park in southern TaiwanIn this area, there are Mangroves, Black-Face Spoonbills and Fiddler Crabs.Fiddler CrabsMangroves,Black-Face Spoonbills *

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningThe students are equipped with a smartphone (or PDA), a telescope and a set of probe devices to collect data in the ecology park.Build the ecology database for the target areas*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningConclusionsThe popularity of mobile, wireless communication and sensing technologies has brought us some new aspects for perceiving education.It is worth re-examining or re-defining many e-learning issues (e.g., TAM, personalization models)New learning strategies or tools can be developed.

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    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Thank you for your attention!*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningReferencesHung, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Lin, Y. F., Wu, T. H., & Su, I. H. (in press). Seamless connection between learning and assessment- applying automated scoring for constructed response tasks in mobile ecology inquiry. Educational Technology & Society. (SSCI)Hsu, C. K., Hwang*, G. J., Chang, Y. T., & Chang, C. K. (in press). Effects of video caption modes on English listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition using handheld devices. Educational Technology & Society. (SSCI)Tsai, P. S., Tsai, C. C., & Hwang, G. J. (2011). Developing a survey for assessing preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00436.x (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Wu P. H., Zhuang, Y. Y., & Huang, Y. M. (2011). Effects of inquiry-based mobile learning model on cognitive load and learning achievement of students. Interactive Learning Environments. doi:10.1080/10494820.2011.575789 (SSCI)Hung, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Su, I. S., & Lin, I. H. (2012). A concept-map integrated dynamic assessment system for improving ecology observation competences in mobile learning activities. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(1), 10-19. (SSCI)Wu, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Su, L. H., & Huang, Y. M. (2012). A context-aware mobile learning system for supporting cognitive apprenticeships in nursing skills training. Educational Technology & Society, 15(1), 223-236. (SSCI)Wu, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., Chen, Y. C., & Huang, Y. M. (2011). A pilot study on conducting mobile learning activities for clinical nursing courses based on the repertory grid approach. Nurse Education Today, 31(8), e8-e15. (SSCI)Shih, J. L., Hwang, G. J., Chu, Y. C., & Chuang, C. W. (2011). An investigation-based learning model for using digital libraries to support mobile learning activities. The Electronic Library, 29(4), 488-505. (SSCI)*

    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningHwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E65-E70. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Wu, C. H., Tseng, Judy C. R., & Huang, I. W. (2011). Development of a ubiquitous learning platform based on a real-time help-seeking mechanism. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6), 992-1002. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Shi, Y. R., & Chu, H. C. (2011). A concept map approach to developing collaborative Mindtools for context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 778789. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Wu, P. H., & Ke, H. R. (2011). An interactive concept map approach to supporting mobile learning activities for natural science courses. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2272-2280. (SSCI)Hsieh, S. W., Jang, Y. R., Hwang, G. J., & Chen, N. S. (2011). Effects of teaching and learning styles on students reflection levels for ubiquitous learning. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1194-1201. (SSCI)Shih, J. L., Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Kinshuk. (2011). An investigation of attitudes of students and teachers about participating in a context-aware ubiquitous learning activity. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), 373-394. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Lin, Y. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). A knowledge acquisition approach to developing Mindtools for organizing and sharing differentiating knowledge in a ubiquitous learning environment. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1368-1377. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., & Chang, H. F. (2011). A formative assessment-based mobile learning approach to improving the learning attitudes and achievements of students. Computers & Education, 56(4), 1023-1031. (SSCI)

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    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningShih, J. L., Chuang, C. W., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). An inquiry-based mobile learning approach to enhancing social science learning effectiveness. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (4), 50-62. (SSCI)Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Tseng, Judy C. R. (2010). An innovative approach for developing and employing electronic libraries to support context-aware ubiquitous learning. The Electronic Library, 28(6), 873-890. (SSCI)Hung, P. H., Lin, Y. F., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). Formative assessment design for PDA integrated ecology observation. Educational Technology & Society, 13(3), 33-42. (SSCI)Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Tseng, Judy C. R. (2010). A two-tier test approach to developing location-aware mobile learning systems for natural science courses. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1618-1627. (SSCI)Chiou, C. K., Tseng, Judy C. R., Hwang, G. J., & Heller, S. (2010). An adaptive navigation support system for conducting context-aware ubiquitous learning in museums. Computers & Education, 55(2), 834-845. (SSCI)Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). A knowledge engineering approach to developing Mindtools for context-aware ubiquitous learning. Computers & Education, 54(1), 289-297. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Shih, J. L., Huang, S. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). A decision-tree-oriented guidance mechanism for conducting nature science observation activities in a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment. Educational Technology & Society, 13(2), 53-64. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Kuo, F. R., Yin, P. Y., & Chuang, K. H. (2010). A heuristic algorithm for planning personalized learning paths for context-aware ubiquitous learning. Computers & Education, 54(2), 404-415. (SSCI)

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    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

  • Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningLiu, G. Z., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). A key step to understanding paradigm shifts in e-learning: Towards context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), E1-E9. (SSCI)Peng, H. Y., Chuang, P. Y., Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Wu, T. T., & Huang, S. X. (2009). Ubiquitous performance-support system as Mindtool: A case study of instructional decision making and learning assistant. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 107-120. (SSCI)Chen, C. H., Hwang, G. J., Yang, T. C., Chen, S. H., & Huang, S. Y. (2009). Analysis of a ubiquitous performance support system for teachers. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(4), 421-433. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Yang, T. C., Tsai, C. C., & Yang, Stephen J. H. (2009). A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment for conducting complex science experiments. Computers & Education, 53(2), 402-413. (SSCI)Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., Huang, S. X., & Wu, T. T. (2008). A knowledge engineering approach to developing e-libraries for mobile learning. The Electronic Library, 26(3), 303-317. (SSCI)Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Yang, Stephen J. H. (2008). Criteria, strategies and research issues of context-aware ubiquitous learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 81-91. (SSCI)

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    Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    *Good morning everyone.I am very happy to have this opportunity to give a talk about mobile and ubiquitous learning in Mlearn.In recent years, the research concerning this issue has great progress.In Taiwan, we even organized a Special Interests Group (SIG) for mobile and ubiquitous learning in 2006.We aimed to have researchers with different backgrounds work together.I would like to take this opportunity to present part of our research results.In comparison with mobile learning, ubiquitous learning is a quite different aspect about learning.As we have mentioned, mobile learning emphasizes the portability of the learning devices or the mobility of the learners.While u-learning focuses on the provision of an ideal learning environment that the learners can get the right information at the right place and in the right time.Although m-earning and u-learning were proposed from different aspects, their learning activities are usually conducted in the same way; that is, using mobile devices to enable students to learn indoors or outdoors.Therefore, I usually treat m-learning as a way to achieve the goal of u-learning. So, my conclusion is: they are almost the same thing to me.**In recent years, some researchers have also tried to conduct m-learning or u-learning activities with sensing technologies.We shall call such a learning approach the Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning.In such a learning environment, with the help of the sensing technology, the learning system is able to detect and record the real-world learning status of the students. Therefore, more learning supports can be provided by the learning system for guiding the students to learn in the real world.

    *My colleagues and I have published a paper in ETS to address the relationships between u-learning, m-learning and context-aware u-learning in ETS in 2008.To our knowledge, u-learning is a broad sense definition that emphasizes learning anywhere and anytime.While context-aware u-learning is a more specific sense of learning that emphasizes learning in the real world with learning supports provided via the use of mobile, wireless communications and sensing technologies.*This slide shows an example of a context-aware u-learning environment using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technologyIt is a real-world learning environment that contains a server for executing the learning system and a wireless communication networks for data transmission.For each target learning object, an RFID tag is attached.

    *As a context-aware u-learning environment is able to detect real-world contexts, it has several potential benefits.For example, it can ease the burden of the students for finding the learning materials or the learning missions. The learning system can locate those content for them whenever they need. Also, it is able to provide more information to support adaptive learning since both the online and the real-world behaviors of the students can be recorded.In the meantime, it is able to guide the learners and judge whether they require additional assistance in the real world based on those records;Moreover, It is able to more actively provide necessary information to the learners.For example, if a student is doing a chemistry experiment, and the room temperature is too high, a warning message can be given by the learning system actively before an accident happens.

    *In this new environment, more parameters can be used to describe the status of the learners.For example, The personal context in the real world, such as the learners location, time of arrival, body temperature.Also, the environmental context, such as ID and location of the learning object, and temperature of the learning environment;The feedback from the sensor, such as PH values of water detected by the students;And personal and environmental data in the database.*In such a m-learning or u-learning environment that combines real-world and digital-world learning resources, there are several issues to be studied.For example, the proposing of new learning strategies or tools to assist students to learn individually or cooperatively.Or the investigation on the learning status of students, such as the issues concerning cognitive load, learning style, cognitive style or self-efficacy.In the followings, I shall present three examples to show how we employ context-aware u-learning in practical applications.In the first category of studies, the learning system serves as a personal tutor for guiding the students to observe and identify a set of learning targets in the real world..

    **Fostering students with observation and classification abilities are two important objectives for science education.In Natural Science courses of elementary schools in Taiwan, the students need to learn to observe and classify some learning objects, such as plants on school campus or butterflies in the garden.In this study, several learning activities are designed for the "Butterfly and Ecology" unit of a natural science course*In a conventional butterfly and ecology course, a teacher usually needs to train 10 or more students at the same time.*In such a one-to-may instruction mode, it is difficult to provide personalized instructions and feedback to the students or to record the learning behaviors of the students.Therefore, in the first study, a PDA system is developed to serve as a personalized tutor for the students.

    *The first learning environment is a butterfly museum.In this museum, there are more than 10 thousands butterfly samples.Students are asked to follow the instructions displayed on a PDA to learn to identify different types of butterflies based on their appearances.

    *This slide demonstrates the PDA interface. In the first screen, the learning system attempts to guide the student to a corner of the butterfly museum, and asked the student to identify a butterfly. In the second screen, the learning system shows a butterfly feature to hint the student since the student has given an incorrect answer. In the third screen, the learning materials concerning the two butterflies (the correct one and the incorrect one) are presented to the student.*After the students have completed the learning missions in the butterfly museum, they will start to learn in the second learning environment, that is, the Butterfly ecology garden.This garden consists of 25 ecology areas for raising host plants of butterflies.So, in each area, the students will be able observe the ecology of different kinds of butterflies.

    This slide shows the scenario of context-aware u-learning activity conducted in a butterfly ecology garden.The student holds a PDA equipped with an RFID reader, and each ecology area of butterflies has an RFID tag. When the student walk close to an area, the learning system will show the corresponding learning missions or learning materials to the students.

    **This slide shows the learning scenario in the butterfly ecology garden.The students are guided by the learning system to observe the host plants and the butterfly ecology in each target area, including how butterflies are born and fed, and how they grow.From these studies, we found several advantages of using m-learning or u-learning systems in the learning activities.For example, the learning systems can provide.However, to engage students in higher order thinking, more effective learning supports or knowledge construction tools are needed.*Therefore, in the second categories of studies, we tried to provided more learning supports to the students in the u-learning activities.

    **Mindtools are computer-based tools and learning environments which serve as extensions of the mind. Jonassen (1999, p9) described Mindtools as a way of using a computer application program to engage learners in constructive, higher-order, critical thinking about the subjects they are studying.In the second categories of m-learning and u-learning studies, we tried to use two types of Mindtools.**This is a well known grid-based tool, called repertory grid. A single repertory grid is represented as a matrix or a tableA 5-scale rating mechanism is usually used to describe the relationships between the elements and the constructs.Where rating value 1 means "the element is very likely to have the trait on the left side", and 5 means "the element is very likely to have the opposite of the trait on the right side".*In the second stage, the students are asked to observe and compare the features of the learning objects.The learning system will guide the students to complete their own repertory grids based on the objective grid provided by the teachers.*This slide shows an example of guiding the students to observe the host plants of butterflies and complete their own repertory grids by asking a series of questions.In this example, the student is asked to observe the leaf shape of Liquidambar by asking a question. The answer of the student will become the corresponding rating value in the repertory grid. *If the student has correctly answered the question (i.e., theleaf shape of Liquidambar is long and thin), the learning system will guide the student to learn more details about the leaf shape.*If the answer given by the student is incorrect. The learning system will try to find a comparative plant to hint the student.For example, the leaf shape of Liquidambar should be long and thin; however, the answer given by the student is Flat and Round.It is obvious that the ratings are in different poles of the construct.In this case, the learning system will find a comparative plant, that is, Indian Almond, whose leaf shape is Flat and Round, and asks the student to observe and compare the leaf shapes of the two plants.After making the observation, the student is asked to answer the question again.*To evaluate the performance of this approach, a learning activity has been conducted in an elementary school. 61 fifth-grade students participated in this learning activity.*The students were divided into a control group (29 students) and an experimental group (32 students).29 students in the control group learned with PDAs that provide common tour-based learning guidance and supplementary materials.32 students in the Experimental group learned with the PDA Mindtool.*Table 1 shows the t-test results on the pre-test scores of the two groups of students.It can be seen that there was no significant difference. That is, the two group of students had the same basic knowledge about what they were going to learn.Table 2 shows the ANCOVA results of the post-test. It was found that the students in the experimental group had significantly better learning achievements than those in the control group.Therefore, we conclude that the repertory grid-oriented Mindtool is helpful to the students in improving their learning achievements.Part of this study has been published in Computers & Education in the first issue of this year.*Then they can go to the butterfly ecology garden to observe the butterflies and revise their concept maps.Also, they can take notes on PDAs and make the revisions later when coming back to the computer classroom.I have prepared a video to show the learn scenario of this approach.*The third study is concerned with the training of complex experimental procedure.

    **In this study, we tried to develop a context-aware u-learning system for training the Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction procedure in a Chemistry course.It is the most important method for analyzing 3D structure of compound materials.And The learners are usually graduated or PhD students.Past experiences show that, it is time-consuming to train a new researcher. Usually, it takes about 6 months to 1 year to complete the training.In addition, the operations could be dangerous, and hence the students require full-time guidance during the training process.That is, the experienced researchers need to spend time to accompany with the novice researchers. The cost of man-power is very high.

    *This slide shows the structure of the context-aware u-learning environment, in which an expert system is included to simulate the decision-making procedure of the experienced researchers. (In the knowledge base of this expert system, 29 rules are used to check the status of the experiment and to hint the learners accordingly.)As we can see from this slide, the students need to complete the experiment with the equipment in three different locations.*The first Stage is to select a crystal of good quality and suitable size through an optical microscope and mount the crystal on the top of the glass fiber.In this stage, the expert system guides the learner to complete this procedure and check if the selected crystal is usable by asking some questions.

    *The second Stage is to analyze the crystal by operating the X-ray diffractometer to find the cell constants within acceptable deviation.This stage is very complicated since there are many rules to be followed and various parameters to be considered, including the room temperature.

    *The third Stage is to Determine the 3D structure of the crystalline solid using the special program.

    *This table shows the benefits of applying this approach based on the responses from 5 researchers who had 6 months experience and the system logs of 5 new learners.It can be seen that the average number of experiments conducted per week significantly increased since the learners did not have to wait for the available time of the experienced researchers.Also, both the number of mistakes made and the time to handle the faults significantly decreased.Therefore, the average time needed to complete the training decreased from 5.5 months to 2 months. In addition to those applications, we also conducted learning activities for some other applications.*Another application is about the local culture courses.In this example, the learning environment is Shen-Mu temple of Tainan County in southern Taiwan. (This learning activity is designed to include twelve main units, such as stone-carved lions and the ridge of the roof.)Each target object has its own architectural feature and historical story.

    *And to read some ancient records on those learning targets.*In addition, they might be asked to search for supplementary materials from the Internet for answering some questions about the learning targets.*There are various learning tasks in this learning activity.For example, the students might be asked to observe the features of some learning targets.*Or to touch and feel the material of the learning targets.The objective of such learning activities is to make the students more realize the local cultures and treasure those ancient assets.**In each year, more than 15,000 students participated in those learning activities.*In addition to those applications, we also conducted learning activities for some other applications.*For example, some learning activities have been conducted in the Ecology Garden in southern Taiwan.In this area, there are Mangroves, Black-Face Spoonbills and Fiddler Crabs.(Mangroves are a special kind of plants growing in the wet lands.)Black-Face Spoonbills are a kind of rarely-seen and protected birds.There are only1500 such birds on the earth, and nearly one thousand of them will stay in this ecology garden every year.*In this learning activity, the students are equipped with a smartphone and a telescope for observing the learning targets.**To sum up, the popularity of mobile, wireless communication and sensing technologies has brought us some new aspects for perceiving education.With this new learning approach, more research issues can be investigated.Such as the design of new learning activities, the analysis of the real-world learning behaviors of the students,and the development of new learning strategies or tools.I believe that u-learning will eventually become one of the most popular ways of learning.

    *These are the papers we published in some SSCI journals in the past five years.

    *So far, we have published more then 50 papers about this issue.And we are looking forward to cooperating with more researchers.So, if you are interested in this study, please feel free to contact me.Thank you.*

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