RFID: OPPORTUNITIES and CHALLENGES Yize Chen Slide 2 History In 1969, Mario Cardullo presented a RFID business plan to investors. The application areas include: -Transportation: automotive vehicle identification, automatic toll system, electronic license plate, … -Banking: electronic check book, electronic credit card -Security: personnel identification, automatic gates -Medical: identification, patient history Slide 3 History In 1971, Mario Cardullo built a first passive device and demonstrated it to potential users. In 1973, Mario Cardullo invented the first true modern RFID system with his U.S patent 3,713,148 Slide 4 History In 1973, Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle and Robert Freyman demonstrated early RFID tags at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. -The portable systems, both passive and semi- passive, detected the modulated reflect power and operated at 915 MHz. -This technique is used by majority of today’s RFID tags. Slide 5 Operating Mechanism A RFID system is composed of readers and tags. -Readers send out signals that provid power for a passive tag. -A tag captures the signals from a reader to generate its own power, and send back an unique digital ID Slide 6 Operating Mechanism There are two fundamentally different RFID design approaches: Near-field RFID: based on magnetic induction -working distance is inversely proportional to the frequency(d = c/2πf). -Works well at low frequency. Slide 7 Figure 1. Near-field power/communication mechanism for RFID tags operating at less that 100 MHz.  Operating Mechanism Slide 8 Far-field RFID: based on electromagnetic wave capture -Worked on higher frequency greater than 100 MHz. -Higher data transfer rate. Slide 9 Figure 2. Far-field power/communication mechanism for RFID tags operating at greater that 100 MHz.  Operating Mechanism Slide 10 Current Users Passports -In 1998, the first RFID passports were issued by Malaysia. -- personal information. -- travel history: time, date, and place. -In 2006, RFID tags were included in new US passports. -- the same information as on the passport. -- digital picture of the owner. Slide 11 Current Users Transportation Payments -In 1999, the SmarTrip card was introduced for urban mass-transit system in the Washington D.C. -In 1995, The RFID passes were used for public transport systems throughout Europe. -In 1997, the Octopus Card was used for mass transit payment in Hong Kong -The EZ-Link cards are used for bus’ and train’s toll system in Singapore. Slide 12 Current Users Libraries -Singapore was one of the first to introduce RFID in libraries. -Rockefeller University in New York is the first academic library in the United States to utilize this technology. -Farmington Community Library in Michigan is the first public institution. Slide 13 Opportunity Barcode -There are five billion bar codes being scanned every day. -It becomes an essential part of modern life. Slide 14 Opportunity RFID’s advantages over the barcode -Combines ID recognition with supply chain management applications. - Unique code. Slide 15 Challenges Orientation - The alignment between reader’s and tag’s antenna is critical for an effective communication. Solution -multiple readers in different angles -one reader with many antennas (cost effective) Slide 16 Challenge Reader Coordination -more than one reader operates in a close range, signal “collision” could happen that generate noisy data. Solution - Define a protocol to allow these systems to share the available bandwidth. -Enhanced signal processing to intelligently filter out noise. Slide 17 Challenges Multiple Standards - Several frequencies and standards have been used for current RFID. Solution - the RFID reader can be built for multiple standards Slide 18 Challenges Manufacturing Costs - Current tag’s manufacturing costs are still too high Solution - Technological innovations and new process development will reduce the manufacturing cost. Slide 19 Challenges Privacy and Consumer Concerns -Leaking personal information -Tracking the consumer’s activities. Solution -Kill function: disable the tag after purchases. -Smart tags: rewritable memory in the tag circuit. Slide 20 Conclusion The technical issues mentioned above will be resolved as more R&D is spent in this field. The next major barrier is software system. Powerful software system is needed to do sophisticated real-time data processing. With advances in all these fields, RFID will one day significantly change our modern life.