Roman Deities

  • Published on
    01-Jul-2015

  • View
    1.615

  • Download
    22

Transcript

Contents Articles List of Roman deities 1 15 15 16 17 17 34 34 34 35 37 41 43 44 46 47 60 62 63 63 64 66 68 69 70 71 72 74 76 77 78 78 86 Roman Gods Adranus Aius Locutius Almo (god) Apollo Arimanius Averrunci Averruncus Cacus Caelus Consus Convector (mythology) Cupid Dei Lucrii Dionysus Dis Pater Dius Fidius Domiducus Domitius Elagabalus (deity) Endovelicus Evander of Pallene Eventus Bonus Fabulinus Falacer Fascinus Faunus Feretrius Fontus Forculus Hercules Honos Inuus Janus Jugatinus Jupiter (mythology) Jupiter Indiges Jupiter Tonans Lactans Lares Liber Limentinus Mars (mythology) Mercury (mythology) Messor Momus Mors (mythology) Mutunus Tutunus Nemausus Nemestrinus Neptune (mythology) Nodutus Orcus Pales Palici Picumnus Picus Pilumnus Pluto (mythology) Pluvius Portunes Porus (mythology) Quirinus Robigus Sancus Saritor Saturn (mythology) Saturn Devouring His Son Silvanus (mythology) Sol (mythology) 87 91 94 94 100 101 102 103 115 120 121 134 137 138 141 142 145 145 146 152 152 153 154 155 155 156 156 167 167 169 170 172 176 183 183 187 191 194 Sol Invictus Soranus (mythology) Sors Spiniensis Statanus Sterquilinus Summanus Terminus (god) Tiberinus (god) Tibertus Vagitanus Vejovis Verminus Vertumnus Vervactor Viduus Virtus (deity) Volturnus Vulcan (mythology) 197 205 205 206 206 206 207 210 213 214 214 216 217 218 221 221 221 222 222 231 231 231 232 233 234 235 235 236 237 238 239 239 240 243 243 245 253 Roman Goddesses Abeona Abundantia Acca Larentia Aequitas Aeternitas Alemonia Angerona Angitia Anna Perenna Annona (goddess) Antevorte Appiades Aurora (mythology) Averna Bellona (goddess) Bona Dea Bubona Camenae Candelifera Cardea Carmenta Ceres (mythology) Cinxia Clementia Cloacina Collatina Concordia (mythology) Cuba (mythology) Cunina Cura Dea Dia Dea Tacita Decima (mythology) Deverra Diana (mythology) Disciplina Domiduca Edusa Egeria (mythology) Empanda Epona Fauna (goddess) Faustitas Febris Fecunditas Felicitas Ferentina Feronia (mythology) Fides (goddess) Flora (mythology) Fornax (mythology) Fortuna Fraus Fulgora (mythology) Furrina 253 254 255 255 257 269 269 270 270 271 272 273 273 274 275 275 275 276 283 284 284 285 288 288 293 293 293 294 295 296 296 298 299 301 301 307 307 307 Gallia (goddess) Hecate Hersilia Hippona Hostilina Invidia Juno (mythology) Lady Justice Juturna Laetitia Larentina Laverna Levana Libera (mythology) Liberalitas Libertas Libitina Lima (mythology) Lua (goddess) Lucina (goddess) Lympha Magna Dea Mana Genita Mania (mythology) Mater Matuta Mefitis Mellona Minerva Molae Moneta Morta (mythology) Murcia (mythology) Nascio Nerio The Night of Enitharmon's Joy Di nixi Nona (mythology) Ops 308 309 321 323 327 327 329 331 338 338 339 339 340 341 342 342 344 344 345 345 346 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 360 360 361 361 362 362 363 365 368 368 Orbona Palatua Parcae Partula (goddess) Patelana Paventia Pax (mythology) Pellonia (mythology) Pietas (goddess) Poena Pomona Postverta Potina Prorsa Postverta Proserpina Providentia Pudicitia Puta Quiritis Robigo Roma (mythology) Rumina Runcina Rusina Salacia (mythology) Securitas Semonia Sentia Spes Stata Mater Strenua Suadela Tempestas Terra (mythology) The Mother of the Lares Tranquillitas Tutelina (goddess) Vacuna 369 370 371 372 372 373 374 375 375 376 376 378 379 379 380 383 383 384 385 386 389 392 393 393 393 395 395 396 396 397 397 397 398 398 400 402 403 403 Vallonia (mythology) Venus (mythology) Venus Castina Veritas Vesta (mythology) Vica Pota Victoria (mythology) Viriplaca Volumna Volutina 405 406 414 415 416 421 422 422 423 423 424 424 432 434 436 437 438 440 441 443 444 444 446 446 446 447 448 451 451 453 453 454 454 455 455 455 456 Nymphs Nymph Dryad Limnade Crinaeae Acantha Acis and Galatea (mythology) Adamanthea Adrasteia Aegina (mythology) Aetna (nymph) Aglaea Aitne Alcinoe Alphesiboea Alseid Amalthea (mythology) Anthousai Arethusa (mythology) Argyra (mythology) Asterodia Astris Auloniad Aurai Axioche Bistonis Bolina Britomartis Calybe Calypso (mythology) Canens (mythology) Ceto (disambiguation) Chariclo Chesma (mythology) Circe Clytie Corycian nymphs Cynosura Daphnaie Daphne Echo (mythology) Electra (Pleiad) Epimeliad Eurydice Euryte Glauce Hamadryad Harpina Hegetoria Helike (mythology) Hesperia Hesperides Himalia (mythology) Hyades (mythology) Ianthe Idaea Iphimedeia Kallichore (mythology) Kleodora Korkyra Lampads Larissa (mythology) Leimakid Leuce (mythology) Liriope (nymph) 456 459 460 462 462 463 463 463 467 468 469 469 470 472 473 474 475 477 477 478 479 481 481 482 482 486 486 487 488 488 489 489 489 490 490 491 492 492 Lotis (mythology) Maenad Maliades Marica (mythology) Melaina Melanippe Meliae Melissa Metis (mythology) Metope (mythology) Mideia Mount Kyllini Naiad Nana (Greek mythology) Napaeae Nephele Nereid Nicaea (mythology) Nysiads Oceanid Ocyrhoe Oenone Oread Orphne Pegaea Pegaeae Pherusa Pirene (mythology) Pitys (mythology) Pleiades (Greek mythology) Plouto Pronoe Pyrene (mythology) Rhapso Salamis (mythology) Salmacis (fountain) Satyrion Sterope (Pleiad) 493 494 501 501 501 502 503 506 507 509 510 511 512 516 517 518 519 522 523 524 525 526 527 529 529 529 532 533 534 534 536 536 537 537 538 538 539 539 Stilbe Syrinx Syrinx (Wolter) Taygete Thalia (grace) Thalia (muse) Thalia (nymph) Thelpusa Thetis Thriae Erato (dryad) Penelope (dryad) Querquetulanae Abarbarea Achiroe Aegle (mythology) Aganippe Albunea Anaxibia Appias Batea (mythology) Caliadne Callirrhoe (naiad) Cassotis Castalia Ceto (Oceanid) Charybdis Cleochareia Comaetho Creusa Cyane Drosera (naiad) Eleionomae Euboea (mythology) Hieromneme Larunda Lethe Lilaea 540 540 542 544 545 546 547 548 548 554 556 556 557 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 563 565 565 566 566 567 567 569 569 570 572 573 573 574 574 574 575 577 Melite (naiad) Minthe Nomia (mythology) Ondine (mythology) Orseis Periboea Polyxo Praxithea Salmacis Styx Xanthe Corycia Agave (mythology) Amphinome Amphitrite Cydippe Dynamene Eulimene Halie Hippothoe Ianira Leucothea Lycorias Lysianassa Mermaid Nesaea Orithyia Panopea Psamathe Thalia (Nereid) List of Oceanids Acaste Admete Aethra (Greek mythology) Asia (mythology) Asteria Bolbe Caanthus 577 578 579 580 582 583 584 585 586 588 589 589 589 591 592 595 596 597 597 598 598 599 601 602 603 610 610 612 613 614 614 619 620 621 622 622 623 624 Chryseis Clitunno Dione (mythology) Doris (mythology) Eidyia Eurynome Eurynome (Oceanid) Hesione Meliboea Merope Nemesis (mythology) Peitho Philyra (mythology) Rhode (mythology) Telesto (mythology) Tyche 624 625 625 627 627 628 630 632 633 634 635 639 640 640 641 641 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 644 664 Article Licenses License 672 List of Roman deities 1 List of Roman deities Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism This is a list of deities of ancient Rome, including those who are known to have received cult within the city of Rome, the ager Romanus, or the provinces of the Empire under a Latin or Latinized name. List of Roman deities 2 Roman lists The Romans themselves provide lists of deities in theologically based groupings.[1] These include: Triads • Archaic Triad: Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus. • Capitoline Triad: Jupiter, Juno, Minerva[2] • Plebeian or Aventine Triad: Ceres, Liber, Libera, dating to 493 BC.[3] Groupings of twelve Lectisternium In describing the lectisternium of the Twelve Great Gods in 217 BC, the Augustan historian Livy places the deities in gender-balanced pairs:[4] • • • • Jupiter-Juno Neptune-Minerva Mars-Venus Apollo-Diana • Vulcan-Vesta • Mercury-Ceres Divine male-female complements such as these, as well as the anthropomorphic influence of Greek mythology, contributed to a tendency in Latin literature to represent the gods as "married" couples or (as in the case of Venus and Mars) lovers. Dii Consentes Varro uses the name Dii Consentes for the 12 deities, six male-female pairs, whose gilded images stood in the forum.[5] Although individual names are not listed, they are assumed to be the deities of the lectisternium. A fragment from Ennius, within whose lifetime the lectisternium occurred, lists the same 12 deities by name, though in a different order from that of Livy: Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Jove, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.[6] Di Consentes on an altar The Dii Consentes are sometimes seen as the Roman equivalent of the Greek Olympians. The meaning of Consentes is subject to interpretation, but is usually taken to mean that they form a council or consensus of deities. Agricultural deities Varro, De re rustica At the beginning of his treatise on farming, Varro[7] gives a list of twelve deities who are vital to agriculture. These make up a conceptual or theological grouping, and are not known to have received cult collectively. They are: • • • • • • Juppiter-Tellus Sol-Luna Ceres-Liber Robigus-Flora Minerva-Venus Lympha-Bonus Eventus List of Roman deities Vergil, Georgics In his Georgics, a collection of poetry on agrarian themes, Vergil gives a list influenced by literary Hellenization and Augustan ideology:[8] • Sol-Luna[9] • Liber-Ceres • Fauni-Dryads • Neptune • Aristaeus[10] • Pan-Minerva • Triptolemus[11] • Silvanus Allegorical scene with Roman deities from the Augustan Altar of Peace 3 The poet proposes that the divus Julius Caesar be added as a thirteenth. Di selecti Varro[12] gives a list of twenty principal gods of Roman religion: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Janus Jupiter Saturn Genius Mercury Apollo Mars Vulcan Neptune Sol Orcus Father Liber Tellus Ceres Juno Luna Diana Minerva Venus Vesta List of Roman deities 4 Sabine gods Varro, who was himself of Sabine origin, gives a list of Sabine gods who were adopted by the Romans: • Feronia • Minerva • Novensides[13] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pales Salus Fortuna Fons Fides[14] Ops Flora Vediovis Saturn Sol Luna Vulcan Summanus Larunda Terminus Quirinus Vortumnus Lares Diana Lucina Livia, wife of Augustus, dressed as the goddess Ops Elsewhere, Varro claims Sol Indiges, who had a sacred grove at Lavinium, as Sabine but at the same time equates him with Apollo.[15] Of those listed, he writes, "several names have their roots in both languages, as trees that grow on a property line creep into both fields. Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here, and so too Diana."[16] Varro makes various claims for Sabine origins throughout his works, some more plausible than others, and his list should not be taken at face value.[17] But the importance of the Sabines in the early cultural formation of Rome is evidenced, for instance, by the bride abduction of the Sabine women by Romulus's men, and in the Sabine ethnicity of Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, to whom are attributed many of Rome's religious and legal institutions.[18] Varro, however, says that the altars to most of these gods were established at Rome by King Tatius as the result of a vow (votum).[19] List of Roman deities 5 Alphabetical list : Top · 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A • Abeona - a goddess who protected children the first time they left their parents' home, safeguarding their first steps alone • Abundantia - goddess of good fortune, abundance, and prosperity • Acca Larentia - goddess of cornfields. A mythological figure who started out as mortal but was later deified. • Acis - river god near the Etna, son of Faunus and the nymph Symaethis • Adeona - goddess who protected children as they returned home • Aeolus - god of storms and winds (Greek) • Aerecura - goddess of Celtic origin, associated with the underworld • Aequitas - goddess of fair trade and honest merchants • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aesculapius - god of health and medicine Aeternitas - goddess and personification of eternity Aius Locutius - divine voice that warned the Romans of the imminent Gallic invasion Alemonia or Alemona - goddess responsible for nourishing the unborn child Angerona - goddess who relieved people from pain and sorrow Angita - early goddess of healing, magic and witchcraft. May be the same as Angitia Angitia - goddess associated with snakes, later goddess and derived from Angita Anna Perenna - early goddess of the "circle of the year", her festival was celebrated March 15 Antevorta - goddess of the future and one of the Camenae; also called Porrima Apollo - god of poetry, music, and oracles, and one of the Dii Consentes Arimanius - an underworld god derived from the Greek Areimanios. Aurora - goddess of the dawn Averna - goddess of the underworld. May be equivalent to Proserpina Averruncus - god of childbirth. Averts calamity, whilst bringing good fortune A "lizard-slayer" Apollo on a mosaic from Roman Africa List of Roman deities 6 B • Bacchus - god of wine, sensual pleasures, and truth, originally a cult title for the Greek Dionysus and identified with the Roman Liber • Bellona or Duellona - war goddess • Bona Dea - goddess of fertility, healing, virginity, and women. Also known as Fauna • Bonus Eventus - personification of a good event • Bromius - an epithet, Greek in origin, of Bacchus, god of wine • Bubona - goddess of cattle C • Caca - originally an ancient hearth goddess, later demoted to a minor figure in mythology and replaced by Vesta. • Cacus - originally an ancient god of fire, later demoted to a giant. • Caelus - god of the sky • Camenae - four goddesses with various attributes including fresh water, prophecy, and childbirth. There were four of them: Carmenta, Egeria, Antevorta, and Postvorta. • Candelifera - goddess of childbirth, particularly of bringing the newborn into the light • Cardea - goddess of health, thresholds and after being assigned by Janus, door hinges and handles. • Carmenta - goddess of childbirth and prophecy, and assigned a flamen minor. The leader of the Camenae. • Carmentes - two goddesses of childbirth: Antevorta and Postvorta or Porrima, future and past. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carna - goddess who presided over the heart and other organs Ceres - goddess of the harvest and mother of Proserpina, one of the Dii Consentes, was assigned a flamen minor Cinxia - goddess of marriage; name occurs as an epithet of Juno Clementia - goddess of forgiveness and mercy Clitunno - god of the Clitunno River Cloacina - goddess who presided over the system of sewers in Rome; identified with Venus Collatina - goddess of hills Concordia - goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony Consus - chthonic god protecting grain storage Convector - god who oversaw the bringing in of the crops from the field Cuba - goddess of infants who was invoked by mothers to help their babies sleep Cunina - the protectress of infants in cradles Cupid - Roman god of love. The son of Venus. Greek name is Eros Cura - goddess of care and concern who created humans from clay Cybele - a goddess of caverns and mountains, walls and fortresses, nature, wild animals A Bacchus from Roman Spain, 2nd century List of Roman deities 7 D • Dea Dia - goddess of growth • Dea Tacita (The Silent Goddess) - goddess of the dead; later equated with the earth goddess Larenta • Decima - minor goddess and one of the Parcae (Roman equivalent of the Moirae). The measurer of the thread of life, her Greek equivalent was Lachesis Diana Nemorensis on a denarius • Dei Lucrii - early gods of wealth, profit, commerce and trade • Devera or Deverra - goddess who ruled over the brooms used to purify temples in preparation for various worship services, sacrifices and celebrations; she protected midwives and women in labor • Diana - goddess of the hunt, the moon, virginity, and childbirth, twin sister of Apollo and one of the Dii Consentes • Diana Nemorensis - Local version of Diana • Dius Fidius - god of oaths, associated with Jupiter • Disciplina - personification of discipline • Discordia - goddess of discord. Greek equivalent is Eris • Dis Pater or Dispater - god of wealth and the underworld • Domiduca - goddess of protecting children on the way back to their parents' home • Domiducus - god who brought brides to their husbands' houses. • Domitius or Domidius - god who kept wives in their husbands' homes E • Edusa - goddess of nourishment who guarded over children as they learned to eat solid foods • Edesia - goddess of food who presided over banquets • Egeria - water nymph/goddess, later considered one the Camenae • Empanda or Panda - goddess of generosity and charity • Epona - protector of horses, donkeys, mules • Eventus Bonus - god of success in agriculture and commerce. F • Fabulinus - god of children, the god responsible for teaching children to speak • Falacer - obscure god. He was assigned a flamen minor. • Fama - goddess of fame and rumor. • Fascinus - phallic god who protected from evil supernatural influences • • • • • Fauna - goddess of vegetation. Also a title of other vegetative goddesses such as Bona Dea, Ops, and Terra. Faunus - god of flocks. Faustitas - goddess who protected herd and livestock Febris - goddess who protected people against fevers and malaria Fecunditas - goddess of fertility. The Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona • Felicitas - goddess of good luck and success. • Ferentina - patron goddess of the city Ferentinum, Latium, protector of the Latin commonwealth. List of Roman deities • • • • • • • • • • • Feronia - rural goddess of woods and fountains. Fessonia - goddess who relieved weariness Fides - goddess of loyalty Flora - goddess of flowers, was assigned a flamen minor Fornax - goddess of hearths and ovens Fontus - god of wells and springs Forculus - god of doors Fortuna - goddess of luck Fraus - goddess of treachery. Her Greek equivalent was Apate Fulgora - personification of lightning. Furrina - goddess whose functions are mostly unknown; may be associated with water. One source claims she was a goddess of robbers and thieves. She was assigned a flamen minor. Name could also be Furina. 8 G • Glycon - snake god. His cult originated in Macedonia. • Gratiae - Roman term for the Charites or Graces H • Hercules - god of strength, whose worship was derived from the Greek hero Heracles • Hermaphroditus - an androgynous god (Greek) • Hermus - a river god with a sanctuary at Sardis • Hespera - goddess of dusk • Hilaritas - goddess of rejoicing and good humor • Honos - god of military honours, chivalry and as once source claims, military justice • Hora - Quirinus' wife • Hostilina - goddess who presided over the ears of crops becoming even I • Imporcitor - god responsible for the harrowing of the fields. Minor attendant of Ceres Roman statue of the infant Hercules strangling a snake • Indiges - the deified Aeneas • Insitor - god responsible for the sowing of crops • Intercidona - minor goddess of childbirth; invoked to keep evil spirits away from the child; symbolised by a cleaver • Inuus - god of fertility and sexual intercourse, protector of livestock • Invidia - goddess of envy or jealousy • Iris - goddess of the rainbow (Greek) List of Roman deities 9 J • Janus - double-faced or two-headed god of beginnings and endings and of doors • Jugatinus - god of mountain ranges • Juno - Queen of the Gods and goddess of matrimony, and one of the Dii Consentes • Jupiter - King of the Gods and the storm, air, and sky god, father of Venus, and one of the Dii Consentes; was assigned a flamen maior • Justitia - goddess of justice A janiform sculpture, perhaps of Janus • Juturna- goddess of fountains, wells, and springs • Juventas - goddess of youth L • Lactanus or Lactans - god that made the crops prosper or "yield milk" • Larentina - an underworld goddess • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lares - household gods Laverna - patroness of thieves, con men and charlatans Levana - goddess of the rite through which fathers accepted newborn babies as their own Letum - personification of death Liber - a god of male fertility, viniculture and freedom, assimilated to Roman Bacchus and Greek Dionysus Libera - Liber's female equivalent, assimilated to Roman Proserpina and Greek Persephone. Liberalitas - goddess or personification of generosity Libertas - goddess or personification of freedom Libitina - goddess of death, corpses and funerals Lima - goddess of thresholds Limentinus - god of lintels Lua - goddess to whom soldiers sacrificed captured weapons, probably a consort of Saturn Lucina - goddess of childbirth. The name occurs as a surname of Juno. Luna - goddess of the moon Lupercus - god of shepherds; a name for the Greek god Pan. Lympha, often plural lymphae, a water deity assimilated to the Greek nymphs M • Mana Genita - goddess who presided over burials, mother or leader of the manes • Manes - the souls of the dead; came to be seen as household deities • Mania - goddess of the dead and ruler of the underworld, wife of Mantus. Not to be confused with the Greek figure of the same name. • Mantus - god of the dead and ruler of the underworld, husband of Mania. • Mars - god of war and father of Romulus, the founder of Rome, lover of Venus, and one of the Dii Consentes, was assigned a flamen maior Capitoline Triad of Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva • Mater Matuta - goddess of dawn and childbirth; also seen as patroness of mariners • Meditrina - goddess of healing, introduced to account for the festival of Meditrinalia List of Roman deities • • • • • • • • • • • Mefitis or Mephitis - goddess and personification of poisonous gases and volcanic vapours. Mellona or Mellonia - goddess of bees and beekeeping Mercury - messenger of the gods and bearer of souls to the underworld, and one of the Dii Consentes Messia - a harvest goddess Messor - minor agricultural god concerned with the growth and harvesting of crops; attendant of Ceres. Minerva - goddess of wisdom, war and the arts, and one of the Dii Consentes Mithras - god worshipped in the Roman empire; popular with soldiers Molae - daughters of Mars, probably goddesses of grinding of the grain. Moneta - minor goddess of memory, equivalent to the Greek Mnemosyne. Also used as an epithet of Juno. Mors - personification of death and equivalent of the Greek Thanatos. Morta - minor goddess of death and one of the Parcae (Roman equivalent of the Moirae). The cutter of the thread of life, her Greek equivalent was Atropos. • Murcia or Murtia - a little-known goddess who was associated with the myrtle, and in other sources was called a goddess of sloth and laziness (both interpretations arising from false etymologies of her name). Later equated with Venus in the form of Venus Murcia. • Muta - goddess of silence • Mutunus Tutunus - god of fertility 10 N • Naenia - goddess of funerary lament • Nascio - personification of the act of birth • Necessitas - goddess of destiny, the Roman equivalent of Ananke • Nemesis - goddess of revenge (Greek) • Nemestrinus - god of woods and forests • Neptune - god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses, and one of the Dii Consentes. Greek Equivalent is Poseidon. • Nerio - ancient war goddess and the personification of valor • Neverita - wife of Neptune; their quarrels caused sea storms. • Nixi, also di nixi, dii nixi, or Nixae goddesses of childbirth, called upon to protect women in labour • Nodutus - god who made knots in stalks of wheat • Nona - minor goddess, one of the Parcae (Roman equivalent of the Moirae). The spinner of the thread of life, her Greek equivalent was Clotho. • Nox - goddess of night, derived from the Greek Nyx. Neptune on a 3rd-century mosaic List of Roman deities 11 O • • • • • • Obarator - minor god of agriculture. Responsible for overseeing the top-dressing of crops. Occator - minor agricultural god responsible for the growth and harvesting of the crops; attendant of Ceres. Orchadis - minor god responsible for the olive groves; attendant of Ceres. Ops or Opis - goddess of fertility Orbona - goddess of children, especially orphans. She granted new children to those who had become childless Orcus - a god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths P • Palatua - obscure goddess who guarded the Palatine Hill. She was assigned a flamen minor. • Pales - deity of shepherds, flocks and livestock • Parcae - personifications of destiny (Nona, Decima, and Morta) • Partula or Parca - goddess of childbirth; determined the length of pregnancy. • Patelana - goddess of opening husks of grain • Paventia - goddess who comforted frightened children • Pax - goddess of peace; equivalent of Greek Eirene. Aeneas and the Penates, from a 4th-century manuscript • Pellonia - goddess who warded people off their enemies • Penates or Di Penates - household gods • Picumnus - minor god of fertility, agriculture, matrimony, infants and children • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Picus — Italic woodpecker god with oracular powers Pietas - goddess of duty; personification of the Roman virtue pietas. Pilumnus - minor guardian god, concerned with the protection of infants at birth Pluto - Pluto a name given to him by the Romans from Greek myths, he is the King of the Dead, and of the underworld. Poena - goddess of punishment Pomona - goddess of fruit trees, gardens and orchards; assigned a flamen minor Porus - god and personification of plenty Porrima - goddess of the future. Also called Antevorta. One of the Carmentes and the Camenae Portunes - god of keys, doors, and livestock, he was assigned a flamen minor. Postverta or Prorsa Postverta - goddess of childbirth and the past, one of the two Carmentes (other being Porrima) Potina - goddess of children's drinks Priapus - localised god of the shade; worship derived from the Greek Priapus Promitor - minor agricultural god, responsible for the growth and harvesting of crops; attendant of Ceres. Proserpina - Queen of the Dead and a grain-goddess, the Roman equivalent of the Greek Persephone Providentia - goddess of forethought Pudicitia - goddess and personification of chastity, one of the Roman virtues. Her Greek equivalent was Aidôs. Puta - goddess of pruning vines and bushes List of Roman deities 12 Q • Quirinus, Sabine god identified with Mars; Romulus, the founder of Rome, was deified as Quirinus after his death. Quirinus was a war god and a god of the Roman people and state, and was assigned a flamen maior. • Quiritis - goddess of motherhood. Originally Sabine or pre-Roman, she was later equated with Juno. R • • • • • • • Redarator - minor god of agriculture, associated with the second ploughing Robigo or Robigus, a god or goddess who personified grain disease and protected crops Roma - personification of the Roman state Rumina - goddess who protected breastfeeding mothers Runcina - minor goddess of agriculture, associated with reaping and weeding. Rusina - protector of the fields or farmland (also known as Rurina) Rusor - a minor agricultural god and attendant of Ceres S • Salacia - goddess of seawater, wife of Neptune • Salus - goddess of the public welfare of the Roman people; came to be equated with the Greek Hygieia • Sancus - god of loyalty, honesty, and oaths • Sarritor or Saritor - minor god of agriculture, god of hoeing and weeding • Saturn - a titan, god of harvest and agriculture, the father of Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, and Pluto • Secia - a harvest goddess • Securita or Securitas - goddess of security, especially the security of the Roman empire • Segetia - an agricultural goddess Sol Invictus, or Christ depicted in his guise • Semonia - goddess of sowing • Sentia - goddess who oversaw children's mental development • Setia - an agricultural goddess • • • • • • • • • Silvanus - minor god of woodlands and forests Sol Invictus - sun god Somnus - god of sleep; equates with the Greek Hypnos. Soranus - a god later subsumed by Apollo in the form Apollo Soranus. Sors - god of luck Spes - goddess of hope Spiniensis - minor agricultural god; prayed to when removing thorny bushes Stata Mater - goddess who protected against fires. Sometimes equated with Vesta Statanus - god also known as Statulinus or Statilinus. Presided over the child's first attempt to stand up. Along with his wife Statina protected the children as they left home for the first time and returned. • Statina - goddess who, along with her husband Statanus, protected the childred as they left home for the first time and returned. • Sterquilinus ("manure") - god of fertilisation. Also known as Stercutus, Sterculius, Straculius, Struculius. • Strenua or Strenia - goddess of strength and endurance • Suadela - goddess of persuasion, her Greek equivalent was Peitho • Subigus - god of the wedding night List of Roman deities • Summanus - god of nocturnal thunder 13 T • • • • • • • • • Tellumo - male counterpart of Tellus Tempestas - goddess of storms Terra Mater or Tellus - goddess of the earth and land Terminus - the rustic god of boundaries Tiberinus - river god; deity of the Tiber river. Tibertus - god of the river Anio, a tributary of the Tiber Tranquillitas - goddess of peace and tranquility Trivia - goddess of crossroads and magic, equated with Hecate Tutelina - a harvest goddess U • Ubertas - minor agricultural goddess, who personified fruitfulness of soil and plants, and abundance in general. • Unxia - minor goddess of marriage, concerned with anointing the bridegroom's door. The name occurs as a surname of Juno. • Uranus - god of the sky before Jupiter (Greek) V • Vacuna - ancient goddess who protected the farmers' sheep and was later identified with Nike - Goddess of Victory and worshipped as a war goddess. • Vagitanus - minor god of children, guardian of the infant's first cry at birth • Vallonia - goddess of valleys • Vediovus or Veiovis - obscure god, a sort of anti-Jupiter, as the meaning of his name suggests. May be a god of the underworld • Venilia or Venelia - sea goddess, wife of Neptune or Faunus • Venti - the winds, equivalent to the Greek Anemoi. North wind: Aquilo(n) or Septentrio; South wind: Auster; East wind: Vulturnus; West wind: Favonius; North west wind: Caurus or Corus. • Venus - goddess of love and beauty, mother of the hero Aeneas, and one of the Dii Consentes • Veritas - goddess and personification of the Roman virtue of veritas or truth. • Verminus - god of cattle worms • Vertumnus, Vortumnus or Vertimnus - god of the seasons, and of gardens and fruit trees • Vervactor - minor agricultural god, deity of the first ploughing • Vesta - goddess of the hearth and the Roman state, and one of the Dii Consentes • Vica Pota - goddess of victory and competitions • Victoria - goddess of victory • Viduus - god who separated soul and body after death • Virbius - a forest god, the reborn Hippolytus • Viriplaca - goddess of marital strife Venus, Mars, and Cupid on a wall painting from Pompeii List of Roman deities • • • • • • Virtus - god or goddess of military strength, personification of the Roman virtue of virtus Volturnus - god of water, was assigned a flamen minor. Not to be confused with Vulturnus. Volumna - goddess of nurseries Voluptas - goddess of pleasure Volutina - goddess of the envelopes of the follicles of crops Vulcan - god of the forge, fire, and blacksmiths, husband to Venus, and one of the Dii Consentes, was assigned a flamen minor 14 External links • • • • A list of some major Roman gods [20] A list of some minor Roman gods [21] Roman Gods and Associates (with Etrusceans) [22] Roman Mythology Names Index [23] References [1] Robert Schilling, "Roman Gods," Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), pp. 75 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Uf2_kHAs22sC& pg=PA75& dq="The+ following+ is+ a+ summary+ of+ the+ different+ groupings+ of+ deities+ in+ Rome"& hl=en& ei=Cfz0TN3eGIf9nAePv4npCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="The following is a summary of the different groupings of deities in Rome"& f=false) and 77 (note 49). Unless otherwise noted, citations of primary sources are Schilling's. [2] Livy, 1.38.7, 1.55.1–6. [3] Dionysius of Halicarnassus 6.17.2 [4] Livy, 22.10.9. [5] Varro, De re rustica 1.1.4: "eos urbanos, quorum imagines ad forum auratae stant, sex mares et feminae totidem. [6] Ennius, Annales frg. 62, in J. Vahlen, Ennianae Poesis Reliquiae (Leipzig, 1903, 2nd ed.). Ennius's list appears in poetic form, and the word order may be dictated by the metrical constraints of dactylic hexameter. [7] Varro, De re rustica 1.1.4–6. [8] Vergil, Georgics 1.5–20. [9] Clarissima mundi lumina [10] Cultor nemorum. [11] Unci puer monstrator aratri. [12] As recorded by Augustine of Hippo, De civitate Dei 7.2. [13] Or Novensiles: the spelling -d- for -l- is characteristic of the Sabine language [14] For Fides, see also Semo Sancus or Dius Fidius; Roger D. Woodard, Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult p. 184. [15] Varro, De lingua latina 5.10; Paul Rehak, Imperium and Cosmos: Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius (University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), p. 94. [16] e quis nonnulla nomina in utraque lingua habent radices, ut arbores quae in confinio natae in utroque agro serpunt: potest enim Saturnus hic de alia causa esse dictus atque in Sabinis, et sic Diana. [17] Anna Clark, Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome (Oxford University Press, 2007) pp. 37–38; Emma Dench, Romulus' Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 317–318. [18] William Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1922), p. 108. [19] Tatius is said by Varro to have dedicated altars to "Ops, Flora, Vediovis and Saturn, to Sol, Luna, Vulcan and Summanus, and likewise to Larunda, Terminus, Quirinus, Vortumnus, the Lares, Diana and Lucina." [20] http:/ / www. unrv. com/ culture/ major-roman-god-list. php [21] http:/ / www. unrv. com/ culture/ minor-roman-god-list. php [22] http:/ / www. mythome. org/ roman. html [23] http:/ / www. mythindex. com/ roman-mythology/ Names-A. html 15 Roman Gods Adranus Adranus or Adranos (Greek: 'Αδρανός) was a fire god worshipped by the Sicels, an ancient population of the island of Sicily. His worship occurred all over the island, but particularly in the town of Adranus, modern Adrano, near Mount Etna.[1] [2] Adranus himself was said to have lived under Mount Etna before being driven out by the Greek god Hephaestus, or Vulcan. According to Aelian, about a thousand sacred dogs were kept near his temple in this town.[3] According to Hesychius, Adranus was said to have been the father of the Palici, born to Adranus's lover, the nymph Thalia. Some modern commentators have suggested that Adranus may have been related to the similarly-named gods Adar and Adramelech (from Persia and Phoenicia respectively), who were also personifications of the sun or of fire in general.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Plutarch, Timoleon 12 Diodorus Siculus, xiv. 37 Aelian, Hist. Anim. xi. 20 Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), "Adranus" (http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. com/ smith-bio/ 0029. html), in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1, Boston, pp. 20, Sources • This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870). Aius Locutius 16 Aius Locutius Aius Locutius (Latin: āius locūtius, spoken affirmation) or Aius Loquens (Latin: āius loquens, speaking affirmation), was a Roman deity or numen associated with the Gallic invasions of Rome during the early 4th century BC. According to legend, a Roman pleb named M. Caedicius heard a supernatural, nocturnal voice that issued from Vesta's sacred grove, at the base of the Palatine hill. It warned him of an imminent Gaulish attack, recommended that the walls of Rome be fortified and instructed him to pass these messages on to the tribune of the plebs; but because of the messenger's humble station, the message was ignored. In consequence, the Gauls entered and burned the city (c.391 BC). Once the Gauls were repelled, the senate built a temple and altar (known as Ara Aius Locutius, or Ara Saepta) to propitiate the unknown deity who had offered the warning. This was said to have been set up where Caedicius had heard the divine voice. Later Roman historians disputed its exact location and no trace remains of the temple or altar; the latter has been historically misidentified with the Palatine altar inscribed si deus si dea ("whether God or Goddess"), in cautious dedication to some unknown deity.[1] In the broad context of official Roman religion, Aius Locutius is exceptional. Officially, the gods might speak through the cryptic writings and utterances of specialised oracles, or through a complex system of signs in answer to the specific questions of State augurs. They might also grant signs of fortune to their most favoured proteges, or speak privately to them in dreams. Aius Locutius gave clear, urgent instructions of great importance to the State, in everyday Latin, to an ordinary plebeian passer-by – and thereafter, according to Cicero, "having acquired a temple, an altar, and a name, 'Speaker' never spoke again".[2] Notes and references [1] Lawrence Richardson, A new Topographical dictionary of ancient Rome, 1992, p5; googlebooks preview (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=K_qjo30tjHAC& pg=PA5& lpg=PA5& dq=Aius+ Locutius& source=bl& ots=VvgiSYPOaz& sig=3a7SjFCxwbvCfYZwD3IpbqBaQfs& hl=en& ei=nbsgTKiIK4z-0gT8sfXfDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=9& ved=0CDIQ6AEwCDgK#v=onepage& q=Aius Locutius& f=false) [2] Clifford Ando, The matter of the gods: religion and the Roman Empire, University Presses of California, Columbia and Princeton, 2008, p.125 - googlebooks preview (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=vmQkvj9qdXkC& lpg=PA44& ots=sB2zaASNYm& dq=rome iuvenes young men& pg=PA125#v=onepage& q=locutius& f=false) for Ando's paraphrasis of Cicero, De divinatione, 2.69. Almo (god) 17 Almo (god) Almo was in ancient Roman mythology the eponymous god of a river in the vicinity of Rome.[1] Like Tiberinus and others, he was prayed to by the augurs of Rome. In the water of Almo the statue of the mother of the gods, Cybele, used to be washed.[2] [3] He had a naiad daughter named Larunda.[4] References [1] Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Almo" (http:/ / quod. lib. umich. edu/ cgi/ t/ text/ pageviewer-idx?c=moa;cc=moa;idno=acl3129. 0001. 001;q1=demosthenes;size=l;frm=frameset;seq=147). In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 132. . [2] Cicero, De Natura Deorum iii. 20 [3] comp. Varro De lingua latina v. 71, ed. Müller [4] Seyffert, Oskar; Henry Nettleship, ed. (1895). A Dictionary of Classical Antiquity: Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art (http:/ / www. google. com/ books?id=pbcUAAAAYAAJ). W. Glaisher. pp. 373. . This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870). Apollo Apollo 2nd century AD Roman statue of Apollo depicting the god's attributes—the lyre and the snake Python God of music, poetry, plague, oracles, sun, medicine, light and knowledge Abode Symbol Parents Siblings Children Roman equivalent Mount Olympus Lyre, laurel wreath, python, raven, bow and arrows Zeus and Leto Artemis Asclepius, Troilus, Aristaeus, Orpheus Apollo Apollo 18 Ancient Greek Religion Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Apollo 19 Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn; Doric: Απέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Απείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and diverse of the Olympian deities in Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; medicine, healing, and plague; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. Apollo was worshiped in both ancient Greek and Roman religion, as well as in the modern Greco–Roman Neopaganism. As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the god's custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musegetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun, and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon.[1] In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161–215).[2] Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE. Name The etymology of Apollo is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form Απέλλων is more archaic, derived from an earlier *Απέλjων. The name is certainly cognate with the Doric month name Απέλλαιος and the Doric festival απελλαι.[3] Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb απολλυμι (apollymi), "to destroy".[4] Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις (apolysis), "redeem", with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), "purification", and with ἁπλοῦν (aploun), "simple",[5] in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀει-βάλλων (aeiballon), "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric απέλλα (apella), which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκος (sekos), "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. Following the tradition of these Ancient Greek folk etymologies, in the Doric dialect the word απέλλα originally meant wall, fence from animals and later assembly within the agora. In the Macedonian dialect πέλλα (pella) means stone, and some toponyms are derived from this word: Πέλλα (Pella), Πελλήνη (Pellini). The form Apaliunas (]x-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš) is attested as a god of Wilusa in a treaty between Alaksandu of Wilusa interpreted as "Alexander of Ilios",[6] and the Hittite great king Muwatalli II ca 1280 BCE.[7] The Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Απειλων with Doric Απελλων.[8] Apollo A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name,[9] among them a Hurrian and Hittite divinity, Aplu, who was widely invoked during the "plague years". Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun.[10] A Luwian etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo "The One of Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".[11] 20 Greco-Roman epithets Apollo, like other Greek deities, had a number of epithets applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a few occur in Latin literature, chief among them Phoebus (pronounced /ˈfiːbəs/ FEE-bəs; Φοίβος, Phoibos, literally "radiant"), which was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans in Apollo's role as the god of light. As sun-god and god of light, Apollo was also known by the epithets Aegletes (English pronunciation: /əˈɡliːtiːz/ ə-GLEE-teez; Αἰγλήτης, Aiglētēs, from αἴγλη, "light of the sun"),[12] Helius (English pronunciation: /ˈhiːliəs/ HEE-lee-əs; Ἥλιος, Helios, literally "sun"),[13] Phanaeus (English pronunciation: /fəˈniːəs/ fə-NEE-əs; Φαναῖος, Phanaios, literally "giving or bringing light"), and Lyceus (English pronunciation: /laɪˈsiːəs/ lye-SEE-əs; Λύκειος, Lukeios, from Proto-Greek *λύκη, "light"). The meaning of the epithet "Lyceus" later became associated Apollo's mother Leto, who was the patron goddes of Lycia (Λυκία) and who was identified with the wolf (λύκος),[14] earning him the epithets Lycegenes (English pronunciation: /laɪˈsɛdʒəniːz/ lye-SEJ-ə-neez; Λυκηγενής, Lukēgenēs, literally "born of a wolf" or "born of Lycia") and Lycoctonus (English pronunciation: /laɪˈkɒktənəs/ lye-KOK-tə-nəs; Λυκοκτόνος, Lukoktonos, from λύκος, "wolf", and κτείνειν, "to kill"). As god of the sun, the Romans referred to Apollo as Sol (English pronunciation: /ˈsɒl/ SOL; literally "sun" in Latin). In association with his birthplace, Mount Cynthus on the island of Delos, Apollo was called Cynthius (English pronunciation: /ˈsɪnθiəs/ SIN-thee-əs; Κύνθιος, Kunthios, literally "Cynthian"), Cynthogenes (English pronunciation: /sɪnˈθɒdʒɨniːz/ sin-THOJ-i-neez; Κύνθογενης, Kunthogenēs, literally "born of Cynthus"), and Delius (English pronunciation: /ˈdiːliəs/ DEE-lee-əs; Δήλιος, Delios, literally "Delian"). As Artemis's twin, Apollo had the epithet Didymaeus (English pronunciation: /dɪdɨˈmiːəs/ did-i-MEE-əs; Διδυμαιος, Didumaios, from δίδυμος, "twin"). Apollo was worshipped as Actiacus (English pronunciation: /ækˈtaɪ.əkəs/ ak-TYE-ə-kəs; Ἄκτιακός, Aktiakos, literally "Actian"), Delphinius (English pronunciation: /dɛlˈfɪniəs/ del-FIN-ee-əs; Δελφίνιος, Delphinios, literally "Delphic"), and Pythius (English pronunciation: /ˈpɪθiəs/ PITH-ee-əs; Πύθιος, Puthios, from Πυθώ, Pūthō, the area around Delphi), after Actium (Ἄκτιον) and Delphi (Δελφοί) respectively, two of his principal places of worship.[15] [16] An etiology in the Homeric hymns associated the epithet "Delphinius" with dolphins. He was worshipped as Acraephius (English pronunciation: /əˈkriːfiəs/ ə-KREE-fee-əs; Ἀκραιφιος, Akraiphios, literally "Acraephian") or Acraephiaeus (English pronunciation: /əˌkriːfiˈiːəs/ ə-KREE-fee-EE-əs; Ἀκραιφιαίος, Akraiphiaios, literally "Acraephian") in the Boeotian town of Acraephia (Ἀκραιφία), reputedly founded by his son Acraepheus; and as Smintheus (English pronunciation: /ˈsmɪnθiəs/ SMIN-thee-əs; Σμινθεύς, Smintheus, either "Sminthian") in the Troad town of Sminthos (or mouse-killer - from σμίνθος).[17] The epithet "Smintheus" has historically been confused with σμίνθος, "mouse", in association with Apollo's role as a god of disease. For this he was also known as Parnopius (English pronunciation: /pɑrˈnoʊpiəs/ par-NOH-pee-əs; Παρνόπιος, Parnopios, from πάρνοψ, "locust") and to the Romans as Culicarius (English pronunciation: /ˌkjuːlɨˈkæriəs/ KEW-li-KARR-ee-əs; from Latin culicārius, "of midges"). In Apollo's role as a healer, his appellations included Acesius (English pronunciation: /əˈsiːʃəs/ ə-SEE-shəs; Ἀκέσιος, Akesios, from ἄκεσις, "healing"), Acestor (English pronunciation: /əˈsɛstər/ ə-SES-tər; Ἀκέστωρ, Akestōr, literally "healer"), Paean (English pronunciation: /ˈpiːən/ PEE-ən; Παιάν, Paiān, from παίειν, "to touch"), and Iatrus (English [18] pronunciation: /aɪˈætrəs/ eye-AT-rəs; Ἰατρός, Iātros, literally "physician"). Acesius was the epithet of Apollo worshipped in Elis, where he had a temple in the agora.[19] The Romans referred to Apollo as Medicus (English pronunciation: /ˈmɛdɨkəs/ MED-i-kəs; literally "physician" in Latin) in this respect. A temple was dedicated to Apollo Medicus at Rome, probably next to the temple of Bellona. Apollo As a protector and founder, Apollo had the epithets Alexicacus (English pronunciation: /əˌlɛksɨˈkækəs/ ə-LEK-si-KAK-əs; Ἀλεξίκακος, Alexikakos, literally "warding off evil"), Apotropaeus (English pronunciation: /əˌpɒtrəˈpiːəs/ ə-POT-rə-PEE-əs; Ἀποτρόπαιος, Apotropaios, from ὰποτρέπειν, "to avert"), and Epicurius (English [13] pronunciation: /ˌɛpɨˈkjʊriəs/ EP-i-KEWR-ee-əs; Ἐπικούριος, Epikourios, from ἐπικουρέειν, "to aid"), as well as Archegetes (English pronunciation: /ɑrˈkɛdʒətiːz/ ar-KEJ-ə-teez; Ἀρχηγέτης, Arkhēgetēs, literally "founder"), Clarius (English pronunciation: /ˈklæriəs/ KLARR-ee-əs; Κλάριος, Klārios, from Doric κλάρος, "allotted lot"), and Genetor (English pronunciation: /ˈdʒɛnɨtər/ JEN-i-tər; Γενέτωρ, Genetōr, literally "ancestor").[13] To the Romans, he was known in this capacity as Averruncus (English pronunciation: /ˌævəˈrʌŋkəs/ AV-ər-RUNG-kəs; from Latin āverruncare, "to avert"). He was also called Agyieus (English pronunciation: /ˌædʒiˈaɪ.əs/ AJ-ee-EYE-əs; Ἀγυιεύς, Aguīeus, from ὰγυιά, "street") for his role in protecting roads and homes; and as Nomius (English pronunciation: /ˈnoʊmiəs/ NOH-mee-əs; Νόμιος, Nomios, literally "pastoral") and Nymphegetes (English pronunciation: /nɪmˈfɛdʒɨtiːz/ nim-FEJ-i-teez; Νυμφηγέτης, Numphēgetēs, from Νύμφη, "Nymph", and ἡγέτης, "leader") in his role as a protector of shepherds and pastoral life. In his role as god of prophecy and truth, Apollo had the epithets Manticus (English pronunciation: /ˈmæntɨkəs/ MAN-ti-kəs; Μαντικός, Mantikos, literally "prophetic"), Leschenorius (English pronunciation: /ˌlɛskɨˈnɔəriəs/ LES-ki-NOHR-ee-əs; Λεσχηνόριος, Leskhēnorios, from λεσχήνωρ, "converser"), and Loxias (English [13] pronunciation: /lɒkˈsaɪəs/ lok-SYE-əs; Λοξίας, Loxias, from λέγειν, "to say"). The epithet "Loxias" has historically been associated with λοξός, "ambiguous". In this respect, the Romans called him Coelispex (English pronunciation: /ˈsɛlɨspɛks/ SEL-i-speks; from Latin coelum, "sky", and specere, "to look at"). The epithet Iatromantis (English pronunciation: /aɪˌætrəˈmæntɪs/ eye-AT-rə-MAN-tis; Ἰατρομάντις, Iātromantis, from ὶατρός, "physician", and μάντις, "prophet") refers to both his role as a god of healing and of prophecy. As god of music and arts, Apollo had the epithet Musegetes (English pronunciation: /mjuːˈsædʒɨtiːz/ mew-SAJ-i-teez; Μουσηγέτης, Mousēgetēs, from Μούσα, "Muse", and ἡγέτης, "leader"), Doric Μουσαγέτας, Mousagetas.[20] As a god of archery, Apollo was known as Aphetor (English pronunciation: /əˈfiːtər/ ə-FEE-tər; Ἀφήτωρ, Aphētōr, from ὰφίημι, "to let loose") or Aphetorus (English pronunciation: /əˈfɛtərəs/ ə-FET-ər-əs; Ἀφητόρος, Aphētoros, of the same origin), Argyrotoxus (English pronunciation: /ɑrˌdʒɪrəˈtɒksəs/ ar-JIRR-ə-TOK-səs; Ἀργυρότοξος, Argurotoxos, literally "with silver bow"), Hecaërgus (English pronunciation: /ˌhɛkəˈɜrɡəs/ HEK-ə-UR-gəs; Ἑκάεργος, Hekaergos, literally "far-shooting"), and Hecebolus (English pronunciation: /hɨˈsɛbələs/ hi-SEB-ə-ləs; Ἑκηβόλος, Hekēbolos, literally "far-shooting"). The Romans referred to Apollo as Articenens (English pronunciation: /ɑrˈtɪsɨnənz/ ar-TISS-i-nənz; "bow-carrying"). Apollo was called Ismenius (English pronunciation: /ɪzˈmiːniəs/ iz-MEE-nee-əs; Ἰσμηνιός, Ismēnios, literally "of Ismenus") after Ismenus, the son of Amphion and Niobe, whom he struck with an arrow. 21 Celtic epithets and cult titles Apollo was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. In the traditionally Celtic lands he was most often seen as a healing and sun god. He was often equated with Celtic gods of similar character.[21] • As Apollo Atepomarus ("the great horseman" or "possessing a great horse"), Apollo was worshipped at Mauvières (Indre). Horses were, in the Celtic world, closely linked to the sun.[22] • Apollo Belenus ('bright' or 'brilliant'). This epithet was given to Apollo in parts of Gaul, North Italy and Noricum (part of modern Austria). Apollo Belenus was a healing and sun god.[23] • Apollo Cunomaglus ('hound lord'). A title given to Apollo at a shrine in Wiltshire. Apollo Cunomaglus may have been a god of healing. Cunomaglus himself may originally have been an independent healing god.[24] • Apollo Grannus. Grannus was a healing spring god, later equated with Apollo [25] [26] [27] • Apollo Maponus. A god known from inscriptions in Britain. This may be a local fusion of Apollo and Maponus. • Apollo Moritasgus ('masses of sea water'). An epithet for Apollo at Alesia, where he was worshipped as god of healing and, possibly, of physicians.[28] Apollo • Apollo Vindonnus ('clear light'). Apollo Vindonnus had a temple at Essarois, near Châtillon-sur-Seine in Burgundy. He was a god of healing, especially of the eyes.[26] • Apollo Virotutis ('benefactor of mankind?'). Apollo Virotutis was worshipped, among other places, at Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoie) and at Jublains (Maine-et-Loire) [27] [29] 22 Origins The cult centers of Apollo in Greece, Delphi and Delos, date from the 8th century BCE. The Delos sanctuary was primarily dedicated to Artemis, Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi, Apollo was venerated as the slayer of Pytho. A non-Greek origin of Apollo has long been assumed in scholarship, but be established conclusively.[3] Walter Burkert[30] discerned three components in the prehistory of Apollo worship, which he termed "a Dorian-northwest Greek component, a Cretan-Minoan component, and a Syro-Hittite component." The connection with Dorians and their initiation festival apellai is reinforced by the month Apellaios in northwest Greek calendars.[31] Homer pictures Apollo on the side of the Trojans, fighting against the Achaeans, during the Trojan War, a connection seemingly confirmed by the discovery of Apalunias as a tutelary god of Wilusa.[32] The Greeks gave to Apollo the name αγυιεύς agyieus as the protector god who wards off evil.[33] The Late Bronze Age (from 1700–1200 BCE) Hittite and Hurrian Aplu, like the Homeric Apollo, was a god of plagues, and resembles the mouse god Apollo Smintheus. Here we have an apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it, merging over time through fusion with the Mycenaean healer-god Paeon (PA-JA-WO in Linear B); Paeon, in Homer's Iliad, was the Greek healer of the wounded gods Ares and Hades. In later writers, the word, usually spelled "Paean", becomes a mere epithet of Apollo in his capacity as a god of healing,[34] but it is now known from Linear B that Paeon was originally a separate deity. Homer illustrated Paeon the god, as well as the song both of apotropaic thanksgiving or triumph,[35] and Hesiod also separated the two; in later poetry Paeon was invoked independently as a god of healing. It is equally difficult to separate Paeon or Paean in the sense of "healer" from Paean in the sense of "song." Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo, and afterwards to other gods: to Dionysus, to Apollo Helios, to Apollo's son Asclepius the healer. About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. It was in this way that Apollo had become recognised as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the Python led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won. Apollo 23 Oracular cult Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo had two cult sites that had widespread influence: Delos and Delphi. In cult practice, Delian Apollo and Pythian Apollo (the Apollo of Delphi) were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.[36] Apollo's cult was already fully established when written sources commenced, about 650 BCE. Apollo became extremely important to the Greek world as an oracular deity in the classical period, and the frequency of theophoric names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia testify to his popularity. Oracular sanctuaries to Apollo were established in other sites, including Didyma and Clarus in Asia Minor. A notable group of oracular pronouncements from Didyma and Clarus, the so-called "theological oracles", date to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. In these, Apollo proclaims that there is only one highest god, of whom the gods of polytheistic religions are mere manifestations or servants. In the 3rd century, Apollo fell silent. Julian the Apostate in the 4th century tried to revive the oracle at Delphi, but failed.[3] Oracular shrines Apollo had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Clarus and Branchidae. His oracular shrine in Abae in Phocis, where he bore the toponymic epithet Abaeus (Ἀπόλλων Ἀβαῖος, Apollon Abaios) was important enough to be consulted by Croesus (Herodotus, 1.46). His oracular shrines include: • In Abae in Phocis • In Bassae in the Peloponnese • At Clarus, on the west coast of Asia Minor; as at Delphi a holy spring which gave off a pneuma, from which the priests drank. • In Corinth, the Oracle of Corinth came from the town of Tenea, from prisoners supposedly taken in the Trojan War. • At Khyrse, in Troad, the temple was built for Apollon Smintheus • In Delos, there was an oracle to the Delian Apollo, during summer. The Hieron (Sanctuary) of Apollo adjacent to the Sacred Lake, was the place where the god was said to have been born. • In Delphi, the Pythia became filled with the pneuma of Apollo, said to come from a spring inside the Adyton. • In Didyma, an oracle on the coast of Anatolia, south west of Lydian (Luwian) Sardis, in which priests from the lineage of the Branchidae received inspiration by drinking from a healing spring located in the temple. Was believed to have been founded by Branchus, son or lover of Apollo. • In Hierapolis Bambyce, Syria (modern Manbij), according to the treatise De Dea Syria, the sanctuary of the Syrian Goddess contained a robed and bearded image of Apollo. Divination was based on spontaneous movements of this image.[37] • At Patara, in Lycia, there was a seasonal winter oracle of Apollo, said to have been the place where the god went from Delos. As at Delphi the oracle at Patara was a woman. • In Segesta in Sicily Oracles were also given by sons of Apollo. • In Oropus, north of Athens, the oracle Amphiaraus, was said to be the son of Apollo; Oropus also had a sacred spring. Head of Apollo. Marble, Roman copy of a Greek original of the 4th century BCE, from the collection of Cardinal Albani Apollo • in Labadea, 20 miles (32 km) east of Delphi, Trophonius, another son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was also afterwards consulted as an oracle. 24 Festivals The chief Apollonian festivals were the Boedromia, Carneia, Carpiae, Daphnephoria, Delia, Hyacinthia, Metageitnia, Pyanepsia, Pythia and Thargelia. Attributes and symbols Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara (an advanced version of the common lyre), the plectrum and the sword. Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod, representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi. The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos. Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves, dolphins, roe deer, swans, cicadas (symbolizing music and song), hawks, ravens, crows, snakes (referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy), mice and griffins, mythical eagle–lion hybrids of Eastern origin. Apollo Citharoedus ("Apollo with a kithara"), Musei Capitolini, Rome As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, 750–550 BCE. According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention a Minor Asian god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars. In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves (possibly a folk etymology). In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus, god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder. The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea, he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus. This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony. Roman Apollo The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. As a quintessentially Greek god, Apollo had no direct Roman equivalent, although later Roman poets often referred to him as Phoebus.[38] There was a tradition that the Delphic oracle was consulted as early as the period of the kings of Rome during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus.[39] On the occasion of a pestilence in the 430s BC, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".[40] During the Second Punic War in 212 BC, the Ludi Apollinares ("Apollonian Games") were instituted in his honor, on the instructions of a prophecy attributed to one Marcius.[41] In the time of Augustus, who considered himself under the special protection of Apollo and was even said to be his son, his worship developed and he became one of the chief gods of Rome.[42] After the battle of Apollo Actium, which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.[43] He also erected a new temple to the god on the Palatine hill.[44] Sacrifices and prayers on the Palatine to Apollo and Diana formed the culmination of the Secular Games, held in 17 BCE to celebrate the dawn of a new era.[45] 25 In art In art, Apollo is depicted as a handsome beardless young man, often with a kithara (as Apollo Citharoedus) or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree (the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types). The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the 19th century. The marble is a Hellenistic or Roman copy of a bronze original by the Greek sculptor Leochares, made between 350 and 325 BC. The lifesize so-called "Adonis" (shown at left) found in 1780 on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle and now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars. It was probably never intended as a cult object, but was a pastiche of several 4th-century and later Hellenistic model types, intended to please a Roman connoisseur of the 2nd century AD, and to be displayed in his villa. Apollo (the "Adonis" of Centocelle), Roman after a Greek original (Ashmolean Museum) In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem, Roman Thysdrus (right), he is identifiable as Apollo Helios by his effulgent halo, though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire. Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum, is in the museum at Sousse.[46] The conventions of this representation, head tilted, lips slightly parted, large-eyed, curling hair cut in locks grazing the neck, were developed in the 3rd century BCE to depict Alexander the Great (Bieber 1964, Yalouris 1980). Some time after this mosaic was executed, the earliest depictions of Christ will be beardless and haloed. Apollo with a radiant halo in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem, Tunisia, late 2nd century Mythology Apollo 26 Birth When Hera discovered that Leto was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she banned Leto from giving birth on "terra firma". In her wanderings, Leto found the newly created floating island of Delos, which was neither mainland nor a real island, so she gave birth there, where she was accepted by the people, offering them her promise that her son will be always favourable toward the city. Afterwards, Zeus secured Delos to the bottom of the ocean. This island later became sacred to Apollo. It is also stated that Hera kidnapped Ilithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor. The other gods tricked Hera into letting her go by offering her a necklace, nine yards (8 m) long, of amber. Mythographers agree that Artemis was born first and then assisted with the birth of Apollo, or that Artemis was born one day before Apollo, on the island of Ortygia and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth to Apollo. Apollo was born on the seventh day (ἑβδομαγενής [47] ) of the month Thargelion —according to Delian tradition—or of the month Bysios—according to Delphian tradition. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him. Youth Four days after his birth, Apollo killed the chthonic dragon Python, which lived in Delphi beside the Castalian Spring. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Hera sent the serpent to hunt Leto to her death across the world. In order to protect his mother, Apollo begged Hephaestus for a bow and arrows. After receiving them, Apollo cornered Python in the sacred cave at Delphi.[48] Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. Hera then sent the giant Tityos to kill Leto. This time Apollo was aided by his sister Artemis in protecting their mother. During the battle Zeus finally relented his aid and hurled Tityos down to Tartarus. There he was pegged to the rock floor, covering an area of 9 acres (36000 m2), where a pair of vultures feasted daily on his liver. Admetus When Zeus struck down Apollo's son Asclepius with a lightning bolt for resurrecting Hippolytus from the dead (transgressing Themis by stealing Hades's subjects), Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclopes, who had fashioned the bolt for Zeus.[49] Apollo would have been banished to Tartarus forever, but was instead sentenced to one year of hard labor as punishment, due to the intercession of his mother, Leto. During this time he served as shepherd for King Admetus of Pherae in Thessaly. Admetus treated Apollo well, and, in return, the god conferred great benefits on Admetus. Apollo helped Admetus win Alcestis, the daughter of King Pelias and later convinced the Fates to let Admetus live past his time, if another took his place. But when it came time for Admetus to die, his parents, whom he had assumed would gladly die for him, refused to cooperate. Instead, Alcestis took his place, but Heracles managed to "persuade" Thanatos, the god of death, to return her to the world of the living. Trojan War Apollo shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment during the Trojan War in retribution for Agamemnon's insult to Chryses, a priest of Apollo whose daughter Chryseis had been captured. He demanded her return, and the Achaeans complied, indirectly causing the anger of Achilles, which is the theme of the Iliad. When Diomedes injured Aeneas (Iliad), Apollo rescued him. First, Aphrodite tried to rescue Aeneas but Diomedes injured her as well. Aeneas was then enveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy. Apollo aided Paris in the killing of Achilles by guiding the arrow of his bow into Achilles' heel. One interpretation of his motive is that it was in revenge for Achilles' sacrilege in murdering Troilus, the god's own son by Hecuba, on the Apollo very altar of the god's own temple. 27 Niobe The queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven male and seven female, while Leto had only two. Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics, with the last begging for his life, and Artemis her daughters. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions of the myth, a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris, usually). Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo after swearing revenge. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylos in Asia Minor and turned into stone as she wept. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death, when the gods themselves entombed them. Artemis and Apollo Piercing Niobe’s Children with their Arrows by Jacques-Louis David Consorts and children Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology.[50] Their vivid anecdotal qualities have made favorites some of them of painters since the Renaissance, so that they stand out more prominently in the modern imagination. Female lovers In explanation of the connection of Apollo with δάφνη (daphnē), the laurel whose leaves his priestess employed at Delphi, it is told[51] that Apollo chased a nymph, Daphne, daughter of the river god Peneus, who had scorned him. In Ovid's telling for a Roman audience, Phoebus Apollo chaffs Cupid for toying with a weapon more suited to a man, whereupon Cupid wounds him with a golden dart; simultaneously, however, Cupid shoots a leaden arrow into Daphne, causing her to be repulsed by Apollo. Following a spirited chase by Apollo, Daphne prays to her father, Peneus, for help, and he changes her into the laurel tree, sacred to Apollo. Apollo had an affair with a human princess named Leucothea, daughter of Orchamus and sister of Clytia. Leucothea loved Apollo who disguised himself as Leucothea's mother to gain entrance to her chambers. Clytia, jealous of her sister because she wanted Apollo for herself, told Orchamus the truth, betraying her Apollo and Daphne by Bernini in the Galleria sister's trust and confidence in her. Enraged, Orchamus ordered Borghese Leucothea to be buried alive. Apollo refused to forgive Clytia for betraying his beloved, and a grieving Clytia wilted and slowly died. Apollo changed her into an incense plant, either heliotrope or sunflower, which follows the sun every day. Apollo Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old. Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dived into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos, which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire poets. By Cyrene, Apollo had a son named Aristaeus, who became the patron god of cattle, fruit trees, hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping. He was also a culture-hero and taught humanity dairy skills and the use of nets and traps in hunting, as well as how to cultivate olives. With Hecuba, wife of King Priam of Troy, Apollo had a son named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilles. Apollo also fell in love with Cassandra, daughter of Hecuba and Priam, and Troilus' half-sister. He promised Cassandra the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo indeed gifted her with the ability to know the future, with a curse that she could only see the future tragedies and that no one would ever believe her. Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths, was another of Apollo's liaisons. Pregnant with Asclepius, Coronis fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A crow informed Apollo of the affair. When first informed he disbelieved the crow and turned all crows black (where they were previously white) as a punishment for spreading untruths. When he found out the truth he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis (in other stories, Apollo himself had killed Coronis). As a result he also made the crow sacred and gave them the task of announcing important deaths. Apollo rescued the baby and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. Phlegyas was irate after the death of his daughter and burned the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Apollo then killed him for what he did. In Euripides' play Ion, Apollo fathered Ion by Creusa, wife of Xuthus. Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, but Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi, where he was raised by a priestess. One of his other liaisons was with Acantha, the spirit of the acanthus tree. Upon her death, Apollo transformed her into a sun-loving herb. According to the Biblioteca, or "library" of mythology mis-attributed to Apollodorus, he fathered the Corybantes on the Muse Thalia.[52] 28 Apollo Male lovers Hyacinth (or Hyacinthus) was one of his male lovers. Hyacinthus was a Spartan prince, beautiful and athletic. The pair were practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly. Apollo is said to be filled with grief: out of Hyacinthus' blood, Apollo created a flower named after him as a memorial to his death, and his tears stained the flower petals with άί άί, meaning alas. The Festival of Hyacinthus was a celebration of Sparta. Another male lover was Cyparissus, a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth. Cyparissus asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk. Apollo and Hyacinthus Jacopo Caraglio; 16th c. Italian engraving 29 Apollo's lyre Hermes was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. The story is told in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. His mother, Maia, had been secretly impregnated by Zeus. Maia wrapped the infant in blankets but Hermes escaped while she was asleep. Hermes ran to Thessaly, where Apollo was grazing his cattle. The infant Hermes stole a number of his cows and took them to a cave in the woods near Pylos, covering their tracks. In the cave, he found a tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made the first lyre. Apollo complained to Maia that her son had stolen his cattle, but Hermes had already replaced himself in the blankets she had wrapped him in, so Maia refused to believe Apollo's claim. Zeus intervened and, claiming to have seen the events, sided with Apollo. Hermes then began to play music on the lyre he had invented. Apollo, a god of music, fell in love with the instrument and offered to allow exchange of the cattle for the lyre. Hence, Apollo became a master of the lyre. Apollo in the Oresteia In Aeschylus' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon, as well as Cassandra, a prophetess of Apollo. Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes, is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, her lover. Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes (Furies, female personifications of vengeance). Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage. They invade his temple, and he says that the matter should be brought before Athena. Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant. Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules with Apollo. Apollo 30 Other stories Apollo killed the Aloadae when they attempted to storm Mt. Olympus. Callimachus sang[53] that Apollo rode on the back of a swan to the land of the Hyperboreans during the winter months. Apollo turned Cephissus into a sea monster. Another contender for the birthplace of Apollo is the Cretan islands of Paximadia. Musical contests Pan Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo, and to challenge Apollo, the god of the kithara, to a trial of skill. Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment. He dissented, and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey. Marsyas Apollo has ominous aspects aside from his plague-bringing, death-dealing arrows: Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away after being invented by Athena because it made her cheeks puffy. The contest was judged by the Muses. After they each performed, both were deemed equal until Apollo decreed they play and sing at the same time. As Apollo played the lyre, this was easy to do. Marsyas could not do this as he only knew how to use the flute and could not sing at the Apollo and Marsyas by Palma il Giovane same time. Apollo was declared the winner because of this. Apollo flayed Marsyas alive in a cave near Celaenae in Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god. He then nailed Marsyas' shaggy skin to a nearby pine-tree. Marsyas' blood turned into the river Marsyas. Another variation is that Apollo played his instrument (the lyre) upside down. Marsyas could not do this with his instrument (the flute), and so Apollo hung him from a tree and flayed him alive.[54] Apollo Cinyras Apollo also had a lyre-playing contest with Cinyras, his son, who committed suicide when he lost. 31 Modern reception Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature. Percy Bysshe Shelley composed a "Hymn of Apollo" (1820), and the god's instruction of the Muses formed the subject of Igor Stravinsky's Apollon musagète (1927–1928). The name Apollo was given to NASA's Apollo Lunar program in the 1960s. The statue of Apollo from the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (currently in the Archaeological Museum of Olympia) was depicted on the obverse of the Greek 1000 drachmas banknote of 1987–2001.[55] Media • 1. Apollo and Hyacinthus, read by Timothy Carter • Apollomon from Digimon World Dawn The Overthrow of Apollo and the Pagan Gods, watercolour, 25 x 19.3 cm, 1809 - from William Blake's illustrations of On the Morning of Christ's Nativity. Notes [1] For the iconography of the Alexander–Helios type, see H. Hoffmann, 1963. "Helios", in Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 2, pp. 117–23; cf. Yalouris 1980, no. 42. [2] Joseph Fontenrose, "Apollo and Sol in the Latin poets of the first century BC", Transactions of the American Philological Association 30 (1939), pp 439–55; "Apollo and the Sun-God in Ovid", American Journal of Philology 61 (1940) pp 429–44; and "Apollo and Sol in the Oaths of Aeneas and Latinus" Classical Philology 38.2 (April 1943), pp. 137–138. [3] Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, s.v. "Apollo". [4] Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Apollo (http:/ / www. behindthename. com/ php/ view. php?name=apollo) [5] The ἁπλοῦν suggestion is repeated by Plutarch in Moralia in the sense of "unity". [6] Latacz, Joachim, Troia und Homer: Der Weg zur Lösung eines alten Rätsels. (Munich) 2001:138. [7] The reading of Apaliunas and the identification with Apollo is due to Emil Forrer (1931). [8] Hans G. Güterbock, "Troy in Hittite Texts?" in: Mellink (ed.), Troy and the Trojan War: a symposium held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984, Bryn Mawr Archaeological Monographs Authors John Lawrence Angel, Machteld Johanna Mellink, 1986, ISBN 9780929524597, p. 42. [9] Martin Nilsson, Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion, vol. I (C.H. Beck) 1955:555-564. [10] de Grummond, Nancy Thomson (2006) Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology); Mackenzie, Donald A. (2005) Myths of Babylonia and Assyria (Gutenberg) [11] Edwin L. Brown, 'In Search of Anatolian Apollo' in: Chapin (ed.), Charis: essays in honor of Sara A. Immerwahr, Supplement to volume 33 of Hesperia, ASCSA, 2004, ISBN 9780876615331, p. 254. [12] Apollonius of Rhodes, iv. 1730; Biblioteca, i. 9. § 26 [13] Álvaro, Jr., Santos, Allan. Simbolismo divino (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=uAiConL3xyYC& dq=articenens& source=gbs_navlinks_s). Allan Álvaro, Jr., Santos. . [14] Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 4. 4 (A.F. Scholfield, tr.). [15] Ovid, Metamorphoses xiii. 715 [16] Strabo, x. p. 451 [17] Entry Σμινθεύς (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=*sminqeu/ s) at LSJ - by eliminating mice, a primary cause of desease, Apollo promoted preventive medicine. [18] Euripides, Andromache 901 [19] "Acesius". Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London, 1880. [20] LSJ entry Μουσαγέτας (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=*mousage/ tas) [21] Miranda J. Green, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1997 [22] Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII, 1863–1986; A. Ross,, Pagan Celtic Britain, 1967; M.J. Green, The Gods of the Celts, 1986, London Apollo [23] J. Zwicker, Fontes Historiae Religionis Celticae, 1934–36, Berlin; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V, XI, XII, XIII; J. Gourcest, "Le culte de Belenos en Provence occidentale et en Gaule", Ogam 6.6 (1954:257–262); E. Thevonot, "Le cheval sacre dans la Gaule de l'Est", Revue archeologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est (vol 2), 1951; [ ], "Temoignages du culte de l'Apollon gaulois dans l'Helvetie romaine", Revue celtique (vol 51), 1934. [24] W.J. Wedlake, The Excavation of the Shrine of Apollo at Nettleton, Wiltshire, 1956–1971, Society of Antiquaries of London, 1982. [25] M. Szabo, The Celtic Heritage in Hungary, (Budapest)1971, Budapest [26] Divinites et sanctuaires de la Gaule, E. Thevonat, 1968, Paris [27] La religion des Celtes, J. de Vries, 1963, Paris [28] J. Le Gall, Alesia, archeologie et histoire, (Paris) 1963. [29] Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII [30] Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion, 1985:144. [31] Graf, Apollo p. 104-113; Burkert also notes in this context Archilochus Fr. 94. [32] Croft, John (2003) wrote in the Ancient Near East mail list hosted by the University of Chicago (https:/ / listhost. uchicago. edu/ pipermail/ ane/ 2003-May/ 009551. html) that "Apollo does not have a Greek provenance but an Anatolian one. Luwian Apaliuna seems to have travelled west from further East. Hurrian Aplu was a god of the plague, and resembles the mouse god Apollo Smintheus. Hurrian Aplu itself seems derived from the Babylonian "Aplu" meaning a "son of"—a title that was given to the Babylonian plague God, Nergal (son of Enlil)" [33] Martin Nilsson, Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. vol. I (C.H. Beck) 1955:563f. [34] Graf, Apollo p. 66 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=it9n9_I-UOkC& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q& f=false) [35] See Paean. [36] Burkert 1985:143. [37] Lucian (attrib.), De Dea Syria 35–37 (http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ cla/ luc/ tsg/ tsg07. htm#35). [38] Theoi: "KORONIS" (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Heroine/ Koronis. html) [39] Livy 1.56 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Liv. + 1. 56). [40] Livy 3.63.7 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0026:book=3:chapter=63), 4.25.3 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0145:book=4:chapter=25). [41] Livy 25.12 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0147:book=25:chapter=12). [42] J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz (1979). Continuity and Change in Roman Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–85. ISBN 0-19-814822-4. [43] Suetonius, Augustus 18.2 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Suetonius/ 12Caesars/ Augustus*. html#18. 2); Cassius Dio 51.1.1–3 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Cassius_Dio/ 51*. html#1). [44] Cassius Dio 53.1.3 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Cassius_Dio/ 53*. html#1. 3). [45] Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 5050, translated by Mary Beard; John North and Simon Price (1998). Religions of Rome: Volume 2: A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5.7b. ISBN 0-521-45015-2 (hbk.); ISBN 0-521-45646-0 (pbk.). [46] "" (http:/ / www. tunisiaonline. com/ mosaics/ mosaic05b. html). . [47] ἑβδομαγενής (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=e(bdomagenh/ s), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus [48] Children of the Gods by Kenneth McLeish, page 32. [49] pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliothke iii. 10.4. [50] ""The love-stories themselves were not told until later." (Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks 1951:140. [51] The ancient Daphne episode is noted in late narratives, notably in Ovid, Metamorphoses, in Hyginus, Fabulae, 203 and by the fourth-century-CE teacher of rhetoric and Christian convert, Libanius, in Narrationes. [52] Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.3.4 (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Text/ Apollodorus1. html). Other ancient sources, however, gave the Corybantes different parents; see Sir James Frazer's note (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Text/ Ap1a. html#46) on the passage in the Bibliotheca. [53] Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo2.5 [54] Man Myth and Magic by Richard Cavendish [55] Bank of Greece (http:/ / www. bankofgreece. gr/ en). Drachma Banknotes & Coins: 1000 drachmas (http:/ / www. bankofgreece. gr/ en/ Banknotes/ banknote_selection. asp?Value=1. 000). Retrieved on 27 March 2009. 32 Apollo 33 References •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John Henry Freese (1911). "Apollo" (http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo&vol=02& page=EB2A196). In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. Primary sources • • • • • • • • • • Homer, Iliad ii.595–600 (c. 700 BCE) Sophocles, Oedipus Rex Palaephatus, On Unbelievable Tales 46. Hyacinthus (330 BCE) Apollodorus, Library 1.3.3 (140 BCE) Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 162–219 (1–8 CE) Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.1.3, 3.19.4 (160–176 CE) Philostratus the Elder, Images i.24 Hyacinthus (170–245 CE) Philostratus the Younger, Images 14. Hyacinthus (170–245 CE) Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 14 (170 CE) First Vatican Mythographer, 197. Thamyris et Musae Secondary sources • • • • • • • • M. Bieber, 1964. Alexander the Great in Greek and Roman Art (Chicago) Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard University Press) III.2.5 passim Graf, Fritz, Apollo, Taylor & Francis, 2009, ISBN 9780415317115. Robert Graves, 1960. The Greek Myths, revised edition (Penguin) Miranda J. Green, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1997 Karl Kerenyi, Apollon: Studien über Antiken Religion und Humanität rev. ed. 1953. Karl Kerenyi, 1951 The Gods of the Greeks Pauly–Wissowa, Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft: II, "Apollon". The best repertory of cult sites (Burkert). • Pfeiff, K.A., 1943. Apollon: Wandlung seines Bildes in der griechischen Kunst. Traces the changing iconography of Apollo. • Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Apollo" (http:// www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0104:entry=heracles-bio-1&highlight=orthrus) External links • Apollo (http://www.maicar.com/GML/Apollo.html) at the Greek Mythology Link, by Carlos Parada Arimanius 34 Arimanius Arimanius (Latin: Arīmanius; Greek: Areimanios) is a Greek god of the underworld, probably derived from the Persian deity Ahriman. Plutarch identifies him as the embodiment of Hades. References Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 Averrunci The Averrunci, in antiquity, were an order of deities among the Romans, whose office was to avert dangers and evils. The Egyptians had also their Dii Averrunci, or Apotropaet, who were pictured in a menacing posture, and sometimes with whips in their hands. Isis was a divinity of this kind, as was shown by Athanasius Kircher. References •  This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. [1] References [1] http:/ / digicoll. library. wisc. edu/ cgi-bin/ HistSciTech/ HistSciTech-idx?type=turn& entity=HistSciTech000900240217& isize=L Averruncus In ancient Roman religion, Averruncus or Auruncus is a god of averting harm. Aulus Gellius says that he is one of the potentially malignant deities who must be propitiated for their power to both inflict and withhold disaster from people and the harvests.[1] Although the etymology of the name is often connected to the Latin verb avertere, "to turn away,"[2] a more probable origin lies in averro "to sweep away," hence averrunco, "to ward off," perhaps with a reference to magical sweeping. Varro[3] asserts that the infinitive verb averruncare shares its etymology with the god whose primary function is averting. Averruncus may be among the indigitamenta pertaining to another god such as Apollo or Mars,[4] that is, it may be a name to be used in a prayer formulary to fix the local action of the invoked deity.[5] Precise naming, in connection with concealing a deity's true name to monopolize his or her power, was a crucial part of prayer in antiquity, as evidenced not only in the traditional religions of Greece and Rome and syncretistic Hellenistic religion and mystery cult, but also in Judaism and ancient Egyptian religion.[6] In other references, Averruncus is also known as the god of childbirth. Averruncus 35 In popular culture In the manga and anime series Mahou Sensei Negima, the main antagonist is Fate Averruncus. References [1] Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 5.12.14: In istis autem diis, quos placari oportet, uti mala a nobis vel a frugibus natis amoliantur, Auruncus quoque habetur. [2] As in the note to Aulus Gellius in the Loeb Classical Library edition. (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Gellius/ 5*. html#note44) [3] Varro, De lingua latina 7.102. [4] Robert Turcan, The Gods of Ancient Rome (Routledge, 2001, originally published 1998), p. 41 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=gZ4TKhaLwRsC& pg=PA41& dq=averruncus+ intitle:gods+ inauthor:turcan& hl=en& ei=WMsITZXWH4KUnAedpOl7& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=averruncus intitle:gods inauthor:turcan& f=false) [5] William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), p. 89. [6] Matthias Klinghardt, “Prayer Formularies for Public Recitation: Their Use and Function in Ancient Religion,” Numen 46 (1999) 1–5; A.A. Barb, "Antaura. The Mermaid and the Devil's Grandmother: A Lecture," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 29 (1966), p. 4; Karen Hartnup, On the Beliefs of the Greeks: Leo Allatios and Popular Orthodoxy (Brill, 2004), pp. 97–101 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xnqI8uSeekwC& pg=PA97& dq="The+ names+ of+ the+ gello+ are+ also+ a+ source+ of+ protection"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=1& as_miny_is=2009& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=2009& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES) (in connection with compelling demons). Cacus In Roman mythology, Cacus was a fire-breathing monster and the son of Vulcan. He lived in a cave in the Palatine Hill in Italy, the future site of Rome. To the horror of nearby inhabitants, Cacus lived on human flesh and would nail the heads of victims to the doors of his cave. He was eventually overcome by Hercules. Cacus 36 According to Evander, Heracles stopped to pasture the cattle he had stolen from Geryon near Cacus' lair. As Heracles slept, the monster took a liking to the cattle and slyly stole eight of them - four bulls and four cows - by dragging them by their tails, so as to leave no trail. When Heracles awoke and made to leave, the remaining herd made plaintive noises towards the cave, and a single cow lowed in reply. Angered, Heracles stormed towards the cave. A terrified Cacus blocked the entrance with a vast, immoveable boulder, forcing Heracles to tear at the top of the mountain to reach his adversary. Cacus attacked Heracles by spewing fire and smoke, while Heracles responded with tree branches and rocks the size of millstones. Eventually losing patience, Heracles leapt into the cave, aiming for the area where the smoke was heaviest. Heracles grabbed Cacus and strangled the monster, and was lauded throughout the land for his act. According to Virgil in Book VIII of his Aeneid, Heracles grasped Cacus so tightly that Cacus' eyes popped out and there was no blood left in his throat: "et angit inhaerens elisos oculos et siccum sanguine guttur." Hercules and Cacus Palazzo Vecchio, Florence Another version of the myth states that Cacus made the cattle walk backwards so they left no trail. Heracles drove his remaining cattle past a cave, where Cacus was hiding the stolen ones, and they began calling out to each other. Alternatively, Caca, Cacus' sister, told Heracles where he was. In ancient Roman mythology, Cacus ("the evil one") was a fire god. He was later demoted to the giant described above. According to the Romans, after Hercules killed Cacus, he founded an altar, the Ara Maxima, where later the Forum Boarium, the cattle market of Rome, was held. Rome erected temples to Hercules in the area, including the still extant Temple of Hercules Victor. It is believed that a large stone in the nearby church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin is what is left of the Ara Maxima. References • March, J., Cassell's Dictionary Of Classical Mythology, London, 1999. ISBN 0-304-35161-X • Coarelli, Filippo, Guida Archeologica di Roma, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano, 1989. Caelus 37 Caelus Caelus or Coelus was a primal god of the sky in Roman myth and theology, iconography, and literature (compare caelum, the Latin word for "sky" or "the heavens", hence English "celestial"). According to Cicero and Hyginus, he was the son of Aether and Dies ("Day" or "Daylight").[1] The deity's name usually appears in masculine grammatical form when he is conceived of as a male generative force, but the neuter form Caelum is also found as a divine personification.[2] The name of Caelus indicates that he was the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Uranus (Οὐρανός, Ouranos), who was of major importance in the theogonies of the Greeks. Varro couples him with Terra (Earth) as pater and mater (father and mother), and says that they are "great deities" (dei magni) in the theology of the mysteries at Samothrace.[3] Although Caelus is not known to have had a cult at Rome,[4] not all scholars consider him a Greek import; he has been associated with Summanus as "purely Caelus appears at the top of the cuirass of the Augustus of Prima Porta, Roman."[5] Vitruvius includes him among counterposed to Earth at the bottom celestial gods whose temple-buildings (aedes) [6] should be built open to the sky. Caelus begins to appear regularly in Augustan art and in connection with the cult of Mithras during the Imperial era. Caelus and Dies were the parents of Mercury,[7] in what is apparently a departure from the Greek tradition. Caelus was the father with Hecate of the distinctively Roman god Janus, as well as of Saturn and Ops.[8] Caelus was also the father of one of the three forms of Jupiter, the other two fathers being Aether and Saturn.[9] As a sky god, he became identified with Jupiter, as indicated by an inscription that reads Optimus Maximus Caelus Aeternus Iupter.[10] In one tradition, Caelus was the father with Tellus of the Muses, though was this probably a mere translation of Ouranos from a Greek source.[11] Caelus substituted for Uranus in Latin versions of the myth of Saturn (Kronos) castrating his heavenly father, from whose severed genitals, cast upon the sea, the goddess Venus (Aphrodite) was born.[12] In his work On the Nature of the Gods, Cicero presents a Stoic allegory of the myth in which the castration signifies "that the highest heavenly aether, that seed-fire which generates all things, did not require the equivalent of human genitals to proceed in its generative work."[13] For Macrobius, the severing marks off Chaos from fixed and measured Time (Saturn) as determined by the revolving Heavens (Caelum). The semina rerum ("seeds" of things that exist physically) come from Caelum and are the elements which create the world.[14] The divine spatial abstraction Caelum is a synonym for Olympus as a metaphorical heavenly abode of the divine, both identified with and distinguished from the mountain in ancient Greece named as the home of the gods. Varro says that the Greeks call Caelum (or Caelus) "Olympus."[15] As a representation of space, Caelum is one of the components of the mundus, the "world" or cosmos, along with terra (earth), mare (sea), and aer (air).[16] In his work Caelus on the cosmological systems of antiquity, the Dutch humanist Gerardus Vossius deals extensively with Caelus and his duality as both a god and a place that the other gods inhabit.[17] The ante-Nicene Christian writer Lactantius routinely uses the Latin theonyms Caelus, Saturn, and Jupiter to refer to the three divine hypostases of the Neoplatonic school of Plotinus: the First God (Caelus), Intellect (Saturn), and Soul, son of the Intelligible (Jupiter).[18] 38 In art It is generally though not universally agreed that Caelus is depicted on the cuirass of the Augustus of Prima Porta,[19] at the very top above the four horses of the Sun god's quadriga. He is a mature, bearded man who holds a cloak over his head so that it billows in the form of an arch, a conventional sign of deity (velificatio) that "recalls the vault of the firmament."[20] He is balanced and paired with the personification of Earth at the bottom of the cuirass.[21] (These two figures have also been identified as Saturn and the Magna Mater, to represent the new Saturnian "Golden Age" of Augustan ideology.)[22] On an altar of the Lares now held by the Vatican, Caelus in his chariot appears along with Apollo-Sol above the figure of Augustus.[23] Nocturnus and the templum As Caelus Nocturnus, he was the god of the night-time, starry sky. In a passage from Plautus, Nocturnus is regarded as the opposite of Sol, the Sun god.[24] Nocturnus appears in several inscriptions found in Dalmatia and Italy, in the company of other deities who are found also in the cosmological schema of Martianus Capella, based on the Etruscan tradition.[25] In the Etruscan discipline of divination, Caelus Nocturnus was placed in the sunless north opposite Sol to represent the polar extremities of the axis (see cardo). This alignment was fundamental to the drawing of a templum (sacred space) for the practice of augury.[26] Mithraic Caelus The name Caelus occurs in dedicatory inscriptions in connection to the cult of Mithras. The Mithraic deity Caelus is sometimes depicted allegorically as an eagle bending over the sphere of heaven marked with symbols of the planets or the zodiac.[27] In a Mithraic context he is associated with Cautes[28] and can appear as Caelus Aeternus ("Eternal Sky").[29] A form of Ahura-Mazda is invoked in Latin as Caelus aeternus Iupiter.[30] The walls of some mithrea feature allegorical depictions of the cosmos with Oceanus and Caelus. The mithraeum of Dieburg represents the tripartite world with Caelus, Oceanus, and Tellus below Phaeton-Heliodromus.[31] As the Jewish god Some Roman writers used Caelus or Caelum[32] as a way to express the monotheistic god of Judaism. Juvenal identifies the Jewish god with Caelus as the highest heaven (summum caelum), saying that Jews worship the numen of Caelus;[33] Petronius uses similar language.[34] Florus has a rather odd passage describing the Holy of Holies in the Temple of Jerusalem as housing a "sky" (caelum) under a golden vine, which has also been taken as an uncomprehending attempt to grasp the presence of the Jewish god. A golden vine, perhaps the one mentioned, was sent by the Hasmonean king Aristobulus to Pompeius Magnus after his defeat of Jerusalem, and was later displayed in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.[35] Caelus 39 References [1] Cicero, De natura deorum 3.44, as cited by E.J. Kenney, Apuleius: Cupid and Psyche (Cambridge University Press, 1990, 2001), note to 6.6.4, p. 198; Hyginus, preface. This is not the theogony that Hesiod presents. [2] Neuter, for instance, at Varro, De lingua latina 5.57, where a masculine form might be expected for the partner of Terra. Neuter also at Hyginus, Fabula pr. 2 (17) in a series of divine personifications with Terra and Mare (the Sea). The masculine and neuter forms of the name Caelus and Caelum differ only in the vocative and nominative cases; when a second-declension noun appears in the genitive, dative, or ablative case, there is no way to distinguish whether the neuter or masculine is meant. When the deity is conceived of as plural, "the Heavens," the masculine Caeli is used, and not the neuter Caela, which would create an ambiguity with first-declension nouns of feminine gender. Divine personifications in Latin are mostly feminine. [3] Varro, De lingua Latina 5.58. [4] Pierre Grimal, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology (Blackwell, 1986, 1996, originally published 1951 in French), pp. 83–84. [5] Marion Lawrence, "The Velletri Sarcophagus," American Journal of Archaeology 69.3 (1965), p. 220. [6] Other gods for whom this aedes design was appropriate are Jupiter, Sol and Luna. Vitruvius, De architectura 1.2.5; John E. Stambaugh, "The Functions of Roman Temples," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16.1 (1978), p. 561. [7] Cicero, De natura Deorum 3.56; also Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.14. [8] Ennius, Annales 27 (edition of Vahlen); Varro, as cited by Nonius Marcellus, p. 197M; Cicero, Timaeus XI (http:/ / www. forumromanum. org/ literature/ cicero_timaeus. html); Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 2.71, 3.29. [9] Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.14. [10] CIL 6.81.2. [11] Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 3.37, citing Mnaseas as his source. [12] Cicero, De nature Deorum; Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.24. [13] Cicero, De natura Deorum 2.64. Isidore of Seville says similarly that Saturn "cut off the genitalia of his father Caelus, because nothing is born in the heavens from seeds" (Etymologies 9.11.32). Jane Chance, Medieval Mythography: From Roman North Africa to the School of Chartres, A.D. 433–1177 (University Press of Florida, 1994), pp. 27 and 142. [14] Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.8.6–9; Chance, Medieval Mythography, p. 72. [15] Varro, De lingua latina 7.20; likewise Isidore of Seville, Etymologies 14.8.9. The noun Caelum appears in the accusative case, which obscures any distinction between masculine and neuter. Servius, note to Aeneid 6.268, says that "Olympus" is the name for both the Macedonian mountain and for caelum. Citations and discussion by Michel Huhm, "Le mundus et le Comitium: Repésentations symboliques de l'espace de la cité," Histoire urbaine 10 (2004), p. 54. [16] Servius, note to Aeneid 3.134; Huhm, "Le mundus et le Comitium," p. 53, notes 36 and 37. [17] Gerardus Vossius, Idolatriae 3.59 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=q7w_AAAAcAAJ& pg=PA229& dq=Janus+ Cerus+ Macrobius+ Caelum+ OR+ Caelus& hl=en& ei=byf9TPvUEqiBnAfT4fzHCg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q& f=false) et passim, in Gerardi Joan. Vossii Operum, vol. 5, De idololatria gentili. See also Giovanni Santinello and Francesco Bottin, Models of the History of Philosophy: From Its Origins in the Renaissance to the "Historia Philosophica" (Kluwer, 1993), vol. 1, pp. 222–235. [18] Elizabeth De Palma Digeser, "Religion, Law and the Roman Polity: The Era of the Great Persecution," in Religion and Law in Classical and Christian Rome (Franz Steiner, 2006), pp. 78–79. [19] Jane Clark Reeder, "The Statue of Augustus from Prima Porta, the Underground Complex, and the Omen of the Gallina Alba," American Journal of Philology 118.1 (1997), p. 109; Charles Brian Rose, "The Parthians in Augustan Rome," American Journal of Archaeology 109.1 (2005), p. 27. [20] Karl Galinsky, Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton University Press, 1996), pp. 158 and 321. [21] Reeder, "The Statue of Augustus," p. 109. [22] Specifically, Juppiter Optimus Maximus Saturnus Augustus: Reeder, "The Statue of Augustus," p. 109 and 111. [23] Reeder, "The Statue of Augustus," p. 103; Lily Ross Taylor, "The Mother of the Lares," American Journal of Archaeology 29.3 (1925), p. 308. [24] Plautus, Amphytrion 272. [25] Including CIL 3.1956 = ILS 4887, 9753, 142432, CIL 5.4287 = ILS 4888, as cited and discussed by Mario Torelli, Studies in the Romanization of Italy (University of Alberta Press, 1995), pp. 108–109. [26] Torelli, Studies, p. 110. See also Huhm, "Le mundus et le Comitium," pp. 52–53, on the relation of templum, mundus, and caelum. [27] Doro Levi, "Aion," Hesperia (1944), p. 302. [28] M.J. Vermaseren, Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill, 1971), p. 14; Jaime Alvar, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, translated by Richard Gordon (Brill, 2008), p. 86. [29] R. Beck in response to I.P. Culianu, "L'«Ascension de l'Âme» dans les mystères et hors des mystères," in La Soteriologia dei culti orientali nell' impero romano (Brill, 1982), p. 302. [30] Levi, "Aion," p. 302. [31] Vermaseren, Mithraica I, p. 14. [32] The word does not appear in the nominative case in any of the passages, and so its intended gender cannot be distinguished; see above. Caelus [33] Juvenal, Satires 14.97; Peter Schäfer, Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World (Harvard University Press, 1997), pp. 41, 79–80. [34] Petronius, frg. 37.2; Schäfer, Judeophobia, pp. 77–78. [35] Florus, Epitome 1.40 (3.5.30): "The Jews tried to defend Jerusalem; but he [Pompeius Magnus] entered this city also and saw that grand Holy of Holies of an impious people exposed, Caelum under a golden vine" (Hierosolymam defendere temptavere Iudaei; verum haec quoque et intravit et vidit illud grande inpiae gentis arcanum patens, sub aurea vite Caelum). Finbarr Barry Flood, The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Brill, 2001), pp. 81 and 83 (note 118). The Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 1985 reprinting), p. 252, entry on caelum, cites Juvenal, Petronius, and Florus as examples of Caelus or Caelum "with reference to Jehovah; also, to some symbolization of Jehovah." 40 Consus 41 Consus Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion, the god Consus was the protector of grains and (subterranean) storage bins (silos), and as such was represented by a grain seed. Consus His altar was placed beneath the ground (or, according to other sources, simply covered with earth, which was swept off at his festival) near the Circus Maximus in Rome[1] . The altar was unearthed only during the Consualia, his festival which took place on August 21 (and another one on December 15). Mule or horse races were the main event of the festival because the mule and the horse were Consus' sacred animals[1] . Horses and mules were crowned with chaplets of flowers, and forbidden to work. Consus' name has no certain etymology down to the present time. This name seems to be Etruscan or Sabine in origin. It seems that Consus' name is really related to the one of Ops as Consivia (or Consiva), itself related to "crops, seeding" (Latin conserere ("to sow"); see Ops; Opalia and Opiconsivia). According to Varro (L. I. 6:20), Consualia dicta a Consus ("The Consualia are so named after Consus"). Shortly after his own festivals the ones for Ops, the Opiconsivia or Opalia, were held every August 25 and December 19, these being the periods respectively of the reaping and the seeding of crops. Consus also became a god associated with secret conferences, perhaps due to a common misinterpretation of his name. The Latins (Romans) associated Consus' name with consilium ("councils, synagogues, assemblies; place where councils assemble"). This word should not be confused with "counsel" ("advice"). It in fact expresses the idea of "sitting together" (consentes), "being together" (con-sum) or perhaps "called together, conclaimed" (con-calare). The connection of Consus with these secret councils is attested by Servius (En. 8:636): Consus autem deus est consiliorum ("Consus is however the god of councils"). As such, it seems that Consus was a member of the council of the Di Consentes ("Council of the Gods") formed by six gods and six goddesses which assembled in order to assist Jupiter in making great decisions such as destroying Troy or Atlantis with a Flood, etc.. This tradition is due to the Etruscans, but is also widely attested in Greece as well, for instance, in Homer. Consus was often called Neptunus Equestris ("Equestrian Neptune"). So, his connection with the Greek Poseidon (Neptune) can hardly be denied. Poseidon was also associated with horses and horse racing, a connection which is reminiscent of Atlantis (founded by Poseidon) and its magnificent hippodromes described by Plato in his Critias. According to tradition, it was in the course of the Consualia and its horse races that the Romans kidnapped the Sabine women which they married in order to found their own nation[1] . 42 Sources [1] Aldington, Richard; Ames, Delano (1968). New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Yugoslavia: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 209. Convector (mythology) 43 Convector (mythology) Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: • • • • • • Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna • • • • • • Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared — Other Rustic Gods: • • • • • Bona Dea Carmenta Camenae Dea Dia Convector • • • • • Flora Lupercus Pales Pomona Egeria In Roman mythology, the god Convector oversaw the bringing in of the crops from the fields. Cupid 44 Cupid In Roman mythology, Cupid (Latin cupido, meaning "desire") is the god of desire, affection and erotic love. He is the son of goddess Venus and god Mars. In popular culture, Cupid is frequently shown shooting his bow to inspire romantic love, often as an icon of Valentine's Day. He is now in the current culture the personification of love and courtship in general. For the equivalent deity in Greek mythology, see Eros. Legend In the Roman version, Cupid was the son of Venus (goddess of love) and Mars.[1] [2] In the Greek version he was named Eros and seen as one of the primordial gods (though other myths exist as Classical statue of Cupid with his bow well). Cupid was often depicted with wings, a bow, and a quiver of arrows. The following story is almost identical in both cultures; the most familiar version is found in Lucius Apuleius's Metamorphoses. When Cupid's mother Venus became jealous of the princess Psyche, who was so beloved by her subjects that they forgot to worship Venus, she ordered Cupid to make Psyche fall in love with the vilest thing in the world. While Cupid was sneaking into her room to shoot Psyche with a golden arrow, he accidentally scratches himself with his own arrow and falls deeply in love with her. Following that, Cupid visited Psyche every night while she slept. Speaking to her so that she could not see him, he told her never to try to see him. Psyche, though, incited by her two older sisters who told her Cupid was a monster, tried to look at him and angered Cupid. When he left, she looked all over the known world for him until at last the leader of the gods, Jupiter, gave Psyche the gift of immortality so that she could be with him. Together they had a daughter, Voluptas, or Hedone, (meaning pleasure) and Psyche became a goddess. Her name "Psyche" means "soul." Cupid 45 Portrayal In painting and sculpture, Cupid is often portrayed as a nude (or sometimes diapered) winged boy or baby (a putto) armed with a bow and a quiver of arrows. The Hindu Kāma also has a very similar description. On gems and other surviving pieces, he is usually shown amusing himself with childhood play, sometimes driving a hoop, throwing darts, catching a butterfly, or flirting with a nymph. He is often depicted with his mother (in graphic arts, this is nearly always Venus), playing a horn. In other images, his mother is depicted scolding or even spanking him due to his mischievous nature. He is also shown wearing a helmet and carrying a buckler, perhaps in reference to Virgil's Omnia vincit amor or as political satire on wars for love or love as war. Cupid figures prominently in ariel poetry, lyrics and, of course, elegiac love and metamorphic poetry. In epic poetry, he is less often invoked, but he does appear in Virgil's Aeneid changed into the shape of Ascanius inspiring Dido's love. In later literature, Caravaggio's Amor Vincit Omnia Cupid is frequently invoked as fickle, playful, and perverse. He is often depicted as carrying two sets of arrows: one set gold-headed, which inspire love; and the other lead-headed, which inspire hatred. The best-known story involving Cupid is the tale of Cupid and Psyche. Notes [1] Cotterell, Arthur. Cupid: A Dictionary of World Mythology (http:/ / www. oxfordreference. com/ views/ ENTRY. html?subview=Main& entry=t73. e198) Oxford University Press, 1997. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed 26 April 2010 [2] John Lemprière, A classical dictionary; containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors:: with the value of coins, weights, and measures, used among the Greeks and Romans; and a chronological table (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=s6cTAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA225& dq=cupid+ father+ mother+ venus& lr=& as_brr=1& cd=4#v=onepage& q=cupid father mother venus& f=false) (1820) References • Cotterell, Arthur & Storm, Rachel (2008). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology. Annes Publishing Ltd.. • Arthur Cotterell & Rachel Storm, The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology, 2008 Annes Publishing Ltd. • Fabio Silva Vallejo, Mitos y leyendas del mundo (Spanish), 2004 Panamericana Editorial. Dei Lucrii 46 Dei Lucrii Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna Topics Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared Other gods of craft and trade: Penates Dei Lucrii Furrina Lemures Eventus Bonus Portunes Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares In early Roman mythology, the Dei Lucrii were early gods of wealth, profit, commerce and trade. They were later subsumed by Mercury. Dionysus 47 Dionysus Dionysus 2nd century Roman statue of Dionysus, after a Hellenistic model (ex-coll. Cardinal Richelieu, Louvre) God of Wine, Theatre, and Ecstasy Abode Symbol Consort Parents Roman equivalent Mount Olympus [1] Thyrsus, grapevine, leopard skin, panther, tiger, leopard Ariadne Zeus and Semele Bacchus, Liber Dionysus (pronounced /ˌdaɪəˈnaɪsəs/ dye-ə-NYE-səs; Greek: Διόνυσος, Dionysos) was the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy. His name in Linear B tablets shows he was worshipped from c. 1500—1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks: other traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete.[2] His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek.[3] [4] [5] In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; and in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", and his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, and is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians. His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theater. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male, bearded and robed. He holds a fennel staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, sensuous, naked or half-naked youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish".[6] In its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized. His procession (thiasus) is made up of wild female followers (maenads) and ithyphallic, bearded satyrs. Some are armed with the thyrsus, some dance or play music. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, and is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the human followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. In his Thracian mysteries, he wears the bassaris or fox-skin, symbolizing a new life. Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and thus symbolizes everything which is chaotic, dangerous and unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods.[7] He was also known as Bacchus (pronounced /ˈbækəs/ or English pronunciation: /ˈbɑːkəs/; Greek: Βάκχος, Bakkhos), the name adopted by the Romans[8] and the frenzy he induces, bakkheia. His thyrsus is sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey. It is a beneficent wand but also a weapon, and can be used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. He is also the Liberator (Eleutherios), whose wine, music and ecstatic dance frees his followers from self-conscious fear and care, and subverts the oppressive restraints of the powerful. Those who Dionysus partake in his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself.[9] His cult is also a "cult of the souls"; his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings, and he acts as a divine communicant between the living and the dead.[10] In Greek mythology, he is presented as a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, thus semi-divine or heroic: and as son of Zeus and Persephone or Demeter, thus both fully divine, part-chthonic and possibly identical with Iacchus of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios[11] or Zalmoxis.[12] 48 Names Etymology The name Dionysos is of uncertain significance. The dio- element has been associated since antiquity with Zeus (genitive Dios): the -nysos element is cited as of unknown, possibly non-Greek origin. In Dionysiac tradition, the place of the god's childhood and education is called Nysa. Nisah is an epithet of Shiva, and means supreme. Nisam is Dionysian procession on a marble sarcophagus, bliss, nisâ, joy. Nysa, the Happy mountain, is the equivalent of Kailâsa, possibly indicating that the deceased was an [13] the Earthly Paradise. The earliest attested form of the name is initiate into Dionysian mysteries Mycenaean Greek di-wo-nu-so, written in Linear B syllabic script, presumably for /Diwo(h)nūsos/, found on two tablets at Mycenaean Pylos and dated to the 12th or 13th century BC.[14] [15] Later variants include Boetian Dionūsos and Diōnūsos, and Ionic and Aeolian Deonūsos and Deunūsos. The Thessalian variant Dien(n)ūsos may be the most archaic form: the Dio- prefix is found in other names, such as that of the Dioscures, and may derive from Dios, the genitive of the name of Zeus.[16] Janda (2010, following Peters 1989) sees the verbal stem of diemai "to chase, hurry, impel". The second element -nūsos is associated with Mount Nysa, the birthplace of the god in Greek mythology, where he was nursed by nymphs (the Nysiads),[17] but according to the testimony of Pherecydes of Syros, nũsa was an archaic word for "tree".[18] The cult of Dionysus was closely associated with trees, specifically the fig tree, and some of his bynames exhibit this, such as Endendros "he in the tree" or Dendritēs, "he of the tree". Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods". Janda (2010) accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the (world-)tree." This interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain.[19] Epithets Acratophorus, ("giver of unmixed wine), at Phigaleia in Arcadia.[20] Acroreites at Sicyon..[21] Adoneus ("ruler") in his Latinised, Bacchic cult.[22] Aegobolus ("goat killer") at Potniae, in Boeotia.[23] Aesymnetes ("ruler" or "lord") at Aroë and Patrae in Achaea. Agrios ("wild"), in Macedonia. Bromios ("the thunderer" or "he of the loud shout"). Dendrites ("he of the trees"), as a fertility god. Dithyrambos, form of address used at his festivals, referring to his premature birth. Dionysus Eleutherios ("the liberator"), an epithet for both Dionysus and Eros. Endendros "he in the tree"[24] Enorches ("with balls",[25] with reference to his fertility, or "in the testicles" in reference to Zeus' sewing the baby Dionysus into his thigh, i.e., his testicles).[26] Used in Samos and Lesbos. Erikryptos ("completely hidden"), in Macedonia. Evius, in Euripides' play, The Bacchae. Iacchus, possibly an epithet of Dionysus and associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries; in Eleusis, he is known as a son of Zeus and Demeter. The name "Iacchus" may come from the Ιακχος (Iakchos), a hymn sung in honor of Dionysus. Liknites ("he of the winnowing fan"), as a fertility god connected with the mystery religions. A winnowing fan was used to separate the chaff from the grain. Lyaeus ("he who unties") or releases from care and anxiety. Melanaigis ("of the black goatskin") at the Apaturia festival. Oeneus, as god of the wine press. Pseudanor ("false man"), in Macedonia. In the Greek pantheon, Dionysus (along with Zeus) absorbs the role of Sabazios, a Thracian/Phrygian deity. In the Roman pantheon, Sabazius became an alternate name for Bacchus.[27] 49 Symbolism The bull, the serpent, the ivy and the wine are the signs of the characteristic Dionysian atmosphere, and Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni. He is often shown riding a leopard, wearing a leopard skin, or in a chariot drawn by panthers, and may also be recognized by the thyrsus he carries. Besides the grapevine and its wild barren alter-ego, the toxic ivy plant, both sacred to him, the fig was also his symbol. The pinecone that tipped his thyrsus linked him to Cybele. The Dionysia and Lenaia festivals in Athens were dedicated to Dionysus. Initiates worshipped him in the Dionysian Mysteries, which were comparable to and linked with the Orphic Mysteries, and may have influenced Gnosticism. Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus.[28] Dionysus was another god of resurrection who was strongly linked to the bull. In a cult hymn from Olympia, at a festival for Hera, Dionysus is invited to come as a bull; "with bull-foot raging." Walter Burkert relates, "Quite frequently [Dionysus] is portrayed with bull horns, and in Kyzikos he has a tauromorphic image," and refers also to an archaic myth in which Dionysus is slaughtered as a bull calf and impiously eaten by the Titans.[29] (In the Classical period of Greece, the bull and other animals identified with deities were separated from them as their agalma, a kind of heraldic show-piece that concretely signified their numinous presence).[29] Dionysus 50 Bacchanalia Introduced into Rome (c. 200 BC) from the Greek culture of southern Italy or by way of Greek-influenced Etruria, the bacchanalia were held in secret and attended by women only, in the grove of Simila, near the Aventine Hill, on March 16 and 17. Subsequently, admission to the rites was extended to men and celebrations took place five times a month. The mystery-cult may have been seen as a threat to the political status quo. The notoriety of these festivals, where many kinds of crimes and political conspiracies were supposed to be planned, led to a decree by the Senate in 186 BC — the so-called Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, inscribed on a bronze tablet discovered in Calabria (1640), now in Vienna — by which the Bacchanalia were prohibited throughout all Italy except in special cases that required specific approval by the Senate. In spite of the severe punishment inflicted on those found in violation of this decree, the Bacchanalia were not stamped out, at any rate in the south of Italy, for a very long time. Bacchus by Caravaggio Dionysus is equated with both Bacchus and Liber (also Liber Pater). Liber ("the free one") was a god of male fertility, wine, and growth, whose female counterpart was Libera. His festival was the Liberalia, celebrated on March 17, but in some myths the festival was also held on March 5. Mythology Birth Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon. His mother was a mortal woman, Semele, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus, the king of the gods. Zeus' wife, Hera, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant. Appearing as an old crone (in other stories a nurse), Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semele's mind. Curious, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood. The top course of this Roman sarcophagus shows Though Zeus begged her not to ask this, she persisted and he agreed. Dionysus's birth. In the top center, the baby god Therefore he came to her wreathed in bolts of lightning; mortals, comes out of Zeus's thigh. however, could not look upon an undisguised god without dying, and she perished in the ensuing blaze. Zeus rescued the fetal Dionysus by sewing him into his thigh. A few months later, Dionysus was born on Mount Pramnos in the island of Ikaria, where Zeus went to release the now-fully-grown baby from his thigh. In this version, Dionysus is born by two "mothers" (Semele and Zeus) before his birth, hence the epithet dimētōr (of two mothers) associated with his being "twice-born". In the Cretan version of the same story, which Diodorus Siculus follows,[30] Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Persephone, the queen of the Greek underworld. Diodorus' sources equivocally identified the mother as Demeter.[31] A jealous Hera again attempted to kill the child, this time by sending Titans to rip Dionysus to pieces after luring the baby with toys. It is said that he was mocked by the Titans who gave him a thyrsus (a fennel stalk) in place of his rightful sceptre.[32] Zeus turned the Titans into dust with his thunderbolts, but only after the Titans ate everything but the heart, which was saved, variously, by Athena, Rhea, or Demeter. Zeus used the heart to recreate him in his thigh, Dionysus hence he was again "the twice-born". Other versions claim that Zeus recreated him in the womb of Semele, or gave Semele the heart to eat to impregnate her. The rebirth in both versions of the story is the primary reason why Dionysus was worshipped in mystery religions, as his death and rebirth were events of mystical reverence. This narrative was apparently used in several Greek and Roman cults, and variants of it are found in Callimachus and Nonnus, who refer to this Dionysus with the title Zagreus, and also in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. The myth of the dismemberment of Dionysus by the titans, is alluded to by Plato in his Phaedo (69d) in which Socrates claims that the initiations of the Dionysian Mysteries are similar to those of the philosophic path. Late Neo-Platonists such as Damascius explore the implications of this at length.[33] 51 Infancy at Mount Nysa According to the myth Zeus gave the infant Dionysus into the charge of Hermes. One version of the story is that Hermes took the boy to King Athamas and his wife Ino, Dionysus' aunt. Hermes bade the couple raise the boy as a girl, to hide him from Hera's wrath.[34] Another version is that Dionysus was taken to the rain-nymphs of Nysa, who nourished his infancy and childhood, and for their care Zeus rewarded them by placing them as the Hyades among the stars (see Hyades star cluster). Other versions have Zeus giving him to Rhea, or to Persephone to raise in the Underworld, away from Hera. Alternatively, he was raised by Maro. Dionysus in Greek mythology is a god of foreign origin, and while Mount Nysa is a mythological location, it is invariably set far away to the east or to the south. The Homeric hymn to Dionysus places it "far from Phoenicia, near to the Egyptian stream". Others placed it in Anatolia, or in Libya ('away in the west beside a great ocean'), in Ethiopia (Herodotus), or Arabia (Diodorus Siculus). According to Herodotus: As it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus born than Zeus sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia beyond Egypt; and as for Pan, the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge. —Herodotus, Histories 2.146 Apollodorus seems to be following Pherecydes, who relates how the infant Dionysus, god of the grapevine, was nursed by the rain-nymphs, the Hyades at Nysa. Childhood When Dionysus grew up, he discovered the culture of the vine and the mode of extracting its precious juice; but Hera struck him with madness, and drove him forth a wanderer through various parts of the earth. In Phrygia the goddess Cybele, better known to the Greeks as Rhea, cured him and taught him her religious rites, and he set out on a progress through Asia teaching the people the cultivation of the vine. The most famous part of his wanderings is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted several years. Returning in triumph he undertook to introduce his worship into Greece, but was opposed by some princes who dreaded its introduction on account of the disorders and madness it brought with it (e.g. Pentheus or Lycurgus). North African Roman mosaic: Panther-Dionysus scatters the pirates, who are changed to dolphins, except for Acoetes, the helmsman. (Bardo National Museum) Dionysus was exceptionally attractive. One of the Homeric hymns recounts how, while disguised as a mortal sitting beside the seashore, a few sailors spotted him, believing he was a prince. They attempted to kidnap him and sail him Dionysus far away to sell for ransom or into slavery. They tried to bind him with ropes, but no type of rope could hold him. Dionysus turned into a fierce lion and unleashed a bear onboard, killing those he came into contact with. Those who jumped off the ship were mercifully turned into dolphins. The only survivor was the helmsman, Acoetes, who recognized the god and tried to stop his sailors from the start.[35] In a similar story, Dionysus desired to sail from Icaria to Naxos. He then hired a Tyrrhenian pirate ship. But when the god was on board, they sailed not to Naxos but to Asia, intending to sell him as a slave. So Dionysus turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes so that the sailors went mad and, leaping into the sea, were turned into dolphins. 52 Other stories Midas Once, Dionysus found his old school master and foster father, Silenus, missing. The old man had been drinking, and had wandered away drunk, and was found by some peasants, who carried him to their king, (alternatively, he passed out in Midas' rose garden). Midas recognized him, and treated him hospitably, entertaining him for ten days and nights with politeness, while Silenus entertained Midas and his friends with stories and songs. On the eleventh day, he brought Silenus back to Dionysus. Dionysus offered Midas his choice of whatever reward he wanted. Midas asked that whatever he might touch should be changed into gold. Dionysus consented, though was sorry that he had not made a better choice. Midas rejoiced in his new power, which he hastened to put to the test. He touched and turned to gold an oak twig and a stone. Overjoyed, as soon as he got home, he ordered the servants to set a feast on the table. Then he found that his bread, meat, daughter and wine turned to gold. Hermes and the Infant Dionysus by Praxiteles, (Archaeological Museum of Olympia) Upset, Midas strove to divest himself of his power (the Midas Touch); he hated the gift he had coveted. He prayed to Dionysus, begging to be delivered from starvation. Dionysus heard and consented; he told Midas to wash in the river Pactolus. He did so, and when he touched the waters the power passed into them, and the river sands changed into gold. This was an etiological myth that explained why the sands of the Pactolus were rich in gold. Pentheus Euripides composed a tragedy about the destructive nature of Dionysus in The Bacchae. Since Euripides wrote this play while in the court of King Archelaus of Macedon, some scholars believe that the cult of Dionysus was malicious in Macedon but benign in Athens. In the play, Dionysus returns to his birthplace, Thebes, which is ruled by his cousin Pentheus. Dionysus wants to exact revenge on Pentheus and the women of Thebes (his aunts Agave, Ino and Autonoe) for not believing his mother Semele's claims of being impregnated by Zeus, and for denying Dionysus's divinity (and therefore not worshiping him). Dionysus slowly drives Pentheus mad, lures him to the woods of Mount Cithaeron, and then convinces him to spy/peek on the Maenads (female worshippers of Dionysus, who often experienced divine ecstasy). The Maenads Kylix (6th century BC) depicting Dionysus among the sailors transformed to dolphins after attempting to kidnap him are in an insane frenzy when Pentheus sees them (earlier in the play they had ripped apart a herd of cattle), and they catch him but mistake him for a wild animal. Pentheus is torn to shreds, and his mother (Agave, one of the Dionysus Maenads), not recognizing her own son because of her madness, brutally tears his limbs off as he begs for his life. Because of their acts the women are banished from Thebes, ensuring Dionysus's revenge. Lycurgus When King Lycurgus of Thrace heard that Dionysus was in his kingdom, he imprisoned all the followers of Dionysus; the god fled, taking refuge with Thetis, and sent a drought which stirred the people into revolt. Dionysus then made King Lycurgus insane, having him slice his own son into pieces with an axe, thinking he was a patch of ivy, a plant holy to Dionysus. An oracle then claimed that the land would stay dry and barren as long as Lycurgus was alive, so his people had him drawn and quartered; with Lycurgus dead, Dionysus lifted the curse. This story was told in Homer's epic, Iliad 6.136-7. In an alternative version, sometimes shown in art, Lycurgus tried to kill Ambrosia, a follower of Dionysus, who was transformed into a vine that twined around the enraged king and restrained him, eventually killing him.[36] Prosymnus A better-known story is that of his descent to Hades to rescue his mother Semele, whom he placed among the stars.[37] He made the ascent from a reputedly bottomless pool on the coast of the Argolid near the prehistoric site of Lerna. He was guided by Prosymnus or Polymnus, who requested, as his reward, to be Dionysus' lover. Prosymnus died before Dionysus could honor his pledge, so in order to satisfy Prosymnus' shade, Dionysus fashioned a phallus from an olive branch and sat on it at Prosymnus' tomb.[38] This story is told in full only in Christian sources whose aim was to discredit pagan mythology. It appears to have served as an explanation of the secret objects that were revealed in the Dionysian Mysteries.[39] Ampelos Another myth according to Nonnus involves Ampelos, a satyr. Foreseen by Dionysus, the youth was killed in an accident riding a bull maddened by the sting of an Ate's gadfly. The Fates granted Ampelos a second life as a vine, from which Dionysus squeezed the first wine.[40] Chiron Young Dionysus was also said to have been one of the many famous pupils of the centaur Chiron. According to Ptolemy Chennus in the Library of Photius, "Dionysius was loved by Chiron, from whom he learned chants and dances, the bacchic rites and initiations."[41] Secondary myths When Hephaestus bound Hera to a magical chair, Dionysus got him drunk and brought her back to Olympus after he passed out. A third descent by Dionysus to Hades is invented by Aristophanes in his comedy The Frogs. Dionysus, as patron of the Athenian dramatic festival, the Dionysia, wants to bring back to life one of the great tragedians. After a competition Aeschylus is chosen in preference to Euripides. When Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, Dionysus found and married her. She bore him a son named Oenopion, but he committed suicide or was killed by Perseus. In some variants, he had her crown put into the heavens as the constellation Corona; in others, he descended into Hades to restore her to the gods on Olympus. 53 Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian, at the National Gallery in London Dionysus Callirrhoe was a Calydonian woman who scorned a priest of Dionysus who threatened to afflict all the women of Calydon with insanity (see Maenad). The priest was ordered to sacrifice Callirhoe but he killed himself instead. Callirhoe threw herself into a well which was later named after her. Acis, a Sicilian youth, was sometimes said to be Dionysus' son. 54 Consorts/Children 1. Aphrodite 1. Charites (Graces) 1. Pasithea 2. Euphrosyne 3. Thalia 2. Priapus 2. Ariadne 1. Oenopion 2. Staphylus 3. Peparethus 3. Nyx 1. Phthonus 4. Althaea 1. Deianeira 5. Circe 1. Comus Parallels with Christianity The earliest discussions of mythological parallels between Dionysus and the figure of the Christ in Christian theology can be traced to Friedrich Hölderlin, whose identification of Dionysus with Christ is most explicit in Brod und Wein (1800–1801) and Der Einzige (1801–1803).[42] Modern scholars such as Martin Hengel, Barry Powell, and Peter Wick, among others, argue that Dionysian religion and Christianity have notable parallels. They point to the symbolism of wine and the importance it held in the mythology surrounding both Dionysus and Jesus Christ;[43] [44] though, Wick argues that the use of wine symbolism in the Gospel of John, including the story of the Marriage at Cana at which Jesus turns water into wine, was intended to show Jesus as superior to Dionysus.[45] Additionally, some scholars of comparative mythology argue that both Dionysus and Jesus represent the "dying-and-returning god" mythological archetype.[29] Other elements, such as the celebration by a ritual meal of bread and wine, also have parallels.[46] Powell, in particular, argues precursors to the Christian notion of transubstantiation can be found in Dionysian religion.[46] Another parallel can be seen in The Bacchae wherein Dionysus appears before King Pentheus on charges of claiming divinity is compared to the New Testament scene of Jesus being interrogated by Pontius Pilate.[45] [46] [47] E. Kessler in a symposium Pagan Monotheism in the Roman Empire, Exeter, 17–20 July 2006, argues that Dionysian cult had developed into strict monotheism by the 4th century CE; together with Mithraism and other sects the cult formed an instance of "pagan monotheism" in direct competition with Early Christianity during Late Antiquity.[48] Dionysus 55 In art Classical The god appeared on many kraters and other wine vessels from classical Greece. His iconography became more complex in the Hellenistic period, between severe archaising or Neo Attic types such as the Dionysus Sardanapalus and types showing him as an indolent and androgynous young man and often shown nude (see the Dionysus and Eros, Naples Archeological Museum). The 4th century Lycurgus Cup in the British Museum is a spectacular cage cup which changes colour when light comes through the glass; it shows the bound King Lycurgus (Thrace) being taunted by the god and attacked by a satyr. Elizabeth Kessler has theorized that a mosaic appearing on the triclinium floor of the House of Aion in Nea Paphos, Cyprus, details a monotheistic worship of Dionysus.[49] In the mosaic, other gods appear but may only be lesser representations of the centrally-imposed Dionysus. Modern views Dionysus has remained an inspiration to artists, philosophers and writers into the modern era. In The Birth of Tragedy (1872), the "Bacchus" by Michelangelo (1497) German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche contrasted Dionysus with the god Apollo as a symbol of the fundamental, unrestrained aesthetic principle of force, music, and intoxication versus the principle of sight, form, and beauty represented by the latter. Nietzsche also claimed that the oldest forms of Greek Tragedy were entirely based on suffering of Dionysus. Nietzsche continued to contemplate the character of Dionysus, which he revisited in the final pages of his 1886 work Beyond Good and Evil. This reconceived Nietzschean Dionysus was invoked as an embodiment of the central will to power concept in Nietzsche's later works The Twilight of the Idols, The Antichrist and Ecce Homo. The Russian poet and philosopher Vyacheslav Ivanov elaborated the theory of Dionysianism, which traces the roots of literary art in general and the art of tragedy in particular to ancient Dionysian mysteries. His views were expressed in the treatises The Hellenic Religion of the Suffering God (1904), and Dionysus and Early Dionysianism (1921). Inspired by James Frazer, some have labeled Dionysus a life-death-rebirth deity. The mythographer Karl Kerenyi devoted much energy to Dionysus over his long career; he summed up his thoughts in Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life (Bollingen, Princeton) 1976. Dionysus is the main character of Aristophanes' play The Frogs, later updated to a modern version by Burt Shevelove (libretto) and Stephen Sondheim (music and lyrics) ("The time is the present. The place is ancient Greece. ... "). In the play, Dionysus and his slave Xanthius venture to Hades to bring a famed writer back from the dead, with the hopes that the writer's presence in the world will fix all nature of earthly problems. In Aristophanes' play, Euripides competes against Aeschylus to be recovered from the underworld; In Sondheim and Shevelove's, George Bernard Shaw faces William Shakespeare. The Romanised equivalent of Dionysus was referenced in the 1852 plantation literature novel Aunt Phillis's Cabin is alive, which featured a character named Uncle Bacchus, who was so-named due to his excessive alcoholism. Dionysus Both Eddie Campbell and Grant Morrison have utilised the character. Morrison claims that the myth of Dionysus provides the inspiration for his violent and explicit graphic novel Kill Your Boyfriend, whilst Campbell used the character in his Deadface series to explore both the conventions of super-hero comic books and artistic endeavour. Walt Disney has depicted the character on a number of occasions. The first such portrayal of Dionysus, as the Roman Bacchus, was in the "Pastoral" segment of Walt Disney's 3rd classic Fantasia. In keeping with the more fun-loving Roman god, he is portrayed as an overweight, happily drunk man wearing a tunic and cloak, grape leaves on his head, carrying a goblet of wine, and riding a drunken donkey named Jacchus ("jackass"). He is friends with the fauns and centaurs, and is shown celebrating a harvest festival. Other portrayals have appeared in both the Disney movie and spin-off TV series of Hercules. He was depicted as an overweight drunkard as opposed to his youthful descriptions in myths. He has bright pink skin and rosy red cheeks hinting at his drunkenness. He always carries either a bottle or glass of wine in his hand, and like in the myths, wears a wreath of grape leaves upon his head. He is known by his Roman name in the series 'Bacchus', and in one episode headlines his own festival known as the 'Bacchanal'. In music Dionysius (together with Demeter) was used as an archetype for the character Tori by contemporary artist Tori Amos in her 2007 album American Doll Posse, and the Canadian rock band Rush refer to a confrontation and hatred between Dionysus and Apollo in the Cygnus X-1 duology. In literature, Dionysius has proven equally inspiring. Rick Riordan's series of books Percy Jackson & The Olympians presents Dionysus as an uncaring, childish and spoilt god who as a punishment has to work in Camp Half-Blood. In Fred Saberhagen's 2001 novel, God of the Golden Fleece, a young man in a post-apocalyptic world picks up an ancient piece of technology shaped in the likeness of the Dionysus. Here, Dionysus is depicted as a relatively weak god, albeit a subversive one whose powers are able to undermine the authority of tyrants. A version of Bacchus also appears in C.S. Lewis' Prince Caspian, part of the Chronicles of Narnia. Lewis depicts him as dangerous-looking, androgynous young boy who helps Aslan awaken the spirits of the Narnian trees and rivers. He does not appear in the 2008 film version. In 2009 the poet Stephen Howarth and veteran theatre producer Andrew Hobbs collaborated on a play entitled Bacchus in Rehab with Dionysus as the central character. The authors describe the piece as "combining highbrow concept and lowbrow humour".[50] The second season of True Blood involves a plot line wherein a maenad, Maryann, causes mayhem in the Louisiana town of Bon Temps in attempt to summon Dionysus. 56 Names originating from Dionysus • • • • • • • • • Dion (also spelled Deion and Dionne) Denise (also spelled Denice, Daniesa, Denese, and Denisse) Dennis, Denis or Denys (including the derivative surnames Denison and Dennison), Denny Denis, Dionis, Dionisie (Romanian) Dénes (Hungarian) Dionisio/Dyonisio (Spanish), Dionigi (Italian) Διονύσιος, Διονύσης, Νιόνιος (Dionysios, Dionysis, Nionios Modern Greek) Deniska (diminutive of Russian Denis, itself a derivative of the Greek) Dionísio (Portuguese) Dionysus 57 Gallery The Ludovisi Dionysus with panther, satyr and grapes on a vine (Palazzo Altemps, Rome) Dionysos riding a leopard, 4th century BC mosaic from Pella Statue of Dionysus (Sardanapalus) (Museo Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme, Rome) Dionysus extending a drinking cup (kantharos), late 6th century BC Drinking Bacchus (1623) Guido Reni Notes [1] Another variant, from the Spanish royal colledtion, is at the Museo del Prado, Madrid: illustration. [2] Kerenyi 1976. [3] Thomas McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought, Allsworth press, 2002, pp.118-121. googlebooks preview (http:/ / books. google. co. za/ books?id=vTfm8KHn900C& lpg=PA118& dq=dionysus thracian& pg=PA118#v=onepage& q& f=false) [4] Reginald Pepys Winnington-Ingram, Sophocles: an interpretation, Cambridge University Press, 1980, p.109 googlebooks preview (http:/ / books. google. co. za/ books?id=OPo8nVmC9LQC& pg=PA109& dq=dionysus+ thracian& hl=en& ei=J8P_TMXlFcO-4ganoZ3OCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDMQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q=thrace& f=false) [5] Zofia H. Archibald, in Gocha R. Tsetskhladze (Ed.) Ancient Greeks west and east, Brill, 1999, p.429 ff. googlebooks preview (http:/ / books. google. co. za/ books?id=ctsUcNshh68C& lpg=PA432& dq=dionysus thracian& pg=PA432#v=onepage& q& f=false) [6] Otto, Walter F. (1995). Dionysus Myth and Cult. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253208912. [7] Gods of Love and Ecstasy, Alain Danielou p.15 [8] In Greek "both votary and god are called Bacchus." Burkert, Greek Religion 1985:162. For the initiate as Bacchus, see Euripides, Bacchantes 491. For the god, who alone is Dionysus, see Sophocles Oedipus the King 211 and Euripides Hippolytus 560. [9] Sutton, p.2, mentions Dionysus as The Liberator in relation to the city Dionysia festivals. In Euripides, Bacchae 379-385: "He holds this office, to join in dances, [380] to laugh with the flute, and to bring an end to cares, whenever the delight of the grape comes at the feasts of the gods, and in ivy-bearing banquets the goblet sheds sleep over men." (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Eur. + Ba. + 370) [10] Xavier Riu, Dionysism and Comedy, Rowman and Littlefield, 1999, p.105 ff. googlebooks preview (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=wob1UszzkZwC& lpg=PR7& ots=k4W8gIVT_T& dq=riu, xavier, dionysism and comedy, chapter 4, happiness& lr=lang_en& pg=PA105#v=onepage& q=dead presides living& f=false) [11] Dictionary of Ancient Deities by Patricia Turner and the late Charles Russell Coulter, 2001, p.152. Dionysus [12] Dictionary of Ancient Deities by Patricia Turner and the late Charles Russell Coulter, 2001, p.520. [13] Gods of Love and Ecstasy, Alain Danielou p.135 [14] John Chadwick, The Mycenaean World, Cambridge University Press, 1976, 99ff: "But Dionysos surprisingly appears twice at Pylos, in the form Diwonusos, both times irritatingly enough on fragments, so that we have no means of verifying his divinity." [15] Palaeolexicon (http:/ / www. palaeolexicon. com/ default. aspx?static=12& wid=346747), Word study tool of ancient languages [16] This is recognized by Garcia Ramon (1987) and Peters (1989) and is summarised and endorsed in Janda (2010:20). [17] Fox, p. 217, "The word Dionysos is divisible into two parts, the first originally Διος (cf. Ζευς), while the second is of an unknown signification, although perhaps connected with the name of the Mount Nysa which figures in the story of Lykourgos: (...) when Dionysos had been reborn from the thigh of Zeus, Hermes entrusted him to the nymphs of Mount Nysa, who fed him on the food of the gods, and made him immortal". [18] Found in an early 5th c. BC fragment, FGrH 3, 178. The context is a discussion of the name of Dionysus: "Nũsas (acc. pl.), he [Pherecydes] said, was what they called the trees." [19] see Janda (2010), 16-44 for a detailed account. [20] Pausanias, 8.39.6. [21] Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Ακρωρεία [22] Ausonius, Epigr. xxix. 6. [23] Pausanias, ix. 8. § 1. [24] Janda (2010), 16-44. [25] Kerenyi 1976:286. [26] Jameson 1993, 53. Cf.n16 for suggestions of Devereux on "Enorkhes". [27] Rosemarie Taylor-Perry, The God Who Comes: Dionysian Mysteries Revisited. Algora Press 2003, p.89, cf. Sabazius. [28] Apollodorus (Pseudo Apollodorus), Library and Epitome, 1.3.2 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Apollod. + 1. 3. 2). "Orpheus also invented the mysteries of Dionysus, and having been torn in pieces by the Maenads he is buried in Pieria." [29] Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion, 1985 pp. 64, 132 [30] Diorodus V 75.4, noted by Karl Kerényi, Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life (Princeton University Press) 1976, "The Cretan core of the Dionysos myth" p 110 note 213 and pp 110-114. [31] Diodorus III 64.1, also noted by Kerény (110 note 214.) [32] Damascius, Commentary on the Phaedo, I, 170, see in translation Westerink, The Greek Commentaries on Plato's Phaedo, vol. II (The Prometheus Trust, Westbury) 2009 [33] Damascius, Commentary on the Phaedo, I, 1-13 and 165-172, see in translation Westerink, The Greek Commentaries on Plato's Phaedo, vol. II, The Prometheus Trust, Westbury, 2009 [34] Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Includes Frazer's notes. ISBN 0674991354, ISBN 0674991362 [35] Theoi.com" Homeric Hymn to Dionysus (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Olympios/ DionysosWrath. html#Tyrrhenian) [36] British Museum (http:/ / www. britishmuseum. org/ explore/ highlights/ highlight_objects/ pe_mla/ t/ the_lycurgus_cup. aspx) on the Lycurgus Cup [37] Hyginus, Astronomy 2.5. [38] Clement of Alexandria, Protreptikos, II-30 3-5 [39] Arnobius, Against the Gentiles 5.28 (Dalby 2005, pp. 108–117) [40] Nonnus, Dionysiaca (X.175-430; XI; XII.1-117); (Dalby 2005, pp. 55–62). [41] Photius, Library; "Ptolemy Chennus, New History" [42] The mid-19th century debates are traced in G.S. Williamson, The Longing for Myth in Germany, 2004. [43] Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 26. 1 - 2 [44] Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 2. 34a [45] Wick, Peter (2004). "Jesus gegen Dionysos? Ein Beitrag zur Kontextualisierung des Johannesevangeliums" (http:/ / www. bsw. org/ ?l=71851& a=Comm06. html). Biblica (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute) 85 (2): 179–198. . Retrieved 2007-10-10. [46] Powell, Barry B., Classical Myth Second ed. With new translations of ancient texts by Herbert M. Howe. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. [47] Studies in Early Christology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0fLPOx1B-AwC& pg=PA331& lpg=PA331& dq="dionysus+ had+ been+ at+ home+ in+ palestine+ for+ a+ long+ time"& source=web& ots=GHsCkhiNP6& sig=qE6Sov5Xi_LB_zpRAQZreSAekTQ), by Martin Hengel, 2005, p.331 (ISBN 0567042804) [48] E. Kessler, Dionysian Monotheism in Nea Paphos, Cyprus: "two monotheistic religions, Dionysian and Christian, existed contemporaneously in Nea Paphos during the 4th century C.E. [...] the particular iconography of Hermes and Dionysos in the panel of the Epiphany of Dionysos [...] represents the culmination of a pagan iconographic tradition in which an infant divinity is seated on the lap of another divine figure; this pagan motif was appropriated by early Christian artists and developed into the standardized icon of the Virgin and Child. Thus the mosaic helps to substantiate the existence of pagan monotheism." ( Abstract (http:/ / www. huss. ex. ac. uk/ classics/ conferences/ pagan_monotheism/ abstracts. html)) [49] Kessler, E., Dionysian Monotheism in Nea Paphos, Cyprus, [50] Facsimile Productions - Current Productions (http:/ / www. facsimileproductions. co. uk/ page_1193321376829. html) 58 Dionysus 59 References • Dalby, Andrew (2005). The Story of Bacchus. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0714122556 (US ISBN 0-89236-742-3) • Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Cults of the Greek States, 1896. Volume V, cf. Chapter IV, Cults of Dionysos; Chapter V, Dionysiac Ritual; Chapter VI, Cult-Monuments of Dionysos; Chapter VII, Ideal Dionysiac Types. • Fox, William Sherwood, The Mythology of All Races, v.1, Greek and Roman, 1916, General editor, Louis Herbert Gray. • Janda, Michael, Die Musik nach dem Chaos, Innsbruck 2010. • Jameson, Michael. "The Asexuality of Dionysus." Masks of Dionysus. Ed. Thomas H. Carpenter and Christopher A. Faraone. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993. ISBN 0-8014-8062-0. 44-64. • Kerényi, Karl, Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, (Princeton: Bollingen) 1976. googlebooks preview (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cXL-QIIhn5gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Dionysos:+ Archetypal+Image+of+Indestructible+Life&source=bl&ots=Yfys2bq-l8& sig=kttZbkmKrfdmjIQ8bHPJzd6ZhaY&hl=en&ei=jggGTbirMoeA4Qax1JG7Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false) • Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur, The Theatre of Dionysus at Athens, 1946. • Powell, Barry B., Classical Myth, 5th edition, 2007. • Ridgeway, William, Origin of Tragedy, 1910. Kessinger Publishing (June 2003). ISBN 0-7661-6221-4. • Ridgeway, William, The Dramas and Dramatic Dances of non-European Races in special reference to the origin of Greek Tragedy, with an appendix on the origin of Greek Comedy, 1915. • Riu, Xavier, Dionysism and Comedy, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers (1999). ISBN 0-8476-9442-9. (http:// ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2000/2000-06-13.html) • Seaford, Richard. "Dionysos", Routledge (2006). ISBN 0-415-32488-2. • Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, article on Dionysus, (http:// www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1052.html) • Sutton, Dana F., Ancient Comedy, Twayne Publishers (August 1993). ISBN 0-8057-0957-6. Bibliography • Livy, History of Rome, Book 39 (http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy39.html):13, Description of banned Bacchanalia in Rome and Italy • Detienne, Marcel, Arthur Goldhammer (translator), Dionysos at Large, Harvard University Press, 1989. ISBN 0674207734. (Originally in French as Dionysos à ciel ouvert, 1986) • Albert Henrichs, Between City and Country: Cultic Dimensions of Dionysus in Athens and Attica, (April 1, 1990). Department of Classics, UCB. Cabinet of the Muses: Rosenmeyer Festschrift. Paper festschrift18. (http:// repositories.cdlib.org/ucbclassics/ctm/festschrift18/) • Seaford, Richard. Dionysos (Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World). Oxford: Routledge, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-32487-4; paperback, ISBN 0-415-32488-2). • Taylor-Perry, Rosemarie The God Who Comes: Dionysian Mysteries Revisited. New York: Algora Press, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 0-87586-214-4; paperback, ISBN 0-87586-213-6). Dionysus 60 External links • Theoi Project, Dionysos (http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html) myths from original sources, cult, classical art • Iconographic Themes in Art: Bacchus | Dionysos (http://www.xs4all.nl/~schuffel/english/bacchus/) • Thomas Taylor's treatise on the Bacchic Mysteries (http://www.prometheustrust.co.uk/html/7_-_oracles. html) • Dionysos Links and Booklist (http://www.baubo5.com/dionysos.html) (A huge list of links.) • Mosaic of Dionysus at Ephesus Terrace Home-2 (http://www.panoramio.com/photo/4731362) • The birth of Dionysus from the thigh of Zeus (http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/achilles/graphics/trag Dionysus 667.gif) - Volute crater from Apulia Dis Pater Dis Pater, or Dispater (cf. Skt. Dyaus Pitar), was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades. Originally a chthonic god of riches, fertile agricultural land, and underground mineral wealth, he was later commonly equated with the Roman deities Pluto and Orcus, becoming an underworld deity. Dis Pater was commonly shortened to simply Dis (much like how Dyaus Pitar was also simply called Dyaus). This name has since become an alternative name for the underworld or a part of the underworld, such as the Dis of The Divine Comedy. Etymology Dis Pater was originally a god of wealth, much like the Roman god Pluto (from Greek Πλούτων, Ploutōn, meaning "wealthy"), who was later equated with Dis Pater. Dis is contracted from the Latin dis (from dives meaning "rich"), and pater ("father"), the literal meaning of Dis Pater being "Wealthy Father" or "Father of Riches" . Julius Caesar writes in Commentarii de Bello Gallico that the Gauls considered Dis Pater to be an ancestor. In thus interpreting the Gauls' god as Dis, Caesar offers one of his many examples of interpretatio Romana, the re-identification of foreign divinities as their closest Roman counterparts. The choice of Dis to translate whatever Celtic divinity Caesar has in mind - most likely Cernunnos, as the two are both associated with both the Underworld and prosperity - may in part be due to confusion between Dis Pater and the Proto-Indo-European deity *Dyeus, who would have been addressed as *Dyeu Phter ("Sky Father"). This name is also the likely origin of the name of many Indo-European gods, including Zeus and Jupiter, though the name's similarity to Dis Pater may be in part coincidental. Mythology Like Pluto, Dis Pater eventually became associated with death and the underworld because the wealth of the earth—gems and precious metals—was considered in the domain of the Greco-Roman underworld. As a result, Dis Pater was over time conflated with the Roman god Pluto, who became associated with the Greek god Hades as the deity's role as a god of death became more prominent than his role as a wealth god. In being conflated with Pluto, Dis Pater took on some of the Greek mythological attributes of Pluto/Hades, being one of the three sons of Saturn (Greek: Cronus) and Ops (Greek: Rhea), along with Jupiter and Neptune. He ruled the underworld and the dead beside his wife, Proserpina (Greek: Persephone).[1] In literature, Dis Pater was commonly used as a symbolic and poetic way of referring to death itself. Dis Pater 61 Worship When Dis Pater was in the underworld, only oaths and curses could reach him, and people invoked him by striking the earth with their hands. Black sheep were sacrificed to him, and those who performed the sacrifice averted their faces. Dis Pater, like his Greek equivalent, Hades, had little or no real cult following, and so there are few statues of him. In 249 BC and 207 BC, the Roman Senate under Senator Lucius Catelli ordained special festivals to appease Dis Pater and Proserpina. Every hundred years, a festival was celebrated in his name. According to legend, a round marble altar, Altar of Dis Pater and Proserpina (Latin: Ara Ditis Patris et Proserpinae), was miraculously discovered by the servants of a Sabine called Valesius, the ancestor of the first consul. The servants were digging in the Tarentum on the edge of the Campus Martius to lay foundations following instructions given to Valesius's children in dreams, when they found the altar 20 feet (6 m) underground. Valesius reburied the altar after three days of games. Sacrifices were offered to this altar during the Ludi Saeculares or Ludi Tarentini. It may have been uncovered for each occasion of the games, to be reburied afterwards, a clearly chthonic tradition of worship. It was rediscovered in 1886–87 beneath the Corso Vittorio Emanuele in Rome.[2] [3] In addition to being considered the ancestor of the Gauls, Dis Pater was sometimes identified with the Sabine god Soranus. In southern Germany and the Balkans, Dis Pater had a Celtic goddess, Aericura, as a consort. Dis Pater was rarely associated with foreign deities in the shortened form of his name, Dis.[4] References Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Grimal. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 141, 177. ISBN 0631132090. Nash. Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome Volume 1. London: A. Zwemmer Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 0878172653. Richardson. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0801843006.. Green. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0500015163. Dius Fidius 62 Dius Fidius Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion, Dius Fidius (less often as Dius Fidus) was a god associated with Jupiter. His name was thought to be related to Fides[1] , and he was a god of oaths. Dius Fidius Fidius may be an earlier form for filius, "son",[2] with the name Dius Fidius originally referring to Hercules as a son of Jupiter[3] . According to some writers,[4] the phrase medius fidius was equivalent to mehercule "My Hercules!", a common interjection. 63 References [1] Sextus Pompeius Festus s. v. medius [2] William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 2, page 150, under Fidius (http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. com/ smith-bio/ 1258. html) [3] Ovid, Fasti, 6. 213 [4] Cicero, Letters to friends, 5. 21; Pliny, Letters, 4. 3 External links • Myth Index - Fidius (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/F/Fidius.html) Domiducus In Roman mythology, Domiducus was the god who brought brides to their husbands' houses. His feminine counterpart was Domiduca. Domitius Domitius (or Domidius), in Roman mythology, was a god of marriage, specifically, "The god which helps the groom bring the bride into the marriage house."[1] [2] who kept wives in the households of their husbands. The name is derived from the Latin word for "home". References [1] Gregory Flood's Roman Gods and Goddesses (http:/ / ancienthistory. about. com/ library/ bl/ bl_gregory_gods. htm) [2] Roman God Name Evolution (http:/ / www. mythome. org/ romegodevol. html) Elagabalus (deity) 64 Elagabalus (deity) Elagabalus or Heliogabalus is a Syro-Roman sun god. Cult Elagabalus was initially venerated at Emesa in Syria. The name is the Latinized form of the Syrian Ilāh hag-Gabal, which derives from Ilāh "god" and gabal "mountain") compare Hebrew: ‫לבג‬‎ gəbul and Arabic: ‫لبج‬‎ jabal), resulting in "the God of the Mountain" the Emesene manifestation of the deity.[1] The cult of the deity spread to other parts of the Roman Empire in the second century. For example, a dedication has been found as far away as Woerden (Netherlands).[2] The temple at Emesa, containing the holy stone, on the reverse of this bronze coin by Roman usurper Uranius. In Rome The cult statue was brought to Rome by the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, who before his accession was the hereditary high priest at Emesa and is commonly called Elagabalus after the deity.[3] The Syrian deity was assimilated with the Roman sun god known as Sol Invictus ("the Undefeated Sun").[4] A temple called the Elagabalium was built on the east face of the Palatine Hill, to house the holy stone of the Emesa temple, a black conical meteorite.[5] Herodian writes of that stone: This stone is worshipped as though it were sent from heaven; on it there are some small projecting pieces and markings that are pointed out, which the people would like to believe are a rough picture of the sun, because this is how they see them.[6] Herodian also relates that Elagabalus forced senators to watch while he danced around his deity's altar to the sound of drums and cymbals,[5] and at each summer solstice celebrated a great festival, popular with the masses because of food distributions,[7] during which he placed the holy stone on a chariot adorned with gold and jewels, which he paraded through the city: Roman aureus depicting Elagabalus. The reverse reads Sanct Deo Soli Elagabal (To A six horse chariot carried the Holy Sun God Elagabal), and depicts a four-horse, gold chariot carrying the holy the divinity, the horses huge stone of the Emesa temple. and flawlessly white, with expensive gold fittings and rich ornaments. No one held the reins, and no one rode in the chariot; the vehicle was escorted as if the Elagabalus (deity) god himself were the charioteer. Elagabalus ran backward in front of the chariot, facing the god and holding the horses reins. He made the whole journey in this reverse fashion, looking up into the face of his god.[7] Herodian's description strongly suggests that the Emesene cult was inspired by the Babylonian Akitu-festival.[8] The Emperor also tried to bring about a union of Roman and Syrian religion under the supremacy of his deity, which he placed even above Jupiter,[9] and to which he assigned either Astarte, Minerva or Urania, or some combination of the three, as wife.[7] The most sacred relics from the Roman religion were transferred from their respective shrines to the Elagabalium, including "the emblem of the Great Mother, the fire of Vesta, the Palladium, the shields of the Salii, and all that the Romans held sacred." He reportedly also declared that Jews, Samaritans and Christians must transfer their rites to his temple so that it "might include the mysteries of every form of worship."[10] After the Emperor was killed in 222, his religious edicts were reversed and the cult of Elagabalus returned to Emesa.[11] 65 Literature • M. Pietrzykowsky, "Die Religionspolitik des Kaisers Elagabal", in: Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II 16.3 (1986) 806-1825 References [1] Lenormant, Francois (1881). "Sol Elagabalus". Revue de l'Histoire des Religions 3: 310. [2] An Early Dedication to Elagabal (http:/ / rambambashi. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 05/ 22/ an-early-dedication-to-elagabal/ ); the inscription is in now in Woerden's city museum. [3] Halsberghe, Gaston H. (1972). The Cult of Sol Invictus. Leiden: Brill. pp. 62. [4] Devlaminck, Pieter (2004). "De Cultus van Sol Invictus: Een vergelijkende studie tussen keizer Elagabalus (218-222) en keizer Aurelianus (270-275)" (http:/ / www. ethesis. net/ invictus/ invictus_inhoud. htm) (in Dutch). University of Ghent. . Retrieved 2007-08-07. [5] Herodian, Roman History V.5 (http:/ / www. livius. org/ he-hg/ herodian/ hre505. html) [6] Herodian, Roman History V.3 (http:/ / www. livius. org/ he-hg/ herodian/ hre503. html) [7] Herodian, Roman History V.6 (http:/ / www. livius. org/ he-hg/ herodian/ hre506. html). [8] M. Geller, "The Last Wedge," in Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 87 (1997), pp. 43-95. [9] Cassius Dio, Roman History LXXX.11 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Cassius_Dio/ 80*. html#79-11) [10] Augustan History, Life of Elagabalus 3 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Historia_Augusta/ Elagabalus/ 1*. html#3. 4) [11] Herodian, Roman History VI.6 (http:/ / www. livius. org/ he-hg/ herodian/ hre601. html) External links • Livius.org: Elagabal (http://www.livius.org/ei-er/elagabal/elagabal.html) Endovelicus 66 Endovelicus Endovelicus (Endovélico in Portuguese, also Endouellicus), was an Iron Age god of public health and safety, worshipped in pre-Roman and Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia. He was associated with chthonic oracles and healing, and was probably the recipient of pig sacrifices. After the Roman invasion, his cult spread to most of the Roman Empire, but was always most popular in the Roman provinces of Lusitania (covering part of what is now Portugal) and Betica (located in Southern Spain). Thus he is considered part of the Roman mythology and the related Lusitanian and Gallaecian mytology. Endovelicus has a temple in São Miguel da Mota in Alentejo, Portugal, and there are numerous inscriptions and ex-votos dedicated to him in the Museu Etnológico de Lisboa (the Ethnological Museum of Lisbon). The cult of Endovelicus prevailed until the 5th century, just when Christianity was spreading in the region. Powers Endovelicus was a supreme solar healing god, thus a god of Medicine. Some suspect he was also a god who wore several faces, one of which may have been an "infernal" one, since all solar gods went down to the infernos and returned with healing power. After receiving certain rites, if a person or priest slept in his sanctuary, Endovelicus would talk to them in their dreams and even tell them about their own future or offer advice. Endovelicus also protected the cities or region that venerated him. The epithets given to Endovelicus are deus, sanctus, prarsentissimus and preaestantissimus. These suggest that the god was effective, and always present and living on the sanctuary. Votive altars suggest that the god inspired the early Lusitanian resistance against the Romans. The name In the 19th century, António da Visitação Freire classified the name of "Endovelicus" as a mixed Celtic and Phoenician name, adapted to the Roman language. The End- radical would be from Celtic languages; Bel (or Vel-) would be Phoenician for Lord and - Cus a usual word termination in Latin. José Leite de Vasconcelos believed the word Endovellicus was originally Celtic, Andevellicos, meaning very good. Temples and cult As a powerful Lusitanian God, the Romans also adopted it and his cult spread to other regions of the Empire. In the municipality of Alandroal, there is the Santuário da Rocha da Mina (Mina's Rock Sanctuary); some authors classify it as a temple of Endovelicus. It is the only known place of this kind in Southern Portugal. Near the temple, we can find the Lucefecit rivulet that has been associated with Lucifer since the Middle Ages. Lucifer was the name used by the Romans for the Morning star and the goddess Venus. Some authors connect the name of the rivulet with the meaning of the place as being the "Glimpse of Light". A kilometer away, there is a sacred fountain that is said to be more ancient than the temple; its waters are still considered medicinal. The temple is rocky and hemmed in by a rocky formation that protects the site and the chiselled flooring is often related to Roman sacrificial altars. This sort of monument is not uncommon in the North of Portugal and on the Spanish Meseta. Leite de Vasconcelos mentions that the site was used by Roman people from all walks of life. Several inscriptions suggest that the temple of Endovelicus was used as an oracle. One of the inscriptions states: EX IMPERATO AVERNO. Leite de Vasconcelos translated this as “segundo a determinação que emanou de baixo" (by the determination that emanated from below) suggesting that there is a similarity to the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Steam would emanate Endovelicus from below, deep within the earth, and bestow clairvoyance. Vasconcelos also suggests that believers practiced the incubatio, sleeping at the site, hoping for dreams they could interpret later. In Castro de Ulaca in Ávila, a city on the border of the ancient province of Lusitania, a sanctuary dedicated to Vaelicus has been discovered. The name could be related to Endovelicus. The most notable sanctuary hypothetically dedicated to Endovelicus, is the Roman Sanctuary of Panóias in Vila Real, Trás-os-Montes, with a complex system of "sinks" bearing Roman inscriptions. Nearby, in Cabeço de São Miguel da Mota, another temple dedicated to Endovelicus was built and, on its ruins, the Alans built or readapted the previous temple, a sanctuary dedicated to Saint Michael (São Miguel in Portuguese). The Muslims transformed the temple into a mosque, and with the Reconquista the temple was once agan made a Christian temple. In 1559 the temple was still somewhat well preserved when the Cardinal Henrique ordered 96 marble columns to be removed from the place to build the Colégio do Espírito Santo in Évora. From the building only the staging remained. But archaeological forays have turned up pottery and amphorae as well as votive altars dedicated to Endovelicus, and lead to the discovery of several architectural elements, among them the "sinks" made in the rocks. The sinks suggests the existence of rituals, animal sacrifice and, possibly, feasts of a ritual nature. 67 References • Loução, Paulo Alexandre: Portugal, Terra de Mistérios Ésquilo, 2000 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-04-8). • Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 See also • Lusitanian mythology • List of deities • List of Di Indigetes Evander of Pallene 68 Evander of Pallene In Roman mythology, Evander (from Greek Εὔανδρος Euandros, "good man" or "strong man")[1] [2] or Euander was a deific culture hero from Arcadia, Greece, who brought the Greek pantheon, laws and alphabet to Italy, where he founded the city of Pallantium on the future site of Rome, sixty years before the Trojan War. He instituted the Lupercalia. The oldest tradition of its founding ascribes to Evander the erection of the Great Altar of Hercules in the Forum Boarium. In Virgil's Aeneid, VIII, where Aeneas and his crew first come upon them, Evander and his people are engaged in venerating Hercules for having dispatched the giant Cacus. Virgil's listeners recognized the same Great Altar of Hercules in the Forum Boarium of their own day, one detail among the passages that Virgil has saturated Evander from "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum " with references linking a heroic past with the Age of Augustus. As Virgil's backstory goes, Hercules had been returning from Gades with Geryon's cattle when Evander entertained him and was the first to raise an altar to this hero. The archaic altar was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, AD 64. Evander was born to Mercury and Carmenta, and his wisdom was beyond that of all Arcadians. According to Virgil [3] , previous to the Trojan War, he gathered a group of natives to a city he founded in Italy near the Tiber river, which he named Pallantium. Virgil states that he named the city in honor of his son, Pallas, although Pausanias as well as Dionysius of Halicarnassus [4] say that Evander's birth city was Pallantium, thus he named the new city after the one in Arcadia. Since he met Anchises before the Trojan War, Evander aids Aeneas[5] in his battle against the Rutuli under the autochthonous leader Turnus and plays a major role in Aeneid Book XII. Evander was deified after his death and had an altar constructed in his name on the Aventine Hill. Pallas apparently died childless, leaving the natives under Turnus to ravage his kingdom. However, the gens Fabia claimed descent from Evander. Notes [1] Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary at Perseus (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0059:entry=#16312) [2] A Greek spelling Euandros was affected by poets to emphasize the etymology of the name, "good man." [3] 'Aeneid, viii [4] Roman Antiquities, i. 31 [5] They share descent through their common ancestor Atlas External links •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Evander". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. Eventus Bonus 69 Eventus Bonus Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Bonus Eventus - Good success was honoured inAncient Rome with a peculiar worship. On a denarius of Scribonius Libo, gens occur these abbreviated words, owing no doubt (says Eckhel, v 303) to the Roman practice of consecrating every thing capable of producing good and evil, as Fortune, Hope, Genius, etc. And thus with Eventus; Eventus Bonus just as Lucretius enumerates among events, Slavery, Liberty, Riches, Povery, War, Peace (L i v 456). Eventus, according to Cicero's definition (De Invent. Rhet. i c 28), is "the issue of any matter respecting which we generally inquire, what has resulted, or may result, or will ultimately result, from such circumstances." Thus if anything turned out well it was attributed to Bonus Eventus; that it was considered to be of the same nature as Felicitas, is proved by a denarius engraved in Morell. Thesaur. amongst the incerti, Tab ii D on which near a female head is inscribed BON EVENT ET FELICITAS. Eckhel expresses his own opinion to be that "this Genius of the Romans is the same as the 'ΑΝΤΟΜΑΤΙΑ of the Greeks; and he quotes what Plutarch says of Timolean, "Having built in his house a shrine to 'ΑΝΤΟΜΑΤΙΑ, he sacrificed to her; but the house itself he dedicated to the sacred ∆ΑΙΜΩΥ (genius). And Nepos also, in his life, corroberates the fact of that great reverence, which Timolean paid the above named deification of chance or fortunate events. The reason for this conduct was, that whatever he undertook he prospered. Consequently, 'ΑΝΤΟΜΑΤΙΑ is niether more nor less than the spontaneous agency of Fortune, that is to say Eventus, and Bonus Eventus, because thatnks were returned to it; and it was believed to be presided over by a good or sacred Genius, by the Greeks styled ΑΓΑΘΟΣ, or ΓΕΠΟΣ ∆ΑΙΜΩΥ." Bonus Eventus, according to Publius Victor, had a temple in the ninth quarter of Rome; and Ammianus also mentions it. On consular denarii the female sex is assigned to Eventus (see Scribonia gens). Also on an autonoomous, or family denarius of Galba. But on those of other emperors down to the time of Gallienus, this deity is represented as of the male sex. 70 Sources Fabulinus In the popular religion of ancient Rome, though not appearing in literary Roman mythology, the god Fabulinus (from fabulari, to speak) taught children to speak. He received an offering when the child spoke its first words. He figured among what Walter Pater enumerated in Marius the Epicurean (1885) among: the names of that populace of 'little gods', dear to the Roman home, which the pontiffs had placed on the sacred list of the Indigitamenta,[1] to be invoked, because they can help, on special occasions, were not forgotten in the long litany— Vatican who causes the infant to utter his first cry, Fabulinus who prompts his first word, Cuba who keeps him quiet in his cot, Domiduca especially, for whom Marius had through life a particular memory and devotion, the goddess who watches over one's safe coming home".[2] Notes [1] Lists of prayer formularies for invocations, or names of deities; cf. Di indigetes. [2] Pater, Marius the Epicurean, ch. I, "The Religion of Numa". Falacer 71 Falacer Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna Topics Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared Other gods of craft and trade: Penates Dei Lucrii Furrina Lemures Eventus Bonus Portunes Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Falacer, or more fully dīvus pater falacer, was an ancient Italian god, according to Varro.[1] Hartung[2] is inclined to consider him an epithet of Jupiter, since falandum, according to Festus, was the Etruscan name for "heaven." His name may appear in the name of the city of Falacrine (Latin: Falacrīnum or Phalacrīna). References • This article incorporates text by Leonhard Schmitz from the article "Falacer" in the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870), vol. 2, p. 132. Footnotes [1] de L. L. v. 84, vii. 45 [2] Die Religion der Römer ii. p. 9 Fascinus 72 Fascinus In ancient Roman religion and magic, the fascinus or fascinum was the embodiment of the divine phallus. The word can refer to the deity himself (Fascinus), to phallus effigies and amulets, and to the spells used to invoke his divine protection.[1] Pliny calls it a medicus invidiae, a "doctor" or remedy for envy (invidia, a "looking upon") or the evil eye. A graphic representation of the power of the fascinus to ward off the evil eye is found on a Roman mosaic that depicts a phallus ejaculating into a disembodied eye;[2] a 1st-century BC terracotta figurine shows "two little phallus-men sawing an eyeball in half."[3] As a divinized phallus, the fascinus shared attributes with Mutunus Tutunus, whose shrine was supposed to date from the founding of the city, and the imported Greek god Priapus.[4] The Vestal Virgins tended the cult of the fascinus populi Romani, the sacred image of the phallus that was one of the tokens of the safety of the state. It was thus associated with the Palladium.[5] Roman myths, such as the begetting of Servius Tullius, suggest that this phallus was an embodiment of a masculine generative power located within the hearth, regarded as sacred.[6] Augustine, whose primary source on Roman religion was the lost theological works of Varro, notes that a phallic image was carried in procession annually at the festival of Father Liber, the Roman god identified with Dionysus or Bacchus, for the purpose of protecting the fields from fascinatio, magic compulsion:[7] Gallo-Roman examples of the fascinum in bronze A ca. 1st-century BC tintinnabulum or wind chime, found at Herculaneum, depicting the phallus as a beast which the human male engages in combat Fascinus 73 Phallus inscribed on a paving stone at Pompeii “ Varro says that certain rites of Liber were celebrated in Italy which were of such unrestrained wickedness that the shameful parts of the male were worshipped at crossroads in his honour. … For, during the days of the festival of Liber, this obscene member, placed on a little trolley, was first exhibited with great honour at the crossroads in the countryside, and then conveyed into the city itself. … In this way, it seems, the [8] god Liber was to be propitiated, in order to secure the growth of seeds and to repel enchantment (fascinatio) from the fields. ” Phallic charms, often winged, were ubiquitous in Roman culture, from jewelry to bells and windchimes to lamps.[9] The fascinus was thought particularly to ward off evil from children, mainly boys, and from conquering generals. Pliny notes the custom of hanging a phallic charm on a baby's neck, and examples have been found of phallus-bearing rings too small to be worn except by children.[10] When a general celebrated a triumph, the Vestals hung an effigy of the fascinus on the underside of his chariot to protect him from invidia.[11] The "fist and phallus" amulet was prevalent amongst soldiers. These are phallic pendants with a representation of a (usually) clenched fist at the bottom of the shaft, facing away from the glans. Several examples show the fist making the manus fica or "fig sign", a symbol of good luck.[12] The largest known collection comes from Camulodunum.[13] Etymology The English word "fascinate" ultimately derives from Latin fascinum and the related verb fascinare, "to use the power of the fascinus," that is, "to practice magic" and hence "to enchant, bewitch." Catullus uses the verb at the end of Carmen 7, a hendecasyllabic poem addressing his lover Lesbia; he expresses his infinite desire for kisses that cannot be counted by voyeurs nor "fascinated" (put under a spell) by a malicious tongue; such bliss, as also in Carmen 5, potentially attracts invidia.[14] Fescennine verses, the satiric and often lewd songs or chants performed on various social occasions, may have been so-named from the fascinum; ancient sources propose this etymology along with an alternative origin from Fescennia, a small town in Etruria.[15] References [1] The neuter form fascinum is used most often for objects or magic charms, masculine fascinus for the god. [2] Daniel Ogden, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook (Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 25 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ox3QRxWQQtcC& pg=PA225& dq=fascinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1988& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=6#v=onepage& q=fascinus& f=false) [3] Craig Arthur Williams, Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity p. 92 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Kf4cs5Y0fiIC& pg=PA92& dq=fascinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1988& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=11#v=onepage& q=fascinus& f=false) [4] Arnobius, Adversus nationes 4.7, explicity connects Tutunus to the fascinus; see Robert E.A. Palmer, "Mutinus Titinus: A Study in Etrusco-Roman Religion and Topography," in Roman Religion and Roman Empire: Five Essays (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1974), pp. 187–206. [5] R. Joy Littlewood, A Commentary on Ovid: Fasti Book 6 (Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 73; T.P. Wiseman, Remus: A Roman Myth (Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 61 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7LPNHRUlWacC& pg=PA61& dq=fascinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1988& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=68#v=onepage& Fascinus q=fascinus& f=false) [6] Joseph Rykwert, The Idea of a Town: The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy, and the Ancient World (MIT Press, 1988), pp. 101 and 159 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Jq78Ff2TYHAC& pg=PA159& dq=fascinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1988& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=2#v=onepage& q=fascinus& f=false) [7] Augustine of Hippo, De civitate Dei 7.21; Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 92. [8] English translation by R.W. Dyson, Augustine: The City of God against the Pagans (Cambridge University Press, 1998, 2002), p. 292 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ReU2M8cLtGcC& pg=PA292& dq="21+ Of+ the+ wickedness+ of+ the+ rites+ celebrated+ in+ honour+ of+ Liber"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q="21 Of the wickedness of the rites celebrated in honour of Liber"& f=false) [9] Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 92. [10] Martin Henig, Religion in Roman Britain (London: BT Batsford LTD, 1984), pp. 185–186 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZOhxSp8nlPsC& pg=PA186& dq="A+ child's+ gold+ ring+ with+ phallus"& hl=en& ei=1tOTTIXKG4TfnAenpYCRCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="A child's gold ring with phallus"& f=false), with image of example. [11] Pliny, Natural History 28.4.7 (28.39). [12] Henig, Religion in Roman Britain, p. 176; Portable Antiquities Scheme, cat num: LIN-2BE126, www.finds.org/database [13] N. Crummy, Colchester Archaeological Report 2: The Roman Small finds from excavations in Colchester 1971-9 (Colchester: Colchester Archaeological Trust LTD, 1983). [14] David Wray, Catullus and the Poetics of Roman Manhood (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 152 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kmmjg7UX19UC& pg=PA152& dq=fascinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1988& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=14#v=onepage& q=fascinus& f=false) [15] Gian Biagio Conte, Latin Literature: A History (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1994), p. 23 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NJGp_dkXnuUC& pg=PA23& dq=fascinum& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1988& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=172#v=onepage& q=fascinum& f=false) 74 Faunus In ancient Roman religion and myth, Faunus was the horned god of the forest, plains and fields; when he made cattle fertile he was called Inuus. He came to be equated in literature with the Greek god Pan. Faunus was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the di indigetes. According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins who came with his people from Arcadia. His shade was consulted as a god of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles[1] in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself [2] Marcus Terentius Varro asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse.[3] Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs. W. Warde Fowler suggested that Faunus is identical with Favonius,[4] one of the Roman wind gods (compare the Anemoi). Faunus as depicted by the sculpter Bartolomeo Ammanati. Consorts and family A goddess of like attributes, called Fauna and Fatua, was associated in his worship. She was regarded sometimes as his wife, sometimes as his sister. As Pan was accompanied by the Paniskoi, or little Pans, so the existence of many Fauni was assumed besides the chief Faunus.[5] In fable Faunus appears as an old king of Latium, son of Picus, and grandson of Saturnus, father of Latinus by the nymph Marica. After his death he is raised to the position of a tutelary deity of the land, for his many services to agriculture and cattle-breeding. Faunus Faunus was known as the father or husband or brother of Bona Dea (Fauna, his feminine side) and Latinus by the nymph Marica (who was also sometimes Faunus' mother). Fauns are place-spirits (genii) of untamed woodland. Educated, Hellenizing Romans connected their fauns with the Greek satyrs, who were wild and orgiastic drunken followers of Dionysus, with a distinct origin. 75 Festivals The Christian writer Justin Martyr identified him as Lupercus ("he who wards off the wolf"), the protector of cattle, following Livy, who named his aspect of Inuus as the god who was originally worshiped at the Lupercalia, celebrated on the anniversary of the founding of his temple, February 15, when his priests (Luperci) wore goat-skins and hit onlookers with goat-skin belts. Two festivals, called Faunalia, were celebrated in his honour—one on the 13th of February, in the temple of Faunus on the island in the Tiber, the other on the 5th of December, when the peasants brought him rustic offerings and amused themselves with dancing (Peck 1898). A euhemeristic account made Faunus a Latin king, son of Picus and Canens. He was then revered as the god Fatuus after his death, worshipped in a sacred forest outside what is now Tivoli, but had been known since Etruscan times as Tibur, the seat of the Tiburtine Sibyl. His numinous presence was recognized by wolf skins, with wreaths and goblets. In Nonnos' Dionysiaca, Faunus/Phaunos accompanied Dionysus when the god campaigned in India. Equation with Pan With the increasing Hellenization of literate upper-class Roman culture in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the Romans tried to equate their own deities with one of the Greeks', applying in reverse the Greeks' own interpretatio graeca. Faunus was naturally equated with the god Pan, who was a pastoral god of shepherds who was said to reside in Arcadia. Pan had always been depicted with horns and as such many depictions of Faunus also began to display this trait. However, the two deities were also considered separate by many, for instance, the epic poet Virgil, in his Aeneid, made mention of both Faunus and Pan independently. Later worship Faunus was worshipped across the Roman Empire for many centuries. An example of this was a set of thirty-two 4th-century spoons found near Thetford in England in 1979. They had been engraved with the name "Faunus", and each also had a different epithet after the god's name. The spoons also bore Christian symbols, and it has been suggested that these were initially Christian but later taken and devoted to Faunus by pagans. The 4th century was a time of largescale Christianisation, and the discovery provides us with evidence that even during the decline of Roman paganism, the god Faunus was still worshipped.[6] [7] In Gaul, Faunus was identified with the Celtic Dusios.[8] Faunus 76 Notes [1] For oracular Faunus, see Virgil, Aeneid vii.81; Ovid, Fasti iv.649; Cicero, De Natura Deorum ii.6, iii.15 and De Divinatione i.101; Dionysius of Halicarnassus v.16; Plutarch, Numa Pompilius xv.3; Lactantius Institutiones i.22.9; Servius on the Aeneid viii.314. [2] Peck 1898 [3] Varro, De lingua latina vii. 36. [4] W. Warde Fowler (1899). The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic: An Introduction to the Study of the Religion of the Romans (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ romanfestivalsof00fowluoft). London: Macmillan and Co.. p. 259. . Retrieved 2007-06-07. [5] Peck 1898. [6] Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles. (1991) Blackwell ISBN 0-631-17288-2. Page 260-261 [7] Ronald Hutton (1988) Antiquaries Journal [8] Papias, Elementarium: Dusios nominant quos romani Faunos ficarios vocant, as quoted by Du Cange in his 1678 Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (Niort: Favre, 1883–1887), vol. 3, online (http:/ / ducange. enc. sorbonne. fr/ DUSII); Katherine Nell MacFarlane, "Isidore of Seville on the Pagan Gods (Origines VIII. 11)," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 70 (1980), pp. 36–37. References • Peck, Harry Thurston, 1898. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities ( On-line (http://www.perseus.tufts. edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0062:id=faunus)) • Hammond, N.G.L. and Scullard, H.H. (Eds.) 1970. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-869117-3. Feretrius Feretrius is one of the titles of the Roman god Jupiter. In this capacity Jupiter was called upon to witness the signing of contracts and marriages. An oath was taken that called upon Jupiter to strike down the person if they swore the oath falsely. Fontus 77 Fontus In ancient Roman religion, Fontus or Fons (plural Fontes, "Font" or "Source") was a god of wells and springs. He was the son of Juturna and Janus.[1] A religious festival called the Fontinalia was held on October 13 in his honor. Throughout the city, fountains and wellheads were adorned with garlands.[2] Fons was not among the deities depicted on coinage of the Roman Republic.[3] Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, was supposed to have been buried near the altar of Fons (ara Fontis) on the Janiculum.[4] William Warde Fowler observed that between 259 and 241 BC, cults were founded for Juturna, Fons, and the Tempestates, all having to do with sources of water.[5] As a god of pure water, Fons can be placed in opposition to Liber as a god of wine identified with Bacchus.[6] An inscription includes Fons among a series of deities who received expiatory sacrifices by the Arval Brothers in 224 AD, when several trees in the sacred grove of Dea Dia, their chief deity, had been struck by lightning and burnt. Fons received two wethers.[7] In the cosmological schema of Martianus Capella, Fons is located in the second of 16 celestial regions, with Jupiter, Quirinus, Mars, the Military Lar, Juno, Lympha, and the Novensiles.[8] Ornamental wellhead (puteal) (1st century AD) depicting a drunken Hercules as part of a Bacchic revel Fons Perennis Water as a source of regeneration played a role in the Mithraic mysteries, and inscriptions to Fons Perennis ("Eternal Spring" or "Never-Failing Stream") have been found in mithraea. In one of the scenes of the Mithraic cycle, the god strikes a rock, which then gushes water. A Mithraic text explains that the stream was a source of life-giving water and immortal refreshment.[9] Dedications to "inanimate entities" from Mithraic narrative ritual, such as Fons Perennis and Petra Genetrix ("Generative Rock"), treat them as divine and capable of hearing, like the nymphs and healing powers to whom these are more often made.[10] References [1] Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 3.29. [2] Stephen L. Dyson, Rome: A Living Portrait of an Ancient City (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010), p. 228. Described by Varro, De lingua latina 6.3: "The Fontanalia [is named after] Fons, because it's his holiday (dies feriae); on account of him then they toss wreaths into fountains and garland puteals" (Fontanalia a Fonte, quod is dies feriae eius; ab eo tum et in fontes coronas iaciunt et puteos coronant). Festus also mentions the rites (sacra). [3] Michael H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage (Cambridge University Press, 1974, 2001), p. 914. [4] Cicero, De legibus 2.56 and De natura deorum 3.52; Samuel Ball Platner, The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome (1904), p. 488. [5] William Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1922), p. 285, with a speculation that this was a response to the naval activity of the First Punic War. [6] As when two characters argue over which holds imperium in Plautus's Stichus, line 696ff.; Thomas Habinek, The World of Roman Song (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), p. 186. [7] Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, Religions of Rome: A Sourcebook (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 152. [8] Martianus Capella, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury 1.46 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=nZ-Z9eI6dXwC& pg=PA22& dq=Lympha+ OR+ Lymphae& lr=& cd=11#v=onepage& q=Lympha OR Lymphae& f=false) [9] Vivienne J. Walters, The Cult of Mithras in the Roman Provinces of Gaul (Brill, 1974), p. 47. Fontus [10] Richard Gordon, "Institutionalized Religious Options: Mithraism," in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 398. 78 Forculus In Roman mythology, Forculus was a god that protected the integrity of doors (Latin fores), together with Cardea and Limentinus[1] . The entrance door was a significant object as the passage between the realms of the inside and the outside. References [1] Augustine, De civitate Dei, 4. 8 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7Tp7iwzRyDMC& pg=PA145& dq=Forculus+ roman+ god& hl=en& ei=Ofa6TPS1EI7Nswa-gfnXDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=1& ved=0CC8Q6wEwAA#v=onepage& q=Forculus roman god& f=false) External links • Roman Gods - see under Forculus (http://www.mythome.org/roman.html) Hercules Gilded bronze "Hercules of the Forum Boarium", with the apple of the Hesperides, Roman 2nd century BCE; found in the Forum Boarium in the 15th century (Capitoline Museums) Hercules 79 Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek demigod Heracles, son of Jupiter (the Roman equivalent of Zeus), and the mortal Alcmena. Early Roman sources suggest that the imported Greek hero supplanted a mythic Italic shepherd called "Recaranus" or "Garanus", famous for his strength who dedicated the Ara Maxima that became associated with the earliest Roman cult of Hercules.[1] While adopting much of the Greek Heracles' iconography and mythology Hercules as his own, Hercules adopted a number of myths and characteristics that were distinctly Roman. With the spread of Roman hegemony, Hercules was worshiped locally from Hispania through Gaul. 80 Etymology Hercules's Latin name was not directly borrowed from Greek Heracles but is a modification of the Etruscan name Herceler, which derives from the Greek name via syncope, Heracles translates to "The Glory of Hera". An oath invoking Hercules (Hercle! or Mehercle!) was a common interjection in Classical Latin.[2] Character In Roman works of art and in Renaissance and post-Renaissance art that adapts Roman iconography, Hercules can be identified by his attributes, the lion skin and the gnarled club (his favorite weapon): in mosaic he is shown tanned bronze, a virile aspect.[3] Hercules was the illegitimate son of Zeus and Alcmene, the wisest and most beautiful of all mortal women. Hera was enraged at Zeus for his infidelity with Alcmene, and even more so that he placed the infant Hercules at Hera's breast as she slept and allowed Hercules to feed, which caused Hercules to be partially immortal, thus, allowing him to surpass all mortal men in strength, size and skill. However, Hera still held a spiteful grudge against Hercules and sent Hercules into a blind frenzy, in which he killed all of his children. When Hercules regained his sanity, he sought out the Oracle at Delphi in the hope of making atonement. The Oracle ordered Hercules to serve Eurystheus, king of Mycenae, who sent him on a series of tasks known as the Labors of Hercules. These tasks are told in this order: 1.To kill the Nemean lion 2.To destroy the Lernaean Hydra 3.To capture Cernean hind alive 4.To trap the Erymanthian boar 5.To clean the Augean stables 6.To get rid of the Stymphalen birds 7.To capture the Cretan bull 8.To round up the mares of Diomeds 9.To fetch Hippolyte's girdle, or belt 10.To fetch the cattle of Geron 11.To fetch the golden apples of the Hesprides 12.To bring Cerberus from Tartarus. While he was a champion and a great warrior, he was not above cheating and using any unfair trick to his advantage. However, he was renowned as having "made the world safe for mankind" by destroying many dangerous monsters. Hercules 81 Roman cult In their popular culture the Romans adopted the Etruscan Hercle, a hero-figure that had already been influenced by Greek culture — especially in the conventions of his representation — but who had experienced an autonomous development. Etruscan Hercle appears in the elaborate illustrative engraved designs on the backs of Etruscan bronze mirrors made during the fourth century BC, which were favoured grave goods. Their specific literary references have been lost, with the loss of all Etruscan literature, but the image of the mature, bearded Hercules suckling at Uni/Juno's breast, engraved on a mirror back from Volterra, is distinctively Etruscan. This Hercle/Hercules — the Hercle of the interjection "Mehercle!" — remained a popular cult figure in the Roman legions. The literary Greek versions of his exploits were appropriated by literate Romans from the 2nd century BCE onwards, essentially unchanged, but Latin literature of Hercules added anecdotal detail of its own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Western Mediterranean. Details of the Greek cult, which mixed chthonic libations and uneaten holocausts with Olympian services, were adapted to specifically Roman requirements as well, as Hercules became the founding figure of Herculaneum and other places, and his cult became Gilded bronze Roman "Hercules of the Theatre of entwined with Imperial cult, as shown in surviving frescoes in the Pompey", found near the Theatre of Pompey in [4] Herculanean collegium. His altar has been dated to the 5th or 6th 1864, (Vatican Museums, Rome) century BC. It stood near the Temple of Hercules Victor. Hercules became popular with merchants, who customarily paid him a tithe of their profits. Marcus Antonius identified himself with Hercules, and even invented a son of Hercules, called Anton, from whom Antonius claimed descent. In response, his enemy Octavianus identified with Apollo. Some early emperors, such as Trajan, took up the attributes of Hercules, and later Roman Emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, went further and often identified or compared themselves with him and supported his cult; Maximianus styled himself "Herculius". The cult of Hercules spread through the Roman world. In their gardens, wealthy Romans would often build altars to Hercules, who was regarded as the benefactor of mankind.[5] In Roman Egypt, what is believed to be the remains of a Temple of Hercules are found in the Bahariya Oasis. The Romans adopted the myths of Heracles including his twelve labors, essentially unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking Hercules with the geography of the Western Mediterranean. In Roman mythology, Acca Larentia was Hercules' mistress. She was married to Tarutius, a wealthy merchant. When he died, she gave his money to charity. In another version, she was the wife of Faustulus. In Aeneid 8.195ff, Virgil relates a myth about Hercules' defeating the monstrous Cacus, who lived in a cave under the Palatine Hill (one of the eventual Seven Hills of Rome). Hercules 82 Death of Hercules Hercules was married to Deianeira. Long after their marriage, one day the centaur Nessus offered to ferry them across a wide river that they had to cross. Nessus set off with Deianeira first, but tried to abduct her. When Hercules realized the centaur's real intention, Hercules chased after him and shot him with an arrow which was poisoned with Hydra's blood. Before he died, Nessus told Deianeira to take some of his blood and treasure it, since it was a very powerful medicine and: if she ever thought Hercules was being unfaithful, the centaur told her, the blood would restore his love. Deianeira kept the phial of blood. Many years later after that incident she heard rumours that Hercules had fallen in love with another woman. She smeared some of the blood on a robe and sent it to Hercules by a servant named Leechas. When doing so, some of the blood was spilled on the floor and when the sun rays fell on it the blood begun to burn. Because of this Deianeira begun to suspect Nessus's advice and decided to send another servant to fetch Leechas back before he could hand over the blood soaked robe to Hercules.But she was too late. Hercules has already put on the robe and when he did so the blood still poisoned from the same arrow used by Hercules, burnt into his flesh. When he jumped into a near by river in hope of extinguishing the fire, it only made it worse.When he tried to rip off the robe from his body his organs were also ripped off with it. Furiously, Hercules caught Leechas and tossed him into the sea. Hercules, Hatra, Iraq, Parthian period, 1st-2nd century CE. After that he asked his friend Philoctetis to build him a pyre out of hardy oak and wild olive on the mountain Oata. He was burnt to death on the pyre; the fire hurt far less than the poison. Before dying, Hercules offered his bow and arrows as a token of gratitude to Philoctetis. His father Zeus then turned him into a god. Deianeira, after hearing what she had caused, committed suicide. Germanic association Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules. In chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states: ... they say that Hercules, too, once visited them; and when going into battle, they sang of him first of all heroes. They have also those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus[6] as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict. For, as their line shouts, they inspire or feel alarm. In the Roman era Hercules' Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire (including Roman Britain, c.f. Cool 1986), mostly made of gold, shaped like wooden apples. A specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription "DEO HER[culi]", confirming the association with Hercules. In the 5th to 7th centuries, during the Migration Period, the amulet is theorized to have rapidly spread from the Elbe Germanic area across Europe. These Germanic "Donar's Clubs" were made from deer antler, bone or wood, more rarely also from bronze or precious metals. They are found exclusively in female graves, apparently worn either as a belt pendant, or as an ear pendant. The amulet type is replaced by the Viking Age Thor's hammer pendants in the course of the Christianization of Scandinavia from the 8th to 9th century. Hercules 83 In popular culture Since the Renaissance, Heracles has rarely been distinguished from Hercules, the Roman figure overshadowing the Greek. Later interpretations of Hercules' legend cast him as a wise leader and a good friend (many of the movie and TV adaptations cast him in this light, especially the 1995–1999 syndicated TV series). He was the main character in the Disney animated movie of the same name. Steve Reeves is most famous for having played Hercules in the movies Hercules and Hercules Unchained.The legend of Hercules endures, though often co-opted to suit the political fashion of the day. Hercules has also had an undeniable influence on modern pop culture characters such as Superman and He-Man. The legend of Hercules has been described in many movie and television adaptations, including several comic series featuring the hero. Hercules has been the hero of both Marvel Comics (where the rendition of Hercules was an early member of the Avengers) and DC Comics adventure comic books. In DC, he has often been associated with Wonder Woman. In Marvel, he currently stars in his own ongoing series titled The Incredible Hercules. In numismatics Hercules has been the main motif of many collector coins and medals, the most recent one is the 20 euro Baroque Silver coin issued on September 11, 2002. The obverse side of the coin shows the Grand Staircase in the town palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna, currently the Austrian Ministry of Finance. Gods and demi-gods hold its flights, while Hercules stands at the turn of the stairs. Austrian commemorative coin featuring Hercules Gallery Ancient interpretations Hercules and the Nemean Lion (detail), silver plate, 6th century (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) Hercules frescoes in the collegium at Herculaneum Hercules and his nephew, helper and eromenos Iolaus 1st century CE mosaic from the Anzio Nymphaeum, Rome Hercules bronze statuette, 2nd century CE (museum of Alanya, Turkey) Hercules sculpture in Behistun, Iran carved 139 BCE Hercules 84 Modern interpretations Hercules and the Hydra by Antonio del Pollaiuolo, 15th century Rococo sculpture of Hercules, 1758. Branicki Palace in Białystok. Comic book cover (c.1958) The Cudgel of Hercules, a tall limestone rock and Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background Hercules used as a heraldic supporter in the Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Greece, in use from 1863 to 1973. Greek royalists were sometimes mockingly called "Ηρακλείδες" ("the Herculeses") Hercules filmography A series of 19 Italian Hercules movies were made in the late 50's/ early 60's. The actors who played Hercules in these films were Steve Reeves, Gordon Scott, Kirk Morris, Mickey Hargitay, Mark Forest, Alan Steel, Dan Vadis, Brad Harris, Reg Park, Peter Lupus (billed as Rock Stevens) and Michael Lane. The films are listed below by their American release titles, and the titles in parentheses are the original Italian titles with English translation. • Hercules (Le Fatiche di Ercole/ The Labors of Hercules, 1957) starring Steve Reeves • Hercules Unchained (Ercole e la regina di Lidia/ Hercules and the Queen of Lydia, 1959) starring Steve Reeves • Goliath and the Dragon (La Vendetta di Ercole/ The Revenge of Hercules, 1960) (this Hercules film had its title changed to Goliath when it was distributed in the U.S.) • Hercules Vs The Hydra (Gli Amori di Ercole/ The Loves of Hercules, 1960) co-starring Jayne Mansfield • Hercules and the Captive Women (Ercole alla conquista di Atlantide/Hercules at the Conquest of Atlantis, 1961) (alternate U.S. title: Hercules and the Haunted Women) • Hercules in the Haunted World (Ercole al centro della terra/Hercules at the Center of the Earth) 1961 (directed by Mario Bava) • Hercules in the Vale of Woe (Maciste contro Ercole nella valle dei guai/Maciste Vs. Hercules in the Vale of Woe) 1961 • Ulysses Vs. The Son of Hercules (Ulisse contro Ercole/Ulysses Vs. Hercules) 1962 • The Fury of Hercules (La Furia di Ercole/The Fury of Hercules, a.k.a. The Fury of Samson) 1962 • Hercules, Samson and Ulysses (Ercole sfida Sansone/Hercules Challenges Samson) 1963 • Hercules Vs. the Moloch (Ercole contro Molock/Hercules Vs. Moloch, 1963) (alternate U.S. title: The Conquest of Mycene) • Son of Hercules in the Land of Darkness (Ercole l'invincibile/Hercules, the Invincible) 1964 (this was originally a Hercules film that was retitled to "Son of Hercules" so that it could be included in the "Sons of Hercules" TV syndication package) • Hercules Vs. The Giant Warrior (il Trionfo di Ercole/The Triumph of Hercules, 1964) (alternate U.S. title: Hercules and the Ten Avengers) • Hercules Against Rome (Ercole contro Roma, 1964) • Hercules Against the Sons of the Sun (Ercole contro i figli del sole, 1964) • Hercules and the Tyrants of Babylon (Ercole contro i tiranni di Babilonia, 1964) Hercules • Samson and the Mighty Challenge (Ercole, Sansone, Maciste e Ursus: gli invincibili, 1964) (a.k.a. Combate dei Gigantes) • Hercules and the Princess of Troy (a.k.a. Hercules vs. the Sea Monster) No Italian title, 1965 (this 48-minute Italian/U.S. co-production was made as a pilot for a Charles Band-produced TV series that never materialized) • Hercules, the Avenger (Sfida dei giganti/Challenge of the Giants, 1965) This film was composed mostly of stock footage from 2 earlier Reg Park Hercules films, made to be released directly to U.S. television The Three Stooges made an American comedy in 1962 called The Three Stooges Meet Hercules with Samson Burke playing Hercules. Note* - A number of English-dubbed Italian films that featured the Hercules name in their title were never intended to be Hercules movies by their Italian creators. • • • • Hercules, Prisoner of Evil was actually a retitled Ursus film. Hercules and the Black Pirate and Hercules and the Treasure of the Incas were both retitled Samson movies. Hercules and the Masked Rider was actually a retitled Goliath movie. Hercules Against the Moon Men, Hercules Against the Barbarians, Hercules Against the Mongols and Hercules of the Desert were all originally Maciste films. 85 None of these films in their original Italian versions were connected to the Hercules character in any way. Likewise, most of the Sons of Hercules movies shown on American TV in the 1960s had nothing to do with Hercules in their original Italian incarnations. References Notes [1] Servius, commentary on the Aeneid viii. 203, 275 ; Macrobius, Saturnalia iii. 12. [2] W. M. Lindsay, "Mehercle and Herc(v)lvs. [Mehercle and Herc(u)lus]" The Classical Quarterly 12.2 (April 1918:58). [3] Hercules almost suggests "Hero". The Classical and Hellenistic convention in frescoes and mosaics, adopted by the Romans, is to show women as pale-skinned and men as tanned dark from their outdoor arena of action and exercising in the gymnasium.(See also Reed.edu (http:/ / academic. reed. edu/ humanities/ 110Tech/ RomanAfrica2/ pompei& herc1. jpg), jpg file. Reed.edu (http:/ / academic. reed. edu/ humanities/ 110Tech/ RomanAfrica2/ #Subject), subject). [4] The sculpture had been carefully buried in Antiquity, having been struck by lightning. [5] Martial, book VII . [6] or, baritus, there being scribal variants. In the 17th century, the word entered the German language as barditus and was associated with the Celtic bards. Sources • Charlotte Coffin. "Hercules" (http://www.shakmyth.org/myth/111/hercules) in Peyré, Yves (ed.) A Dictionary of Shakespeare's Classical Mythology (2009) External links • Sword and Sandal#Hercules Series (1957-1965) The Italian "Hercules" Filmography • Etruscan mirror illustrated Uni and Hercle (http://www.maravot.com/Uni_suckling-Heracles.html) • Hercle and Menerva on an Etruscan mirror from Città di Castello, c 300 B.C.: Badisches Landesmuseum (http:// www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/598123) • Images of Hercules (http://ancientrome.ru/art/artworken/result.htm?alt=Hercules) • Texts on Wikisource: • James Wood (1907). "Hercules". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. • "Hercules". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.. 1914. • “Hercules and the Wagoner,” by Aesop • “Hercules,” from Heroes Every Child Should Know by H. W. Mabie Honos 86 Honos In Roman mythology, Honos was the god of chivalry, honor and military justice. He was depicted in art with a lance and a cornucopia. He was sometimes identified with the deity Virtus. Inuus 87 Inuus Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion, Inuus was a god, or aspect of a god, who embodied copulation. The evidence for him as a distinct entity is scant. Servius says that Inuus is an epithet of Faunus (Greek Pan), named from his habit of intercourse with animals, based on the etymology of ineundum, "a going in, penetration," from inire,[1] "to enter" in Inuus the sexual sense.[2] Other names for the god were Fatuus and Fatulcus, W.F. Otto disputed the traditional etymology and derived Inuus instead from in-avos, "friendly, beneficial" (cf. aveo, "to be eager for, desire"), for the god's fructifying power.[3] 88 Lupercalia Livy is the sole source for identifying Inuus as the form of Faunus for whom the Lupercalia was celebrated: "naked young men would run around venerating Lycaean Pan, whom the Romans then called Inuus, with antics and lewd behavior."[4] Although Ovid does not name Inuus in his treatment of the Lupercalia, he may allude to his sexual action in explaining the mythological background of the festival. When Romulus complains that a low fertility rate has rendered the abduction of the Sabine women pointless, Juno, in her guise as the birth goddess Lucina, offers an instruction: "Let the sacred goat go into the Italian matrons" (Italidas matres … sacer hirtus inito, with the verb inito a form of inire).[5] The would-be mothers recoil from this advice, but an augur, "recently arrived from Etruscan soil," offers a ritual dodge: a goat was killed, and its hide cut into strips for flagellating women who wished to conceive; thus the aetiology for the practice at the Lupercalia.[6] Rutilius Namatianus offers a similar verbal play, Faunus init ("Faunus enters"), in pointing out a statue depicting the god at Castrum Inui ("Fort Inuus").[7] Georg Wissowa rejected both the etymology and the identification of Inuus with Faunus.[8] The scant evidence for Inuus has not been a bar to elaborate scholarly conjecture, as William Warde Fowler noted at the beginning of the 20th century in his classic work on Roman festivals.[9] "It is quite plain," Fowler observed, "that the Roman of the literary age did not know who the god (of the Lupercalia) was."[10] Castrum Inui Servius's note on Inuus is prompted by the mention of Castrum Inui at Aeneid 6.77:[11] A Roman imperial bust of Faunus “ This is one and the same as the town (civitas) in Italy which is called New Fort (Castrum Novum). Vergil says 'Fort Inuus' for the place, that is, 'Fort Pan', who has a cult there. He is called Inuus, however, in Latin, Πάν (Pan) in Greek; also Ἐφιάλτης (Ephialtes), in Latin Incubus; likewise Faunus, and Fatuus, Fatuclus. He is called Inuus, however, from going around having sex everywhere with all the animals, hence he [12] is also called Incubus. ” Castrum Novum is most likely Giulianova on the coast of Etruria, but Servius seems to have erred in thinking that Castrum Inui, on the coast of Latium, was the same town. Rutilius makes the same identification as Servius, but explains that there was a stone carving of Inuus over the gate of the town. This image, worn by time, showed horns on its "pastoral forehead", but the ancient name was no longer legible. Rutilius is noncommittal about its identity, "whether Pan exchanged Tyrrhenian woodlands for Maenala, or Inuus whether a resident Faunus enters (init) his paternal retreats," but proclaims that "as long as he revitalizes the seed of mortals with generous fertility, the god is imagined as more than usually predisposed to sex."[13] 89 Other associations The Christian apologist Arnobius, in his extended debunking of traditional Roman deities, connects Inuus and Pales as guardians over flocks and herds.[14] The woodland god Silvanus over time became identified with Faunus, and the unknown author of the Origo gentis romanae[15] notes that many sources said that Faunus was the same as Silvanus, the god Inuus, and even Pan.[16] Isidore of Seville identifies the Inui, plural, with Pan, incubi, and the Gallic Dusios.[17] Diomedes Grammaticus makes a surprising etymological association: he says that the son of the war goddess Bellona, Greek Enyo (Ἐνυώ), given in the genitive as Ἐνυοῦς (Enuous), is imagined by the poets as goat-foot Inuus, "because in the manner of a goat he surmounts the mountaintops and difficult passes of the hills."[18] Casuccini mirror An Etruscan bronze mirror from Chiusi (ca. 300 BC), the so-called Casuccini mirror, may depict Inuus. The scene on the back is a type known from at least four other mirrors, as well as engraved Etruscan gems and Attic red-figure vases. It depicts the oracular head of Orpheus (Etruscan Urphe) prophesying to a group of figures. Names are inscribed around the edge of the mirror, but because the figures are not labeled individually, the correlation is not unambiguous; moreover, the lettering is of disputed legibility in some names. There is general agreement, however, given the comparative evidence, that the five central figures are Umaele, who seems to act as a medium; Euturpa (the Muse Euterpe), Inue (Inuus), Eraz, and Aliunea or Alpunea (Palamedes in other scenarios). The lovers in the pediment at the top are Atunis (Adonis) and the unknown E…ial where Turan (Venus) would be expected. The figure with outstretched wings on the tang is a Lasa, an Etruscan form of Lar who was a facilitator of love like the Erotes or Cupid. The bearded Inuus appears in the center. Damage obscures his midsection and legs, but his left arm and chest are nude and muscled. On an otherwise very similar mirror, a spear-bearing youth replaces Inuus in the composition. No myth that would provide a narrative context for the scene has been determined.[19] Darwinian connection Charles Darwin used the nomenclature Inuus ecaudalus in writing of the Barbary ape, now classified as Macaca sylvanus.[20] Charles Kingsley wrote to Darwin in January 1862 speculating that certain mythological beings may represent cultural memories of creatures "intermediate between man & the ape" who became extinct as a result of natural selection: “ I want now to bore you on another matter. This great gulf between the quadrumana & man; & the absence of any record of species intermediate between man & the ape. It has come home to me with much force, that while we deny the existence of any such, the legends of most nations are full of them. Fauns, Satyrs, Inui, Elves, Dwarfs — we call them one minute mythological personages, the next conquered inferior races — & ignore the broad fact, that they are always represented as more bestial than man, & of violent sexual passion. … The Inuus [21] of the old Latins is obscure: but his name is from inire — sexual violence. ” Inuus 90 References [1] See the infinitive form inire; ineundum is a gerund. [2] Servius, note on Aeneid 6.775; Julian Ward Jones, Jr., An Aeneid Commentary of Mixed Type: The Glosses in Mss Harley 4946 and Ambrosianus G111 inf. (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1996), pp. 24, 31–32. [3] Katherine Nell MacFarlane, "Isidore of Seville on the Pagan Gods (Origines VIII. 11)," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 70 (1980), p. 36, citing Otto's entry on Faunus in PW. [4] Livy 1.5.2: nudi iuvenes Lycaeum Pana venerantes per lusum atque lasciuiam currerent, quem Romani deinde vocarunt Inuum. [5] T.P. Wiseman, Historiography and Imagination: Eight Essays on Roman Culture (University of Exeter Press, 1994), p. 138, note 104, takes Juno's instruction as clear reference to Inuus. [6] Ovid, Fasti 2.441ff.; Jane F. Gardner, Roman Myths (University of Texas Press, 1993), p. 77, noting that Juno Sospita wears a goatskin cloak. [7] Rutilius, De reditu suo, line 232. [8] Georg Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der Römer, 2nd ed., p. 211, as cited by J.G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, vol. 2, Adonis Attis Osiris (London, 1919), p. 234, note 3. [9] William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), p. 312, commenting with an atypical degree of disparagement that "Unger … has much to say about Inuus in the worst style of German pseudo-research"; G.F. Unger, "Die Lupercalen," Rheinische Museum 36 (1881) 50–86. [10] Fowler, Festivals, pp. 312–313. [11] A.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard, Ovid: Fasti (Penguin Books, 2000), p. 91. [12] Servius, note on Aeneid 6.775 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Serv. + A. + 6. 775& fromdoc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0053): una est in Italia civitas, quae castrum novum dicitur: de hac autem ait 'castrum Inui', id est Panos, qui illic colitur. Inuus autem latine appellatur, Graece: item Graece, latine Incubo: idem Faunus, idem Fatuus, Fatuclus. dicitur autem Inuus ab ineundo passim cum omnibus animalibus, unde et Incubo dicitur. [13] Rutilius, De reditu suo, 225–234; Dennis George, The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883, 3rd ed.) vol. 1, p. 297, note 7. [14] Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 3.23. [15] At one time, Aurelius Victor was thought to be the author of the Origo gentis romanae. [16] Origo gentis romanae 4.6; Peter F. Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion (Brill, 1992), p. 34. [17] Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae 8.11.103: Pilosi, qui Graece Panitae, Latine Incubi appellantur, sive Inui ab ineundo passim cum animalibus. Unde et Incubi dicuntur ab incumbendo, hoc est stuprando. Saepe enim inprobi existunt etiam mulieribus, et earum peragunt concubitum: quos daemones Galli Dusios vocant, quia adsidue hanc peragunt immunditiam; Katherine Nell MacFarlane, "Isidore of Seville on the Pagan Gods (Origines VIII. 11)," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 70 (1980), pp. 36–37. [18] Diomedes Grammaticus, Ars Grammatica 1.475–476; T.P. Wiseman, "The Minucii and Their Monument," in Imperium sine fine: T. Robert S. Broughton and the Roman Republic (Franz Steiner, 1996), p. 69. [19] Richard Daniel De Puma and W.K.C. Guthrie, "An Etruscan Mirror with the Prophesying Head of Orpheus," Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University 60 (2001) 19–29; Richard Daniel De Puma, Etruscan Mirrors, Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum: U.S.A. 4: Northeastern Collections ("L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 2005), pp. 61–63. [20] Charles Darwin, "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," in The Indelible Stamp: The Evolution of an Idea, edited by james D. Watson (Running Press, 2005), p. 1132 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=LEWfWf0mUJIC& pg=PA1132& dq=Inuus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1972& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=14#v=onepage& q=Inuus& f=false) [21] Charles Kingsley to Charles Darwin, in The Correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge University Press, 1997), vol. 10, pp. 61–63 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=5MqBgwX2vZIC& pg=PA63& dq=Inuus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1972& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=43#v=onepage& q=Inuus& f=false) Content advisory: This letter contains remarks and assumptions of "the superior white race" that in the 21st century are considered racist and offensive. Janus 91 Janus In Roman mythology, Janus is the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings, endings and time. Most often he is depicted as having two heads, facing opposite directions; one head looks back at the last year while the other looks forward to the new, simultaneously into the future and the past. Origins and nature Macrobius and Cicero attempted to explain the name as Latin deriving it from the verb ire ("to go").[1] It has been conjectured to be derived from the Indo-European root meaning transitional movement (cf. Sanskrit "yana-" or Avestan "yah-", likewise with Latin "i-" and Greek "ie-".).[2] William Betham argued that the cult arrived from the Middle East and that Janus corresponds to the Baal-ianus or Belinus of the Chaldeans sharing a common origin with the Oannes of Berosus.[3] Janus was usually depicted with two heads facing in opposite directions. According to a legend, he had received the gift to see both future and past from the god Saturn in reward for the hospitality received. Janus-like heads of gods related to Hermes have been found in Greece, perhaps suggesting a compound god. The Romans associated Janus with the Etruscan deity Ani. Several scholars suggest that he was likely the most important god in the Roman archaic pantheon. He was often invoked together with Iuppiter (Jupiter). According to Macrobius and Cicero, Janus and Jana (Diana) are a pair of divinities, worshipped as the sun and moon, whence they were regarded as the highest of the gods, and received their sacrifices before all the others.[4] In general, Janus was the patron of concrete and abstract beginnings of the world[5] (such as the religion and the gods themselves), the human life,[6] new historical ages, and economical enterprises. He was also the god of the home entrance (ianua), gates, bridges and covered and arcaded passages (iani) named after him. The Sculpture Gold coin, depicting Janus He was frequently used to symbolize change and transitions such as the progression of past to future, of one condition to another, of one vision to another, the growing up of young people, and of one universe to another. He was also known as the figure representing time because he could see into the past with one face and into the future with the other. Hence, Janus was worshipped at the beginnings of the harvest and planting times, as well as marriages, deaths and other beginnings. He was representative of the middle ground between barbarity and civilization, rural country and urban cities, and youth and adulthood. Numa in his regulation of the Roman calendar called the first month Januarius after Janus, at the time the highest divinity. Numa also introduced the Ianus geminus (also Janus Bifrons, Janus Quirinus or Portae Belli) , a passage ritually opened at times of war, and shut again when Roman arms rested.[7] It formed a walled enclosure with gates at each end, situated in the Roman Forum which had been consecrated by Numa Pompilius. In the course of wars, the gates of the Janus were opened, and in its interior sacrifices and vaticinia were held to forecast the outcome of military deeds.[8] The doors were closed only during peacetime, an extremely rare event. Livy wrote in his Ab urbe condita that the doors of the temple had only been closed twice since the reign of Numa: firstly in 235 BC after the first Punic war and secondly in after the battle of Actium in 31 BC. A temple of Janus is said to have been consecrated by the consul Gaius Duilius in 260 BCE after the Battle of Mylae in the Forum Holitorium. The four-side structure known as the Arch of Janus in the Forum Boarium dates to the 4th century CE. In the Middle Ages, Janus was also taken as the symbol of Genoa, whose Latin name was Ianua, as well as of other European communes. Janus 92 The Roman Janus and the Indian Ganesha There is an obvious likeness between the names of those two lesser deities from the Roman archaic theology framework and from the still very alive Indian theology framework. In 1806 Sir William Jones drew a close comparison between a particular form of Ganesha, known as Ganesha-Jayanti, and Janus. Another early 19th century Indologist, Edward Moor,[9] expanded the claims of an association based on functional grounds, noting that Janus, like Ganesha, was invoked at the beginning of undertakings, a liminal god who was the guardian of gates. Moor made various other speculations on the connection between Janus and Ganesha. The case of Janus is addressed by Georges Dumezil in hardly a few pages in his work “The archaic Roman religion” , first issued in 1966;[10] Dumezil’s general thesis is that overall, the classical period Romans had forgotten most of the grounds of their own theology, and that hints to their primitive The traditional ascription of the "Temple of conceptions are held solely in remnants of their most ancient rituals; he Janus" at Autun, Burgundy, is disputed. does not mention Ganesha/Ganesa at all, he discusses Janus only within the framework of Roman archaic theology , and the only speculations he mentions as of likenesses outside the Roman environment is to the Etruscan framework, to Ani, as hinted by Alfred Ernout “Philologica II, 1957” “,[11] and that rather on a negative stance, to the Indian framework, only as a passing mention to Aditi, and to the Nordic framework, as a few lines discussing some comparable features of Heimdallr; thus it is obvious that Dumezil by himself was not aware of a link between Janus and Ganesa, even if negatively connotated; however his work on Janus lays down numerous threads that can be traced to attributes pertaining to Ganesa; one can retain globally: a) Georges Dumezil starts his exposé defining Janus as a deity related to “beginnings” in rituals; in this attribute Janus is compared/ opposed to the other Roman deity Vesta, who is associated to their closing; he then links Janus much more generally to “beginnings” in the largest sense of “prima” in latin, as of the meaning “the first in a time sequence or a chronological logic”; he enumerates a number of situations where thus Janus is mentioned first of a long list of deities, as in the opening of “devotio” a very ancient Roman ritual used in the utmost despaired conditions of warfare, as well as in the Salii verses and the Arval brothers invocation (both also very ancient rituals) etc …; he then generally highlights the common trait between all the occasions when Janus is part of, as "in whichever function, in whichever role of this deity that one examines, ALL stem as obvious consequences of his primacy over “prima”" even invoking the authority of saint Augustine who entails explicitly Janus as “gifted of the power on all beginnings” (“omnium initiorum potestatem”). In his reading of Janus, this deity is fundamentally presiding to beginnings in case of “transition” from one status to another; he is associated to passage ways, entries into dwellings, to the dual action of opening and closing doors (hence his role in the rituals of war), to the cyclic opening of the year (month of Janu-arius ) and of each month (Calendae) , to the opening of the (active) part of the day, and the poet Horace, one of the few late Roman period educated people still initiated, like Cato, Virgil and Cicero, to the oldest Roman rituals, dedicates to him at the opening of one of his poems. b) Conversely Ganesha/Ganesa’s prime attribute is that of presiding to obstacles/hindrances and is specifically designated as “The Destroyer of Obstacles”; thus Somedeva’s "Kathāsaritsāgara" (The Ocean of rivers of tales” , based on Brhatkathā or the “Great Story” a long lost original work ) lengthy book of tales is placed specifically under the patronage of Ganesa, and everyone chapter opens up with an invocation to that deity; likewise very many invocations within the multiple tales unfolded in the “Brhatkathā” are addressed to Ganesa, on all occasions when the hero launches himself on some risky adventure, with a general lesson that unless you propitiate Ganesa at the start so Janus that he would level down all traps and difficulties before your feet, then your enterprise is doomed to failure; the higher gods themselves must need propitiate their lesser fellow when they initiate some enterprise lest their own plans come to no end. Thus the effective presence of Ganesa appears in a quite parallel way to Janus definitely linked to the notion of “auspicious beginnings” and conversely his absence is definitely linked to “unauspicious beginnings” , which one could term as actual negative omens; in addition rituals to Ganesa are linked to marriage, another type of situations that typically associate “auspicious omens” and obvious “beginnings”; likewise in the Jainism rituals, his avatar Ganapati is worshipped at the beginning of every auspicious ceremony and new project, and this practice is alledgedly still very common in the Swetambara community. From these simple, but instructive details, one probably can conclude that there indeed is a common indo-european background or archetype to what is become Janus in the archaic Roman world, and to what is now known as Ganesa in the Indian world. 93 Other myths Janus was supposed to have shared a kingdom with Camese in Latium. They had many children, including Tiberinus. When Romulus and his men kidnapped the Sabine women, Janus caused a volcanic hot spring to erupt, resulting in the would-be attackers being buried alive in the deathly hot, brutal water and ash mixture of the rushing hot volcanic springs that killed, burned, or disfigured many of Romulus' men. Romulus was in awe of the god's power. (Later on, however, Sabine and Rome became allies.) In honor of this, the doors of a walled roofless structure called 'The Janus' (not a temple) were kept open during war after a symbolic contingent of soldiers had marched through it. The doors were closed in ceremony when peace was concluded. Augustus and Nero both advertised universal peace, which had led to 'the closing of the Janus', during their reigns. References [1] Macrobius, Saturnalia, I, 9, 11 [2] Taylor, Rabun, "Watching the Skies: Janus, Auspication, and the Shrine in the Roman Forum," Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome vol. 45 (2000): p, 1. [3] Royal Numismatic Society, Proceedings of the Numismatic Society, James Fraser, 1837 [4] Macrobius Saturnalia i. 9; Cicero De Natura Deorum ii. 27. [5] According to Varro, in the carmen saliaris Janus is called "creator", as the initiator of the world itself. De lingua latina, VII, 26–27. [6] Macrobius defines him Consivium, i.e. propagator of the human genre. Saturnalia, I, 9, 16. [7] Horat. Carm. iv. 15. 8; Virg. Aen. vii. 607 [8] Livy, History of Rome, I, 19, 2 [9] Edward Moor. Hindu Pantheon. p. 98. (Reprint edition: Delhi, 1968) [10] The archaic Roman religion, part II the Archaic theology, chapter III, by Georges Dumézil [11] Philologica II, by Alfred Ernout, 1957 Sources • • • • Dumézil, Georges (2001). La religione romana arcaica. Milan: Rizzoli. pp. 291. ISBN 8817866377. Ferrari, Anna (2001). Dizionario di mitologia greca e latina. Milan: Rizzoli. ISBN 8817866377. Livius.org: Janus (http://www.livius.org/ja-jn/janus/janus.html) Translation of Ovid's Fasti, a section on January, and Janus (http://www.tkline.freeserve.co.uk/ OvidFastiBkOne.htm#_Toc69367257) Jugatinus 94 Jugatinus In Roman mythology, Jugatinus was the god of mountain ranges. His name is known from St. Augustine's work The City of God[1] , and is not attested otherwise. References [1] Augustine, De civitate Dei, 4. 8 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7Tp7iwzRyDMC& pg=PA145& dq=Forculus+ roman+ god& hl=en& ei=Ofa6TPS1EI7Nswa-gfnXDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=1& ved=0CC8Q6wEwAA#v=snippet& q=The Romans could scarcely& f=false) Jupiter (mythology) Late 1st century AD marble statue of Jupiter preserved in St Petersburg. Drapings, sceptre, eagle, and Victory are made of painted plaster dating to the 19th century. Jupiter (mythology) 95 Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion and myth, Jupiter or Jove was the king of the gods, and the god of sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus, in the Greek pantheon. He was called Iuppiter (or Diespiter) Optimus Maximus ("Father God the Best and Greatest"). As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he ruled over laws and social order. He was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with sister/wife Juno. Jupiter is also the father of the god Mars with Juno. Therefore, Jupiter is the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Jupiter was venerated in ancient Jupiter (mythology) Roman religion, and is still venerated in Roman Neopaganism. He is a son of Saturn, along with brothers Neptune and Pluto.[1] [2] [3] He is also the brother/husband of Ceres (daughter of Saturn and mother of Proserpina), brother of Veritas (daughter of Saturn), and father of Mercury. 96 Etymology Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin vocative *Iou and pater ("father") and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case *Ious. Jove[4] is a less common English formation based on Iov-, the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. Linguistic studies identify the form *Iou-pater as deriving from the Indo-European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (meaning "O Father Sky-god"; nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr).[5] Older forms of the deity's name in Rome were Djeus-pater (“day/sky-father”), then Diéspiter. Djeus is the etymological equivalent of ancient Greece's Zeus and of the Teutonics' Ziu, gen. Ziewes. The Indo-European deity is thus the god from which Zeus and the Indo-Aryan Vedic Dyaus Pita are derived. The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter, and was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday now known in English as Thursday[6] but originally called Iovis Dies in Latin, giving rise to jeudi in French, jueves in Spanish, joi in Romanian, giovedì in Italian, dijous in Catalan, Xoves in Galego, Joibe in Furlan. Epithets of Jupiter Jupiter was given many names. By aspect: 1. Jupiter Caelestis ("heavenly") 2. Jupiter Elicius ("who calls forth [celestial omens]" or "who is called forth [by incantations]") 3. Jupiter Feretrius ("who carries away the spoils of war"; called upon to witness solemn oaths[7] - cf. "by Jove"). The epithet or “numen” is probably connected with ferire, the stroke of ritual as illustrated in foedus ferire, of which the silex, a quartz rock, is evidence in his temple on the Capitoline hill, which is said to have been the first temple in Rome, erected and dedicated by Romulus to commemorate his winning of the spolia opima from Acron, king of the Caeninenses, and to serve as a repository for them. Iuppiter Feretrius was therefore equivalent to Iuppiter Lapis, the latter used for a specially solemn oath[8] 4. Jupiter Fulgurator or Fulgens ("of the lightning") 5. Jupiter Lucetius ("of the light") 6. Jupiter Optimus Maximus (" the best and greatest") 7. Jupiter Pluvius ("sender of rain") 8. Jupiter Stator (from stare meaning "standing") 9. Jupiter Summanus (sender of nocturnal thunder) 10. Jupiter Terminalus or Terminus (defends boundaries). 11. Jupiter Tonans ("thunderer") 12. Jupiter Victor (led Roman armies to victory) By synchronisation or geography: 1. Jupiter Ammon (Jupiter was equated with the Egyptian deity Amun after the Roman conquest of Egypt) 2. Jupiter Brixianus (Jupiter equated with the local god of the town of Brescia in Cisalpine Gaul (modern North Italy) 3. Jupiter Capitolinus, the Jupiter Optimus Maximus, venerated in all the places in the Roman Empire with a Capitol (Capitolium) 4. Jupiter Dolichenus (from Doliche in Syria, originally a Baal weather and war god), since Vespasian popular among the Roman legions as god of war and victory, esp. on the Danube (Carnuntum). Stands on a bull, a Jupiter (mythology) thunderbolt in the left, a double ax in the right hand. 5. Jupiter Indiges (Jupiter "of the country" - a title given to Aeneas after his death, according to Livy) 6. Jupiter Ladicus (Jupiter equated with a Celtiberian mountain-god and worshipped as the spirit of Mount Ladicus) 7. Jupiter Laterius or Latiaris ("God of Latium") 8. Jupiter Parthinus or Partinus (Jupiter was worshiped under this name on the borders of north-east Dalmatia and Upper Moesia, perhaps being associated with the local tribe known as the Partheni) 9. Jupiter Poeninus (Jupiter was worshiped in the Alps under this name, around the Great St Bernard Pass, where he had a sanctuary) 10. Jupiter Solutorius (a local version of Jupiter worshipped in Spain; he was syncretised with the local Iberian god Eacus) 11. Jupiter Taranis (Jupiter equated with the Celtic god Taranis) 12. Jupiter Uxellinus (Jupiter as a god of high mountains) 97 Cult Jupiter may have begun as a sky-god, concerned mainly with wine festivals and associated with the sacred oak on the Capitol. If so, he developed a twofold character. He received the spolia opima and became a god of war; as Stator he made the armies stand firm and as Victor he gave them victory.[9] As the sky-god, he was the first resort as a divine witness to oaths.[10] Jupiter was the central deity of the early capitoline Triad of Roman state religion, comprising Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. who each possessed some measure of the divine characteristics essential to Rome's agricultural economy, social organisation and success in war[11] He retained this position as senior deity among the later Capitoline Triad of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. He remained Rome's chief official deity throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until displaced by the religious hegemony of Christianity. Jupiter granted Rome supremacy because he was "Jupiter et Thétis" by Jean Ingres, 1811. honoured more by the Romans than by all others: he was "the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested". He thus personified the divine authority of Rome's highest offices, internal organization and external relations: his image in the Republican and Imperial Capitol bore regalia associated with Rome's ancient kings and the highest consular and Imperial honours.[12] Roman consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter's name. To thank him for his help, and to secure his continued support, they offered him a white, castrated ox (bos mas) with gilded horns.[13] A similar offering was made by triumphal generals, who must surrender the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol. During one of the crises of the Punic Wars, he was offered every animal born that year.[14] In official cult, Jupiter was served by the senior of all flamines, the Flamen Dialis, whose office was attended by many unique ritual prohibitions. Jupiter (mythology) 98 Temple of Jupiter The largest temple in Rome was that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill. Here, Romans worshipped him alongside Juno and Minerva, forming the Capitoline Triad. Jupiter was also worshipped at Capitoline Hill in the form of a stone, known as Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone, which was sworn upon as an oath stone. Temples to Jupiter Optimus Maximus or the Capitoline Triad as a whole were commonly built by the Romans at the center of new cities in their colonies. The building was begun by Tarquinius Priscus and completed by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, although it was inaugurated, by a tradition recorded by the historians, on September 13, at the beginning of the Republican era, 509BCE. The temple building stood on a high podium with an entrance staircase to the front. On three of its sides it was probably surrounded by a colonnade, with another two rows of pillars drawn up in line with those on the façade of the deep pronaos which precedes the three cellae, ranged side by side in the Etruscan manner, the central one being wider than the other two. The surviving remains of the foundations and of the podium, most of which lie underneath Palazzo Caffarelli, are made up of enormous parallel sections of walling made in blocks of grey tufa-quadriga stone (cappellaccio) and bear witness to the sheer size of the surface area of the temple's base (about 55 x 60 m). On the roof was a terracotta quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, with God Jupiter himself as the charioteer, made by the Etruscan artist Vulca of Veii in the 6th Century BCE and commissioned by Tarquinius Superbus; it was replaced by a bronze one in 296BCE. The cult image was also by Vulca and of the same terracotta material; its face was painted red on festival days (Ovid, Fasti, 1.201f). Beneath the cella were the favissae, or underground passages, in which were stored the old statues that had fallen from the roof, and various dedicatory gifts. The temple was rebuilt in marble after fires had worked total destruction in 83BCE, when the cult image was lost, and the Sibylline Books kept in a stone chest. Fires followed in 69CE, when the Capitol was stormed by the supporters of Vitellius and in 80CE. In front of the steps was the altar of Jupiter (ara Iovis). The large square in front of the temple (the Area Capitolina) featured a number of temples dedicated to minor divinities, in addition to other religious buildings, statues and trophies. Its dilapidation began in the fifth century when Stilicho carried off the gold-plated doors, and Narses removed many of the statues in 571CE. When Hadrian built Aelia Capitolina on the site of Jerusalem, a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected in the place of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. Jupiter (mythology) 99 Juppiter Tonans Juppiter Tonans ("Thundering Jove") was the aspect (numen) of Jupiter venerated in the Temple of Juppiter Tonans, which was vowed in 26BCE by Augustus and dedicated in 22 on the Capitoline Hill; the Emperor had narrowly escaped being struck by lightning during the campaign in Cantabria.[15] An old temple in the Campus Martius had long been dedicated to Juppiter Fulgens. The original cult image installed in the sanctuary by its founder was by Leochares,[16] a Greek sculptor of the 4th Century BCE. The sculpture at the Prado (illustration) is considered to be a late first century replacement commissioed by Domitian. The Baroque-era restoration of the arms gives Jupiter a baton-like scepter in his raised hand. . Iuppiter Tonans, possibly reflecting the cult image of the temple of Jupiter Tonans (Prado) In language It was once believed that the Roman god Jupiter (Zeus in Greece) was in charge of cosmic Justice, and in ancient Rome, in their courts of law people swore by Jove to witness the oath,[17] which led to the common expression "By Jove!" still used as an archaism today. In addition, "jovial" is a somewhat common adjective, originally used to describe people born under the lucky planet of Jupiter,[18] which was believed to make them jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament. Notes [1] The Creation of the Earth and the Great Flood according to Greek and Roman Mythology (http:/ / www. pitt. edu/ ~dash/ creation-ovid. html), D. L. Ashliman, 2002 [2] Jupiter (mythology) (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ encyclopedia_761564260/ Jupiter_(mythology). html), Encarta. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kws7PHsU) 2009-10-31. [3] Saturn (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ Saturn), dictionary.com [4] Most common in poetry, for its useful meter, and in the expression "By Jove!" [5] "Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans" (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 61/ 8. html). American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2000. . Retrieved 2008-09-27. [6] English Thursday, German Donnerstag, is named after Thunor, Thor, or Old High German Donar from Germanic mythology, a deity similar to Jupiter Tonans [7] Der Große Brockhaus, vol.9, Leipzig: Brockhaus 1931, p. 520 [8] Samuel Ball Platner, revised by Thomas Ashby: A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press, 1929 p.293 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Jupiter_Feretrius. html) [9] Victor became an intermediary feminine personification Victoria. [10] Fides had a similar function, but was feminine. Mars was also a deity of both agriculture and war, and was offered a sheep, a suckling pig and a bull for his continued protection of the fields and family. Cited by Halm, in Rüpke (ed), 239. See also Cato the Elder, On Agriculture, 141. The Colline deity Quirinus may have equivalent in some way to both Mars and Jupiter: "Quirinus, perhaps the war god of the Quirinal settlement or the god who presided over the assembled citizens." Howard Hayes Scullard, (2003), A History of the Roman World, 753 to 146 BC, page 393. Routledge. [11] For a summary regarding the nature, status and complex development of Jupiter from regal to Republican era, see Beard et al., Vol. 1, 59 60. For the conceptual difficulties involved in discussion of Roman deities and their cults, see Rüpke, in Rüpke (ed) 1 - 7. [12] Orlin, in Rüpke (ed), 58. [13] Scheid, in Rüpke (ed), 263 - 271. [14] Beard et al, Vol 1, 32-36: the consecration made this a "Sacred Spring" (ver sacrum). The "contract" with Jupiter is exceptionally detailed. All due care would be taken of the animals, but any that died or were stolen before the scheduled sacrifice would count as if already sacrificed. Sacred animals were already assigned to the gods, who ought to protect their own property. [15] Suetonius, Vita Augusti 29.91, etc. See Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, (London: Oxford University Press) 1929. On-line text (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Aedes_Jovis_Tonantis. html)) Jupiter (mythology) [16] According to Pliny's Natural History, 39.79 [17] Samuel Ball Platner, revised by Thomas Ashby: A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press, 1929 p.293 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Jupiter_Feretrius. html) and Der Große Brockhaus, vol.9, Leipzig: Brockhaus 1931, p. 520 [18] Walter W. Skeat, A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1882, OUP 1984, p.274 100 References • Musei Capitolini (http://www.museicapitolini.org/en/museo/sezioni.asp?l1=5&l2=3) • Dumézil, G. (1988). Mitra-Varuna: An essay on two Indo-European representations of sovereignty. New York: Zone Books. ISBN 0-942299-13-2 • Dumézil, G. (1996). Archaic Roman religion: With an appendix on the religion of the Etruscans. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5481-4 • Article "Jupiter" in The Oxford Classical Dictionary. ISBN 0-19-860641-9 • Smith, Miranda J., 'Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend' ISBN 0-500-27976-6 • Favourite Greek Myths, Mary Pope Osbourne Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini (http://penelope.uchicago. edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/ Aedes_Jovis_Capitolini.html) • Platner, S. B., & Ashby, T. (1929). A topographical dictionary of ancient Rome. London: Oxford University Press, H. Milford. OCLC 1061481 • Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4051-2943-5 Jupiter Indiges According to the Roman historian Livy, Jupiter Indiges is the name given to the deified hero Aeneas. In some versions of his story, he is raised up to become a god after his death by Numicius, a local deity of the river of the same name, at the request of Aeneas' mother Venus.[1] The title Pater Indiges or simply Indiges is also used.[2] The Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus notes that when the body of Aeneas was not found after a battle between his group of Trojan exiles in Italy and the native Rutulians, it was assumed that he had been taken up by the gods to become a deity. He also presents the alternative explanation that Aeneas may have simply drowned in the river Numicus and that a shrine in his memory was built there.[3] The term "Indiges", thought by some to be from the same root as "indigenous", may reflect the fact that these minor deities (collectively, the "Dii Indegetes") originated locally in Italy [4] . An alternate explanation given is that they were individuals who were raised to the status of gods after mortal life. Compare for example Sol Indiges. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Livy, Ab Urbe Condita Book 1. Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book 14 The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, published in Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1937 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities edited William Smith (1870) p. 573 Jupiter Tonans 101 Jupiter Tonans Jupiter Tonans, or, in Latin spelling, Iuppiter Tonans ("Thundering Jove") was the aspect (numen) of Jupiter venerated in the Temple of Juppiter Tonans, which was vowed in 26 BC or BCE by Augustus and dedicated in 22 BC or BCE on the Capitoline Hill; the Emperor had narrowly escaped being struck by lightning during the campaign in Cantabria.[1] An old temple in the Campus Martius had long been dedicated to Juppiter Fulgens. The original cult image installed in the sanctuary by its founder was by Leochares,[2] a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC or BCE. In the 1st century Vitruvius observed (De architectura I.2.5) the propriety or decorum required for temples of Jupiter Tonans, that they be hypaethral, open to the sky. The sculpture at the Prado (illustration) is considered to be a late 1st century replacement commissioned by Domitian. The Baroque-era restoration of the arms has given Jupiter a baton-like scepter in his raised hand. Jupiter Tonans, possibly reflecting the cult image of the temple of Jupiter Tonans in Rome (Spanish Royal collection, Prado) References [1] Suetonius, Vita Augusti 29.91, etc. See Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press, 1929, p. 305f. (On-line text) (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Aedes_Jovis_Tonantis. html). [2] According to Pliny's Natural History, 39.79 External links • Platner: Aedes Jovis Tonantis. On-line text (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/ Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/Aedes_Jovis_Tonantis.html)) Lactans 102 Lactans In Roman mythology, Lactans (or Lactanus) was a god who made crops prosper, and specifically promoted the growth of young corn. Lares 103 Lares For other meanings, see Lares (disambiguation). Lar statuette, bronze, 1st century AD (Capitoline Museum, Rome). Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Lares 104 Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Lares (sing. Lar) – or archaically, Lases – were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion. Their origin is uncertain; they may have been guardians of the hearth, fields, boundaries or fruitfulness, hero-ancestors, or an amalgam of these. Lares were believed to observe, protect and influence all that happened within the boundaries of their location or function. The statues of domestic Lares were placed at table during family meals; their presence, cult and blessing seem to have been required at all important family events. Roman writers sometimes identify or conflate them with ancestor-deities, domestic Penates and the hearth. Because of these associations, Lares are sometimes categorised as household gods but some had much broader domains. Roadways, seaways, agriculture, livestock, towns, cities, the state and its military were all under the protection of their particular Lar or Lares. Those who protected local neighbourhoods (vici) were housed in the crossroad shrines (Compitales) which served as a focus for the religious, social and political life of their local, overwhelmingly plebeian communities. Their cult officials included freedmen and slaves, otherwise excluded by status or property qualification from most administrative and religious offices. Compared to Rome's major deities, the scope and potency of Lares were limited but they were important, peculiarly Roman objects of cult. Archaeological and literary evidence attests to their central role in Roman identity and religious life throughout the Republic and empire. By analogy, a homeward-bound Roman could be described as returning ad Larem (to the Lar). Despite official bans on non-Christian cults from the late 4th century AD onwards, unofficial cults to Lares persisted until at least the early 5th century AD. Origins and development Archaic Rome's Etruscan neighbours practiced domestic, ancestral or family cults very similar to those offered by later Romans to their Lares.[1] Ancient Greek and Roman and authors offer "heroes" and "daimones" as translations of "Lares"; the early Roman playwright Plautus (c. 254–184 BC) employs a Lar Familiaris as a guardian of treasure on behalf of a family, as a plot equivalent to the Greek playwright Menander's use of a heroon (as an ancestral hero-shrine).[2] Weinstock proposes a more ancient equivalence of Lar and Greek hero, based on his gloss of a 4th century BC Latin dedication to the Roman ancestor-hero Aeneas as Lare (Lar).[3] No physical Lar images survive from before the Late Republican era, but literary references[4] suggest that cult could be offered to a single Lar, and sometimes many more: in the case of the obscure Lares Grundules, perhaps thirty. Lares Their development as paired divinities may have arisen through the influences of Greek religion – in particular, the heroic twin Dioscuri – and the iconography of Rome's semi-divine founder-twins, Romulus and Remus. Domestic Lares statues from the early Imperial era show only minor stylistic variations from a common type; small, youthful, lively male figures clad in short, rustic, girdled tunics – made of dogskin, according to Plutarch.[5] They take a dancer's attitude, tiptoed or lightly balanced on one leg. One arm raises a drinking horn (rhyton) aloft as if to offer a toast or libation; the other bears a shallow libation dish (patera). Carved representations of Lares on Compitalia shrines of the same period show figures of the same type. Painted shrine-images of paired Lares show them in mirrored poses to the left and right of a central figure, understood to be an ancestral genius. 105 Lares and their domains Lares belonged within the "bounded physical domain" under their protection, and seem to have been as innumerable as the places they protected. Some appear to have had overlapping functions and changes of name. Some have no particular or descriptive name: for example, those invoked along with Mars in the Carmen Arvale are simply Lases (an archaic form of Lares), whose divine functions must be inferred from the wording and context of the Carmen itself. Likewise those invoked along with other deities by the consul Publius Decius Mus as an act of devotio before his death in battle are simply "Lares". The titles and domains given below cannot therefore be taken as exhaustive or definitive. • Lares Augusti: the Lares of Augustus, or perhaps "the august Lares", given public cult on the first of August, thereby identified with the inaugural day of Imperial Roman magistracies and with Augustus himself. Official Cult to the Lares Augusti continued from their institution through to the 4th century AD.[6] They are identified with the Lares Compitalicii and Lares Praestites of Augustan religious reform.[7] • Lares Compitalicii (also Lares Compitales): the Lares of local communities or neighbourhoods (vici), celebrated at the Compitalia festival. Their shrines were usually positioned at main central crossroads (compites) of their vici, and provided a focus for the religious and social life of their community, particularly for the plebeian and servile masses. The Lares Compitalicii are synonymous with the Lares Augusti of Augustan reform. Augustus' institution of cult to the Lares Praestites was held at the same Compitalia shrines, but on a different date.[8] [9] Gallo-Roman Lar, Imperial period (from the "Muri" statuette collection). • Lares Domestici: Lares of the house, probably identical with Lares Familiares. • Lares Familiares: Lares of the family, probably identical with the Lares Domestici. • Lares Grundules: the thirty "grunting Lares", supposedly given an altar and cult by Romulus when a sow produced a prodigous farrow of thirty piglets.[10] • Lares Militares: "military Lares", named by Marcianus Capella as members of two cult groupings which include Mars, Jupiter and other major Roman deities.[11] Palmer (1974) interprets the figure from a probable altar-relief as "something like a Lar Militaris": he is cloaked, and sits horseback on a saddle of panther skin.[12] • Lares Patrii: Lares "of the fathers", possibly equivalent to the dii patrii (deified ancestors) who received cult at Parentalia. • Lares Permarini: Lares who protected seafarers; also a temple to them (of which one is known at Rome's Campus martius). Lares • Lares Praestites: Lares of the city of Rome, later of the Roman state or community; literally, the "Lares who stand before", as guardians or watchmen. They were housed in the state Regia, near the temple of Vesta, with whose worship and sacred hearth they were associated; they seem to have protected Rome from malicious or destructive fire. They may have also functioned as the neighbourhood Lares of Octavian (the later emperor Augustus), who owned a house between the Temple of Vesta and the Regia. Augustus later gave this house and care of its Lares to the Vestals: this donation reinforced the religious bonds between the Lares of his household, his neighbourhood and the State. His Compitalia reforms extended this identification to every neighbourhood Lares shrine. However, Lares Praestites and the Lares Compitales (renamed as Lares Augusti) should probably not be considered identical. Their local festivals were held at the same Compitalia shrines, but at different times.[13] • Lares Privati • Lares Rurales: Lares of the fields, identified as custodes agri – guardians of the fields – by Tibullus.[14] • Lares Viales: Lares of roads and those who travel them. 106 Domestic Lares Traditional Roman households owned at least one protective Lares-figure, housed in a shrine along with the images of the household's penates, genius image and any other favoured deities. Their statues were placed at table during family meals and banquets. They were divine witnesses at important family occasions, such as marriages, births and adoptions, and their shrines provided a religious hub for social and family life.[15] Responsibility for household cult and the behaviour of family members ultimately fell to the family head, the paterfamilias but he could, and indeed should on certain occasions properly delegate the cult and care of his Lares to other family members, especially his servants.[16] The positioning of the Lares at the House of Menander suggest that the paterfamilias delegated this religious task to his villicus (bailif).[17] Individuals who failed to attend to the needs of their Lares and their families should expect neither reward not good fortune for themselves. In Plautus' comedy Aulularia, the Lar of the miserly paterfamilias Euclio reveals a pot of gold long-hidden beneath his household hearth, denied to Euclio's father because of his stinginess towards his Lar. Euclio's own stinginess deprives him of the gold until he sees the error of his ways; then he uses it to give his virtuous daughter the dowry she deserves, and all is well.[18] Care and cult to domestic Lares could include offerings of spelt wheat and grain-garlands, honey cakes and honeycombs, grapes and first fruits, wine and incense.[19] They could be served at any time and not always by intention: as well as the formal offerings that seem to have been their due, any food that fell to the floor during house banquets was theirs.[20] On important occasions, wealthier households may have offered their own Lares a pig. A single source describes Romulus' provision of an altar and sacrifice to Lares Grundules ("grunting lares") after an unusually large farrowing of thirty piglets. The circumstances of this offering are otherwise unknown: Taylor conjectures the sacrifice of a pig, possibly a pregnant sow.[21] Domestic shrines to the Lares During the early Imperial period, household shrines acquired the generic name, lararia (s. lararium). The term was derived from Lar, probably due to the domestic ubiquity of Lares. Not all such shrines need house Lares figures but of those that did, Pompeian shrine paintings are thought to show a typical layout: paired Lares flank a genius or ancestor-figure, who wears a toga in the priestly manner prescribed for sacrificers. Positioned beneath this trio of figures is a serpent, which represents the fertility of fields or the principle of generative power. Arranged around or within the whole are representations of sacrificial essentials such as bowl and knife, incense box, libation vessels and parts of sacrificial animals. Household shrines, with or without a Lar figure or two, could be sited in virtually any room of any house; bedrooms, private rooms of uncertain purpose and working areas such as kitchen and stores. The Lares figures and shrines of wealthy households are often, though not exclusively found in the servant's quarters, and resemble those found in Lares households of more modest means: small Lar statuettes set in wall-niches, sometimes merely a tile-support projecting from a simply painted background.[22] At Pompeii, the Lares and lararium of the sophisticated, unpretentious and artistically restrained House of Menander[23] were associated with its servant quarters and adjacent agricultural estate. Its statuary was unsophisticated, "rustic" and probably of ancient type or make. The placing of Lares in the public or semi-public parts of a house, such as its atrium, enrolled them in the more outward, theatrical functions of household religion.[24] The House of the Vettii in Pompeii had two lararia. One was a simple, traditionally Roman affair, positioned out of public view, and was probably used in private household rites. The other was placed boldly front-of-house, among a riot of Greek-inspired mythological wall-paintings and the assorted statuary of patron divinities.[26] Its positioning in a relatively public part of the domus would have provided a backdrop for the probably interminable salutatio (formal greeting) between its upwardly mobile owners and their strings of clients and "an assorted group of unattached persons who made the rounds of salutationes to assure their political and economic security".[27] 107 Pompeian lararium at the House of the Vettii. Two Lares flank an ancestor-genius holding patera (bowl) and incense box, his head respectfully covered as if for sacrifice. The snake is associated with the land's fertility and thus prosperity; it approaches a low, laden altar. The shrine's tympanum shows a patera, ox-skull and [25] knife. Domestic Lararia were also used as a sacred, protective depository for commonplace symbols of family change and continuity. In his coming-of-age, a boy gave his personal amulet (bulla) to his Lares before he put on his manly toga (toga virilis). Once his first beard had been ritually cut off, it was placed in their keeping.[28] On the night before her wedding, a Roman girl surrendered her dolls, soft balls and breastbands to her family Lares, as a sign she had come of age. On the day of her marriage, she transferred her allegiance to her husband's neighbourhood Lares (Lares Compitalici) by paying them a copper coin en route to her new home. She paid another to her new domestic Lares, and one to her husband. If the marriage made her a materfamilias, she took joint responsibility with her husband for aspects of household cult.[29] [30] Lares 108 Lares and the Compitalia The city of Rome was protected by a Lar, or Lares, housed in a shrine (sacellum) on the City's ancient, sacred boundary (pomerium).[31] Each Roman vicus (pl. vici – administrative districts or wards) had its own communal Lares, housed in a permanent shrine at a central crossroads of the district. These Lares Compitalicii were celebrated at the Compitalia festival (from the Latin compitum, a crossroad) just after the Saturnalia that closed the old year. In the "solemn and sumptuous" rites of Compitalia, a pig was led taken in celebratory procession through the streets of the vicus then sacrificed to the Lares at their Compitalia shrine. Cult offerings to these Lares were much the same as those to domestic Lares; in the late Republican era, Dionysius of Halicarnassus describes the contribution of a honey-cake from each household as ancient tradition.[32] Lar statuette, early 1st century AD, from Lora del Rio, Spain. At the National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid The Compitalia itself was explained as an invention of Rome's sixth king, Servius Tullius, whose servile origins and favour towards plebians and slaves had antagonised Rome's ruling Patrician caste and ultimately caused his downfall: he was said to have been fathered by a Lar or some other divine being, on a royal slave-girl.[33] So although the Lares Compitalicii were held to protect all the community, regardless of social class, their festival had a distinctly plebeian ambiance, and a measure of Saturnalia's reversal of the A fresco from a building near Pompeii, a rare depiction of Roman men in togae praetextae with dark red borders. It dates from the early status quo. Tradition required that the Lares Imperial Era and probably shows an event during Compitalia Compitalicii be served by men of very low legal and social status: not merely plebians, but freedmen and slaves, to whom "even the heavy-handed Cato recommended liberality during the festival".[34] Dionysius' explains it thus: ... the heroes [Lares] looked kindly on the service of slaves.[35] And [the Romans] still observe the ancient custom in connection with those sacrifices propitiating the heroes by the ministry of their servants and during these days removing every badge of their servitude, in order that the slaves, being softened by this instance of humanity, which has something great and solemn about it, may make themselves more agreeable to their masters and be less sensible of the severity of their condition.[36] While the supervision of the vici and their religious affairs may have been charged to the Roman elite who occupied most magistracies and priesthoods,[37] management of the day-to-day affairs and public amenities of neighbourhoods Lares – including their religious festivals – was the responsibility of freedmen and their slave-assistants. The Compitalia was an official festival but during the Republican era, its shrines appear to have been funded locally, probably by subscription among the plebeians, freedmen and slaves of the vici. Their support through private benefaction is nowhere attested, and official attitudes to the Republican Compitalia seem equivocal at best: The Compitalia games (Ludi Compitalicii) included popular theatrical religious performances of raucously subversive flavour:[38] Compitalia thus offered a religiously sanctioned outlet for free speech and populist subversion. At some time between 85–82  BC, the Compitalia shrines were the focus of cult to the ill-fated popularist politician Marcus Marius Gratidianus during his praetorship. What happened – if anything – to the Compitalia festivals and games in the immediate aftermath of his public, ritualised murder by his opponents is not known but in 68 BC the games at least were suppressed as "disorderly".[39] Lares and Augustan religious reforms The princeps Augustus reformed Compitalia and subdivided the vici. From 7  BC a Lares' festival on 1 May was dedicated to the Lares Augusti and a new celebration of the Genius Augusti was held on 1 August, the inaugural day for Roman magistracies and personally auspicious for Augutus as the anniversary of his victory at Actium. Statues representing the Genius Augusti were inserted between the Lares of the Compitalia shrines.[40] Whether or not Augustus substituted the public Lares with "his own" Lares is questionable; augusti can be interpreted as descriptive, a shared title and honour (the "august" Lares) but when coupled with his new cult to the Genius Augusti, Augustus' deliberate association with the popular Lares through their shared honorific makes the reformed Compitalia an unmistakable, local, "street level" aspect of cult to living emperors.[41] The iconography of these shrines celebrates their sponsor's personal qualities and achievements and evokes a real or re-invented continuity of practice from ancient times. Some examples are sophisticated, others crude and virtually rustic in style; taken as a whole, their positioning in every vicus (ward) of Rome symbolically extends the ideology of a "refounded" Rome to every part of the city.[42] The Compitalia reforms were ingenious and genuinely popular; they valued the traditions of the Roman masses and won their political, social and religious support. Probabably in response to this, provincial cults to the Lares Augusti appear soon afterwards; in Ostia, a Lares Augusti shrine was placed in the forum, which was ritually cleansed for the occasion.[43] The Augustan model persisted with only minor modifications until the end of the Western Empire, still dedicated to the Lares Augusti and associated with the ruling Emperor by title rather than name. Similar dedications and collegial arrangements are found elsewhere in the Empire.[44] 109 Augustus officially confirmed the plebian-servile character of Compitalia as essential to his "restoration" of Roman tradition, and formalised their offices; the vici and their religious affairs were now the responsibility of official magistri vici, usually freedmen, assisted by ministri vici who were usually slaves. A dedication of 2  BC to the Augustan Lares lists four slaves as shrine-officials of their vicus.[45] Given their slave status, their powers are debatable but they clearly constitute an official body. Their inscribed names, and those of their owners, are contained within an oak-wreath cartouche. The oak-leaf chaplet was voted to Augustus as "saviour" of Rome;[46] He was symbolic pater (father) of the Roman state, and though his genius was owed cult by his extended family, its offer seems to have been entirely voluntary. Hardly any of the reformed Compital shrines show evidence of cult to the emperor's genius.[47] Augustus acted with the political acumen of any responsible patronus (patron); his subdivision of the vici created new opportunities for his clients. It repaid honour with honours, which for the plebs meant offices, priesthood, and the respect of their Compitalia procession with the image of a Lar. Drawing from a fragment of bas-relief in the former Lateran Museum Lares peers;[48] at least for some. In Petronius' Satyricon, a magistrate's lictor bangs on Trimalchio's door; it causes a fearful stir but in comes Habinnas, one of Augustus' new priests, a stonemason by trade; dressed up in his regalia, perfumed and completely drunk.[49] 110 Lares origin myths and theology From the Late Republican and early Imperial eras, the priestly records of the Arval Brethren and the speculative commentaries of a very small number of literate Romans attest to a Mother of the Lares (Mater Larum). Her children are invoked by the obscure, fragmentary opening to the Arval Hymn (Carmen Arvale); enos Lases iuvate ("Help us, Lares").[50] She is named as Mania by Varro (116–27  BC), who believes her an originally Sabine deity. The same name is used by later Roman authors with the general sense of a bogey or "evil spirit".[51] Much later, Macrobius (fl. 395–423 AD) describes the woolen figurines hung at crossroad shrines during Compitalia as maniae, supposed as an ingenious substitution for child sacrifices to the Mater Larum, instituted by Rome's last monarch and suppressed by its first consul, L. Junius Brutus.[52] Modern scholarship takes the Arval rites to the Mother of the Lares as typically chthonic, and the goddess herself as a dark or terrible aspect of the earth-mother, Tellus. Ovid supplies or elaborates an origin-myth for the Mater Larum as a once-loquacious nymph, Lara, whose tongue is cut out as punishment for her betrayal of Jupiter's secret amours. Lara thus becomes Muta (the speechless one). Mercury leads her to the underworld abode of the dead (ad Manes); in this place of silence she is Tacita (the silent one). En route, he impregnates her. She gives birth to twin boys as silent or speechless as she. In this context, the Lares can be understood as "manes of silence" (taciti manes).[53] [54] Ovid's poetic myth appears to draw on remnants of ancient rites to the Mater Larum, surviving as folk-cult among women at the fringes of the Feralia: an old woman sews up a fish-head, smears it with pitch then pierces and roasts it to bind hostile tongues to silence: she thus invokes Tacita. If, as Ovid proposes, the lemures are an unsatiated, malevolent and wandering form of Lares, then they and their mother also find their way into Lemuralia, when the hungry Lemures gather in Roman houses and claim cult from the living. The paterfamilias must redeem himself and his family with the offer of midnight libations of spring-water, and black beans spat onto the floor. Any lemures dissatisfied with these offerings are scared away by the loud clashing of bronze pots. Taylor notes the chthonic character of offerings made to fall – or deliberately expelled – towards the earth. If their mother's nature connects the Lares to the earth they are, according to Taylor, spirits of the departed.[55] Plutarch offers a legend of Servius Tullius, sixth king of Rome, credited with the founding of the Lares' public festival, Compitalia. Servius' virginal slave mother-to-be is impregnated by a phallus-apparition arising from the hearth,[56] or some other divine being held to be a major deity or ancestor-hero by some, a Lar by others: the latter seems to have been a strong popular tradition. Dionysius of Halicarnassus reports Servius' fathering by a Lar and his later pious founding of Compitalia as Roman commonplaces during the Augustan era. The Lar seems to him an equivalent to the Greek hero; semi-divine, ancestral and protective of place.[57] [58] [59] Household lararium in Pompeii These stories connect the Lar to the hearth, the underworld, generative powers (however embodied), nourishment, forms of divine or semi-divine ancestry and the coupling of the divine with the servile, wherein those deprived by legal or birth-status of a personal gens could serve, and be served by, the cults attached to Compitalia and Larentalia. Mommsen's contention that Lares were originally field deities is not incompatible with their role as ancestors and guardians. A rural familia relied on the productivity of their estate and its soil: around the early 2nd century BC, Plautus's Lar Familiaris protects the house, and familia as he has always done, and safeguards their secrets.[60] The little mythography that belongs to the Lares seems inventive and poetic; no traditional, systematic theology attaches to them. These limitations allow their development as single, usefully nebulous type with many functions. In Lares Cicero's day, one's possession of domestic Lares laid moral claim of ownership and belonging to one's domicile.[61] Festus identifies them as "gods of the underworld" (di inferi).[62] To Flaccus, they are ancestral genii (s. genius). Apuleius considers them benevolent ancestral spirits; they belong both to the underworld and to particular places of the human world. To him, this distinguishes them from the divine and eternal genius which inhabits, protects and inspires living men: and having specific physical domains, they cannot be connected with the malicious, vagrant lemures.[63] In the 4th century AD the Christian polemicist Arnobius, claiming among others Varro (116–27 BC) as his source, describes them as once-human spirits of the underworld, therefore ancestral manes-ghosts; but also as "gods of the air", or the upper world. He also – perhaps uniquely in the literature but still claiming Varro's authority – categorises them with the frightful larvae.[64] [65] The ubiquity of Lares seems to have set considerable restraints on Christian participation in Roman public life, and in the 3rd century AD, Tertullian remarks the inevitable presence of Lares in pagan households as good reason to forbid marriage between pagan men and Christian women: the latter would be "tormented by the vapor of incense each time the demons are honored, each solemn festivity in honor of the emperors, each beginning of the year, each beginning of the month."[66] Yet their type proved remarkably persistent. In the early 5th century AD, after the official suppression of non-Christian cults, Rutilius Namatianus could write of a famine-stricken district whose inhabitants had no choice but to "abandon their Lares" (thus, to desert their rat-infested houses).[67] 111 See also • • • • • • • The Lares in Rome's Imperial cult Compitalia Genius Lemures Di Penates Manes Turan, the Etruscan love goddess Notes [1] Ryberg, pp. 10 - 13: a wall painting at the Tomba dei Leopardi, at Etruscan Tarquinni, shows offerings are made to Lares-like figures, or di Manes (deified ancestors) in a procession preparatory to funeral games. A black-figured Etruscan vase, and Etruscan reliefs, show the forms of altar and iconography used in Roman Lares-cult, including the offer of a garland crown, sacrifice of a pig and the representation of serpents as a fructifying or generative force. [2] Hunter, 2008. [3] Weinstock, 114-118. [4] Such as Plautus' singular Lar, above. [5] Plutarch, Roman Questions, 52: see Waites, 258 for analysis of chthonic connections between the Lares' dogskin tunic, Hecate and the Lares of the crossroads (Lares Compitalicii). [6] Beard et al, 185-6, 355, 357. [7] Lott, 116 - 117. [8] Beard et al, 139. [9] Lott, 115 - 117, citing Suetonius. [10] Taylor, 303, citing the 2nd century BC annalist Cassius Hemina. [11] Marcianus Capella, 1.45 ff. [12] Robert EA Plamer, Roman religion and Roman Empire: five essays, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1974, p. 116. Limited preview available via googlebooks: (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=JtQoAAAAYAAJ& q="lar+ militaris"& dq="lar+ militaris"& hl=en& ei=qxaETJPAAdOnnQfWkvW4AQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg) [13] Lott, 116 - 117. [14] Tibullus, 1, 1, 19 - 24. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=IpQRKCKEsz0C& pg=PA15& lpg=PA15& dq=Tibullus+ custodes& source=bl& ots=4VuDDxHV3P& sig=9vM0CNl2oPKOYBAAEnmGEE20giw& hl=en& ei=0r-8TPapLcuX4gbssJ2EDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& sqi=2& ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=Tibullus custodes& f=false) See also Cicero, De Legibus, 2. 19, for reference to Lares as field-deities. Lares [15] The painted Lares and genius at the "House of the Red Walls" in Pompeii shared their quarters with bronze statuettes of Lares, Mercury, Apollo, and Hercules: see Kaufmann-Heinimann, in Rüpke (ed), 200. [16] The "proper occasions" included the household's participation in the Compitalia festival. Clear evidence is otherwise lacking for the executive roles of subservient household members in household cults. [17] Allison, P., 2006, The Insula of Menander at Pompeii, Vol.III, The Finds; A Contextual Study Oxford: Claredon Press. [18] Plautus, Aulularia, prologue: see Hunter, 2008. [19] Orr, 23. [20] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 28, 27. [21] Taylor, 303: citing Cassius Hemina ap. Diomedes I, p384 K; Nonius, p 114 M. Taylor notes that the story's association with Lavinius, Rome and Alba: "In view of the frequent identity between God and sacrificial victim, it is worth noting that the pig was the most usual offering to the Lares, just as the pregnant animal and particularly the pregnant sow was a common sacrifice to the earth goddess." [22] "The architecture of the ancient Romans was, from first to last, an art of shaping space around ritual:" Clarke, 1, citing Frank E. Brown, Roman Architecture, (New York, 1961, 9. Clarke views Roman ritual as twofold; some is prescribed and ceremonial, and includes activities which might be called, in modern terms, religious; some is what might be understood in modern terms as secular conventions – the proper and habitual way of doing things. For Romans, both activities were matters of lawful custom (mos maiorum) rather than religious as opposed to secular. [23] Named after its particularly fine fresco of the poet [24] Kaufmann-Heinimann, in Rüpke (ed), 200: in some cases, the artistic display of the lararium seems to displace its religious function. [25] Beard et al, vol. 2, 4.12. [26] The more public lararium is exceptionally large; it measures 1.3m x 2.25m and faces onto the internal courtyard of the building. Its painted deities are framed by stonework in the form of a classical temple, complete with finely carved pediment to support a patera for offerings. With its painted deities and mythological scenes, such a lararium would certainly have made a powerful impression. See Allison, P., 2006, The Insula of Menander at Pompeii, Vol.III, The Finds; A Contextual Study Oxford: Claredon Press. [27] Clarke, 4, 208, 264: the Vettii brothers had been freedmen and successful entrepreneurs, possibly in the wine business. Their house is designed and decorated in the so-called Fourth Style and imports courtyard elements of the rural villa. According to Clarke, their "semi-public" lararium and its surrounding walls - decorated with a riot of deities and mythological scenes - reflects the increasing secularisation of household religion during this period. [28] Clarke, 9-10; citing Propertius, 4.1.131-2 & Persius, The Satires, 5.30-1. [29] Orr, 15-16. [30] Clarke, 10. [31] Tacitus, Annals, 12.24. [32] Lott, 31: Dionysius claims the Compitalia contribution of honey-cakes as an institution of Servius Tullius. [33] The same institution was also credited to King Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius' predecessor and paterfamilias – though not, by all accounts, his birth-father). Other candidates for Servius' paternity include a disembodied phallus that materialised at the royal hearth. [34] Lott, 35, citing Cato, On Agriculture, 5.3. [35] Dionysius understands the function of the Lar as equivalent to that of a Greek hero; an ancestral spirit, protector of a place and its people, possessed of both mortal and divine characteristics. [36] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 4.14.2-4 (excerpt), Trans. Cary, Loeb, Cambridge, 1939: cited in Lott, 31. By "badges of servility" Dionysus seems to have meant distinctive slave-clothing; the slaves who ministered to the Lares were dressed as freedmen for the occasion. [37] Lott, 32 ff. [38] Pliny, Natural History, 36.204; Cicero, In Pisonem, 8; Propertius, 2.22.3-36. [39] Lott, 28–51. [40] Duncan Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire, volume 1, Brill Publishers, 1991, pp. 82 - 83. [41] Lott, 107–117, points out that "Augusti" is never used to refer to private Julian religious practices. He finds unlikely that so subtle a reformist as Augustus should claim to restore Rome's traditions yet high-handedly replace one of its most popular cults with one to his own family Lares: contra Taylor (whose view he acknowledges as generally accepted): limited preview available via googlebooks: (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=8nd0aDXbOSkC& dq=Lott+ the+ neighborhoods+ of+ Augustan+ rome& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=7hpGS5fZIZarjAeF78yAAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CBUQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=& f=false) (accessed 07 January 2010). For the function of Imperial cult at "street level" via the reformed Compitalia, see Duncan Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire, volume 1, Brill Publishers, 1991, p 82. [42] Beard et al, 184–186. [43] Beard et al, 355. [44] Lott, 174. [45] Their shrine is named as Stata Mater, probably after a nearby statue of that goddess. [46] The oak was sacred to Jupiter and the award of an oak leaf chaplet was reserved for those who had saved the life of a fellow-citizen. As Rome's "saviour", Augustus had saved the lives of all. Senators, knights (equites), plebs, freedmen and slaves were "under his protection" as pater patriae (father of the country), a title apparently urged by the general populace. 112 Lares [47] Galinsky, in Rüpke (ed), 78–79. [48] Beard et al, vol 2, 207–208: section 8.6a, citing ILS 9250. [49] Beard et al, vol–2, p–208, sect. 8.6b: citing Petronius, Satyricon, 65. [50] Taylor, 299. [51] In the late 2nd century AD, Festus cites mania as a name used by nursemaids to terrify children. [52] Taylor, 302: whatever the truth regarding this sacrifice and its abolition, the gens Junii held ancestor cult during Larentalia rather than the usual Parentalia. [53] Wiseman, 2-88 & 174, Note 82: cf Ovid's connections between the lemures and Rome's founding myth. Remus is murdered by Romulus or one of his men just before or during the founding of the city. Romulus becomes ancestor of the Romans, ascends heavenwards on his death (or in some traditions, simply vanishes) and is later identified with the god Quirinus. Murdered Remus is consigned to the oblivion of the earth and - in Ovid's variant - returns during the Lemuralia, to haunt and reproach the living; wherefore Ovid derives "Lemuria" from "Remuria". The latter festival name is otherwise unattested but Wiseman observes possible connections between the Lemuria rites and Remus' role in Rome's foundation legends. While the benevolent Lar is connected to place, boundary and good order, the Lemur is fearsomely chthonic transgressive, vagrant and destructive; its rites suggest individual and collective reparation for neglect of due honours, and for possible blood-guilt; or in the case of Romulus, fratricide. For Ovid's Fasti II, 571 ff (Latin text) see the latinlibrary.com (http:/ / www. thelatinlibrary. com/ ovid/ ovid. fasti2. shtml) [54] Taylor, 301: citing "Mania" in Varro, Lingua Latina, 9, 61; "Larunda" in Arnobius, 3, 41; "Lara" in Ovid, Fasti II, 571 ff: Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1, 7, 34-35; Festus, p115 L. [55] Taylor, 300-301. [56] also in Pliny, Natural History, 36, 70. [57] Lott, 31: citing Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 4.14.3-4. [58] Plutarch, Moralia, On the fortune of the Romans, 10, 64: available online (Loeb) at Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Fortuna_Romanorum*. html) (accessed 06 January 1020) [59] Lott, 35. [60] Plautus, Aulularia, 2-5. See Hunter, 2008 for analysis. [61] Cicero, de Domo sua, 108-109, for the domestic presence of the Lares and Penates as an indication of ownership. [62] Festus, 239. [63] Apuleius, de Deo Socratis, 15. [64] Arnobius, Adversus nationes, 3.41. [65] Taylor, 299-301: citing Martianus Capella, II, 162. [66] Bowersock, Brown, Grabar et al., Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world, Belknap Press, Harvard University Press Reference Library, 1999, p. 27, citing Tertullian, Ad Uxorem, 6.1. [67] Rutilius Namatianus, de Reditu suo, 290: Latin text at Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ L/ Roman/ Texts/ Rutilius_Namatianus/ text*. html) (accessed 06 January 2010) 113 References • Beard, M., North, J., Price, S., Religions of Rome, vol. 1, illustrated, reprint, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521316820 • Beard, M., North, J., Price, S., Religions of Rome, vol. 2, illustrated, reprint, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521456460 • Clarke, John R., The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 BC-AD 250. Ritual, Space and Decoration, illustrated, University Presses of California, Columbia and Princeton, 1992. ISBN 9780520084292 • Giacobello, Federico, Larari pompeiani. Iconografia e culto dei Lari in ambito domestico, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2008, ISBN 9788879163743 • Lott, John. B., The Neighborhoods of Augustan Rome, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0521828279 • Orr, D. G., Roman domestic religion: the evidence of the household shrines, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, II, 16, 2, Berlin, 1978, 1557‑91. • Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, ISBN 9781405129435 • Ryberg, Inez Scott, Rites of the State Religion in Roman Art, Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, Vol. 22, University of Michigan Press for the American Academy in Rome, 1955, pp. 10 – 13. • Taylor, Lilly Ross, The Mother of the Lares, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 29, 3, (July - Sept. 1925), 299 - 313. Lares • Waites, Margaret C., The Nature of the Lares and Their Representation in Roman Art, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 24, No. 3 (July - Sept., 1920), 241 - 261. • Weinstock, Stefan, Two Archaic Inscriptions from Latium, Journal of Roman Studies, 50, (1960), 112 - 118. • Wiseman, T. P., Remus: a Roman myth, Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 9780521483667 • Hunter, Richard, On Coming After, Studies in Post-Classical Greek Literature and its Reception, Berlin, New York (Walter de Gruyter) 2008, pp. 612–626. 114 Liber 115 Liber Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Liber ("the free one"), also known as Liber Pater ("the free Father") was a god of viniculture and wine, fertility and freedom. He was a patron deity of Rome's plebeians and was part of their Aventine Triad. His festival of Liberalia (March 17) became associated with free speech and the rights attached to Liber coming of age. His cult and functions were increasingly associated with Bacchus and his Greek equivalent Dionysus, whose mythologies he came to share.[1] 116 Origins and establishment Before his official adoption as a Roman deity, Liber was companion to two different goddesses in two separate, archaic Italian fertility cults; Ceres, an agricultural and fertility goddess of Rome's Hellenised neighbours, and Libera, who was either Liber's female equivalent or became so through assimilation. In ancient Lavinium, he was a phallic deity. Latin liber means "free", or the "free one": when coupled with "pater", it means "The Free Father", who personifies freedom and champions its attendant rights, as opposed to dependent servitude. Roman writers of the late Republic and early Empire offer various etymological and poetic speculations based on this trope, to explain certain features of Liber's cult.[2] [3] Liber entered Rome's historical tradition soon after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, the establishment of the Republic and the first of many threatened or actual plebeian secessions from Rome's authority. According to Livy, the dictator A. Postumius vowed games (ludi) and a joint public temple to a Triad of Ceres, Liber and Libera on Rome's Aventine Hill, c.496 BC.[4] In 493 the vow was fulfilled: the new Aventine temple was dedicated and ludi scaenici (religious dramas) were held in honour of Liber, for the benefit of the Roman people. These early ludi scaenici have been suggested as the earliest of their kind in Rome, and may represent the earliest official festival to Liber, or an early form of his Liberalia festival.[5] The formal, official development of the Aventine Triad may have encouraged the assimilation of its individual deities to Greek equivalents: Ceres to Demeter, Liber to Dionysus and Libera to Persephone or Kore.[6] [7] Liber's patronage of Rome's largest, least powerful class of citizens (the plebs, or plebeian commoners) associates him with particular forms of plebeian disobedience to the civil and religious authority claimed by Rome's Republican patrician elite. The Aventine Triad has been variously described by modern historians as parallel and "copy and antithesis" to the Capitoline Triad of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus on the Capitoline Hill, within the city's sacred boundary (pomerium): the Aventine Triad was apparently installed at the behest of the Sibylline Books but Liber's position within it seems equivocal from the outset. He was a god of the grape and of wine; his early ludi scaenici virtually defined their genre thereafter as satirical, subversive theatre in a lawful religious context. Some aspects of his cults remained potentially un-Roman and offered a focus for civil disobedience. Liber asserted plebeian rights to ecstatic release, self-expression and free speech; he was, after all, Liber Pater, the Free Father – libertas personified and father of plebeian wisdoms and plebeian augury.[8] Liber and the Bacchanalia of 186 BC Very little is known of Liber's official and unofficial cults during the early to middle Republican era. Their Dionysiac or Bacchic elements seem to have been regarded as tolerably ancient, home-grown and manageable by Roman authorities until 186 BC, shortly after the end of the Second Punic War. Livy, writing 200 years after the event, gives a highly theatrical account of the Bacchanalia's introduction by a foreign soothsayer, a "Greek of mean condition... a low operator of sacrifices". The cult spreads in secret, "like a plague". The lower classes, plebeians, women, the young, morally weak and effeminate males are particularly susceptible: all such persons have leuitas animi (fickle or uneducated minds) but even Rome's elite are not immune. The Bacchanalia's priestesses urge their deluded flock to break all social and sexual boundaries, even to visit ritual murder on those who oppose them or betray their secrets: but a loyal servant reveals all to a shocked senate, whose quick thinking, wise actions and piety save Rome from the divine wrath and disaster it would otherwise have suffered. Livy's dramatis personae, stylistic flourishes and tropes probably draw on Roman satyr-plays rather than the Bacchanalia themselves.[9] The Bacchanalia cults may have offered challenge to Rome's traditional, official values and morality but they were practiced in Roman Italy for several decades before their alleged disclosure, and were probably no more secretive than any other mystery cult. Nevertheless, legislation against them – the Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus of 186 Liber BC – was framed as if in response to a dire and unexpected national and religious emergency, and its execution was unprecedented in thoroughness, breadth and ferocity. Modern scholarship interprets this reaction as the senate's assertion of its own civil and religious authority throughout the Italian peninsula, following the recent Punic War and subsequent social and political instability.[10] The cult was officially represented as the workings of a secret, illicit state within the Roman state, a conspiracy of priestesses and misfits, capable of anything. Bacchus himself was not the problem; like any deity, he had a right to cult. Rather than risk his divine offense, the Bacchanalia were not banned outright. They were made to submit to official regulation, under threat of ferocious penalties: some 6,000 persons are thought to have been put to death. The reformed Bacchic cults bore little resemblance to the crowded, ecstatic and uninhibited Bacchanalia: every cult meeting was restricted to five initiates and each could be held only with a praetor's consent. Similar attrition may have been imposed on Liber's cults; attempts to sever him from perceived or actual associations with the Bacchanalia seems clear from the official transference of the Liberalia ludi of 17 March to Ceres' Cerealia of 12 - 19 April. Once the ferocity of official clampdown eased off, the Liberalia games were officially restored, though probably in modified form.[11] Illicit Bacchanals persisted covertly for many years, particularly in Southern Italy, their likely place of origin.[12] [13] 117 Festival, cults and priesthoods Liber was closely, often interchangeably identified with Bacchus, Dionysius and their mythology but was not entirely subsumed by them; in the late Republican era, Cicero could insist on the "non-identity of Liber and Dionysus" and describe Liber and Libera as children of Ceres. Liber, like his Aventine companions, carried various aspects of his older cults into official Roman religion. He protected various aspects of agriculture and fertility; the vine, the "soft seed" of its grapes, wine and wine vessels, male fertility and virility.[14] As his divine power was incarnate in the vine, grape and wine,[15] he was offered the first of the wine harvest, known as sacrima.[16] As a phallic deity, he personified the male procreative power, ejaculated as the "soft seed" of human and animal semen. His temples held the image of a phallus; in Lavinium, this was the principal focus for his month-long festival, when according to St. Augustine, the "dishonourable member" was placed "on a little trolley" and taken in procession around the local crossroad shrines, then to the local forum for its crowning by an honourable matron. The rites ensured the growth of seeds and repelled any malicious enchantment (fascinatus) from fields.[17] Liber's festivals are timed to the springtime awakening and renewal of fertility in the agricultural cycle. In Rome, his annual Liberalia public festival was held on March 17. A portable shrine was carried through Rome's neighbourhoods (vici) and Liber's "aged priestesses" offered honey-cakes for sale – the discovery of honey was credited to Liber-Bacchus. Embedded within Liberalia, more or less at a ritualistic level, were the various freedoms and rights attached to Roman ideas of virility as a divine and natural force.[18] Young men celebrated their coming of age; they cut off and dedicated their first beards to their household Lares and if citizens, wore their first toga virilis, the "manly" toga – which Ovid, perhaps by way of poetic etymology, calls a toga libera (Liber's toga or "toga of freedom"). These new citizens registered their citizenship at the forum and were then free to vote, to leave their father's domus (household), choose a marriage partner and, thanks to Liber's endowment of virility, father their own children. Ovid also emphasises the less formal freedoms and rights of Liberalia; Liber was, after all, a god of wine. From his later place of exile, where he may have been sent for some un-named offense of free speech against the princeps Augustus, Ovid lamented the lost companionship of his fellow poets, who apparently saw the Liberalia as an opportunity for uninhibited talking.[19] Liber 118 Imperial era Augustus successfully courted the plebs, supported their patron deities and began the restoration of the Aventine Triad's temple; it was re-dedicated by his successor, Tiberius.[20] No trace remains of it, and the historical and epigraphical record offers only sparse details to suggest its exact location. Pliny the Elder describes its style and designers as Greek; this may be further evidence of time-honoured and persistent plebeian cultural connections with Magna Graecia, well into the Imperial era, when Liber is found in some of the threefold, complementary deity-groupings of Imperial cult; a saviour figure, like Hercules and the Emperor himself.[21] Septimius Severus inaugurated his reign and dynasty with games to honour Liber/Shadrapa and Hercules/Melqart, the Romanised founding hero-deities of his native town, Lepcis Magna (North Africa); then he built them a massive temple and arch in Rome.[22] Later still, Liber Pater is of one of many deities served by the erudite, deeply religious senator Vettius Agorius Praetextatus (c. AD 315 – 384).[23] A Bacchic community shrine dedicated to Liber Pater was established in Cosa (in modern Tuscany) "probably during the 4th cent AD". It remained in use "apparently for decades after the edicts of Theodosius in 391 and 392 AD outlawing paganism". Its abandonment, or perhaps its destruction "by zealous Christians", was abrupt that much of its cult paraphernalia survived virtually intact beneath the building's later collapse.[24] Temples and cult images Ancient sources describe the Aventine Triad's temple as built in the Greek style. Vitruvius recommends that Liber's temples follow an Ionic Greek model, as a "just measure between the severe manner of the Doric and the tenderness of the Corinthian" and respectful of the deity's part-feminine characteristics.[25] In modern popular fiction Gods named Liber and Libera play a major role in the science fiction/time-travel novel Household Gods by Harry Turtledove and Judith Tarr. Notes and References [1] Grimal, Pierre, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=iOx6de8LUNAC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false), Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=iOx6de8LUNAC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA259#v=onepage& q& f=false) [2] Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996, pp. 8 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA142& vq=lavinium& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA142#v=onepage& q& f=false), 44. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA44& vq=Liber Cicero& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA44#v=onepage& q& f=false) [3] C.M.C. Green, "Varro's Three Theologies and their influence on the Fasti", in Geraldine Herbert-Brown, (ed)., Ovid's Fasti: historical readings at its bimillennium, Oxford University Press, 2002. pp. 78-80. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=CeFErNPdXOMC& lpg=PP1& ots=jKfOltwDm_& dq=Ovid's Fasti: historical readings at its bimillennium By Geraldine Herbert-Brown& pg=PA78#v=onepage& q& f=false) [4] The vow was made in hope of victory against the Latins, the relief of a famine in Rome and the co-operation of Rome's plebeian soldiery in the coming war despite the threat of their secession. [5] T.P. Wiseman, Remus: a Roman myth, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.133. [6] Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996, pp. 8 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA142& vq=lavinium& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA142#v=onepage& q& f=false), 44. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA44& vq=Liber Cicero& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA44#v=onepage& q& f=false) [7] T.P. Wiseman, Remus: a Roman myth, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.133 and note 20. [8] Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996, pp. 6-8, 92, (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA142& vq=lavinium& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA92#v=onepage& q& f=false) citing Henri Le Bonniec, Le culte de Cérès à Rome. Des origines à la fin de la République, Paris, Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1958, for the Aventine cult with its central female deity as "copy and antithesis" of the early, entirely male Capitoline Triad and its focus on Jupiter as Rome's supreme deity. When Mars and Quirinus were later replaced by two goddesses, Jupiter remained the primary focus of Capitoline cult. While the Aventine Liber temple and ludi may represent a patrician attempt to reconcile or at least molify the plebs, plebeian opposition to patrician domination continued throughout contemporary and later Republican history. [9] The plots of Satyr plays would have been familiar to Roman audiences from around the 3rd century BC onwards. See Robert Rouselle, Liber-Dionysus in Early Roman Drama, The Classical Journal, 82, 3 (1987), p. 191. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 3297899) [10] During the Punic crisis, some foreign cults and oracles had been repressed, on much smaller scale and not outside Rome itself. See Erich S. Gruen, Studies in Greek culture and Roman policy, BRILL, 1990, pp.34-78: on precedents see p.41 ff. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=dnOPjX6GOrgC& lpg=PA75& ots=cvlbAQq3cx& dq=Gruen 1990 Bacchus& pg=PA34#v=onepage& q& f=false) [11] T.P. Wiseman, Remus: a Roman myth, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.133. [12] See Sarolta A. Takács, Politics and Religion in the Bacchanalian Affair of 186 B.C.E., Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 100, (2000), p.301. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 3185221) [13] Beard, M., Price, S., North, J., Religions of Rome: Volume 1, a History, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 93 - 96. [14] Libera protected female fertility. [15] Cicero, De Natura Deorum, 2.6O. See also St Augustine, De Civitatis Dei, 4.11. [16] Spaeth find a parallel in the offer of first harvest grains to Ceres. See Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996, pp.41, 43. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA142& vq=lavinium& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA41#v=onepage& q=Liber & f=false) [17] St Augustine, (trans. R. W. Dyson) The City of God against the pagans, 7.21., in Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought, 1998, pp. 292-3. St Augustine (AD 354 – 430) uses Varro (116 – 27 BC) as source. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ReU2M8cLtGcC& pg=PA292& dq="21+ Of+ the+ wickedness+ of+ the+ rites+ celebrated+ in+ honour+ of+ Liber"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q=Liber& f=false) [18] Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996, pp. 8 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA142& vq=lavinium& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA142#v=onepage& q& f=false), 44. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA44& vq=Liber Cicero& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA44#v=onepage& q& f=false) [19] See John F. Miller, "Ovid's Liberalia", in Geraldine Herbert-Brown,(ed)., Ovid's Fasti: historical readings at its bimillennium, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 199-224. Briefer scholarly treatment of the Festival is offered in William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic, Gorgias Press, 2004 (reprint of Macmillan and Co., London, 1908), pp.54 - 56. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=_2w01mQEOBAC& lpg=PP1& ots=aqOdEBwy3q& dq=Warde Fowler Ovid Liberalia& pg=PA54#v=onepage& q& f=false) [20] Tacitus, Annals, 2.49; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 6.17. [21] Beard et al., Vol. 1, 134 - 5, 64 - 67. [22] Bowman, A., Cameron, A., Garnsey, P., (Eds) The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337, The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd edition, Volume 12, 2005, p.563. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=MNSyT_PuYVMC& pg=PA563& lpg=PA563& dq=Liber+ Pater+ Shadrapa& source=bl& ots=uJC6aYMgcZ& sig=TPspaBnGr9ki5z7D5KeVe5QS4Nw& hl=en& ei=wkz1TLXKKMa1hAfGyM3aBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CCkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=Liber Pater Shadrapa& f=false) [23] J. F. Matthews, Symmachus and the Oriental Cults, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 63 (1973), p. 179. Praetextatus' erudition and religiousity are attested by his widow, herself a priestess. Praetextatus was also an augur, quindecimvir and public priest of Vesta and Sol, an initiate of the Eleusinian mysteries, and priest of Hecate, Sarapis, Cybele, and Mithras, all apparently clustered on a solar theology analogous to that of the Emperor Julian. [24] Jaquelyn Collins-Clinton, A late antique shrine of Liber Pater at Cosa, Etudes Preliminaires aux Religions Orientales dans l'Empire Romain, Volume 64, BRILL, 1977, pp.3, 5. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=CsoUAAAAIAAJ& lpg=PR9& ots=rM2A5Kjc7w& dq=Liber Pater& lr& pg=PA3#v=onepage& q=paraphernalia& f=false) [25] Joseph Rykwert, The Dancing Column: On Order in Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1996, p.237. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=3IKoh75RI38C& pg=PA237& lpg=PA237& dq=Vitruvius+ + Ionic+ Liber& source=bl& ots=CyLc_RxSEq& sig=lZ-ea4QcrgVgMagXbAUVECpMfTQ& hl=en& ei=Nxr4TJuuJJmAhAeboazFDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& sqi=2& ved=0CCgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=Vitruvius Ionic Liber& f=false) 119 Limentinus 120 Limentinus Limentinus is the Roman God whose responsibility was to protect the threshold of the house.[1] His associates are Cardea and Forculus. The whole door is protected by Janus. Limentinus is mentioned by St. Augustine[2] as a protector of the threshold and may have been responsible for preventing Silvanus from entering the household if a certain ceremony was performed over children at their birth. Though he may not have been the original cause of the carrying the bride over the threshold, that would be of Syrian origin, some believe it is so.[3] References [1] Myth Index - Limentinus (http:/ / www. mythindex. com/ roman-mythology/ L/ Limentinus. html) [2] Augustine, De civitate Dei, 4.8; 6.7 [3] An Encyclopaedia of Religions by Maurice Arthur Canney (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FRoMAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA222& lpg=PA222& dq=Limentinus+ roman+ god& source=web& ots=EyOiCKa5Ww& sig=WvzIk6LuSjy9F92yZdsRmnQuYZk& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA356,M1) Mars (mythology) 121 Mars (mythology) Mars, 1st century, found in the Forum of Nerva (Capitoline Museums, Rome) Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Mars (mythology) 122 Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Mars (Latin: Mārs, adjectives Martius and Martialis) was the Roman god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.[1] He was second in importance only to the chief god Jupiter, and he was the most prominent of the military gods worshipped by the Roman legions. His festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature.[2] Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus, the latter of whom as a guardian of the Roman people had no Greek equivalent. Mars' altar in the Campus Martius, the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa himself, the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome. Although the center of Mars' worship was originally located outside the pomerium, or sacred boundary of Rome, Augustus brought the god into the center of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum.[3] Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, and was a father (pater) of the Roman people.[4] In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome's founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas, celebrated as the Trojan refugee who "founded" Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity, particularly in the Western provinces. Mars (mythology) 123 Birth Although Ares was the son of Zeus and Hera,[5] Mars was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother's function when he gave birth to Minerva directly from his forehead (or mind); to restore the balance, Juno sought the advice of the goddess Flora on how to do the same. Flora obtained a magic flower (Latin flos, plural flores, a masculine word) and tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once. She then plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno's belly, and impregnated her. Juno withdrew to Thrace and the shore of Marmara for the birth. Ovid tells this story in the Fasti, his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar.[6] It may explain why the Matronalia, a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth, occurred on the first day of Mars' month, which is also marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Mars. In the earliest Roman calendar, March was the first month, and the god would have been born with the new year.[7] Ovid is the only source for the story. He may be presenting a literary myth of his own invention, or an otherwise unknown archaic Italic tradition; either way, in choosing to include the story, he emphasizes that Mars was connected to plant life and was not alienated from female nurture.[8] Consort The consort of Mars was Nerio or Nerine, "Valour." She represents the vital force (vis), power (potentia) and majesty (maiestas) of Mars.[9] Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus, "manly virtue" (from vir, "man").[10] In the early 3rd century BC, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife.[11] A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Nerine were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23.[12] In the later Roman Empire, Nerine came to be identified with Minerva.[13] Nerio probably originates as a divine personification of Mars' power, as such abstractions in Latin are generally feminine. Her name appears in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic gods may have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as "marriages."[14] St. Augustine disapprovingly gives Mars and the war goddess Bellona as an example of a divine couple who were also sister and brother.[15] Essential nature Virility as a kind of life force (vis) or virtue (virtus) is an essential characteristic of Mars.[16] As an agricultural god, he directs his energies toward creating conditions that allow crops to grow, which may include warding off hostile forces of nature.[17] As an embodiment of masculine aggression, he is the force that drives wars — but ideally, war that delivers a secure peace. The priesthood of the Arval Brothers called on Mars to drive off "rust" (lues), with its double meaning of wheat fungus and the red oxides that affect metal, a threat to both iron farm implements and weaponry. In the surviving text of their hymn, the Arval Brothers invoked Mars as ferus, "savage" or "feral" like a wild animal.[18] Mars' potential for savagery is expressed in his obscure connections to the wild woodlands, and he may even have originated as a god of the wild, beyond the boundaries set by humans, and thus a force to be propitiated.[19] In his book on farming, Cato invokes Mars Silvanus for a ritual to be carried out in silva, in the woods, an uncultivated place that if not held within bounds can threaten to overtake the fields needed for crops.[20] Mars' character as an agricultural god may derive solely from his role as a defender and protector,[21] or may be inseparable from his warrior nature,[22] as the leaping of his armed priests the Salii was meant to quicken the growth of crops.[23] Mars (mythology) 124 Sacred animals The two wild animals most sacred to Mars were the woodpecker and the wolf, which in the natural lore of the Romans were said always to inhabit the same foothills and woodlands.[24] Plutarch notes that the woodpecker (picus) is sacred to Mars because "it is a courageous and spirited bird and has a beak so strong that it can overturn oaks by pecking them until it has reached the inmost part of the tree."[25] As the beak of the picus Martius contained the god's power to ward off harm, it was carried as a magic charm to prevent bee stings and leech bites.[26] The bird of Mars also guarded a woodland herb (paeonia) used for treatment of the digestive or female reproductive systems; those who sought to harvest it were advised to do so by night, lest the woodpecker jab out their eyes.[27] The picus Martius seems to have been a particular species, but authorities differ on which one: perhaps Picus viridis[28] or Dryocopus martius.[29] She-wolf and twins from an altar to Venus and Mars The woodpecker was revered by the Latin peoples, who abstained from eating its flesh.[30] It was one of the most important birds in Roman and Italic augury, the practice of reading the will of the gods through Black Woodpecker, watching the sky for signs.[31] The mythological figure named Picus perhaps the picus Martius had powers of augury that he retained when he was transformed into a of the Romans woodpecker; in one tradition, Picus was the son of Mars.[32] The Umbrian cognate peiqu also means "woodpecker," and the Italic Picenes were supposed to have derived their name from the picus who served as their guide animal during a ritual migration undertaken as a rite of Mars.[33] In the territory of the Aequi, another Italic people, Mars had an oracle of great antiquity where the prophecies were supposed to be spoken by a woodpecker perched on a wooden column.[34] Mars' association with the wolf is familiar from what may be the most famous of Roman myths, the story of how a she-wolf (lupa) suckled his infant sons when they were exposed by order of their human uncle, who feared that they would take back the kingship he had usurped.[35] A lesser-known part of the story is that the woodpecker also brought nourishment to the twins.[36] The wolf appears elsewhere in Roman art and literature in masculine form as the animal of Mars. A statue group that stood along the Appian Way showed Mars in the company of wolves.[37] At the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC, the appearance of the wolf of Mars (Martius lupus) was a sign that Roman victory was to come.[38] In Roman Gaul, the goose is associated with the Celtic forms of Mars, and archaeologists have found geese buried alongside warriors in graves. The goose was considered a bellicose animal because it is easily provoked to aggression.[39] Sacrificial animals Mars (mythology) 125 Ancient Greek and Roman religion distinguished between animals that were sacred to a deity and those that were prescribed as the correct sacrificial offerings for the god. Wild animals might be viewed as already belonging to the god to whom they were sacred, or at least not owned by human beings and therefore not theirs to give. Since sacrificial meat was eaten at a banquet after the gods received their The procession of the suovetaurilia portion — mainly the entrails (exta) — it follows that the animals sacrificed were most often, though not always, domestic animals [40] normally part of the Roman diet. Most gods received castrated male animals as sacrifices, and the goddesses female victims; Mars, however, was one of the few male deities who regularly received intact males.[41] Mars did receive oxen under a few of his cult titles (see Mars Grabovius below), but the usual offering was the bull, singly or in multiples. The two most distinctive animal sacrifices made to Mars were the suovetaurilia, for which a pig (sus), ram (ovis) and bull (taurus) were the victims,[42] and the October Horse, the only horse sacrifice known to have been carried out in ancient Rome and a rare instance of an inedible victim.[43] Iconography In Roman art, Mars is depicted as either bearded and mature or young and clean-shaven. Even nude or seminude, he often wears a helmet or carries a spear as emblems of his warrior nature. On the Augustan Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis), built in the last years of the 1st century BC, Mars is a mature man with a "handsome, classicizing" face, and a short curly beard and moustache. His helmet is a plumed neo-Attic-type. He wears a military cloak (paludamentum) and a cuirass ornamented with a gorgoneion. Although the relief is somewhat damaged at this spot, he appears to hold a spear garlanded in laurel, symbolizing a peace that is won by military victory. (Compare the 1st-century statue of Mars found in the Forum of Nerva, pictured above.) In this guise, Mars is presented as the dignified ancestor of the Roman people. The panel of the Ara Pacis on which he appears would have faced the Campus Martius, reminding viewers that Mars was the god whose altar Numa established there, that is, the god of Rome's oldest civic and military institutions.[45] [44] Nude statue of Mars in a garden setting, as depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii Particularly in works of art influenced by the Greek tradition, Mars may be portrayed in a manner that resembles Ares, youthful, beardless, and often nude.[46] Mars (mythology) 126 The spear of Mars The spear is the instrument of Mars in the same way that Jupiter wields the lightning bolt, Neptune the trident, and Saturn the scythe or sickle.[47] A relic or fetish called the spear of Mars[48] was kept in the Regia, the former residence of the Kings of Rome.[49] When Mars is pictured as a peace-bringer, his spear is wreathed with laurel or other vegetation, as on the Ara Pacis or a coin of Aemilianus.[50] Names and epithets The word Mārs (genitive Mārtis),[51] which in Old Latin and poetic usage also appears as Māvors (Māvortis),[52] is cognate with Oscan Māmers (Māmertos).[53] The Old Latin form was believed to derive from an Italic *Māworts, however this name is from Etruscan Maris, originally a god of vegetation and not of war. Adjective forms are martius and martialis, from which derive English "martial" (as in "martial arts" or "martial law") and personal names such as "Martin". The Campus Martius bore his name. Mars also gave his name to the third month in the Roman calendar, Martius, from which English "March" derives. In the most ancient Roman calendar, Martius was the first month. In many languages Tuesday[54] is named for the planet Mars or the God of War (see "Days of the Week Planetary table"), in Latin Martis Dies (Mars' Day), surviving in Romance languages as Martes (Spanish), Mardi (French), Martedi (Italian), Marţi (Romanian), and Dimarts (Catalan), compare An Mháirt (Irish/Gaelic). In Roman religion Mars received cult within the traditional religion of Rome under several specific manifestations. Mars Gradivus Gradivus was one of the gods by whom a general or soldiers might swear an oath to be valorous in battle.[55] His temple outside the Porta Capena was where armies gathered. The archaic priesthood of Mars Gradivus was the Salii, the "leaping priests" who danced ritually in armor as a prelude to war.[56] His cult title is most often taken to mean "the Strider" or "the Marching God," from gradus, "step, march."[57] The poet Statius addresses him as "the most implacable of the gods,"[58] but Valerius Maximus concludes his history by invoking Mars Gradivus as "author and support of the name 'Roman'":[59] Gradivus is asked — along with Capitoline Jupiter and Vesta, as the keeper of Rome's perpetual flame — to "guard, preserve, and protect" the state, the peace, and the princeps (the emperor Tiberius at the time).[60] A source from late antiquity says that the wife of Gradivus was Nereia, the daughter of Nereus, and that he loved her passionately[61] (compare Nerio above). Mars Quirinus Mars Quirinus was the protector of the Quirites ("citizens" or "civilians") as divided into curiae (citizen assemblies), whose oaths were required to make a treaty.[62] As a guarantor of treaties, Mars Quirinus is thus a god of peace: "When he rampages, Mars is called Gradivus, but when he's at peace Quirinus."[63] Mars celebrated as peace-bringer on a Roman The deified Romulus was identified with Mars Quirinus. In the Archaic coin issued by Aemilianus Triad of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, however, Mars and Quirinus were two separate deities, though not perhaps in origin. Each of the three had his own flamen (specialized priest), but the functions of the Flamen Martialis and Flamen Quirinalis are hard to distinguish.[64] Mars (mythology) Mars Grabovius Mars is invoked as Grabovius in the Iguvine Tables, bronze tablets written in Umbrian that record ritual protocols for carrying out public ceremonies on behalf of the city and community of Iguvium. The same title is given to Jupiter and to the Umbrian deity Vofionus. This triad has been compared to the Archaic Triad, with Vofionus equivalent to Quirinus.[65] Tables I and VI describe a complex ritual that took place at the three gates of the city. After the auspices were taken, two groups of three victims were sacrificed at each gate. Mars Grabovius received three oxen.[66] Mars Pater "Father Mars" or "Mars the Father" is the form in which the god is invoked in the agricultural prayer of Cato,[67] and he appears with this title in several other literary texts and inscriptions.[68] Mars Pater is among the several gods invoked in the ritual of devotio, by means of which a general sacrificed himself and the lives of the enemy to secure a Roman victory.[69] Father Mars is the regular recipient of the suovetaurilia, the sacrifice of a pig (sus), ram (ovis) and bull (taurus), or often a bull alone.[70] To Mars Pater other epithets were sometimes appended, such as Mars Pater Victor ("Father Mars the Victorious"),[71] to whom the Roman army sacrificed a bull on March 1.[72] Although pater and mater were fairly common as honorifics for a deity,[73] any special claim for Mars as father of the Roman people lies in the mythic geneaology that makes him the divine father of Romulus and Remus.[74] Mars Silvanus In the section of his farming book that offers recipes and medical preparations, Cato describes a votum to promote the health of cattle: Make an offering to Mars Silvanus in the forest (in silva) during the daytime for each head of cattle: 3 pounds of meal, 4½ pounds of bacon, 4½ pounds of meat, and 3 pints of wine. You may place the viands in one vessel, and the wine likewise in one vessel. Either a slave or a free man may make this offering. After the ceremony is over, consume the offering on the spot at once. A woman may not take part in this offering or see how it is performed. You may vow the vow every year if you wish.[75] That Mars Silvanus is a single entity has been doubted. Invocations of deities are often list-like, without connecting words, and the phrase should perhaps be understood as "Mars and Silvanus".[76] Women were explicitly excluded from some cult practices of Silvanus, but not necessarily of Mars.[77] William Warde Fowler, however, thought that the wild god of the wood Silvanus may have been "an emanation or offshoot" of Mars.[78] Mars Ultor Augustus created the cult of "Mars the Avenger" to mark two occasions: his defeat of the assassins of Caesar at Philippi in 42 BC, and the negotiated return of the Roman battle standards that had been lost to the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. The god is depicted wearing a cuirass and helmet and standing in a "martial pose," leaning on a lance he holds in his right hand. He holds a shield in his left hand.[79] A great temple of Mars Ultor was dedicated in the center of the Forum of Augustus in 2 BC, giving the god a new place of honor in the heart of the city when he had formerly been most associated with the Campus Martius outside the pomerium (sacred boundary).[80] Some rituals previously conducted within the cult of the Capitoline Jupiter were transferred to the new Temple of Mars Ultor,[81] which became the point of departure for magistrates as they left for military campaigns abroad.[82] On various Imperial holidays, Mars Ultor was the first god to receive a sacrifice, followed by the Genius of the emperor.[83] An inscription from the 2nd century records continued devotion to Mars Ultor, with a vow to offer him a bull with gilded horns.[84] 127 Mars (mythology) Mars Augustus Augustus was appended far and wide, "on monuments great and small,"[85] to the name of gods or goddesses (as Augusta), including Mars. The title may have been an honorific for the deity for the same reasons that it became the title for the former Octavian, but while it honored the deity as the source of the emperor's power and legitimacy, it may also have allowed the viewer to infer that the deity and the emperor were one.[86] In Roman Spain (Hispania), many of the statues and dedications to Mars Augustus were presented by members of the priesthood called the Augustales.[87] These vows (vota) were usually fulfilled within a sanctuary that functioned as a center for Imperial cult, or in a temple or precinct (templum) consecrated specifically to Mars.[88] As with other deities invoked as Augustus/-a, altars to Mars Augustus might be set up to further the wellbeing (salus) of the emperor,[89] but an inscription in the Alps records the gratitude of a slave who dedicated a statue to Mars Augustus for restoring his own health.[90] Mars Augustus appears in inscriptions at such locations as Baetica, Saguntum,[91] and Emerita (Lusitania) in Roman Spain;[92] Lepcis Magna (with a date of 6–7 AD) in present-day Libya;[93] and Sarmizegetusa in the province of Dacia.[94] 128 Provincial epithets In addition to his cult titles at Rome, Mars appears in a large number of inscriptions in the provinces of the Roman Empire, and more rarely in literary texts, identified with a local deity by means of an epithet. Mars appears with great frequency in Gaul among the Continental Celts, as well as in Roman Spain and Britain. In Celtic settings, he is often invoked as a healer.[95] The inscriptions indicate that Mars' ability to dispel the enemy on the battlefield was transferred to the sick person's struggle against illness; healing is expressed in terms of warding off and rescue.[96] • Mars Alator, a fusion of Mars with the Celtic deity Alator (possibly meaning "Huntsman" or "Cherisher"), known from an inscription found in England, on an altar at South Shields and a silver-gilt votive plaque at Barkway, Hertfordshire.[97] [98] • Mars Albiorix, a fusion of Mars with the ancient Celtic deity Toutatis, using the epithet Albiorix ("King of the World"). Mars Albiorix was worshiped as protector of the Albici (or Albioeci) tribe of southern France, and was regarded as a mountain god. Another epithet of Toutatis, Caturix ("King of Combat"), was used in the combination Mars Caturix, which was worshipped in Gaul, possibly as the tribal god of the Caturiges.[99] • "Mars Balearicus", a name used in modern scholarship for small bronze warrior figures from Mallorca (one of the Balearic Islands) and interpreted as representing the local Mars cult.[100] These have been found within talayotic sanctuaries with extensive evidence of burnt offerings. "Mars" is fashioned as a lean, athletic nude lifting a lance and wearing a helmet, often conical; the genitals are perhaps semi-erect. Other bronzes at the sites represent the heads or horns of bulls, but the bones in the ash layers indicate that sheep, goats, and pigs were the sacrificial victims. Bronze horse-hooves were found in one sanctuary, and an imported statue of Imhotep, the legendary Egyptian physician, in another. The sacred precincts, which were still in active use when the Roman occupation began in 123 BC, may have been astronomically oriented toward the rising or setting of the constellation Centaurus.[101] "Mars Balearicus" • Mars Barrex, from Barrex or Barrecis (probably meaning "Supreme One"), a Celtic god known only from a dedicatory inscription found at Carlisle, England.[98] • Mars Belatucadrus, an epithet found in five inscriptions in the area of Hadrian's Wall in England, which equates the Celtic deity Belatu-Cadros with Mars. • Mars Braciaca, a synthesis of Mars with the Celtic god Braciaca. This deity is only known from a single inscription at Bakewell, England.[98] Mars (mythology) • Mars Camulos, from the Celtic war god Camulus. • Mars Capriociegus, from an Celtic god who was linked to Mars. He is invoked in two inscriptions in the Pontevedra region of north-west Spain. • Mars Cocidius. The Celtic hunter god Cocidius was equated with both Mars and Silvanus.[102] He is referenced around north-west Cumbria and Hadrian's Wall, and was chiefly a war god only in instances where he was equated with Mars. • Mars Condatis, from the Celtic god of the confluence of rivers, Condatis. Mars Condatis, who oversaw water and healing, is known from inscriptions near Hadrian's Wall, at Piercebridge, Bowes and Chester-le-Street.[98] [103] 129 • Mars Corotiacus. A local British version of Mars from Martlesham in Suffolk. He appears on a bronze statuette as a cavalryman, armed and riding a horse which tramples a prostrate enemy beneath its hooves.[99] • Mars Lenus. Mars Lenus, sometimes founds as Lenus Mars, had a major healing cult at the capital of the Treveri (present-day Trier). Among the votives are images of children offering doves.[104] His consort was Ancamna. • Mars Loucetius. The Celtic god Loucetios, Latinized as -ius, appears in nine inscriptions in present-day Germany and France and one in Britain, and in three as Leucetius. The Gaulish and Brythonic theonyms likely derive from Proto-Celtic *louk(k)et-, "bright, shining, flashing," hence also "lightning,"[105] alluding to either a Celtic commonplace metaphor between battles and thunderstorms (Old Irish torannchless, the "thunder feat"), or the aura of a divinized hero (the lúan of Cú Chulainn). The name is given as an epithet of Mars. The consort of Mars Loucetius is Nemetona, whose name may be understood as pertaining either to "sacred privilege" or to the sacred grove (nemeton),[106] and who is also identified with the goddess Victory. At the Romano-British site in Bath, a dedication to Mars Loucetius as part of this divine couple was made by a pilgrim from the continental Treveri of Gallia Belgica, who sought healing.[107] • Mars Mullo. The Celtic god Mullo ("mule") was invoked with Mars in northwest Gaul.[108] • Mars Neto. A fusion of Mars and the Iberian god Neto/Neito, which may be derived from the celtic Neit. • Mars Nodens. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Nodens. • Mars Ocelus. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Ocelus. • Mars Olloudius. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Olloudius. • Mars Rigisamus. Mars was given this title (which means 'Greatest King' or 'King of Kings') at West Coker in Somerset, where a bronze figurine and inscribed plaque dedicated to the god were found in a field, along with the remains of a building, perhaps a shrine. The figurine depicts a standing naked male figure with a close-fitting helmet; his right hand may have once held a weapon, and he probably originally also had a shield (both are now lost). The same epithet for a god is recorded from Bourges in Gaul. The use of this epithet implies that Mars had an extremely high status, over and above his warrior function. Mars (mythology) 130 • Mars Rigonemetis ("King of the Sacred Grove"). A dedication to Rigonemetis and the numen (spirit) of the Emperor inscribed on a stone was discovered at Nettleham (Lincolnshire) in 1961. Rigonemetis is only known from this site, and it seems he may have been a god belonging to the tribe of the Corieltauvi.[99] • Mars Segomo. "Mars the Victorious" appears among the Celtic Sequani.[109] • Mars Smertrius. At a site within the territory of the Treveri, Ancamna was the consort of Mars Smertrius.[110] • Mars Teutates. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Teutates (Toutatis). • Mars Thinesus. A form of Mars invoked at Housesteads Roman Fort at Hadrian's Wall, where his name is linked with two goddesses called the Alaisiagae. Anne Ross associated Thinesus with a sculpture, also from the fort, which shows a god flanked by goddesses and accompanied by a goose – a frequent companion of war gods.[99] • Mars Visucius. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Visucius. • Mars Vorocius. A Celtic healer-god invoked at the curative spring shrine at Vichy (Allier) as a curer of eye afflictions. On images, the god is depicted as a Celtic warrior.[99] A bronze Mars from Gaul References [1] Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, Religons of Rome: A History (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 47–48. [2] Kurt A. Raaflaub, War and Peace in the Ancient World (Blackwell, 2007), p. 15. [3] Paul Rehak and John G. Younger, Imperium and Cosmos: Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius (University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), pp. 11–12. [4] Isidore of Seville calls Mars Romanae gentis auctorem, the originator or founder of the Roman people as a gens (Etymologiae 5.33.5). [5] Hesiod, Theogony p. 79 in the translation of Norman O. Brown (Bobbs-Merrill, 1953); 921 in the Loeb Classical Library numbering (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lnCXI9oFeroC& dq=Ares+ intitle:theogony+ inauthor:hesiod& q="she,+ mingling+ in+ love"+ Ares#v=snippet& q="she, mingling in love" Ares& f=false). [6] Ovid, Fasti 5.229–260. [7] William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), p. 35f., discusses this interpretation in order to question it. [8] Carole E. Newlands, Playing with Time: Ovid and the Fasti (Cornell University Press, 1995), pp. 105–106. [9] Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 13.23. Gellius says the word Nerio or Nerienes is Sabine and is supposed to be the origin of the name Nero as used by the Claudian family, who were Sabine in origin. The Sabines themselves, Gellius says, thought the word was Greek in origin, from νεῦρα (neura), Latin nervi, meaning the sinews and ligaments of the limbs. [10] Robert E.A. Palmer, The Archaic Community of the Romans (Cambridge University Press, 1970, 2009), p. 167. [11] Plautus, Truculentus 515. [12] Johannes Lydus, De mensibus 4.60 (42). [13] Porphyrion, Commentum in Horatium Flaccum, on Epistula II.2.209. [14] William Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1922), p. 150–154; Roger D. Woodard, Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult (University of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 113–114; Gary Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War (University of California Press, 2005), p. 145. The prayer is recorded in the passage on Nerio in Aulus Gellius. [15] Augustine, De civitate Dei 6.10, citing Seneca; Fowler doubts the authority of the passage (Religious Experience, p. 166, note 16). [16] R.B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time and Fate (Cambridge University Press, 1951), pp. 470–471. Onians connects the name of Mars to the Latin mas, maris, "male" (p. 178), as had Isidore of Seville, saying that the month of March (Martius) was named after Mars "because at that time all living things are stirred toward virility (mas, gen. maris) and to the pleasures of sexual intercourse" (eo tempore cuncta animantia agantur ad marem et ad concumbendi voluptatem): Etymologies 5.33.5, translation by Stephen A. Barney, The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 128. In antiquity, vis was thought to be related etymologically to vita, "life." Varro (De lingua latina 5.64, quoting Lucilius) notes that vis is vita: "vis drives us to do everything." Mars (mythology) [17] On the relation of Mars' warrior aspect to his agricultural functions with respect to Dumézil's Trifunctional hypothesis, see Wouter W. Belier, Decayed Gods: Origin and Development of Georges Dumézil's 'idéologie tripartie' (Brill, 1991), pp. 88–91 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Hs3BpWur0_4C& pg=PA88& dq="Besides+ the+ obviously+ warlike+ aspects+ of+ Mars+ there+ are+ also+ features+ which+ have+ an+ agricultural+ aspect"& hl=en& ei=uU3wTNcEyeydB42G2OAK& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="Besides the obviously warlike aspects of Mars there are also features which have an agricultural aspect"& f=false) [18] Schilling, "Mars," in Roman and European Mythologies, p. 135; Palmer, Archaic Community, pp. 113–114. [19] Gary Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (University of California Press, 2005), p. 127; Fowler, Religious Experience, p. 134. [20] Cato, On Agriculture 141. In pre-modern agricultural societies, encroaching woodland or wild growth was a real threat to the food supply, since clearing land for cultivation required intense manual labor with minimal tools and little or no large-scale machinery. Fowler says of Mars, "As he was not localised either on the farm or in the city, I prefer to think that he was originally conceived as a Power outside the boundary in each case, but for that very reason all the more to be propitiated by the settlers within it" (Religious Experience, p. 142). [21] Schilling, "Mars," p. 135. [22] Beard et al., Religions of Rome: A History, pp. 47–48. [23] Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome, p. 127 [24] Plutarch, Roman Questions 21, citing Nigidius Figulus. [25] Plutarch, Roman Questions 21; also named as sacred to Mars in his Life of Romulus. Ovid (Fasti 3.37) calls the woodpecker the bird of Mars. [26] Pliny, Natural History 29.29. [27] Pliny, Natural History 27.60. Pliny names the herb as glycysīdē in Greek, Latin paeonia (see Peony: Name), also called pentorobos. [28] A.H. Krappe, "Picus Who Is Also Zeus," Mnemosyne 9.4 (1941), p. 241. [29] William Geoffrey Arnott, Birds in the ancient world from A to Z (Routledge, 2007), p. 63 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0NB4qqenLQIC& pg=PA63& dq=picus+ Martius+ Mars+ "green+ woodpecker"& hl=en& ei=ifEITcboAYiWnAfq-KzaDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=picus Martius Mars "green woodpecker"& f=false) [30] Plutarch, Roman Questions 21. Athenaeus lists the woodpecker among delicacies on Greek tables (Deipnosophistae 9.369). [31] Plautus, Asinaria 259–261; Pliny, Natural History 10.18. Named also in the Iguvine Tables (6a, 1–7), as Umbrian peiqu; Schilling, "Roman Divination," in Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp. 96–97 and 105, note 7. [32] Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.31; Peter F. Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion (Brill, 1992), p. 33. [33] John Greppin, entry on "woodpecker," Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), p. 648. [34] Dionysius Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities I.14.5, as noted by Mary Emma Armstrong, The Significance of Certain Colors in Roman Ritual (George Banta Publishing, 1917), p. 6. [35] The myth of the she-wolf, and the birth of the twins with Mars as their father, is a long and complex tradition that weaves together multiple stories about the founding of Rome. See T.P. Wiseman, Remus: A Roman Myth (Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. xiii, 73ff. et passim. [36] Plutarch, Life of Romulus. [37] Livy 22.1.12, as cited by Wiseman, Remus, p. 189, note 6, and Armstrong, The Significance of Certain Colors, p. 6. [38] Livy, Ab Urbe Condita 10.27. [39] Miranda Green, Animals in Celtic Life and Myth (Routledge, 1992), p. 126. [40] Nicole Belayche, "Religious Actors in Daily Life: Practices and Related Beliefs," in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 283; C. Bennett Pascal, "October Horse," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85 (1981), pp. 268, 277. [41] As did Neptune, Janus and the Genius; John Scheid, "Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors," in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 264. [42] Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, Religons of Rome: A Sourcebook (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 153. [43] C. Bennett Pascal, "October Horse," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85 (1981), pp. 263, 268, 277. [44] Robert Schilling, "Mars," in Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), p. 135 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Uf2_kHAs22sC& pg=PA135& dq=mars+ intitle:mythologies& hl=en& ei=aV_pTIzqJorQngeB0-ziDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=mars intitle:mythologies& f=false) The figure is sometimes identified only as a warrior. [45] Paul Rehak and John G. Younger, Imperium and Cosmos: Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius (University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), p. 114. [46] Rehak and Younger, Imperium and Cosmos, p. 114. [47] Martianus Capella 5.425, with Mars specified as Gradivus and Neptune named as Portunus. [48] Varro, Antiquitates frg. 254* (Cardauns); Plutarch, Romulus 29.1 (a rather muddled account); Arnobius, Adversus nationes 6.11. [49] Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 88. [50] Imperium and Cosmos p. 114. [51] The classical Latin declension of the name is as follows: nominative and vocative case, Mars; genitive, Martis; accusative, Martem; dative, Marti; ablative Marte. (http:/ / www. slu. edu/ colleges/ AS/ languages/ classical/ latin/ tchmat/ grammar/ whprax/ w7-d3-n. html) [52] Virgil, "Aeneid" VIII, 630 [53] Mallory, J. P.; D. Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=tzU3RIV2BWIC& source=gbs_navlinks_s). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 630–631. ISBN 1-884964-98-2. .; some of the older literature assumes 131 Mars (mythology) an Indo-European form closer to *Marts, and see a connection with the Indic windgods, the Maruts "Māruta" (http:/ / vedabase. net/ m/ maruta). . Retrieved July 8, 2010., but this makes the appearance of Mavors and the agricultural cults of Mars difficult to explain. [54] English Tuesday derives from Old English "Tiwesdæg" and means "Tiw's Day" ( Online Etymology Dictionary (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?term=Tuesday)), Tiw being the Old English form of the Proto-Germanic god *Tîwaz, or Týr in Norse, a god of war. [55] Livy 2.45. [56] Livy, 1.20, (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=M-ikf_c0rB0C& pg=PA31& dq="mars+ gradivus"& hl=en& ei=rbbRTNr0AYiWnAfRtKy8DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q="mars gradivus"& f=false) with note by Valerie M. Warrior, The History of Rome Books 1–5 (Hackett, 2006), p. 31. [57] Compare Gradiva. The 2nd-century grammarian Festus offers two other explanations in addition. The name, he says, might also mean the vibration of a spear, for which the Greeks use the word kradainein; others locate the origin of Gradivus in the grass (gramine), because the grass crown is the highest military honor; see Carole Newlands, Playing with Time: Ovid and the Fasti (Cornell University Press, 1995), p. 106. Servius says that grass was sacred to Mars (note to Aeneid 12.119). [58] Statius, Thebaid 9.4. [59] Valerius Maximus 2.131.1, auctor ac stator Romani nominis. [60] Hans-Friedrich Mueller, Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (Routledge, 2002), p. 88. [61] Martianus Capella, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury 1.4. [62] Robert E.A. Palmer, The Archaic Community of the Romans (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 167. [63] Mars enim cum saevit Gradivus dicitur, cum tranquillus est Quirinus: Servius, note to Aeneid 1.292, at Perseus. (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Serv. + A. + 1. 292& fromdoc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0053) At Aeneid 6.860, Servius further notes: "Quirinus is the Mars who presides over peace and whose cult is maintained within the civilian realm, for the Mars of war has his temple outside that realm." See also Belier, Decayed Gods, p. 92: "The identification of the two gods is a reflection of a social process. The men who till the soil as Quirites in times of peace are identical with the men who defend their country as Milites in times of war." [64] Palmer, The Archaic Community of the Romans, pp. 165–171. On how Romulus became identified with Mars Quirinus, see the Dumézilian summary of Belier, Decayed Gods, p. 93–94. [65] Etymologically, Quirinus is *co-uiri-no, "(the god) of the community of men (viri)," and Vofionus is *leudhyo-no, "(the god) of the people": Oliver de Cazanove, "Pre-Roman Italy, Before and Under the Romans," in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 49. It has also been argued that Vofionus corresponds to Janus, because an entry in Festus (204, edition of Lindsay) indicates there was a Roman triad of Jupiter, Mars, and Janus, each having quirinus as a title; C. Scott Littleton, The New Comparative Mythology (University of California Press, 1966, 1973), p. 178, citing Vsevolod Basanoff, Les dieux Romains (1942). [66] O. de Cazanove, "Pre-Roman Italy," pp. 49–50. [67] The Indo-European character of this prayer is discussed by Calvert Watkins, "Some Indo-European Prayers: Cato's Lustration of the Fields," in How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 197–213. [68] Celia E. Schultz, "Juno Sospita and Roman Insecurity in the Social War," in Religion in Republican Italy (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 217, especially note 38. [69] For the text of this vow, see The invocation of Decius Mus. [70] Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, Religons of Rome: A Sourcebook (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 71ff. for examples of a bull offering, p. 153 on the suovetaurilia. [71] Beard et al., "Religions of Rome, p. 370. [72] Martin Henig, Religion in Roman Britain (London, 1984, 1995), p. 27, citing the military calendar from Dura-Europos. [73] Gary Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War (University of California Press, 2005), p. 168. [74] Newlands, Playing with Time, p. 104. [75] Votum pro bubus, uti valeant, sic facito. Marti Silvano in silva interdius in capita singula boum votum facito. Farris L. III et lardi P.39 IIII S et pulpae P. IIII S, vini S.40 III, id in unum vas liceto coicere, et vinum item in unum vas liceto coicere. Eam rem divinam vel servus vel liber licebit faciat. Ubi res divina facta erit, statim ibidem consumito. Mulier ad eam rem divinam ne adsit neve videat quo modo fiat. Hoc votum in annos singulos, si voles, licebit vovere. Cato the Elder, On Farming 83, English translation (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Cato/ De_Agricultura/ E*. html#83) from the Loeb Classical Library, Bill Thayer's edition at LacusCurtius. [76] Robert Schilling, "Silvanus," in Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), p. 146; Peter F. Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion (Brill, 1992), pp. 8–9, 49. [77] Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus, pp. 9 and 105ff. [78] William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), p. 55. [79] Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 91. [80] Robert Schilling, "Mars," Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), p. 135; Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, Religons of Rome: A Sourcebook (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 80. [81] For instance, during the Republic, the dictator was charged with the ritual clavi figendi causa, driving a nail into the wall of the Capitoline temple. According to Cassius Dio (55.10.4, as cited by Lipka, Roman Gods, p. 108), this duty was transferred to a censor under Augustus, and the ritual moved to the Temple of Mars Ultor. [82] Lipka, Roman Gods, p. 109. [83] Lipka, Roman Gods, pp. 111–112. 132 Mars (mythology) [84] CIL VI.1, no. 2086 (edition of Bormann and Henzen, 1876), as translated and cited by Charlotte R. Long, The Twelve Gods of Greece and Rome (Brill, 1987), pp. 130–131. [85] Keith Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves (Cambridge University Press, 1978), p. 230. [86] A.E. Cooley, "Beyond Rome and Latium: Roman Religion in the Age of Augustus," in Religion in Republican Italy (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 247; Duncan Fishwick, The imperial cult in the Latin West (Brill, 2005), passim. [87] Jonathan Edmondson, "The Cult of Mars Augustus and Roman Imperial Power at Augusta Emerita (Lusitania) in the Third Century A.D.: A New Votive Dedication," in Culto imperial: politica y poder («L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 2007), p. 562. These include an inscription that was later built into the castle walls at Sines in Portugal; dedications at Ipagrum (Aguilar de la Frontera, in the modern province of Córdoba) and at Conobaria (Las Cabezas de San Juan in the province of Seville) in Baetica; and a statue at Isturgi ((CIL II. 2121 = ILS II2/7, 56). A magister of the "Lares of Augustus" (see Imperial cult) made a dedication to Mars Augustus ((CIL II. 2013 = ILS II2/5, 773) at Singili(a) Barba (Cerro del Castillón, Antequera). [88] Edmondson, "The Cult of Mars Augustus," p. 563. [89] Edmondson, "The Cult of Mars Augustus," p. 562. [90] Mars Augustus is hailed by the person making the dedication as conservator corporis sui, the preserver of his body, and the statue was vowed ex iussu numinis ipsius, "by the command of the numen himself" (ILS 3160); Rudolf Haensch, "Inscriptions as Sources of Knowledge for Religions and Cults in the Roman World of Imperial Times," in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 182. [91] William Van Andringa, "Religions and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the Second Century AD: The Creation of a Common Religious Language," A Companion to Roman Religion , p. 86. [92] Edmondson, "The Cult of Mars Augustus," pp. 541–575. [93] Ittai Gradel, Emperor Worship and Roman Religion (Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 238, note 11, citing Victor Ehrenberg and Arnold H.M. Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius (Oxford University Press, 1955), no. 43. [94] The chief priest of the three Dacian provinces dedicated an altar pro salute, for the wellbeing of the Emperor Gordian, at an imperial cult center sometime between 238 and 244 AD; Edmondson, "The Cult of Mars Augustus," p. 562. [95] Miranda Green, Animals in Celtic Life and Myth (Routledge, 1992), p. 198. [96] Ton Derks, Gods, Temples, and Ritual Practices: The Transformation of Religious Ideas and Values in Roman Gaul (Amsterdam University Press, 1998), p. 79. [97] Phillips, E.J. (1977). Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani, Great Britain, Volume I, Fascicule 1. Hadrian's Wall East of the North Tyne (p. 66). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-725954-5. [98] Ross, Anne (1967). Pagan Celtic Britain. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-902357-03-4. [99] Miranda J. Green. "Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend" (p. 142.) Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1997 [100] G. Llompart, "Mars Balearicus," Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueología 26 (1960) 101–128; "Estatuillas de bronce de Mallorca: Mars Balearicus," in Bronces y religión romana: actas del XI Congreso Internacional de Bronces Antiguos, Madrid, mayo-junio, 1990 (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1993), p. 57ff. [101] Jaume García Rosselló, Joan Fornés Bisquerra, and Michael Hoskin, "Orientations of the Talayotic Sanctuaries of Mallorca," Journal of History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy Supplement 31 (2000), pp. 58–64 (especially note 10) pdf. (http:/ / articles. adsabs. harvard. edu/ cgi-bin/ nph-iarticle_query?2000JHAS. . . 31. . . 58G& defaultprint=YES& filetype=. pdf) [102] Green, Animals in Celtic Life and Myth, p. 64. [103] Jones, Barri & Mattingly, David (1990). An Atlas of Roman Britain (p. 275). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 1-84217-067-8. [104] Green, Animals in Celtic Life and Myth, p. 216. [105] Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (Éditions Errance, 2003), 2nd edition, p. 200. [106] Gaulish nemeton was originally a sacred grove or space defined for religious purposes, and later a building: Bernhard Maier, Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture (Boydell Press, 1997, 2000, originally published 1994 in German), p. 207. [107] Helmut Birkham, entry on "Loucetius," in Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, edited by John Koch (ABC-Clio, 2006), p. 1192. [108] Green, Animals in Celtic Life and Myth, p. 208. [109] Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins, Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome (Facts on File, 1994, 2004), p. 297. [110] Miranda Green, Celtic Myths (University of Texas Press, 1993, 1998), p. 42. 133 External links • Mars in Roman Religion (http://www.angelfire.com/empire/martiana/mars/index.html) Mercury (mythology) 134 Mercury (mythology) Mercury by 17th-century Flemish sculptor Artus Quellinus, identified by his hat, drawstring purse, caduceus, winged sandals, cock (rooster), and goat Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Mercury (mythology) 135 Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Mercury (pronounced /ˈmɜrkjʉri/, Latin: Mercurius listen) was a messenger,[1] and a god of trade, the son of Maia Maiestas and Jupiter in Roman mythology. His name is related to the Latin word merx ("merchandise"; compare merchant, commerce, etc.), mercari (to trade), and merces (wages).[2] In his earliest forms, he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms, but most of his characteristics and mythology were borrowed from the analogous Greek deity, Hermes. Latin writers rewrote Hermes' myths and substituted his name with that of Mercury. However there are at least two myths that involve Mercury that are Roman in origin. In Virgil's Aeneid, Mercury reminds Aeneas of his mission to found the city of Rome. In Ovid's Fasti, Mercury is assigned to escort the nymph Larunda to the underworld. Mercury, however, fell in love with Larunda and made love to her on the way; this act has also been interpreted as a rape. Larunda thereby became mother to two children, referred to as the Lares, invisible household gods. Mercury has influenced the name of many things in a variety of scientific fields, such as the planet Mercury, and the element mercury, which it was formally associated. The word mercurial is commonly used to refer to something or someone erratic, volatile or unstable, derived from Mercury's swift flights from place to place. Mercury (mythology) 136 Mercury did not appear among the numinous di indigetes of early Roman religion. Rather, he subsumed the earlier Dei Lucrii as Roman religion was syncretized with Greek religion during the time of the Roman Republic, starting around the 4th century BC. From the beginning, Mercury had essentially the same aspects as Hermes, wearing winged shoes talaria and a winged petasos, and carrying the caduceus, a herald's staff with two entwined snakes that was Apollo's gift to Hermes. He was often accompanied by a cockerel, herald of the new day, a ram or goat, symbolizing fertility, and a tortoise, referring to Mercury's legendary invention of the lyre from a tortoise shell. Like Hermes, he was also a messenger of the gods and a god of trade, particularly of the grain trade. Mercury was also considered a god of abundance and commercial success, particularly in Gaul. He was also, like Hermes, the Romans' psychopomp, leading newly-deceased souls to the afterlife. Additionally, Ovid wrote that Mercury carried Morpheus' dreams from the valley of Somnus to sleeping humans.[3] Mercury's temple in the Circus Maximus, between the Aventine and Palatine hills, was built in 495 BC. This was a fitting place to worship a swift god of trade and travel, since it was a major center of commerce as well as a racetrack. Since it stood between the plebeian stronghold on the Aventine and the patrician center on the Palatine, it also emphasized the role of Mercury as a mediator. Because Mercury was not one of the early deities surviving from the Roman Kingdom, he was not assigned a flamen ("priest"), but he did have a major festival on May 15, the Mercuralia. During the Mercuralia, merchants sprinkled water from his sacred well near the Porta Capena on their heads. Hendrick Goltzius: Mercury, with his symbols Mercury's net in Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso Vulcan had created a net out of unbreakable steel so that he could catch Venus, the Goddess of Beauty, and Mars, the God of War, in the act of making love because he was jealous of their relationship. Vulcan managed to catch them but, afterwards, Mercury stole the net from the blacksmith God so that he could catch Cloris, a nymph who he admired. Cloris' job is to fly after the Sun while it rises, and to scatter lilies, roses and violets behind it. Mercury lay in wait for at least several days until he caught her wing in the net over an unnamed great river in Ethiopia, most likely the Awash/Awasi river. Mercury then gives the net to the temple of Anubis at Canopus to protect the sacred spot, but it was stolen 3,000 years later by Caligorant, who goes on to destroy the temple and city. Caligorant is an important character in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso.[4] References [1] Theoi.com (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Olympios/ Hermes. html) [2] http:/ / www. behindthename. com/ name/ mercury [3] Littleton, C. Scott (Ed.) (2002). Mythology: The Illustrated Anthology of World Myth and Storytelling (pp. 195, 251, 253, 258, 292). London: Duncan Baird Publishers. ISBN 1-904292-01-1. [4] Ariosto, Ludovico. "Canto XV Lines 47-64." Orlando Furioso. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Messor 137 Messor • In Roman mythology, Messor ("mower" or "reaper") was one of the minor god assistants of Ceres, the goddess of agriculture. See Ceres for more details. • Messor is also a genus of myrmicine ants, similar to Aphaenogaster. See Messor (ant genus) for more details. Momus 138 Momus Greek deities series Primordial deities Titans and Olympians Aquatic deities Chthonic deities Other deities Personified concepts • • • • • • • • • Apate Atë Bia Charites Eris Eros Horae Hypnos • • • • • • • • Kratos Metis Moirae Morpheus Nemesis Nike Thanatos Themis Zelos Harmonia • Momus or Momos (μῶμος) was in Greek mythology the god of satire, mockery, censure, writers, poets; a spirit of evil-spirited blame and unfair criticism. His name is related to μομφή, meaning 'blame' or 'censure'. He is depicted in classical art as lifting a mask from his face. In classical literature Hesiod[1] said that Momus was a son of Night (Nyx). He mocked Hephaestus, Lucian of Samosata recalled,[2] for having made mankind without doors in their breast, through which their thoughts could be seen. He even mocked Aphrodite, though all he could find was that she was talkative and had creaky sandals[3] He even found fit to mock Zeus, saying he is a violent god and lusts for woman, giving birth to two villainous sons equal to him in disgust (works of Apollonius Molon). Because of his constant criticism, he was exiled from Mt. Olympus. Momus is featured in one of Aesop's fables, where he is to judge the handiwork of three gods (the gods vary depending on the version). However, he is jealous of what they have done and derides all of their creations. He is then banished from Olympus by Zeus for his jealousy. Sophocles wrote a satyr play, now almost entirely lost, called Momos. In Lucian's satiric dialogue Assembly of the Gods (ca 165 CE) it is Momus who is the secretary when the gods stage a city meeting as if at Athens, to decide what to do about newly-arrived outsiders and metics, the target of the satire being the recent development of complete enfranchisement of unworthy outsiders (Lucian himself being of Syrian origin). In Book VI of Plato's Republic, Glaucon says to Socrates: "Momus himself could not find fault with such a combination." Momus 139 Renaissance and later writers Leon Battista Alberti wrote a savage and pessimistic Latin satiric dialogue, Momus, (ca. 1450)[4] which drew upon Lucian's example; as with his model — though some readers, with Eugenio Garin, detect in it some of Alberti's own streak of bitterness — the end use of the cynicism in the satire is to amuse. When Sir Francis Bacon wrote an essay "Of Building," (XLV) he said that "He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat, committeth himself to prison. .. Neither is it ill air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets, and, if you consult with Momus, ill neighbours." In Giordano Bruno's philosophical treatise "The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast", Momus plays an integral part in the series of dialogues conducted by the Olympian Deities and Bruno's narrators. Momus was brought back from his expulsion deep in the cosmos in order to assist Jove in reconstructing the heaven's by purging them of vice and heralding in an age of virtue. In one scene of Jonathan Swift's The Battle of the Books, Momus, while rushing to defend the Moderns, gets some aid from the goddess Criticism. Interestingly, Swift, a renowned satirist, sides with the Ancients while the goddess of satire sides with the Moderns Laurence Sterne ruminated on the possibilities of Momus' window into the soul in a typical rambling excursus in Tristram Shandy. Antonin Artaud is referencing him in his brief Artaud Le Momo (1947), written shortly after nine years of incarceration. Henry David Thoreau references him in Walden. In his first chapter, "Economy", Thoreau notes what he considers the valid objection of Momus/Momos against the house which Minerva/Athena made, that she "had not made it moveable, by which means a bad neighborhood might be avoided". Mardi Gras Inspired by the god, the "Knights of Momus" ("KOM") was the name of a Mardi Gras society in Galveston, Texas, founded in 1871. The original Knights of Momus went defunct around the time of World War II. A new group was founded in the mid-1980s, and seeking to rekindle the spirit of the original group, adopted the Momus name. "The Knights of Momus" is also the name of the third-oldest New Orleans Mardi Gras krewe, founded in 1872. Unlike the Galveston Momus organization, the New Orleans iteration of the Knights of Momus has operated continuously since its founding, and remains true to its roots as a secret society. For over 100 years, the Momus parade was a fixture of the New Orleans Mardi Gras parade schedule, parading annually on the Thursday before Fat Tuesday. Since Momus was the Greek god of mockery, the themes of Momus parades typically paid homage to the organization's namesake with irreverent humor and biting satire. The 1877 parade theme, "Hades, A Dream of Momus," caused an uproar when it took aim at the Reconstruction government established in New Orleans after the Civil War. Attempts at retribution by local authorities were largely unsuccessful due to the secrecy of the membership. In 1991, the New Orleans City Council passed an ordinance that required social organizations, including Mardi Gras Krewes, to certify publicly that they did not discriminate on the basis of race, religion, gender or sexual orientation, in order to obtain parade permits and other public licensure. In effect, the ordinance required these, and other, private social groups to abandon their traditional code of secrecy and identify their members for the city's Human Relations Commission. Momus was one of three historic krewes (with Comus of 1857 and Proteus of 1882) that withdrew from parading rather than identify their membership. Two federal courts later declared that the ordinance was an unconstitutional infringement on First Amendment rights of free association, and an unwarranted intrusion on the privacy of the groups subject to the ordinance.[5] The Supreme Court refused to hear the city's appeal from this decision. Nevertheless, the Momus parade never returned Momus to the streets of New Orleans, although the group still conducts an annual bal masqué on the Thursday before Mardi Gras. 140 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Hesiod, Theogony, 214. In the extended dialogue Hermotimus, 20. Philostratus, Epistles. Alberti, Momus (The I Tatti Renaissance Library), Sarah Knight and Virginia Brown, editors; Sarah Knight's is the first translation in English. The decision of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals appears at volume 42, page 1483 of the Federal Reporter (3rd Series), or 42 F.3d 1483 (5th Cir. 1995). External links • Harry Thurston Peck, Harper's Dictionary of classical antiquity, 1897 (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cache/ perscoll_Greco-Roman.html): Momus • Bohemian Café Society" (http://www.bohemiabooks.com.au/eblinks/spirboho/paris1830/cafes.htm): the real "Café Momus" • Lawrence Sterne, Tristram Shandy (http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/anglophone/satanic_verses/glass.html): ruminations on Momus' windows of glass, in Volume 1, chapter 23 (text) • Ella Wheeler Wilcox, 'Momus, God of Laughter' (http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/ Ella-Wheeler-Wilcox/16023): Poem at www.americanpoems.com Mors (mythology) 141 Mors (mythology) In ancient Roman myth and literature, Mors is the personification of death equivalent to the Greek Thánatos. As the Latin noun for "death", mors, genitive mortis, is of feminine gender, but ancient Roman art is not known to depict Death as a woman.[1] Latin poets, however, are bound by the grammatical gender of the word.[2] Horace writes of pallida Mors, "pale Death," who kicks her way in to the hovels of the poor and the towers of kings equally.[3] Seneca, for whom Mors is also pale, describes her "eager teeth."[4] Tibullus pictures Mors as black or dark.[5] Mors is often represented allegorically in later Western literature and art, particularly during the Middle Ages. Depictions of the Crucifixion of Christ sometimes show Mors standing at the foot of the cross.[6] Mors' antithesis is personified as Vita, "Life."[7] Genealogy Mors is the offspring of Nox (Night), and sibling to the personification of sleep, Somnus. Roman mythology Mors is often connected to Mars,[8] the Roman god of war; Pluto, the god of the underworld; and Orcus, god of death and punisher of perjurers. In one story, Hercules fought Mors in order to save his friend's wife. In other stories, Mors is shown as a servant to Pluto, ending the life of a person after the thread of their life has been cut by the Parcae, and of Mercury, messenger to the gods, escorting the dead persons soul, or shade, down to the underworld's gate. Mors (Death) coming for a miser in a painting by Bosch References [1] Karl Siegfried Guthke, The Gender of Death: A Cultural History in Art and Literature (Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 24 et passim. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Diana Burton, "The Gender of Death," in Personification in the Greek World (Ashgate, 2005), pp. 57–58. Horace, Carmina 1.4.14–15. Avidis … dentibus: Seneca, Hercules Furens 555. Tibullus 1.3.3. Guthke, The Gender of Death, pp. 24, 41, et passim. Guthke, The Gender of Death, pp. 45–46. Remigius of Auxerre, In Martianum 36.7: "Mars is called so as if mors (death)," as cited byJane Chance, Medieval Mythography: From Roman North Africa to the School of Chartres, A.D. 433–1177 (University Press of Florida, 1994), p. 578, note 70. The etymology-by-association of Remigius should be distinguished from scientific linguistics. Mutunus Tutunus 142 Mutunus Tutunus In ancient Roman religion, Mutunus Tutunus or Mutinus Titinus was a phallic marriage deity, in some respects equated with Priapus. His shrine was located on the Velian Hill, supposedly since the founding of Rome, until the 1st century BC. During preliminary marriage rites, Roman brides are supposed to have straddled the phallus of Mutunus to prepare themselves for intercourse, according to Church Fathers who interpreted this act as an obscene loss of virginity.[1] Arnobius says that Roman matrons were taken for a ride (inequitare) on Tutunus's "awful phallus" with its "immense shameful parts",[2] but other sources specify that it is brides who learned through the ritual not to be embarrassed by sex: "Tutinus, upon whose shameful lap sit brides, so that the god seems to sample their shame before the fact."[3] The 2nd-century grammarian Festus is the only classical Latin source to take note of the god,[4] and the characterization of the rite by Christian sources is likely to be hostile or biased.[5] A denarius issued by Quintus Titius, thought to depict a bearded Mutunus Tutunus Etymology Unlike Priapus, who is depicted in human form with an outsized erection, Mutunus seems to have been embodied purely by the phallus, like the fascinus or the mysterious begetter of Servius Tullius. The god's name is related to two infrequently recorded slang words for penis in Latin, mūtō (or muttō) and mūtōnium.[6] "Mutto" was also used as a cognomen, the third of the three elements of a Roman man's name.[7] Lucilius offers the earliest recorded instance of both forms: at laeva lacrimas muttoni[8] absterget amica ("A girlfriend wipes away Mutto's tears — his left hand, that is"),[9] and the derivative mūtōnium. Mūtōnium may have replaced the earlier form, as it appears later among the graffiti of Pompeii.[10] Horace has a dialogue with his muttō: "What do you want? Surely you're not demanding a grand consul's granddaughter as a cunt?"[11] Both Lucilius and Horace thus personify the muttō.[12] Mūtūniātus, used by Martial and in the Corpus Priapeorum,[13] describes a "well-endowed" male.[14] Both parts of the name Mūtūnus Tūtūnus are reduplicative, Tītīnus perhaps from tītus, another slang word for "penis."[15] Cult The shrine of Mutunus Tutunus on the Velia has not been located. According to Festus, it was destroyed to make a private bath for the pontifex and Augustan supporter Domitius Calvinus, even though it was revered as among the most ancient landmarks.[16] This uprooting raises the question of why Calvinus was permitted to displace such a venerable shrine. The Church Fathers associate Mutunus with groupings of other deities that are assumed to be based on the lost theological works of Varro. Through examining these connections, Robert Palmer concluded that the old cult of Mutunus was merged with that of Father Liber, who was variously identified with or shared attributes with Jupiter, Bacchus, and Lampsacene Priapus. Palmer further conjectured that it was Mutunus, in the form of Liber, to whom Julius Caesar made sacrifice on the day of his assassination, receiving the ill omens that the conspirator Decimus Brutus urged him to ignore. Caesar had previously celebrated his victory at the Battle of Munda on the Liberalia, or festival of Liber held March 17, and he visited the house of the pontifex Calvinus on the Ides of March, near the archaic shrine of Mutunus-Liber. In Palmer's view, the evident ill favor of the god gave Augustus license to reform the cult during his Mutunus Tutunus program of religious revivalism that often disguised radical innovations. The god was then Hellenized as Bacchus Lyaeus.[17] Palmer concurred with numismatists who regard a denarius minted by Quintus Titius, moneyer ca. 90–88 BC, as picturing an aged and bearded Mutunus on its obverse.[18] The winged diadem is a reference to the Priapus of Lampsacus and to the winged phallus as a common motif in Roman decorative arts, which can also serve as an apotropaic charm against the evil eye. Another issue by Titius pictures an ivy-crowned Bacchus, with both denarii having a virtually identical Pegasus on the reverse. Michael Crawford finds "no good grounds" for identifying this figure as Mutunus,[19] but Palmer points to the shared iconography of the Bacchus–Liber–Priapus figure and the associative etymology of the gens name Titius. A titus ("penis") with wings was a visual pun, since the word also referred to a type of bird.[20] Varro seems to have associated Titinus with the Titii, in an etymological collocation that included Titus Tatius, the royal Sabine contemporary of Romulus; the Curia Titia; or the tribus of the Titienses, one of the three original tribes of Rome.[21] 143 References [1] H.J. Rose, The Roman Questions of Plutarch: A New Translation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924, reprinted 1974), p. 84 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rKOuoVnZsFAC& pg=PA84& dq="Mutunus+ Tutunus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=17#v=onepage& q="Mutunus Tutunus"& f=false) [2] Arnobius, Adversus nationes 4.7 (see also 4.11): Tutunus, cuius immanibus pudendis horrentique fascino vestras inequitare matronas et auspicabile ducitis et optatis. Compare Tertullian, Ad nationes 2.11 and Apologeticus 25.3. On the translation of pudendis, see J.N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, 1990), pp. 55–56. [3] Lactantius, Divinarum Institutionum 1.20.36: Tutinus in cuius sinu pudendo nubentes praesident ut illarum pudicitiam prior deus delibasse videatur. See also Augustine of Hippo (particularly De civitate Dei 4.11 and 6.9) who "several times refers with distaste to the practices associated with" the priapic gods; R.W. Dyson, The City of God Against the Pagans (Cambridge University Press, 1998, 2002), p. 1221 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ReU2M8cLtGcC& pg=PA1221& dq="Mutunus+ Tutunus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=7#v=onepage& q="Mutunus Tutunus"& f=false) [4] Jean-Noël Robert, Eros romano: sexo y moral en la Roma antigua (Editorial Complutense, 1999), p. 58 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1wS-vtfUdbUC& pg=PA58& dq="este+ fascinus+ tiene+ nombre+ y+ se+ le+ honra+ como+ a+ un+ dios+ Mutunus+ Tutunus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q="este fascinus tiene nombre y se le honra como a un dios Mutunus Tutunus"& f=false) [5] Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 6, note 37, marks "the mockery of the Christian writers"; see also Augustine's "distaste" for the phallic gods noted above. W.H. Parker, Priapea: Poems for a Phallic God (Routledge, 1988), p. 135 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=iZUOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA135& dq="Church+ fathers"+ mutunus+ OR+ tutunus+ OR+ mutinus+ OR+ titinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=2#v=onepage& q="Church fathers" mutunus OR tutunus OR mutinus OR titinus& f=false), observes that the ritual of Mutunus was "condemned by early Church fathers"; Joseph Rykwert, The Idea of a Town: The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy, and the Ancient World (MIT Press, 1988), p. 159 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Jq78Ff2TYHAC& pg=PA159& dq="Church+ fathers"+ mutunus+ OR+ tutunus+ OR+ mutinus+ OR+ titinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q="Church fathers" mutunus OR tutunus OR mutinus OR titinus& f=false), notes that they spoke "scathingly" of phallic rituals. Tertullian's bias in his assemblage of deities to deride (including Mutunus) pointed out by Mary Beard, John North et al., Religions of Rome: A Sourcebook (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 359, note 1 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xQd82l39KX4C& pg=PA359& dq=Christian+ mutunus+ OR+ tutunus+ OR+ mutinus+ OR+ titinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=17#v=onepage& q=Christian mutunus OR tutunus OR mutinus OR titinus& f=false) The fascinum — identified by Arnobius with the phallus of Mutunus — "was used by Christian writers in their tirades against pagan customs," points out Enrique Montero Cartelle, El latín erótico: aspectos léxicos y literarios (University of Seville, 1991), p. 70 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=vUfXS1qQg9MC& pg=PA70& dq="Fascinum+ fue+ empleado+ por+ los+ escritores+ cristianos"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q="Fascinum fue empleado por los escritores cristianos"& f=false) For a fuller discussion, see Carlos A. Contreras, "Christian Views of Paganism," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.23.1 (1980) 974–1022, p. 1013 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0soI8HZXT3gC& pg=PA1013& dq=Christian+ mutunus+ OR+ tutunus+ OR+ mutinus+ OR+ titinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=40#v=onepage& q=Christian mutunus OR tutunus OR mutinus OR titinus& f=false) specifically in relation to Mutunus and in general asserting that "Arnobius commits the same mistake as other Fathers of applying Christian conceptions to pagan ideas in order to condemn them" (p. 1010). "Our knowledge of such things," that is, of rites such as those of Mutunus, "comes from Christian writers who are openly concerned to discredit all aspects of pagan idolatry," states Peter Stewart, Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 266, note 24 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xauWDEbWMs8C& pg=PA266& dq="Our+ knowledge+ of+ such+ things+ comes+ from+ Mutunus Tutunus Christian+ writers+ who+ are+ openly"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q="Our knowledge of such things comes from Christian writers who are openly"& f=false) [6] J.N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, 1990), p. 62 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=GDP9VHGbF1AC& pg=PA62& dq="Mutunus+ Tutunus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q="Mutunus Tutunus"& f=false) [7] CIL V.1412, 8473, as cited by Adams. The moneyer Quintus Titius, one of whose coins has been interpreted as depicting Mutunus, may have used the cognomen Mutto; T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1952), vol. 2, p. 454. [8] Muttōni is the dative form of muttō. [9] Lucilius 307 and 959. Kirk Freundenburg has dubbed the muttō of Lucilius "clearly the least finicky of all personified penises in Roman satire": Satires of Rome: Threatening Poses from Lucilius to Juvenal (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 205 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=QzOjItakZRoC& pg=PA205& dq=muttonis& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=3#v=onepage& q=muttonis& f=false) The left hand was preferred for masturbation by the Romans; see Antonio Varone, Erotica pompeiana: Love Inscriptions on the Walls of Pompeii («L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 2002), p. 95 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Vg9h-tW4KikC& dq=insula+ felicula& q="To+ grasp+ the+ meaning+ of+ the+ text"#v=snippet& q="To grasp the meaning of the text"& f=false) [10] CIL IV.1939, 1940. [11] Horace, Sermones 1.2.68. [12] Adams, Latin Sexual Vocabulary, p. 63. [13] Martial, Epigrams 3.73.1 and 11.63.2; Corpus Priapeorum 52.10. [14] Craig Arthur Williams, Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity (Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 92 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Kf4cs5Y0fiIC& pg=PA92& dq="Mutinus+ Titinus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=50& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q="Mutinus Titinus"& f=false) [15] Adams, Latin Sexual Vocabulary, p. 32. [16] Festus 142L, as cited and discussed by Lawrence Richardson, A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), p. 262 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=K_qjo30tjHAC& pg=PA262& dq="Mutinus+ Titinus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=50& as_brr=3& cd=9#v=onepage& q="Mutinus Titinus"& f=false) See also Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 6 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fj8oQ4lzteIC& pg=PA6& dq="Mutunus+ Tutunus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=19#v=onepage& q="Mutunus Tutunus"& f=false) [17] Robert E.A. Palmer, "Mutinus Titinus: A Study in Etrusco-Roman Religion and Topography," in Roman Religion and Roman Empire: Five Essays (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1974), pp. 187–206. [18] The identification dates back at least to Ch. Lenormant, "Types des médailles romaines," Revue numismatique (1838), pp. 11–12 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=dnjRAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA11& dq="Mutinus+ Titinus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=50& as_brr=3& cd=17#v=onepage& q="Mutinus Titinus"& f=false) [19] Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage (Cambridge University Press, 1974, 2001), vol. 1, pp. 344 and 346 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NuBION2KtM4C& pg=PA346& dq="Mutunus+ Tutunus"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=18#v=onepage& q="Mutunus Tutunus"& f=false) [20] Scholiast on Persius, Satire 1.20; Adams, Latin Sexual Vocabulary, p. 32. [21] Palmer, "Mutinus Titinus," p. 190. 144 Nemausus 145 Nemausus For the town, see Nîmes. For the true bug genus, see Nemausus (bug). Deus Nemausus is often said to have been the Celtic patron god of Nemausus (Nîmes). The god does not seem to have been worshipped outside of this locality. The city certainly derives its name from Nemausus, which was perhaps the sacred wood in which the Celtic tribe of the Volcae Arecomici (who of their own accord surrendered to the Romans in 121 BC) held their assemblies (according to Encyclopædia Britannica 1911), or was perhaps the local Celtic spirit guardian of the spring that originally provided all water for the settlement, as many modern sources suggest. Or perhaps Stephanus of Byzantium was correct in stating in his geographical dictionary that Nemausos, the city of Gaul, took its name from the Heracleid (or son of Heracles) Nemausios. An important healing-spring sanctuary existed in the town; it was established in some form at least as early as the early Iron Age but was expanded after the Romans colonised the region in the late 2nd century BC, when there was active Roman encouragement of the cult. Another set of local spirits worshiped at Nemausus (Nîmes) were the Nemausicae or Matres Nemausicae, who were fertility and healing goddesses belonging to the spring sanctuary. References • Green, Miranda, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend. Thames and Hudson Ltd. London. (1997) Nemestrinus In Roman mythology, Nemestrinus was a god of the forests and woods. His name comes from Latin nemus, meaning "wood". Neptune (mythology) 146 Neptune (mythology) Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Neptune (Latin: Neptūnus) is the god of water and the sea[1] in Roman mythology, a brother of Jupiter and Pluto, each of them presiding over one of the three realms of the universe, Heaven, Earth and the Netherworld. Neptune (mythology) 147 Etymology The etymology of Neptunus is unclear and disputed. The ancient grammarian Varro derived the name from nuptus i.e. covering (opertio), with a more or less explicit allusion to the nuptiae, marriage of Heaven and Earth.[2] Among modern scholars P. Kretschmer proposed a derivation from IE *neptu-, moist substance[3] ; but Dumezil remarked words deriving from root *nep are not attested in IE languages other than Vedic and Avestan. He proposed an etymology that brings together Neptunus with Vedic and Avestan theonyms Apam Napat, Apam Napá and Old Irish theonym Nechtan, all meaning descendant of the waters. By using the comparative approach the Indo-Iranian, Avestan and Irish figures would show common features with the Roman historicised legends about Neptunus. Dumezil thence proposed to derive the nouns from IE root *nepot or *nept, descendant, siter's son.[4] Dumezil also supposed Neptunus would be an adjectival form in -no meaning "he who is moist".[5] More recently German scholar H. Petersmann proposed an etymology from IE rootstem *nebh related to clouds and foggs, plus suffix -tu denoting an abstract verbal noun, and adjectival suffix -no which refers to the domain of activity of a person or his prerogatives. IE root *nebh, having the original meaning of damp, wet, has given Sanskrit nábhah, Hittite nepis, Latin nubs, nebula, German nebel, Slavic nebo etc. The concept would be close to that expressed in the name of Greek god Όυράνος, derived from IE root *h2vórso-.[6] [7] Such etymology would be more in accord with Varro's. Theology The theology of Neptune may only be reconstructed to some extent as since very early times he was identified with Greek god Poseidon, as he shown already in the lectisternium of 399 B.C. Such identification may well be grounded in the strict relationship between the Latin and Greek theologies of the two deities.[8] It has been argued that as IE people could not have a direct knowledge of the sea, their original seats being in inner continental areas, they reused the theology of an original chtonic deity who associated power over the inland freshwaters as a god of the sea.[9] This character has been preserved particularly well in the case of Neptune who was definitely a god of springs, lakes and rivers before becoming also a god of the sea. Poseidon on the other hand underwent this process much earlier as is shown in the Iliad.[10] The most ancient Roman calendar set the feriae of Neptunus, the Neptunalia on July 23. This was two days after Lucaria of July 19 and 21 and two days before the Furrinalia of July 25: G. Wissowa had already remarked that festivals falling in a range of three days are related to each other. Dumezil elaborated that these festivals were all in some way related to the protecting function of water during the period of summer heat (canicula), when river and spring waters are at their lowest. Founding his analysis on the works of Palladius and Columella Dumezil argues that while the Lucaria were devoted to the dressing of woods, clearing the undergrown bushes by cutting on the 19 and then by uprooting on the 21, (and burning them afterwards), the Neptunalia were spent under branch huts (umbrae, casae frondeae) drinking springwater and wine to avoid the heat. The Furrinalia too, devoted to Furrina goddess of springs, required the work of man since they referred to spring which had to be detected by digging, this fact creating a correspondence with the Lucaria of 21, which equally required analogous human action upon the soil. The overflowing of Lake Albanus happened on the date of the Neptunalia. This prodigy that foretold the fall of Veii is a historical event that Dumezil ascribed to the Roman habit of projecting legendary heritage onto their own past history. Livy relates that a haruspex from Veii who had been taken prisoner inadvertently gave away the prophecy that Veii would fall if the waters of the lake should overflow in the inland direction. On the contrary the fact would go to the disadvantage of Rome if the waters were to overflow towards the sea. The prophecy was confirmed by the oracle of Delphi consulted by the Roman senate. This legend would show the scope of the powers hidden in waters and the importance of their control: Veientans knowing the fact had been digging channels for a long time as recent archeological finds confirm. There is a temporal coincidence between the conjuration of the prodigy and the works of derivation recommended by Palladius and Columella at the time of the canicula, when the waters are at their lowest. Neptune's two paredrae Salacia and Venilia would then in Dumezil's view, who here accepts and reproposes the interpretations of Wissowa and von Neptune (mythology) Domaszewski, represent the calm and the overpowering aspects of water, both natural and domesticated: Salacia would be the aspect of gushing, overflowing waters and Venilia that of still or quietly flowing waters.[11] The Furrinalia of July 25 are explained with the hydraulic works prescribed by Palladius too, i.e. the digging of wells to detect underground water: patent and hidden waters are are dealt with on separate occasions. German scholar H. Petermann has proposed a rather different interpretation of the theology of Neptunus. Developing his understanding of the theonym as rooted in IE *nebh, he argues that the god would be an ancient deity of the cloudy and rainy sky in company and opposition with Zeus/Iupiter, god of the clear bright sky. As Greek god Ouranos he would be the father of all living beings on Earth through the fertilising power of rainwater. This hieros gamos of Neptune and Earth would be reflected in literarature, e.g. in Vergil Aen. V 14 pater Neptunus. The virile potency of Neptune would be represented by Salacia ( derived from salax, salio in its original sense of salacious, lustful, desiring sexual intercourse, covering). Salacia would then represent the god's desire for intercourse with Earth, his virile generating potency manifesting itself in rainfall. While Salacia would denote the overcast sky, the other charachter of the god would be reflected by his other paredra Venilia, representing the clear sky dotted with clouds of good weather. The theonym Venilia would be rooted in a not attested adjective *venilis, from IE root *ven(h) meaning to love, desire, realised in Sanskrit vánati, vanóti, he loves, old Island. vinr friend, German Wonne, Latin Venus, venia. Reminiscences of this double aspect of Neptune would be found in Catullus 31. 3: "uterque Neptunus". In Petersmann's conjecture, besides Zeus/Iupiter, (rooted in IE *dei(h) to shine, who originally represented the bright daylight of fine weather sky), the ancient Indoeuropean venerated a god of heavenly damp or wet as the generator of life. This fact would be testified by Hittite theonyms nepišaš (D)IŠKURaš or nepišaš (D)Tarhunnaš "the lord of sky wet", that was revered as the sovereign of Earth and men.[12] Even though over time this function was transferred to Zeus/iupiter who became also the sovereign of weather, reminiscences of the old function survived in literature: e.g. in Vergil Aen. V 13 reading: "heu, quinam tanti cinxerunt aetherea nimbi? quive, pater Neptune, paras?": "Whow, why so many clouds surrounded the sky? What are you preparing, father Neptune?".[13] 148 Paredrae As a rule these entities in Roman religion represent the fundamental aspects or power of the deity concerned. Only in later time under Hellenising influence they came to be considered as separate deities and consorts of the god. Salacia and Venilia have been the object of the attention of scholars ancient and modern. Varro connects the first to salum sea and the second to ventus wind.[14] Festus writes of Salacia that she was the deity that caused the motion of the sea. While Venilia would cause the wabes to come to the shore Salacia would cause their retreating towards the sea. The issue has been discussed in many passages by Christian apologists. He is analogous with but not identical to the god Poseidon of Greek mythology, and is imaged often according to Hellenistic canons in the Roman mosaics of north Africa.[15] The Roman conception of Neptune owed a great deal to the Etruscan god Nethuns. A north African inscription at Thugga referring to the "father of the Nereids" shows that Neptune also subsumed the archaic and by late Hellenistic times purely literary figure of Nereus.[16] For a time he was paired with Salacia, the goddess of the salt water.[17] At an early date (399 BC) he was identified with Poseidon, when the Sibylline books ordered a lectisternium to honour him with Apollo, Latona, Diana, Hercules and Mercury[18] In the earlier times it was the god Portunes or Fortunus who was thanked for naval victories, but Neptune supplanted him in this role by at least the first century BC when Sextus Pompeius called himself "son of Neptune."[19] Unlike Greek Oceanus, god of the world-ocean, Neptune is associated as well with fresh water. Georges Dumézil suggested[20] that for Latins, the primary identification of Neptune was with freshwater springs, the sea having still little interest for these people. Like Poseidon, Neptune was also worshipped by the Romans as a god of horses, under the name "Neptune Equester," patron of horse-racing.[21] Neptune (mythology) The planet Neptune, unknown to the ancients, was named for the god, as its deep blue gas clouds gave 19th-century astronomers the impression of great oceans. "King Neptune" plays a central role in the long-standing tradition of the "Line-crossing ceremony" initiation rite still current in many navies, coast guards, and merchant fleets. When ships cross the equator, "Pollywogs" (sailors who have not done such a crossing before) receive "subpoenas"[22] to appear before King Neptune and his court (usually including his first assistant Davy Jones and Her Highness Amphitrite and often various dignitaries, who are all represented by the highest-ranking seamen). Some Pollywogs may be "interrogated" by King Nepture and his entourage. At the end of the ceremony — which in the past often included considerable hazing — they are initiated as Shellbacks or Sons of Neptune and receive a certificate to that effect. 149 Festivals His festival, Neptunalia, at which tents were made from the branches of bushes, took place at the height of summer, on July 23.[23] suggestive of a primitive role for Neptune as god of water sources in the summer's drought and heat.[24] Neptune had two temples in Rome. The first, built in 25 BC, stood near the Circus Flaminius, the Roman racetrack, and contained a famous sculpture of a marine group by Scopas.[25] The second, the Basilica Neptuni, was built on the Campus Martius and dedicated by Agrippa in honour of the naval victory of Actium.[26] Depiction in art A.D. 300 statue The French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research divers (headed by Michel L'Hour) discovered a lifesize marble statue of Neptune, in the Rhone River at Arles; it is dated to the early fourth century.[27] The statue is one of a hundred artifacts that the team excavated between September and October 2007.[27] [28] Renaissance depictions The Renaissance brought with it a revival in pagan art, and many pagan gods were depicted in the same classical models used in Greek and Roman times. However, with Neptune few such models existed, allowing the artists of the Renaissance to depict Neptune however they chose. The results included a face and actions that seemed more mortal, as well as associations with Hercules. The overall effect was to change Neptune's image to a less deified state.[29] Gallery Neptune statue at 31st street, Virginia Beach, Virginia Portrait of Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino Giovan Battista Tiepolo Brumidi's The Apotheosis of Washington depicts Neptune in his chariot on a background of an ironclad warship, in the dome of the United States Capitol Neptune (mythology) 150 Neptune in Poznań, Poland. Neptune statue in Gdańsk The Fountain of Neptune, Bologna, Italy. Neptune's fountain (Fuente de Neptuno) in Madrid, Spain. Neptune fountain in the Alameda Central in Mexico City Coysevox's Neptune at the Louvre, in Paris. Fontana di Trevi's Neptune, Rome. Neptune in Lviv, Ukraine. Neptune in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Bartolomeo Ammannati's Fountain of Neptune in Florence. Neptune in Gliwice, Poland. Neptune in Riobamba, Ecuador. References and notes [1] J. Toutain, Les cultes païens de l'Empire romain, vol. I (1905:378) securely identified Italic Neptune as a god of freshwater sources as well as the sea. [2] Varro Lingua Latina V 72: Neptunus, quod mare terras obnubuit ut nubes caelum, ab nuptu, id est opertione, ut antiqui, a quo nuptiae, nuptus dictus.: "N., because the sea covered the lands as the clouds the sky, from nuptus i.e. covering, as the ancients (used to say), whence nuptiae marriage, was named nuptus". [3] P. Kretschmer Einleitung in der Geschichte der Griechischen Sprache Göttingen, 1896, p. 33 [4] Y. Bonnefoy, W. DOniger Roman and Indoeuropean Myhtologies Chicago, 1992, s.v. Neptune, citing G. Dumezil Myht et Epopée vol. III p. 41 and Ernout-Meillet Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue latine s.v. Neptunus [5] G. DumezilFetes romaines d' ete' et d' automne, suivi par dix questions romaines Paris 1975, p.25 [6] H. Petermann Göttingen 2002 [7] M. Peters "Untersuchungen zur Vertratung der indogermanischen Laryngeale in Griechisch" in Österreicher Akademie der Wissenschaften, philsophische historische Klasse Bd. 372, 1980 p.180 [8] R. Bloch "Quelques remarques sur Poseidon, Neptunus and Nethuns" in Revue d'Histoire des Religions 1981 [9] G. Wissowa Religion un Kultus der Römer Munich, 1912; A. von Domaszewski Abhandlungenzur römische Religion Leipzig und Berlin, 1909; R. Bloch above [10] R. Bloch above [11] Dumezil above p.31 [12] Eric NeunDie Anitta-TextWiesbaden, 1974, p. 118 Neptune (mythology) [13] H. Petersmann "Neptuns ürsprugliche Rolle im römischen Pantheon. Ein etymologisch-religiongeschichtlicher Erklärungsversuch" in Lingua et religio. Augewählte kleine Beiträge zur antike religiogeschichtlicher und sprachwissenschaftlicher Grundlage Göttingen, 2002, pp. 226-235 [14] Varro Lingua Latina V 72 [15] Alain Cadotte, "Neptune Africain", Phoenix 56.3/4 (Autumn/Winter 2002:330-347) detected syncretic traces of a Lybian/Punic agrarian god of fresh water sources, with the epithet Frugifer, "fruit-bearer"; Cadotte enumerated (p.332) some north African Roman mosaics of the fully characteristic Triumph of Neptune, whether riding in his chariot or mounted directly on sea-beasts. [16] Noted by Cadotte 2002:232; Cadotte gives a list of inscriptions referring to Neptune, pp335-37. [17] van Aken, Dr. A.R.A., ed. Elseviers Mythologische Encyclopedie (Elsevier, Amsterdam: 1961) [18] Livy v. 13.6; Showerman, Grant. The Great Mother of the Gods. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 1901:223 [19] Fox, Robin Lane. The Classical World. Basic Books, 2006. p. 412 ISBN 0465024963 [20] Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque (Paris, 1966:381) [21] Compare Epona. [22] Ceremonial Certificates — Neptune Subpoena (http:/ / www. usni. org/ store/ item. asp?ITEM_ID=1239) [23] CIL, vol. 1,pt 2:323; Varro, De lingua latina vi.19. [24] "C'est-à-dire au plus fort de l'été, au moment de la grande sécheresse, et qu'on y construisaient des huttes de feuillage en guise d'abris contre le soleil" (Cadotte 2002:342, noting Sextus Pompeius Festus, De verborum significatu [ed. Lindsay 1913] 519.1) [25] Wukitsch, Thomas K., Neptunalia Festival (http:/ / www. mmdtkw. org/ VNeptunalia. html), [26] Ball Platner, Samuel; Ashby, Thomas (1929), A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, "Basilica Neptuni" (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ basilicae. html), London: Oxford University Press, [27] Divers find Caesar bust that may date to 46 B.C. (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ Divers+ find+ Caesar+ bust+ that+ may+ date+ to+ 46+ B. C. -a01611530816), Associated Press, 2008-05-14, [28] Henry Samuel, "Julius Caesar bust found in Rhone River" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ france/ 1955773/ Julius-Caesar-bust-found-in-Rhone-River. html), The Telegraph [29] Freedman, Luba (September 1995), "Neptune in classical and Renaissance visual art" (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ r0505005858761h8/ ) (PDF), International Journal of the Classical Tradition (Springer Netherlands) 2 (2): 219–237, ISSN 1874-6292, 151 External links •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Neptune (god)". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. 98949848498984 Nodutus 152 Nodutus In Roman mythology, Nodutus was the god who made knots in stalks of wheat. His name derives from the Latin nodus, "a knot", in turn derived from *nōdo- PIE *ned-, "to bind, tie". Orcus Orcus was a god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths in Italic and Roman mythology. He was more equivalent to the Greek Pluto than to Hades, and later identified with Dis Pater. He was portrayed in paintings in Etruscan tombs as a hairy, bearded giant. A temple to Orcus may have existed on the Palatine Hill in Rome. It is likely that he was transliterated from the Greek daemon Horcus, the personification of Oaths and a son of Eris. Origins The origins of Orcus may have lain in Etruscan religion. Orcus was a name used by Roman writers to identify a Gaulish god of the underworld. The so-called Tomb of Orcus, an Etruscan site at Tarquinia, is a misnomer, resulting from its first discoverers mistaking as Orcus a hairy, bearded giant that was actually a figure of a Cyclops. The Romans sometimes conflated Orcus with other gods such as Pluto, Hades, and Dis Pater, god of the land of the dead. The name "Orcus" seems to have been given to his evil and punishing side, as the god who tormented evildoers in the afterlife. Like the name Hades (or the Norse Hel, for that matter), "Orcus" could also mean the land of the dead. Orcus was chiefly worshipped in rural areas; he had no official cult in the cities.[1] This remoteness allowed for him to survive in the countryside long after the more prevalent gods had ceased to be worshipped. He survived as a folk figure into the Middle Ages, and aspects of his worship were transmuted into the wild man festivals held in rural parts of Europe through modern times.[1] Indeed, much of what is known about the celebrations associated with Orcus come from medieval sources.[1] Survival and later use From Orcus' association with death and the underworld, his name came to be used for demons and other underworld monsters, particularly in Italian where orco refers to a kind of monster found in fairy-tales that feeds on human flesh. The French word ogre (appearing first in Charles Perrault's fairy-tales) may have come from variant forms of this word, orgo or ogro; in any case, the French ogre and the Italian orco are exactly the same sort of creature. An early example of an orco appears in Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, as a bestial, blind, tusk-faced monster inspired by the Cyclops of the Odyssey; this orco should not be confused with the orca, a sea-monster also appearing in Ariosto. This orco was the inspiration to J. R. R. Tolkien's orcs in his The Lord of the Rings. In a text published in The War of the Jewels, Tolkien stated: Note. The word used in translation of Q[uenya] urko, S[indarin] orch, is Orc. But that is because of the similarity of the ancient English word orc, 'evil spirit or bogey', to the Elvish words. There is possibly no connexion between them. The English word is now generally supposed to be derived from Latin Orcus. Also, in an unpublished letter sent to Gene Wolfe, Tolkien also made this comment:[2] Orc I derived from Anglo-Saxon, a word meaning demon, usually supposed to be derived from the Latin Orcus -- Hell. But I doubt this, though the matter is too involved to set out here. Orcus From this use, countless other fantasy games and works of fiction have borrowed the concept of the orc. Orcus appears as a character in Christopher Moore's A Dirty Job. 153 Notes [1] Bernheimer, p. 43. [2] http:/ / home. clara. net/ andywrobertson/ wolfemountains. html References • Bernheimer, Richard (1952). Wild men in the Middle Ages, New York : Octagon books, 1979, ISBN 0-374-90616-5 • Grimal, P. (1986). The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. (p. 328) • Richardson, L. (1992). A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. (p. 278) External links • "Tomb of the Orcus," Tarquinia (http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/tarorcus.html) Pales Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: • • • • • • Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna • • • • • • Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared — Other Rustic Gods: • • • • • Bona Dea Carmenta Camenae Dea Dia Convector • • • • • Flora Lupercus Pales Pomona Egeria In Roman mythology, Pales was a deity of shepherds, flocks and livestock. Regarded as a male by some sources and a female by others, and even possibly as a pair of deities (as Pales could be either singular or plural in Latin). Pales' festival, called the Parilia, was celebrated on April 21. Cattle were driven through bonfires on this day. Another festival to Pales, apparently dedicated "to the two Pales" (Palibus duobus) was held on July 7. Pales Marcus Atilius Regulus built a temple to Pales in Rome following his victory over the Salentini in 267 BC. It is generally thought to have been located on the Palatine Hill, but, being a victory monument, it may have been located on the route of the triumphal procession, either on the Campus Martius or the Aventine Hill. 154 References • Richardson, L. (1992). A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. (p. 282) • Scullard, H.H. (1981). Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic. London: Thames and Hudson. (p. 104–105) Palici The Palici (Παλικοί in Greek), or Palaci, were a pair of indigenous Sicilian chthonic deities in Roman mythology, and to a lesser extent in Greek mythology. They are mentioned in Ovid V, 406, and in Virgil IX, 585. Their cult centered around three small lakes that emitted sulphurous vapors in the Palagonia plain, and as a result these twin brothers were associated with geysers and the underworld. There was also a shrine to the Palaci in Palacia, where people could subject themselves or others to tests of reliability through divine judgement; passing meant that an oath could be trusted. The mythological lineage of the Palici is uncertain; one legend made the Palici the sons of Zeus, or possibly Hephaestus, by Aetna or Thalia, but another claimed that the Palici were the sons of the Sicilian deity Adranus. References • Hammond, N.G.L. & Scullard, H.H. (eds.) (1970). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford; Oxford University Press. • Wilson, R.J.A. (1990). Sicily under the Roman Empire. Warminster: Aris and Phillips (p. 278). Picumnus 155 Picumnus Picumnus (bird) is a genus of Neotropic piculets. In Roman mythology, Picumnus was a god of fertility, agriculture, matrimony, infants and children. He may have been the same god as Sterquilinus. His brother was Pilumnus. Picus In Roman mythology, Picus was the first king of Latium. He was known for his skill at augury and horsemanship. The witch Circe turned him into a woodpecker for scorning her love. Picus' wife was Canens, a nymph who killed herself after his transformation. They had one son, Faunus. According to grammarian Servius, Picus's love for Pomona was itself scorned. He is featured in one of the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Virgil says that he was the son of Saturnus and the grandfather of Latinus, the king of the Laurentines whom Aeneas and his Trojans fought upon reaching Italy. Italic people believed Picus was the son of the god of war Mars. After being turned into a woodpecker Italic tribes attributed to the bird divine qualities, connected with Picus's original skills at augury. One of the function he performed was to lead the deduction of colonies (made up of younger generation folk) with his flight, which traditionally took place in spring and was performed according to a religiuos ritual known as Ver sacrum. The people of the Piceni derived their name from the memory of this ritual. Sources • • • • Ovid Metamorphoses 14.320-434 Virgil Aeneid 7.45-49, 170-191 Servius on Aeneid 7.190 Diodorus Siculus 6, frag. 5 Pilumnus 156 Pilumnus In Roman mythology, Pilumnus ("staker") was a nature deity, brother of Picumnus. He ensured children grew properly and stayed healthy. Ancient Romans made an extra bed after the birth of a child in order to ensure the help of Pilumnus. He also taught humanity how to grind grain. He was also sometimes identified as the husband of Danaë, and therefore the father of Danaus and the ancestor of Turnus. A ceremony to honour the deity involved driving a stake into the ground. References • Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 • Myth Index - Deverra, Intercidona and Pilumnus [1] References [1] http:/ / www. mythindex. com/ roman-mythology/ D/ Deverra. html Pluto (mythology) For the dwarf planet, see Pluto. For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). In ancient Greek religion and myth, Pluto (Πλούτων, Ploutōn) was a name for the ruler of the underworld; the god was also known as Hades, the name of the underworld itself. He has two major myths: in Greek cosmogony, he received the rule of the underworld in a three-way division of sovereignty over the world, with his brothers Zeus ruling Heaven and Poseidon the Sea; and he abducts Persephone to be his wife and the queen of his realm.[1] In other myths, he plays a secondary role, mostly as the possessor of a quest-object.[2] The name Ploutōn was frequently conflated with that of Plutus (Πλοῦτος, Ploutos), a god of wealth, because mineral wealth was found underground, and because as a chthonic god Pluto ruled the deep earth that contained the seeds necessary for a bountiful harvest.[3] Ploutōn became a more positive way to talk about the ruler of the underworld, and the name was popularized through the mystery religions and philosophical systems influenced by Plato, the major Greek source on its meaning. The abduction of Proserpina (Persephone) by Pluto, with a Cupid in attendance (Roman cinerary altar, Antonine Era, 2nd century) Pluto (mythology) Pluto (genitive Plutonis) is the Latinized form of the Greek Ploutōn. Pluto's Roman equivalent is Dis Pater, whose name is most often taken to mean "Rich Father." Pluto was also identified with the obscure Roman Orcus, like Hades the name of both a god of the underworld and the underworld as a place. The name Pluto is sometimes used for the ruler of the dead in Latin literature, leading some mythology handbooks to assert misleadingly that Pluto was the Roman counterpart of Hades, rather than an adopted Greek name identified with Dis Pater or Orcus.[4] 157 Hesiod's Theogony The name Plouton does not appear in Hesiod's Theogony, where the six children of Kronos and Rhea are Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, and Hestia.[5] The male children divide the world into three realms. Hades takes Persephone by force from her mother Demeter, with the consent of Zeus. Ploutos, "Wealth," appears in the Theogony as the child of Demeter and Iasion: "fine Plutus, who goes upon the whole earth and the broad back of the sea, and whoever meets him and comes into his hands, that man he makes rich, and he bestows much wealth upon him." This union, also described in the Odyssey,[6] took place in a fallow field that had been ploughed three times, in what seems to be a reference to a ritual copulation or sympathetic magic to ensure the earth's fertility.[7] "The resemblance of the name Ploutos to Plouton …," it has been noted, "cannot be accidental. Plouton is lord of the dead, but as Persephone's husband he has serious claims to the powers of fertility."[8] Demeter's son merges with her son-in-law, redefining the implacable chariot-driver whose horses trample the flowering earth.[9] Plouton and Ploutos Plouton was one of several euphemistic names for Hades, described in the Iliad as the god most hateful to mortals.[10] Plato says that people prefer the name Plouton, "giver of wealth," because the name of Hades is fear-provoking.[11] The name was understood as referring to "the boundless riches of the earth, both the crops on its surface — he was originally a god of the land — and the mines hidden within it."[12] What is sometimes taken as "confusion" of the two gods Plouton and Ploutos ("Wealth") held or acquired a theological significance in antiquity; as a lord of abundance or riches, Pluto expresses the positive aspect of the god, symbolized in art by the "horn of plenty" (cornucopia),[13] by means of which Plouton is distinguished from the gloomier Hades.[14] At the time of Ennius (ca. 239–169 BC), the leading figure in the Hellenization of Latin literature, Pluto was considered a Greek god to be explained in terms of his Roman equivalents Dis Pater and Orcus.[15] It is unclear whether Pluto had a literary presence in Rome before Ennius. Some scholars think that rituals and beliefs pertaining to Pluto entered Roman culture with the establishment of the Saecular Games in 249 BC, and that Dis pater was only a translation of Plouton.[16] Cicero identifies Pluto with Dis, explaining that "The earth in all its power and plenty is sacred to Father Dis, a name which is the same as Dives, 'The Wealthy One,' as is the Greek Plouton. This is because everything is born of the earth and returns to it again."[17] The geographer Strabo (1st century) makes a distinction between Pluto and Hades. In writing of the mineral wealth of ancient Iberia (Roman Spain), he says that among the Turdetani, it is "Pluto, and not Hades, who inhabits the region down below."[18] In Lucian's discourse On Mourning (2nd century), Plouton's "wealth" is the dead he rules over in the abyss (chasma); the name Hades is reserved for the underworld itself.[19] Ploutos (or possibly Plouton) with the horn of abundance, in the company of Dionysos (4th century BC) Pluto (mythology) 158 Other identifications In Greek religious practice, Pluto is sometimes seen as the "chthonic Zeus" (Zeus Chthonios[20] or Zeus Catachthonios[21] ), or at least as having functions or significance equivalent to those of Zeus but pertaining to the earth or underworld.[22] In ancient Roman and Hellenistic religion, Pluto was identified with a number of other deities, including Summanus, the god of nocturnal thunder;[23] Februus, the god from whose purification rites the month of February takes its name;[24] the syncretic god Serapis, regarded as Pluto's Egyptian equivalent;[25] and the Semitic god Muth (Μούθ). Muth was described by Philo of Byblos as the equivalent of both Thanatos (Death personified) and Pluto.[26] The ancient Greeks did not regard Pluto as "death" per se.[27] Mythology See also: Abduction of Persephone. The best-known myth involving Pluto or Hades is the abduction of Persephone, also known as Kore ("the Maiden"). The earliest literary versions of the myth are a brief mention in Hesiod's Theogony and the extended narrative of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter; the ruler of the underworld is named as Hades ("the Hidden One") in both these works. In the hymn, Hades is given the epithet "son of Kronos", more commonly used of Zeus. He is an unsympathetic figure, and Persephone's unwillingness is emphasized.[28] Increased usage of the name Plouton in religious inscriptions and literary texts reflects the influence of the Eleusinian Mysteries, which treated Pluto and Persephone as a divine couple who received initiates in the afterlife; Pluto was disassociated from the "violent abductor" of Kore.[29] The most influential Latin version of the abduction myth is found in the Metamorphoses of Ovid (Book 5), who tells the story again in the Fasti (Book 4).[30] Another major retelling is the long unfinished poem De raptu Proserpinae of Claudian. Ovid uses the name Dis, not Pluto in these two passages,[31] and Claudian uses Pluto only once; translators and editors, however, sometimes supply the more familiar "Pluto" when other epithets appear in the source text.[32] The mythographers Apollodorus (in Greek, 2nd century BC; see below) and Hyginus (in Latin, 1st-century BC)[33] in their accounts name the god as Pluto instead of Hades. The abduction myth was a popular subject for Greek and Roman art, and recurs throughout Western art and literature, where the name "Pluto" becomes common. Offspring The Augustan poet Vergil says that Pluto is the father of Allecto, the Fury, whom he hates.[34] In Orphic texts,[35] the Eumenides ("The Kindly Ones") are the offspring of Persephone and Zeus Chthonios, often identified with Pluto, and are distinguished from the Furies (Greek Erinyes).[36] The lack of a clear distinction between Pluto and "chthonic Zeus" confuses the question of whether in some traditions, now obscure, Persephone bore children to her husband. In the late 4th century, Claudian's epic on the abduction motivates Pluto with a desire for children. The poem is unfinished, however, and anything Claudian may have known of these traditions is lost.[37] Pluto (mythology) 159 Mysteries and cult As Pluto gained importance within the Eleusinian Mysteries throughout the 5th century BC as an embodiment of agricultural wealth, the name Hades was increasingly reserved for the underworld as a place.[38] Neither Hades nor Pluto was one of the traditional Twelve Olympians, and Hades seems to have received limited cult,[39] perhaps only at Elis, where the temple was opened once a year.[40] At the time of Plato, the Athenians honored Plouton with the "strewing of a couch" (tên klinên strôsai).[41] At Eleusis, Plouton had his own priestess.[42] Pluto was worshipped with Persephone as a divine couple at Knidos, Ephesos, Mytilene, and Sparta as well as at Eleusis, where they were known simply as God (Theos) and Goddess (Thea).[43] In the ritual texts of the mystery religions preserved by the so-called Orphic or Bacchic gold tablets, the earliest extant examples of which date from the late 5th century BC,[44] the name Hades appears more frequently than Plouton. Hades, however, most often refers to the underground place,[45] and Plouton to the ruler who presides over it with Persephone.[46] After the end of the 4th century BC, the name Plouton begins to appear in Greek metrical inscriptions.[47] Two fragmentary tablets greet Plouton and Persephone jointly,[48] and the divine couple appear as welcoming figures in a metrical epitaph: I know that even below the earth, if there is indeed a reward for the worthy ones, the first and foremost honors, nurse,[49] shall be yours, next to Persephone and Pluto.[50] Hesychius identifies Plouton with Eubouleus,[51] but other ancient sources distinguish between these two underworld deities, and in the Mysteries Eubouleus plays the role of a torchbearer, possibly a guide for the initiate's return.[52] Scenes from the Eleusinian narrative, with Persephone in the four-horse chariot of Pluto bottom center (red-figure volute-krater, ca. 340 BC, from Apulia) Magic invocations The names of both Hades and Pluto appear also in the Greek Magical Papyri and curse tablets, with Hades usually referring to the underworld, and Pluto regularly invoked in connection to Persephone.[53] Five Latin curse tablets from Rome, dating to the mid-1st century BC, promise Persephone and Pluto an offering of "dates, figs, and a black pig" if the curse is fulfilled by the desired deadline. The pig was a characteristic animal sacrifice to chthonic deities, whose victims were typically black or dark in color.[54] A set of curse tablets written in Doric Greek and found in a tomb addresses a Pasianax, "Lord to All,"[55] sometimes taken as a title of Pluto,[56] but more recently thought to be a magical name for the corpse.[57] Pasianax is found elsewhere as an epithet of Zeus, or in the tablets may invoke a daimon like Abrasax.[58] Sanctuaries of Pluto Main article: Ploutonion. A sanctuary dedicated to Pluto was called a ploutonion (Latin plutonium). The complex at Eleusis for the mysteries had a ploutonion regarded as the birthplace of the divine child Ploutos, in another instance of conflation or close association of the two.[59] Greek inscriptions record an altar of Pluto, which was to be "plastered", that is, resurfaced for a new round of sacrifices at Eleusis.[60] One of the known ploutonia was in the sacred grove between Tralleis and Nysa, where a temple of Plouton and Persephone was located. Visitors sought healing and dream oracles.[61] The ploutonion at Hierapolis, Phrygia, was connected to the rites of Cybele, but during the Roman Imperial era was subsumed by the cult of Apollo, as confirmed by archaeological investigations during the 1960s. It too was a dream oracle.[62] Pluto (mythology) 160 Iconography Kevin Clinton attempted to distinguish the iconography of Hades, Plouton, Ploutos, and the Eleusinian Theos in 5th-century vase painting that depicts scenes from or relating to the mysteries. In Clinton's schema, Plouton is a mature man, sometimes even white-haired; Hades is also usually bearded and mature, but his darkness is emphasized in literary descriptions, represented in art by dark hair. Plouton's most common attribute is a scepter, but he also often holds a full or overflowing cornucopia; Hades sometimes holds a horn, but it is depicted with no contents and should be understood as a drinking horn. Unlike Plouton, Hades never holds agrarian attributes such as stalks of grain. His chest is usually bare or only partly covered, whereas Plouton is fully robed (exceptions, however, are admitted by the author). Plouton stands, often in the company of both Demeter and Kore, or sometimes one of the goddesses, but Hades almost always sits or reclines, usually with Persephone facing him.[63] "Confusion and disagreement" about the interpretation of these images remain.[64] In Greek literature and philosophy The name Plouton is first used in Greek literature by Athenian playwrights.[65] In Aristophanes' comedy The Frogs (Batrachoi, 405 BC), in which "the Eleusinian colouring is in fact so pervasive,"[66] the ruler of the underworld is one of the characters, under the name of Plouton. The play depicts a mock descent to the underworld by the god Dionysus to bring back one of the dead tragic playwrights in the hope of restoring Athenian theater to its former glory. Plouton is a silent presence onstage for about 600 lines presiding over a contest among the tragedians, then announces that the winner has the privilege of returning to the upper world.[67] The play also draws on beliefs and imagery from Orphic and Dionysiac cult, and rituals pertaining to Ploutos (Plutus).[68] In a fragment from another play by Aristophanes, a character "is comically singing of the excellent aspects of being dead," asking in reference to the tripartition of sovereignty over the world, "And where do you think Pluto gets his name (i.e. "Rich"), / if not because he took the best portion? /… / How much better are things below than what Zeus possesses!"[69] To Plato, the god of the underworld was "an agent in th[e] beneficent cycle of death and rebirth" meriting worship under the name of Plouton, a giver of spiritual wealth.[70] Plato discusses the etymology of Plouton through his interlocutor Socrates in the dialogue Cratylus. Socrates says that Plouton gives wealth (ploutos), and his name means "giver of wealth, which comes out of the earth beneath." Because the name Hades is taken to mean "the invisible," people fear what they cannot see; although they are in error about the nature of this deity's power, Socrates says, "the office and name of the God really correspond." He is the perfect and accomplished Sophist, and the great benefactor of the inhabitants of the other world; and even to us who are upon earth he sends from below exceeding blessings. For he has much more than he wants down there; wherefore he is called Pluto (or the rich). Note also, that he will have nothing to do with men while they are in the body, but only when the soul is liberated from the desires and evils of the body. Now there is a great deal of philosophy and reflection in that; for in their liberated state he can bind them with the desire of virtue, but while they are flustered and maddened by the body, not even father Cronos himself would suffice to keep them with him in his own far-famed chains.[73] [71] [72] Persephone and Pluto or Hades on a pinax from Locri Pluto (mythology) Since "the union of body and soul is not better than the loosing,"[74] death is not an evil. Walter Burkert thus saw Pluto as a "god of dissolution."[75] Among the titles of Pluto was Isodaitēs, "divider into equal portions," a title that connects him to the fate goddesses the Moirai.[76] Isodaitēs was also a cult title for Dionysus and Helios.[77] In ordering his ideal city, Plato proposed a calendar in which Plouton was honored as a benefactor in the twelfth month, implicitly ranking him as one of the twelve principal deities.[78] In the Attic calendar, the twelfth month, more or less equivalent to June, was Skirophorion; the name may be connected to the rape of Persephone.[79] 161 Theogonies and cosmology Euhemerism and Latinization In the theogony of Euhemerus (4th century BC), the gods were treated as mortal rulers whose deeds were immortalized by tradition. Ennius translated Euhemerus into Latin about a hundred years later, and a passage from his version was in turn preserved by the early Christian writer Lactantius.[80] Here the union of Saturn (the Roman equivalent of Kronos) and Ops, an Italic goddess of abundance, produces Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Pluto, and Glauca: Then Saturn took Ops to wife. Titan, the elder brother, demanded the kingship for himself. Vesta their mother, with their sisters Ceres [Demeter] and Ops, persuaded Saturn not to give way to his brother in the matter. Titan was less good-looking than Saturn; for that reason, and also because he could see his mother and sisters working to have it so, he conceded the kingship to Saturn, and came to terms with him: if Saturn had a male child born to him, it would not be reared. This was done to secure reversion of the kingship to Titan's children. They then killed the first son that was born to Saturn. Next came twin children, Jupiter and Juno. Juno was given to Saturn to see while Jupiter was secretly removed and given to Vesta to be brought up without Saturn's knowledge. In the same way without Saturn knowing, Ops bore Neptune and hid him away. In her third labor Ops bore another set of twins, Pluto and Glauce. (Pluto in Latin is Diespiter;[81] some call him Orcus.) Saturn was shown his daughter Glauce but his son Pluto was hidden and removed. Glauce then died young. That is the pedigree, as written, of Jupiter and his brothers; that is how it has been passed down to us in holy scripture. In this theogony, which Ennius introduced into Latin literature, Saturn, "Titan,"[82] Vesta, Ceres, and Ops are siblings; Glauca is the twin of Pluto and dies mysteriously young. There are several mythological figures named Glauca; the sister of Pluto may be the Glauca who in Cicero's account of the three aspects of Diana conceived the third with the equally mysterious Upis.[83] Apollodorus The theogony presented by the 2nd-century BC Greek mythographer Apollodorus for the most part follows Hesiod (see above), but Apollodorus uses the name Plouton instead of Hades and says that the three brothers were each given a gift by the Cyclopes to use in their battle against the Titans: Zeus thunder and lightning; Poseidon a trident; and Pluto a helmet (kyneê).[84] The helmet is assumed to be the magical Cap of Invisibility (aidos kyneê), but Apollodorus is the only author who says it was a possession of Pluto.[85] Apollodorus also uses the name Plouton in his account of the abduction. Orphic and philosophical systems The Orphic theogonies are notoriously varied,[86] and Orphic cosmology influenced the varying Gnostic theogonies of late antiquity.[87] Clementine literature (4th century AD) preserves a theogony with explicit Orphic influence that also draws on Hesiod, yielding a distinctive role for Pluto. When the primordial elements came together by orderly cyclonic force, they produced a generative sphere, the "egg" from which the primeval Orphic entity Phanes is born and the world is formed. The release of Phanes and his ascent to the heavenly top of the world-egg causes the matter left in the sphere to settle in relation to its relative weight, creating the tripartite world of the traditional Pluto (mythology) theogonies:[88] Its lower part, the heaviest element, sinks downwards, and is called Pluto because of its gravity, weight, and great quantity (plêthos) of matter. After the separation of this heavy element in the middle part of the egg the waters flow together, which they call Poseidon. The purest and noblest element, the fire, is called Zeus, because its nature is glowing (ζέουσα, zeousa). It flies right up into the air, and draws up the spirit, now called Metis, that was left in the underlying moisture. And when this spirit has reached the summit of the ether, it is devoured by Zeus, who in his turn begets the intelligence (σύνεσις, sunesis), also called Pallas. And by this artistic intelligence the etherial artificer creates the whole world. This world is surrounded by the air, which extends from Zeus, the very hot ether, to the earth; this air is called Hera.[89] This cosmogony interprets Hesiod allegorically, and so the heaviest element is identified not as the Earth, but as the netherworld of Pluto.[90] (In modern geochemistry, plutonium is the heaviest primordial element.) Supposed etymologies are used to make sense of the relation of physical process to divine name; Plouton is here connected to plêthos (abundance).[91] In the Stoic system, Pluto represented the lower region of the air, where according to Seneca (1st century AD) the soul underwent a kind of purgatory before ascending to the ether.[92] Within the Pythagorean and Neoplatonic traditions, Pluto was allegorized as the region where souls are purified, located between the moon (as represented by Persephone) and the sun. Plutarch says that the story of Persephone leaving Pluto for a period during the year is thus a misunderstanding of the celestial and eschatological phenomena that the myth expresses; when the moon is in the shadow of Earth, Persephone and Demeter are said to embrace, but when they part, they long for each other, and the territory of Hades/Pluto comes between them.[93] A dedicatory inscription from Smyrna describes a 1st–2nd century sanctuary to "God Himself" as the most exalted of a group of six deities, including clothed statues of Plouton Helios and Koure Selene, "Pluto the Sun" and "Kore the Moon."[94] The status of Pluto and Kore as a divine couple is marked by what the text describes as a "linen embroidered bridal curtain."[95] The two are placed as bride and groom within an enclosed temple, separately from the other deities cultivated at the sanctuary. Plouton Helios is mentioned in other literary sources in connection with Koure Selene and Helios Apollo; the sun on its nighttime course was sometimes envisioned as traveling through the underworld on its return to the east. Apuleius describes a rite in which the sun appears at midnight to the initiate at the gates of Proserpina (the Latin name of Persephone/Kore); it has been suggested that this midnight sun could be Plouton Helios.[96] The Smyrna inscription also records the presence of Helios Apollo at the sanctuary. As two forms of Helios, Apollo and Plouton pose a dichotomy: Helios Apollo One clarity bright memory Plouton Helios Many invisibility dark oblivion [97] 162 Given the collocation of deities and other details in the inscription, and on the basis of comparative material, it has been argued that the sanctuary was in the keeping of a Pythagorean sodality or "brotherhood". The relation of Orphic beliefs to the mystic strand of Pythagoreanism, or of these to Platonism and Neoplatonism, is complex and much debated.[98] The Neoplatonist Proclus (5th century AD) considered Pluto the third demiurge, a sublunar demiurge who was also identified variously with Poseidon or Hephaestus. This idea is present in Renaissance Neoplatonism, as for instance in the cosmology of Marsilio Ficino (1433–99),[99] who translated Orphic texts into Latin for his own use.[100] Pluto (mythology) Ficino saw the sublunar demiurge as "a daemonic 'many-headed' sophist, a magus, an enchanter, a fashioner of images and reflections, a shape-changer of himself and of others, a poet in a way of being and of not-being, a royal Pluto." This demiurgic figure identified with Pluto is also "'a purifier of souls' who presides over the magic of love and generation and who uses a fantastic counter-art to mock, but also … to supplement, the divine icastic or truly imitative art of the sublime translunar Demiurge."[101] 163 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] William Hansen, Classical Mythology: A Guide to the Mythical World of the Greeks and Romans (Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 180. Hansen, Classical Mythology, p. 180–181. Hansen, Classical Mythology, p. 182. Hansen, Classical Mythology, p. 182. In Book 3 of the Sibylline Oracles, dating mostly to the 2nd century AD, Rhea gives birth to Pluto as she passes by Dodona, "where the watery paths of the River Europus flowed, and the water ran into the sea, merged with the Peneius. This is also called the Stygian river"; see Rieuwerd Buitenwerf, Book III of the Sibylline Oracles and Its Social Setting (Brill, 2003), p. 157. [6] Odyssey 5.125–128: And so it was when Demeter of the lovely hair, yielding / to her desire, lay down with Iasion and loved him / in a thrice-turned field (translation of Richmond Lattimore). [7] Hesiod, Theogony 969–74; Apostolos N. Athanassakis, Hesiod. Theogony, Works and Days, Shield (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983, 2004), p. 56. [8] Athanassakis, Hesiod, p. 56. [9] Emily Vermeule, Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry (University of California Press, 1979), p. 37; Hendrik Wagenvoort, "The Origin of the Ludi Saeculares," in Studies in Roman Literature, Culture and Religion (Brill, 1956), p. 198. [10] Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 162 and 182, citing Homer, Iliad 9.158–159. Euphemism is a characteristic way of speaking of divine figures associated with the dead and the underworld; Joseph William Hewitt, "The Propitiation of Zeus," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 19 (1908), p. 66, considers euphemism a form of propitiation. [11] Plato, Cratylus 403a; Glenn R. Morrow, Plato's Cretan City: A Historical Interpretation of the Laws (Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 452–453. [12] Fernando Navarro Antolin, Lygdamus: Corpus Tibullianum III.1–6, Lygdami Elegiarum Liber (Brill, 1996), pp. 145–146. [13] Charlotte R. Long, The Twelve Gods of Greece and Rome (Brill, 1987), p. 179; Phyllis Fray Bober, “Cernunnos: Origin and Transformation of a Celtic Divinity,” American Journal of Archaeology 55 (1951), p. 28, examples in Greek and Roman art in note 98; Hewitt, "The Propitiation of Zeus," p. 65. [14] Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow, pp. 101–102; Morrow, Plato's Cretan City, pp. 452–453; John J. Hermann, Jr., "Demeter-Isis or the Egyptian Demeter? A Graeco-Roman Sculpture from an Egyptian Workshop in Boston" in Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 114 (1999), p. 88. [15] Pluto Latine est Dis pater, alii Orcum vocant ("In Latin, Pluto is Dis Pater; others call him Orcus"): Ennius, Euhemerus frg. 7 in the edition of Vahlen = Var. 78 = E.H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin (Heinemann, 1940), vol. 1, p. 421. The Augustan poet Horace retains the Greek accusative form of the noun (Plutona instead of Latin Plutonem) at Carmen 2.14.7, as noted by John Conington, P. Vergili Maronis Opera (London, 1883), vol. 3, p. 36. [16] H.D. Jocelyn, The Tragedies of Ennius (Cambridge University Press, 1967), p. 331, with reference to Kurt Latte, Römische Religionsgeschichte (C.H. Beck, 1967, 1992), p. 246ff. [17] Cicero, De natura deorum 2.66, translation of John MacDonald Ross (Penguin Books, 1972): Terrena autem vis omnis atque natura Diti patri dedicata est, qui dives, ut apud Graecos Πλούτων quia et recidunt omnia in terras et oriuntur e terris. [18] Strabo 3.9 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Strabo/ 3B*. html#9), citing Poseidonius as his source, who in turn cites Demetrius of Phalerum on the silver mines of Attica, where "the people dig as strenuously as if they expected to bring up Pluto himself" (Loeb Classical Library translation, in the LacusCurtius edition). [19] Lucian, On Mourning (see Greek text (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kmlJAAAAIAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=inauthor:"Lucian+ (of+ Samosata. )"& hl=en& ei=hwEiTaXqB4_enQfNquShDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=10& ved=0CFMQ6AEwCTgU#v=onepage& q& f=false)); Peter Bolt, Jesus' Defeat of Death: Persuading Mark's Early Readers (Cambridge University Press, 2003) discusses this passage (pp. 126–127} and Greco-Roman conceptions of the underworld as a context for Christian eschatology passim. [20] Noel Robertson, Religion and Reconciliation in Greek Cities: The Sacred Laws of Selinus and Cyrene (Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 102. [21] Hewitt, "The Propitiation of Zeus," p. 74, asserts that "Zeus Catachthonius seems certainly to be Pluto." Other deities to whom the title Katachthonios was affixed include Demeter, Persephone, and the Furies; Eugene Lane, "The Epithets of Men," Corpus monumentorum religionis dei Menis: Interpretation and Testimonia (Brill, 1976), vol. 3, p. 77, citing the entry on Katachthonioi in Roscher, Lexikon II, i, col. 998ff. [22] Zeus Chthonius and Pluto are seen as having "the same significance" in the Orphic Hymns and in the Dionysiaca of Nonnus (6.156ff.), by Hewitt, "The Propitiation of Zeus," p. 74, note 7. Overlapping functions are also suggested when Hesiod advises farmers to pray to "Zeus Pluto (mythology) Chthonius and to holy Demeter that they may cause the holy corn of Demeter to teem in full perfection." This form of Zeus receives the black victims typically offered to underworld deities. [23] Martianus Capella, De Nuptiis 2.161. [24] Martianus Capella, De nuptiis 2.149; Isidore of Seville, Etymologies 5.33.4; Servius, note to Vergil's Georgics 1.43 (Vergil refrains from naming the god); John Lydus, De mensibus 4.25. [25] Plutarch, De Iside 27 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Isis_and_Osiris*/ B. html) (361e): "In fact, men assert that Pluto is none other than Serapis and that Persephone is Isis, even as Archemachus of Euboea has said, and also Heracleides Ponticus who holds the oracle in Canopus to be an oracle of Pluto" (Loeb Classical Library translation of 1936, LacusCurtius edition). Also spelled Sarapis. See Jaime Alvar, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, translated by Richard Gordon (Brill, 2008), pp. 53 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FH841IBf7mwC& pg=PA53& dq=pluto& lr=& cd=11#v=onepage& q=pluto& f=false) and 58; Hermann, "Demeter-Isis or the Egyptian Demeter?", p. 84. [26] Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 1.10.34 (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ pearse/ morefathers/ files/ eusebius_pe_01_book1. htm), attributing this view to the semi-legendary Phoenician author Sanchuniathon via Philo of Byblos. In addition to asserting that Muth was equivalent to both Thanatos (Death personified) and Pluto, Philo said he was the son of Kronos and Rhea. See entry on "Mot," Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, edited by Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking and Pieter Willem van der Horst (William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, 2nd ed.), p. 598, and Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide, edited by Sarah Iles Johnston (Harvard University Press, 2004), p. 479. Philo's cosmogony as summarized by Eusebius bears some similarities to that of Hesiod and the Orphics; see Sanchuniathon's history of the gods and "Theogonies and cosmology" below. Philo said that these were reinterpretations of "Phoenician" beliefs by the Greeks. [27] Hansen, Classical Mythology, p. 182. [28] Diane Rayor, The Homeric Hymns (University of California Press, 2004), pp. 107–109. [29] Christos Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow: Fourth-century Attic Funerary Epigrams (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2008), pp. 101–102. [30] Andrew D. Radford, The Lost Girls: Demeter-Persephone and the Literary Imagination, 1850–1930 (Editions Rodopi, 2007), p. 24. For an extensive comparison of Ovid's two treatments of the myth, with reference to versions such as the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, see Stephen Hinds, The Metamorphosis of Persephone: Ovid and the Self-Conscious Muse (Cambridge University Press, 1987), limited preview online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=o2o4ZiyIjmAC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q& f=false) [31] In Book 6 of the Aeneid (the catabasis of Aeneas), Vergil also names the ruler of the underworld as Dis, not Pluto. [32] See also, for instance, J.J.L. Smolenaars, Statius. Thebaid VII: A Commentary (Brill, 1994), passim (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=gpDQnPv0HvIC& dq=pluto+ intitle:Statius+ intitle:Thebaid+ intitle:VII& q=pluto#v=snippet& q=pluto& f=false), or John G. Fitch, Seneca's 'Hercules Furens' (Cornell University Press, 1987), passim (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=m4X_7m7ama4C& dq=pluto+ thanatos& q=pluto+ OR+ plutonem+ OR+ plutone+ OR+ plutoni+ OR+ plutonis#v=snippet& q=pluto OR plutonem OR plutone OR plutoni OR plutonis& f=false), where the ruler of the underworld is referred to as "Pluto" in the English commentary, but as "Dis" or with other epithets in the Latin text. [33] Hyginus, Fabulae 146. [34] Vergil, Aeneid 7.327: odit et ipse pater Pluton … monstrum. [35] Orphic fragments 197 and 360 (edition of Kern) and Orphic Hymn 70, as cited by Helene P. Foley, Hymn to Demeter (Princeton University Press, 1994), p. 110, note 97. [36] Robertson, Religion and Reconciliation in Greek Cities, p. 102. Vergil conflates the Eumenides and the Furies, and elsewhere says that Night (Nox) is their mother. Proclus, in his commentary on the Cratylus of Plato, provides passages from the Orphic Rhapsodies that give two different genealogies of the Eumenides, one making them the offspring of Persephone and Pluto (or Hades) and the other reporting a prophesy that they were to be born to Persephone and Apollo (Robertson, Religion and Reconciliation, p. 101). [37] Foley, Hymn to Demeter, p. 110. Justin Martyr alludes to children of Pluto (Apology 2.5 (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ schaff/ anf01. viii. iii. v. html)), but neither names nor enumerates them; see discussion of the context by David Dawson, Allegorical Readers and Cultural Revision in Ancient Alexandria (University of California Press, 1992), pp. 193–194. In defining the cult title Ἰσοδαίτης (Isodaitês, 778 in the 1867 edition of Schmidt), Hesychius mentions a "son of Pluto." [38] Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow, p. 102. The shift may have begun as early as the 6th century. The earliest evidence of the assimilation of Hades and Ploutos/Plouton is a phiale from Douris dating to ca. 490 BC, according to Jan N. Bremmer, "W. Brede Kristensen and the Religions of Greece and Rome," in Man, Meaning, and Mystery: Hundred Years of History of Religions in Norway. The Heritage of W. Brede Kristensen (Brill, 2000), pp. 125–126. A point of varying emphasis is whether the idea of Plouton as a god of wealth was a later development, or an inherent part of his nature, owing to the underground storage of grain in the pithoi that were also used for burial. For a summary of these issues, see Cora Angier Sowa, Traditional Themes and the Homeric Hymns (Bolchazy-Carducci, 1984, 2005), p. 356, note 105. [39] Morrow, Plato's Cretan City, p. 452; Long, The Twelve Gods, p. 154. [40] Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, p. 281. [41] Long, The Twelve Gods, p. 179. See lectisternium for the "strewing of couches" in ancient Rome. Two inscriptions from Attica record the names of individuals who participated in the ritual at different times: IG II21933 and 1934 (http:/ / epigraphy. packhum. org/ inscriptions/ main), as cited by Robert Develin, Athenian Officials, 684–321 B.C. (Cambridge University Press, 1989, 2003), p. 417. [42] Nicholas F. Jones, The Associations of Classical Athens: The Response to Democracy (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 125, citing IG II21363, dating ca. 330–270; Karl Kerényi, Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter (Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 110–111. [43] Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow, pp. 101–102. 164 Pluto (mythology) [44] Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnston, Ritual Texts and the Afterlife (Routledge, 2007), first page (not numbered). [45] The recurring phrase "house of Hades" (῾Αΐδαο δόμος) can be read ambiguously as either the divine being or the place, or both. In the numbering of Graf and Johnston, Ritual Texts and the Afterlife, "house of Hades" appears in Tablet 1, line 2 (Hipponion, Calabria, Magna Graecia, ca. 400 BC), which refers again to Hades as a place ("what you are seeking in the darkness of murky Hades", line 9), with the king of the underworld (ὑποχθονίοι βασιλεϊ, hypochthonioi basilei) alluded to in line 13; Tablet 2, line 1 (Petelia, present-day Strongoli, Magna Graecia, 4th century BC); and Tablet 25 (Pharsalos, Thessaly, 350–300 BC). Hades is also discernible on the "carelessly inscribed" Tablet 38 from a Hellenistic-era grave in Hagios Athanasios, near Thessalonike. [46] Giovanni Casadio and Patricia A. Johnston, "Introduction", Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia (University of Texas Press, 2009), p. 21. [47] Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow, p. 101. [48] Tablets 15 (Eleuthera 6, 2nd/1st century BC) and 17 (Rethymnon 1, from the early Roman Empire, 25–40 AD), from Crete, in the numbering of Graf and Johnston. [49] Sometimes read as "father," as in the translation given by Alberto Bernabé and Ana Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal, Instructions for the Netherworld: The Orphic Gold Tablets (Brill, 2008), p. 84. [50] Παρὰ Φερσεφόνει Πλούτωνί τε: Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow, pp. 100–101. Tsagalis discusses this inscription in light of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and the Thesmophoria. [51] The entry in Hesychius reads: Εὐβουλεύς (sch. Nic. Al. 14) · ὁ Πλούτων. παρὰ δὲ τοῖς πολλοῖς ὁ Ζεὺς ἐν Κυρήνη (Eubouleus: ho Ploutôn. para de toîs polloîs ho Zeus en Kyrene), 643 (Schmidt). [52] Kevin Clinton, "The Mysteries of Demeter and Kore," in A Companion to Greek Religion (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 347–353. In the view of Lewis Richard Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States (Clarendon Press, 1907), vol. 3, p. 145, Eubouleus was originally a title referring to the "good counsel" the ruler of the underworld was able to give and which was sought at Pluto's dream oracles; by the 2nd century BC, however, he had acquired a separate identity. [53] Hans Dieter Betz, The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation (University of Chicago Press, 1986, 1992), passim (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=K0hCj5u3HNQC& dq=hades+ intitle:greek+ intitle:magical+ intitle:Papyri& q=hades#v=snippet& q=hades& f=false); John G. Gager, Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World (Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 12 (examples invoking Pluto pp. 99, 135, 143–144, 207–209) and passim (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rmhw2eVJnS0C& dq=pluto+ OR+ pluton+ OR+ plouton+ OR+ plutonius+ intitle:curse+ inauthor:Gager& q=hades#v=snippet& q=hades& f=false) on Hades. [54] Bolt, Jesus' Defeat of Death, p. 152; John Scheid, "Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors", in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 264. [55] Daniel Ogden, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds (Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 212, with English translation of the curse. [56] Gager, Curse Tablets, p. 131, with translations of both tablets, and note 35. [57] Derek Collins, Magic in the Ancient Greek World (Blackwell, 2008), p. 73. [58] Esther Eidinow, "Why the Athenians Began to Curse," in Debating the Athenian Cultural Revolution: Art, Literature, Philosophy and Politics 430–380 BC (Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 50; Ogden, Magic, Withcraft, and Ghosts, p. 212. [59] Bernard Dietrich, "The Religious Prehistory of Demeter's Eleusinian Mysteries," in La soteriologia dei culti orientali nell' Impero Romano (Brill, 1982), p. 454. [60] Robertson, Religion and Reconciliation, p. 163 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=5pyER-1-8VcC& pg=PA163& dq="altar+ of+ pluto"& hl=en& ei=-rIgTd_LH4SHnAfYvLyVDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q="altar of pluto"& f=false), citing IG 13356.155 and IG 221672.140; see also The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore: Topography and Architecture (American School of Classical Studies, 1997), p. 76, note 31. [61] Strabo 14.1.44 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lfMrAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA25& dq=ploutonion+ OR+ plutonion+ OR+ plutonium+ inauthor:Strabo& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q=ploutonion OR plutonion OR plutonium inauthor:Strabo& f=false); "Summaries of Periodicals," American Journal of Archaeology 7 (1891), p. 209; Hewitt, "The Propitiation of Zeus," p. 93. [62] Frederick E. Brenk, "Jerusalem-Hierapolis. The Revolt under Antiochos IV Epiphanes in the Light of Evidence for Hierapolis of Phrygia, Babylon, and Other Cities," in Relighting the Souls: Studies in Plutarch, in Greek Literature, Religion, and Philosophy, and in the New Testament Background (Franz Steiner, 1998), pp. 382–384, citing Photius, Life of Isidoros 131 on the dream. [63] Kevin Clinton, Myth and Cult: The Iconography of the Eleusinian Mysteries (Stockholm, 1992), pp. 105. As Clinton notes (p. 107), the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae does not distinguish between Hades and Plouton, and combines evidence for either in a single entry. [64] Catherine M. Keesling, "Endoios's Painting from the Themistoklean Wall: A Reconstruction," Hesperia 68.4 (1999), p. 544, note 160. [65] Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, p. 281. [66] A.M. Bowie, Aristophanes: Myth, Ritual and Comedy (Cambridge University Press, 1993, 1996), p. 229. [67] As summarized by Benjamin Bickley Rogers, The Comedies of Aristophanes (London, 1902), pp. xvii and 214 (note to line 1414). [68] Bowie, Aristophanes, pp. 231–233, 269–271. [69] Bernabé and Jiménez San Cristóbal, Instructions for the Netherworld, pp. 127–128. [70] Morrow, Plato's Cretan City, pp. 452–453. [71] Identified as Pluto by Bernabé and Jiménez San Cristóbal, Instructions for the Netherworld, p. 275. [72] Identified as Hades by Hansen, Classical Mythology, p. 181. 165 Pluto (mythology) [73] Translation by Benjamin Jowett, The Dialogues of Plato (London, 1873), vol. 1. [74] Plato, Laws 828d, translation from Long, The Twelve Gods, p. 69. [75] Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Harvard University Press, 1985, originally published 1977 in German), pp. 231, 336. See also Homo Necans (University of California Press, 1983, originally published 1972 in German), p. 143. [76] Hesychius, entry on Ἰσοδαίτης, 778 in the 1867 edition of Schmidt, as translated and discussed by Richard Seaford, Money and the Early Greek Mind: Homer, Philosophy, Tragedy (Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 51. Hesychius notes that Isodaites may alternatively refer to a son of Pluto as well as Pluto himself. [77] H.S. Versnel, Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion: Transition and Reversal in Myth and Ritual (Brill, 1993, 1994), p. 119, especially note 93. [78] Plato, Laws 828 B-D; Morrow, Plato's Cretan City p. 452; Long, The Twelve Gods, p. 179. [79] Morrow, Plato's Cretan City, p. 453; Long, The Twelve Gods, p. 179. [80] Lactantius, Divine Institutes 1.14; Brian P. Copenhaver, Polydore Vergil: On Discovery (Harvard University Press, 2002), p. 564. [81] This parenthetical remark is part of the original text, which is more often read as Dis pater. The relation of the title Dis Pater to Diespiter in Latin is debated; the latter is usually thought to refer to Jupiter. [82] "Titan" usually refers to a class or race of deities, but sometimes means Helios or other divine personifications of the Sun. [83] Cicero, De natura deorum 3.58: "Likewise, there are multiple Dianas. The first is said to have been born as a winged Cupid, with Jove and Proserpina [as parents]. The second, whom we regard as the daughter of the third Jove and Latona, is better known. A tradition holds that Upis is the father and Glauca the mother of the third [Diana]" (Dianae item plures: prima Iovis et Proserpinae, quae pinnatum Cupidinem genuisse dicitur; secunda notior, quam Iove tertio et Latona natam accepimus; tertiae pater Upis traditur, Glauce mater: eam saepe Graeci Upim paterno nomine appellant); Copenhaver, Polydore Vergil: On Discovery, p. 564. [84] Apollodorus, The Library 1.1–2, 1911 Loeb Classical Library edition, translation and notes by J.G. Frazer. [85] Hansen, Classical Mythology, p. 182. The verbal play of aidos, "invisible," and Hades is thought to account for Apollodorus's attribution of the helmet to the ruler of the underworld, since no narratives record his use or possession of it. Apparent references to the "helmet of Pluto" in other authors, such as Irenaeus ( Against Heresies (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fyUMAAAAIAAJ& dq=offspring+ pluto+ OR+ pluton+ OR+ plouton+ OR+ plutonius& q="helmet+ of+ Pluto"#v=snippet& q="helmet of Pluto"& f=false)), are misleading; "Pluto" is substituted by the English translator for "Hades." [86] Gábor Betegh, The Derveni Papyrus: Cosmology, Theology and Interpretations (Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 151, has noted that "one cannot establish a linear descent between the different versions"; though efforts to do so have been made, "we cannot find a single mytheme which would occur invariably in all the accounts and could thus create the core of all Orphic theogonies." [87] J. van Amersfoort, "Traces of an Alexandrian Orphic Theogony in the Pseudo-Clementines," in Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic Religions, Presented to Gilles Quispel on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Brill, 1981), p. 13. [88] Van Amersfoort, "Traces of an Alexandrian Orphic Theogony," pp. 16–17. [89] Van Amersfoort, "Traces of an Alexandrian Orphic Theogony," pp. 17–18. Betegh, The Derveni Papyrus, p. 151, summarizes this version as follows: "The story starts with Chaos; then comes the egg; the bottom part of the egg submerges and becomes Pluton, and Kronos — not a separate god but identified with Chronos — swallows this heavy matter. The middle part, covering the first sediment, becomes Poseidon. The upper part of the egg, being purer and lighter, fiery in nature, goes upward and is called Zeus, and so forth." [90] Van Amersfoort, "Traces of an Alexandrian Orphic Theogony," p. 23; Betegh, The Derveni Papyrus, p. 150. [91] Arthur Bernard Cook, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion (Cambridge University Press, 1925), p. 746. [92] Cornutus 5; Varro, De lingua latina 5.66; Seneca, Consolatio ad Marciam 25; all as cited by Joseph B. Mayor, De natura deorum libri tres (Cambridge University Press, 1883), vol. 2, p. 175, note to 2.26.66. [93] Plutarch, The Face of the Moon, LacusCurtius edition of the Loeb Classical Library translation online (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ The_Face_in_the_Moon*/ D. html); discussed by Leonard L. Thompson, "ISmyrna 753: Gods and the One God," in Reading Religions in the Ancient World: Essays Presented to Robert McQueen Grant on His 90th Birthday (Brill, 2007), p. 113, with reference also to Iamblichus. [94] Thompson, "ISmyrna 753," p. 101ff. The other deities are Helios Apollo, who is paired with Artemis (p. 106); Zeus, who is subordinated to "God Himself"; and Mēn, an Anatolian moon deity sometimes identified with Attis, who had a table before him for ceremonial dining (pp. 106, 109). [95] Thompson, "ISmyrna 753," pp. 104–105. [96] Thompson, "ISmyrna 753," p. 111. [97] Thompson, "ISmyrna 753," pp. 110–111, 114, with reference to the teachings of Ammonius as recorded by Plutarch, The E at Delphi. (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ misctracts/ plutarchE. html) See also Frederick E. Brenk, "Plutarch's Middle Platonic God," Gott und die Götter bei Plutarch (Walter de Gruyter, 2005), pp. 37–43, on Plutarch's etymological plays that produce these antitheses. [98] Thompson, "ISmyrna 753," passim, conclusion presented on p. 119. See also Neoplatonism and Gnosticism. [99] Entry on "Demiurge," The Classical Tradition (Harvard University Press, 2010), p. 256. [100] Entry on "Orpheus," The Classical Tradition, p. 665. It was even said that the soul of Orpheus had been reborn into Ficino. [101] Entry on "Demiurge," in The Classical Tradition p. 256. 166 Pluvius 167 Pluvius Jupiter Pluvius was the reliever of droughts. See Jupiter (god) for more details. The name could also be used to describe the Hyades. In Frank O'Connor's Guest's of the Nation The old woman blames the drought entirely on Jupiter Pluvius. Illustration of Jupiter Pluvius (1856) Portunes Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna Topics Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared Other gods of craft and trade: Penates Dei Lucrii Furrina Lemures Eventus Bonus Portunes Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Portunes 168 In Roman mythology, Portunes (alternatively spelled Portumnes or Portunus) was a god of keys and doors and livestock. He protected the warehouses where grain was stored. Probably because of folk associations between porta "gate, door" and portus "harbor", the "gateway" to the sea, Portunus later became conflated with Palaemon and evolved into a god primarily of ports and harbors.[1] In the Latin adjective importunus his name was applied to untimely waves and weather and contrary winds, and the Latin echoes in English opportune and its old-fashioned antonym importune, meaning "well-timed' and "badly-timed". Hence Portunus is behind both an opportunity and importunate or badly-timed solicitations (OED). Temple of Portunus in the Forum Boarium His festival, celebrated on August 16, the seventeenth day before the Kalends of September, was the Portumnalia, a minor occasion in the Roman year. On this day, keys were thrown into a fire for good luck in a very solemn and lugubrious manner. His attribute was a key and his main temple in the city of Rome, the Temple of Portunus, was to be found in the Forum Boarium. Portunus appears to be closely related to the god Janus, with whom he shares many characters, functions and the symbol of the key[2] . He too was represented as a two headed being, with each head facing opposite directions, on coins and as figurehead of ships. He was considered to be "deus portuum et portarumque praeses"[3] The relationship between the two gods is underlined by the fact that the date chosen for the dedication of the rebuilt temple of Janus in the Forum Holitorium by emperor Tiberius is the day of the Portunalia, August 17.[4] Linguist Giuliano Bonfante has speculated, on the grounds of his cult and of the meaning of his name, that he should be a very archaic deity and might date back to an era when Latins lived in dwellings built on pilings.[5] He argues that in Latin the words porta (door, gate) and portus (harbour, port) share their etymology from the same IE root meaning ford, wading point. His flamen, the flamen Portunalis one of the flamines minores performed the ritual of oiling the spear (hasta) on the statue of god Quirinus, with an ointment especially prepared for this purpose and stored in a small vase (persillum).[6] Notes [1] "Portunus gives to the sailor perfect safety in traversing the seas; but why has the raging sea cast up so many cruelly-shattered wrecks?" the Christian apologist Arnobius asks, ca 300 CE (Seven Books against the Heathen III.23 ( on-line text (http:/ / www. intratext. com/ IXT/ ENG1008/ __P3. HTM)). [2] Paul. p. 161 L2 [3] Scholium Veron. on Aeneid V.241 [4] Georges Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Paris, 1974, part I, chap.4 [5] G. Bonfante "Tracce di terminologia palafitticola nel vocabolario latino?" Atti dell'Istituto Veneto di scienze, lettere e arti 97 (1937:53-70). [6] Fest. p. 321 L2 Portunes 169 References • Marcus Terentius Varro, De Lingua Latina vii.19. External links • William Smith, 1875. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities( John Murray, London,): "Portumnalia" (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Portumnalia.html) •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Portunus". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. Porus (mythology) There are two related mythological figures named Porus (Ancient Greek: Πόρος "resource" or "plenty") in Greek classical literature. In Plato's Symposium, Porus, or Poros, was the personification of plenty. He was seduced by Penia (poverty) while drunk on more than his fill of nectar at Aphrodite's birthday. Penia gave birth to Eros (love) from their union. Porus was the son of Metis. This figure exists in Roman mythology as well, in which Porus is the personification of abundance. He is the sister of Athena. Quirinus 170 Quirinus Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus.[1] His name is derived from Quiris meaning "spear." Quirinus 171 History Quirinus was originally most likely a Sabine god of war. The Sabines had a settlement near the eventual site of Rome, and erected an altar to Quirinus on the Collis Quirinalis, the Quirinal Hill, one of the Seven Hills of Rome. When the Romans settled there, they absorbed the cult of Quirinus into their early belief system — previous to direct Greek influence — and by the end of the first century BC Quirinus was considered to be the deified Romulus.[2] [3] He soon became an important god of the Roman state, being included in the earliest precursor of the Capitoline Triad, along with Mars (then an agriculture god) and Jupiter.[4] Varro notes the Capitolium Vetus an earlier cult sited on the Quirinal, devoted to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva,[5] among whom Martial makes a distinction between the "old Jupiter" and the "new".[6] In later times, however, Quirinus became far less important, losing his place to the later, more widely known Capitoline Triad (Juno and Minerva took his and Mars' place). Later still, Romans began to drift away from the state belief system in favor of more personal and mystical cults (such as those of Bacchus, Cybele, and Isis). In the end, he was worshiped almost exclusively by his flamen, the Flamen Quirinalis, who remained, however, one of the patrician flamines maiores, the "greater flamens" who preceded the Pontifex Maximus in precedence.[7] Depiction In earlier Roman art, he was portrayed as a bearded man with religious and military clothing. However, he was almost never depicted in later Roman belief systems. He was also often associated with the myrtle. Festivals His festival was the Quirinalia, held on February 17. Legacy Even centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Quirinal hill in Rome, originally named from the deified Romulus, was still associated with power - it was chosen as the seat of the royal house after the taking of Rome by the Savoia and later it became the residence of the Presidents of the Italian Republic. Notes [1] In the prayer of the fetiales quoted by Livy (I.32.10); Macrobius (Sat. I.9.15); [2] Fishwich, Duncan The Imperial Cult in the Latin West Brill, 2nd edition, 1993 ISBN 978-9004071797 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=4II_mqxM8s0C& pg=PA53& dq=romulus+ quirinus& ei=Rfz-SOKiGpDwsgPk4_DrDA& client=firefox-a) [3] Evans, Jane DeRose The Art of Persuasion University of Michigan Press 1992 ISBN:0472102826 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=2AsRrF3ej38C& pg=PA103& dq=romulus+ quirinus& ei=Rfz-SOKiGpDwsgPk4_DrDA& client=firefox-a#PPA103,M1) [4] Inez Scott Ryberg, "Was the Capitoline Triad Etruscan or Italic?" The American Journal of Philology 52.2 (1931), pp. 145-156. [5] Varro, De lingua latina V.158. [6] Martial, (V, 22.4) remarks on a position on the Esquiline from which one might see hinc novum Iovem, inde veterem, "here the new Jupiter, there the old." [7] Festus, 198, L: "Quirinalis, socio imperii Romani Curibus ascito Quirino". Robigus 172 Robigus Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion, the Robigalia was a festival held April 25. Its main ritual was a dog sacrifice to protect grain fields from disease. Games (ludi) in the form of "major and minor" races were held.[1] The Robigalia was one of several agricultural festivals in April to celebrate and vitalize the growing season,[2] but the darker sacrificial Robigus elements of these occasions are also fraught with anxiety about crop failure and the dependence on divine favor to avert it.[3] The late Republican scholar Varro says[4] that the Robigalia was named for the god Robigus, who as the numen or personification of agricultural disease could also prevent it.[5] He was thus a potentially malignant deity to be propitiated, as Aulus Gellius notes.[6] But the gender of this deity is elusive.[7] The agricultural writer Columella gives the name in the feminine as Robigo, like the word used for the disease itself,[8] and says that the sacrificial offering was the blood and entrails of an unweaned puppy (catulus).[9] Most animal sacrifice in the public religion of ancient Rome resulted in a communal meal and thus involved domestic animals whose flesh was a normal part of the Roman diet;[10] the dog occurs as a victim most often in magic and private rites for Hecate and other chthonic deities,[11] but was offered publicly at the Lupercalia[12] and two other sacrifices pertaining to grain crops.[13] Robigo is a form of wheat rust, and has a reddish or reddish-brown color. Both Robigus and robigo are also found as Rubig-, which following the etymology-by-association of antiquity[14] was thought to be connected to the color red (ruber) as a form of homeopathic or sympathetic magic.[15] The color is thematic: the disease was red, the requisite puppies (or sometimes bitches) had a red coat,[16] the red of blood recalls the distinctively Roman incarnation of Mars as both a god of agriculture and bloodshed.[17] William Warde Fowler, whose work on Roman festivals remains a standard reference,[18] entertained the idea that Robigus is an "indigitation" of Mars, that is, a name to be used in a prayer formulary to fix the local action of the invoked god.[19] The priest who presided was the flamen Quirinalis, the high priest of Quirinus, the Sabine god of war who become identified with Mars;[20] the ludi were held for both Mars and Robigo.[21] The flamen recited a prayer that Ovid quotes at length in the Fasti, his six-book calendar poem on Roman holidays which provides the most extended, though problematic, description of the day.[22] The Robigalia was held at the boundary of the Ager Romanus.[23] Verrius Flaccus[24] sites it in a grove (lucus) at the fifth milestone from Rome along the Via Claudia. Like many other aspects of Roman law and religion, the institution of the Robigalia was attributed to the Sabine Numa Pompilius,[25] in the eleventh year of his reign as the second king of Rome.[26] The combined presence of Numa and the flamen Quirinalis may suggest a Sabine origin.[27] Other April festivals related to farming were the Cerealia, or festival of Ceres, lasting for several days in mid-month; the Fordicidia on April 15, when a pregnant cow was sacrificed; the Parilia on April 21 to ensure healthy flocks; and the Vinalia, a wine festival on April 23.[28] Varro considered these and the Robigalia, along with the Great Mother's Megalensia late in the month, the "original" Roman holidays in April.[29] The Fasti Praenestini also record that on the same day the festival celebrated a particular class of sex workers: "pimped-out boys,"[30] following the previous day's recognition of meretrices, female prostitutes regarded as professionals of some standing.[31] The Robigalia has been connected to the Christian feast of Rogation, which was concerned with purifying and blessing the parish and fields and which took the place of the Robigalia on April 25 of the Christian calendar.[32] The Church Father Tertullian mocks the goddess Robigo as "made up," a fiction.[33] 173 Robigus 174 References [1] The ludi cursoribus are mentioned in the Fasti Praenestini; see Elaine Fantham, Ovid: Fasti Book IV (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 263. [2] Mary Beard, J.A. North and S.R.F. Price. Religions of Rome: A History (Cambridge University Press, 1998), vol. 1, p. 45. [3] Rhiannon Evans, Utopia antiqua: Readings of the Golden Age and Decline at Rome (Routledge, 2008), pp. 185–188. [4] Varro, De lingua latina 6.16. [5] A.M. Franklin, The Lupercalia (New York, 1921), p. 74. [6] Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 5.12.14: In istis autem diis, quos placari oportet, uti mala a nobis vel a frugibus natis amoliantur, Auruncus quoque habetur et Robigus ("Auruncus and Robigus are also regarded as among those gods whom it is a duty to placate so that they deflect the malign influences away from us or the harvests"); Woodard, Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult (University of Illinois Press, 2006), p. 234. [7] In addition to Varro, Verrius Flaccus (CIL 1: 236, 316) and others hold that he is male; Ovid, Columella (see following), Augustine, and Tertullian regard the deity as female. A.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard, Ovid: Fasti (Penguin Books, 2000), p. 254 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=QlS3xbzhplcC& pg=RA1-PA254& dq="In+ the+ following+ lines+ Ovid+ describes+ the+ annual+ sacrifice+ made+ to+ appease+ the+ deity+ of+ grain+ rust"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q="In the following lines Ovid describes the annual sacrifice made to appease the deity of grain rust"& f=false) [8] Vergil, Georgics 1.151. The 4th-century agricultural writer Palladius devotes a chapter contra nebulas et rubiginem, on preventing miasma and mildew ( 1.35 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=O88PAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA884& dq="XXXV. + Contra+ nebulas+ & + rubiginem"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q="XXXV. Contra nebulas & rubiginem"& f=false)). [9] Columella, De re rustica 10.337–343. [10] C. Bennett Pascal, "October Horse," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85 (1981), pp. 275–276; general discussion of victims' edibility by Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Profanus, profanare," in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill, 1980), pp. 25–38. [11] David Soren, "Hecate and the Infant Cemetery at Poggio Gramignano," in A Roman Villa and a Late Roman Infant Cemetery («L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1999), pp. 619–621. [12] Plutarch, Roman Questions 68 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Roman_Questions*/ C. html#68); Eli Edward Burriss, "The Place of the Dog in Superstition as Revealed in Latin Literature," Classical Philology 30 (1935), pp. 34–35. [13] Boyle and Woodard, Ovid: Fasti, p. 255. [14] Davide Del Bello, Forgotten Paths: Etymology and the Allegorical Mindset (Catholic University of America Press, 2007), passim. [15] Burriss, "The Place of the Dog in Superstition, pp. 34–35. [16] Fowler, Roman Festivals, pp. 90–91. [17] This dual function of Mars, contradictory perhaps to the 21st-century mind, may not have seemed so to the Romans: "In early Rome agriculture and military activity were closely bound up, in the sense that the Roman farmer was also a soldier (and a voter as well)": Beard, Religions of Rome, pp. 47–48 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=2rtaTFYuM3QC& pg=PA47& dq="October+ horse"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=3#v=onepage& q="October horse"& f=false) and 53. See also Evans, Utopia antiqua, p. 188 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ppWwPuye_e4C& pg=PA187& dq="And+ it+ may+ be+ that+ the+ Robigalia+ was+ an+ enactment"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q="And it may be that the Robigalia was an enactment"& f=false) [18] William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), p. 89. [19] Precise naming, in connection with concealing a deity's true name to monopolize his or her power, was a crucial part of prayer in antiquity, as evidenced not only in the traditional religions of Greece and Rome and syncretistic Hellenistic religion and mystery cult, but also in Judaism, ancient Egyptian religion, and later Christianity. See Matthias Klinghardt, “Prayer Formularies for Public Recitation: Their Use and Function in Ancient Religion,” Numen 46 (1999) 1–5; A.A. Barb, "Antaura. The Mermaid and the Devil's Grandmother: A Lecture," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 29 (1966), p. 4; Karen Hartnup, On the Beliefs of the Greeks: Leo Allatios and Popular Orthodoxy (Brill, 2004), pp. 97–101 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xnqI8uSeekwC& pg=PA97& dq="The+ names+ of+ the+ gello+ are+ also+ a+ source+ of+ protection"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=1& as_miny_is=2009& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=2009& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES) (in connection with compelling demons). Augustine of Hippo derided the proliferation of divinities as a turba minutorum deorum, "a mob of mini-gods" (De civitate Dei 4.9, dea Robigo among them at 4.21); see W.R. Johnson, "The Return of Tutunus," Arethusa (1992) 173–179. See also indigitamenta. [20] Boyle and Woodard, Ovid: Fasti, p. 254; Beard, Religions of Rome, p. 106, note 129; Woodward, Indo-European Sacred Space, p. 136. [21] Tertullian, De spectaculis 5: Numa Pompilius Marti et Robigini fecit ("Numa Pompilius established [games] for Mars and Robigo"). [22] Ovid, Fasti 4.905–942; Boyle and Woodard, Ovid: Fasti, pp. 254–255 et passim on the nature of this work. [23] Woodard, Indo-European Sacred Space, p. 234. [24] CIL 12 pp. 236, 316), as cited by Woodard. [25] William Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1922), p. 108; Tertullian, De spectaculis 5. [26] Pliny, Natural History 18.285. Robigus [27] Franklin, Lupercalia, p. 75. The name Quirinus was supposed to derive from the Sabine town of Cures. In his notes to Aeneid 1.292 and 6.859, Servius says that "when Mars rages uncontrolled (saevit), he is called Gradivus; when he is calm (tranquillus), he is called Quirinus." Therefore, since Quirinus is the "Mars" who presides over peace, his temple is within the city; the temple for the "Mars of war" is located outside the city limit. The name was also connected to Quirites, Roman civilians, and the civil comitia curiata, in contrast to military personnel and the comitia centuriata. Quirinus was assimilated with the deified Romulus, possibly as late as the Augustan period. See Robert Schilling, "Quirinus," Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), p. 145. [28] Beard, Religions of Rome, p. 45. [29] Varro, De lingua latina 6.15–16; Fantham, Fasti, p. 29. [30] Pueri lenonii, boys managed by a leno, pimp. [31] Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999, 2010), p. 32 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=JoS4ffPU1-0C& pg=PA32& dq="This+ inscription+ informs+ us+ that+ on+ April+ 25"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=2#v=onepage& q="This inscription informs us that on April 25"& f=false) [32] Daniel T. Reff, Plagues, Priests, and Demons: Sacred Narratives and the Rise of Christianity in the Old World and the New (Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 100. [33] Tertullian, De spectaculis 5 (nam et robiginis deam finxerunt, "you see, they even make up a goddess of wheat disease"); Woodward, Indo-European Sacred Space, p. 136. Religion in ancient Rome series Festivals 175 Agonalia | Armilustrium | Brumalia | Caprotinia | Carmentalia | Cerealia | Compitalia | Consualia | Divalia | Epulum Jovis | Equirria | Feralia | Feast of the Lemures | Floralia | Fordicidia | Furrinalia | Larentalia | Liberalia | Lucaria | Ludi Romani | Lupercalia | Matronalia | Meditrinalia | Mercuralia | Neptunalia | Opiconsivia | Parentalia | Parilia | Quinquatria | Quirinalia | Robigalia | Saturnalia | Secular Games | Sementivae | Septimontium | Tubilustrium | Veneralia | Vinalia | Volturnalia | Vulcanalia Sancus 176 Sancus Sancus is also a genus of the Tetragnathidae family of spiders. In ancient Roman religion, Sancus (also known as Sangus or Semo Sancus) was the god of trust (fides), honesty, and oaths. His cult is one of the most ancient of Romans, probably derived from Umbrian influences.[1] Oaths Sancus was also the god who protected oaths of marriage, hospitality, law, commerce, and contracts in particular. Some forms of swearings were used in his name and honour at the moment of the signing of contracts and other important civil acts. Some words (like "sanctity" and "sanction" - for the case of disrespect of pacts) have their etymology in the name of this god, whose name is connected with sancire "to hallow" (hence sanctus, "hallowed"). Worship The temple dedicated to Sancus stood on the Quirinal Hill, under the name Semo Sancus Dius Fidus. Dionysius of Halicarnassus[2] writes the worship of Semo Sancus was imported into Rome at a very early time by the Sabines who occupied the Quirinal Hill. According to tradition his cult was said to have been introduced by the Sabines and perhaps king Titus Tatius dedicated a small shrine.[3] The actual construction of the temple is generally ascribed to Tarquin the Proud, although it was dedicated by Spurius Postumius on June 5th 466 B.C.[4] Sancus was considered the son of Iupiter, an opinion recorded by Varro and attributed to his teacher Aelius Stilo[5] . He was the god of heavenly light, the avenger of dishonesty, the upholder of truth and good faith, the sanctifier of agreements. Hence his identification with Hercules, who was likewise the guardian of the sanctity of oaths. His festival day occurred on the nonae of June, i.e. June 5th. Illustration of a statue of Sancus found in the Sabine's shrine on the Quirinal, near the modern church of S. Silvestro The shrine on the Quirinal was described by XIX century archeologist R.A. Lanciani.[6] It was located near the Porta Sanqualis of the Servian walls[7] , not far from the modern church of S. Silvestro, precisely on the Collis Mucialis.[8] It was described by classical writers as having no roof so as oaths could be taken under the sky. It had a chapel containing relics of the regal period: a bronze statue of Tanaquil or Gaia Caecilia, her belt containing remedies that people came to collect, her distaff, spindle and slippers [9] ,and after the capture of Privernum in 329 B.C., brass medallions or bronze wheels (discs) made of the money confiscated from Vitruvius Vaccus[10] . Dionysius of Halicarnassus records that the treaty between Rome and Gabii was preserved in this temple. This treaty was perhaps the first international treaty to be recorded and preserved in written form in ancient Rome. It was written on the skin of the ox sacrificed to the god upon its agreement and fixed onto a wooden frame or a shield.[11] According to Lanciani the foundations of the temple were discovered in March 1881, under what was formerly the convent of S. Silvestro al Quirinale (or degli Arcioni), later the headquarters of the (former) Royal Engineers. Lanciani relates the monument was a parallelogram in shape, thirty-five feet long by nineteen wide, with walls of travertine and decorations in white marble. It was surrounded by votive altars and the pedestal of statues. In Latin literature it is sometimes called aedes, sometimes sacellum, this last appellation probably connected to the fact it was a sacred space in the open air.[12] Platner though writes its foundation had already been detected in the XVI century. Sancus Lanciani supposes the statue depicted in this article might have been found on the site of the shrine on the Quirinal as it appeared in the antiquarian market of Rome at the time of the excavations at S.Silvestro. There was possibly another shrine or altar (ara) dedicated to Semo Sancus on the Isle of the Tiber, near the temple of Iupiter Iurarius. This altar bears the inscription seen and misread by S. Justin (Semoni Sanco Deo read as Simoni Deo Sancto) and was discovered on the island in July, 1574. It is preserved in the Galleria Lapidaria of the Vatican Museum, first compartment (Dii). Lanciani advances the hypothesis that while the shrine on the Quirinal was of Sabine origin that on the Tiber island was Latin. According to another source the statue of Sancus (as Semo Sancus Dius Fidus) was found on the Tiber Island.[13] The statue is life-sized and is of the archaic Apollo type. The expression of the face and the modelling of the body however are realistic. Both hands are missing, so that it is impossible to say what were the attributes of the god, one being perhaps the club of Hercules and/or the oxifraga, the augural bird proper to the god (avis sanqualis), hypotheses made by archaeologist Visconti and reported by Lanciani. Other scholars think he should have hold lightningbolts in his left hand. The inscription on the pedestal mentions a decuria sacerdot[um] bidentalium.[14] Lanciani makes reference to a glossa of Festus s.v. bidentalia which states these were small shrines of lesser divinities, to whom hostiae bidentes, i.e. lambs two years old, were sacrificed. William Warde Fowler says these priests should have been concerned with lightningbolts, bidental being both the technical term for the puteal, hole resembling a well left by strikes onto the ground and for the victims used to placate the god and purify the site.[15] For this reason the priests of Semo Sancus were called sacerdotes bidentales. They were organised, like a lay corporation, in a decuria under the presidency of a magister quinquennalis. Their residence at the shrine on the Quirinal was located adjoining the chapel: it was ample and commodious, provided with a supply of water by means of a lead pipe. The pipes have been removed to the Capitolin Museum. They bear the same inscription found on the base of the statue. [16] The statue is now housed in the Galleria dei Candelabri of the Vatican Palace. The foundations of the shrine on the Quirinal have been destroyed. Semo Sancus had a large sanctuary at Velitrae, now Velletri, in Volscian territory.[17] 177 Simon Magus Justin Martyr records that Simon Magus, a gnostic mentioned in the Christian Bible, performed such miracles by magic acts during the reign of Claudius that he was regarded as a god and honored with a statue on the island in the Tiber which the two bridges cross, with the inscription Simoni Deo Sancto, "To Simon the Holy God"[18] . However, in 1574, the Semo Sancus statue was unearthed on the island in question, leading most scholars to believe that Justin Martyr confused Semoni Sanco with Simon. Family Cato [19] and Silius Italicus[20] wrote that Sancus was a Sabine god and father of the eponymous Sabine hero Sabus. He is thus sometimes considered a founder-deity. Origins and significance Sancus 178 Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Even in the ancient world, confusion surrounded this deity, as evidenced by the multiple and unstable forms of his name. Aelius Stilo[21] identified him with Hercules, but also, because he explained the Dius Fidius as Dioskouros, with Castor. In late antiquity, Martianus Capella places Sancus in region 12 of his cosomological system, which draws on Etruscan tradition in associating gods with specific parts of the sky.[22] On the Piacenza Liver the corresponding case bears the theonym Tluscv. The complexity of the theonym and the multiple relationships of the Sancus god with other divine figures shall be better examined in a systematic wise here below. Sancus as Semo The first part of the theonym defines the god as belonging to the cathegory of divine entities known to the ancient Romans and Italics as Semones or Semunes. In Rome this theonym is attested in the carmen Arvale and in a fragmentary inscription.[23] . Outside Rome in Sabine, Umbrian and Pelignan territory.[24] An inscription from Corfinium reads: Çerfom sacaracicer Semunes sua[d, placing side by side the two entities. According to ancient Latin sources the meaning of the term would denote semihomines (also explained as se-homines, men separated from ordinary ones, who have left their human condition) or the dii medioxumi, i.e. gods of the second rank, semigods,[25] entities that belong to the intermediate sphere between gods and men.[26] The relationship of these entities to Semo Sancus is comparable to that of the genii to Genius Iovialis: as the genii have a Genius Iovialis, thus similarly the semones do have a Semo Sancus.[27] The semones would be a class of semigods, i.e. people who did not share the destiny of ordinary mortals even though they were not admitted to Heaven, such as Faunus, Priapus, Picus, the Silvani.[28] However some scholars opinate such a definition is wrong and the semones are spirits of nature, representing the generative power hidden in seeds.[29] The deity Semonia bears characters that link her to the group of the Semones as is shown by Festus s.v. supplicium: when a citizen was put to death the custom was to sacrifice a lamb of two years (bidentis) to Semonia to appease her and purify the community. Only thus could the head and property of the culprit be vowed to the appropriate god. It is noteworthy that Semo Sancus received the same kind of cult and sacrifice as is shown on the inscription in the figure under the statue of the god reading: decuria sacerdotum bidentalium. The relationship between Sancus and the semones of the carmen Arvale remains obscure, even though some scholars opinate that Semo Sancus and Salus Semonia or Dia Semonia would represent the core significance of this archaic theology.[30] Norden has proposed a Greek origin.[31] Sancus and Salus The two gods were related in several ways. Their shrines (aedes) were very close to each other on two adjacent hilltops of the Quirinal, the Collis Mucialis and Salutaris respectively.[32] Some scholars also claim some inscriptions to Sancus have been found on the Collis Salutaris.[33] Moreover Salus is the first of the series of deities mentioned by Macrobius[34] as related in their sacrality: Salus, Semonia, Seia, Segetia, Tutilina, who required the observance of a dies feriatus of the person who happened to utter their name. These deities were connected to the ancient agrarian cults of the valley of the Circus Maximus that remain quite mysteruious[35] The statue of Tanaquil placed in the shrine of Sancus was famed for containing remedies in its girdle that people came to collect.[36] As the statues of boys wear the apotropaic golden bulla, bubble or locket, which contained remedies against envy or the evil eye, Robert E. A. Palmer has remarked a connexion between these and the praebia of the statue of Tanaquil in the sacellum of Sancus.[37] German scholars Georg Wissowa, Eduard Norden and Kurt Latte talk of a deity named Salus Semonia[38] which is though attested only in one inscription of year 1 A.D., which mentions a Salus Semonia in its last line (line seventeen). There is consensus among scholars that this line is a later addition and cannot be dated with certainty.[39] In other inscriptions Salus is never connected to Semonia.[40] Sancus Dius Fidius and Iupiter The relationship between the two gods is certain as both are in charge of oath, are connected with clear daylight sky and can wield lightning bolts. This overlap of functional characters has generated confusion about the identity of Sancus Dius Fidius either among ancient or modern scholars, as Dius Fidius has sometimes been considered another theonym for Iupiter.[41] The autonomy of Semo Sancus from Iupiter and the fact that Dius Fidius is an alternate theonym designating Semo Sancus (and not Iupiter) is shewn by the name of the correspondent Umbrian god Fisus 179 Sancus Sancius which compounds the two constituent parts of Sancus and Dius Fidius: in Umbrian and Sabine Fisus is the exact correspont of Fidius, as e.g. Sabine Clausus of Latin Claudius.[42] The fact that Sancus as Iupiter is in charge of the observance of oaths, of the laws of hospitality and of loyalty (Fides) makes him a deity connected with the sphere and values of sovereignity, i.e. in Dumezil's terminology of the first function. G. Wissowa advanced the hypothesis that Semo Sancus is the genius of Iupiter.[43] W. W. Fowler has cautioned that this is an anachronism and it would only be acceptable to say that Sancus is a Genius Iovius as it appears from the Iguvine Tables.[44] Theodor Mommsen, William W. Fowler and Georges Dumezil among others rejected the accountability of the tradition that ascribes a Sabine origin to the Roman cult of Semo Sancus Dius Fidius, partly on linguistic grounds since the theonym is Latin and no mention or evidence of a Sabine Semo is found near Rome, while the Semones are attested in Latin in the carmen Arvale. In their view Sancus would be a deity who was shared by all ancient Italic peoples, whether Osco-Umbrian or Latino-Faliscan.[45] The details of the cult of Fisus Sancius at Iguvium and those of Fides at Rome[46] , such as the use of the mandraculum, a piece of linen fabric covering the right hand of the officiant, and of the urfeta (orbita) or orbes ahenei, sort of small bronze disc brought in the right hand by the offerant at Iguvium and also deposed in the temple of Semo Sancus in 329 B.C. after an affair of treason[47] confirm the parallelism. Some aspects of the ritual of the oath for Dius Fidius, such as the proceedings under the open sky and/or in the compluvium of private residences and the fact the temple of Sancus had no roof, have suggested to romanist O. Sacchi the idea that the oath by Dius Fidius predated that for Iuppiter Lapis or Iuppiter Feretrius, and should have its origin in prehistoric time rituals, when the templum was in the open air and defined by natural landmarks as e.g. the highest nearby tree.[48] Supporting this interpretation is the explanation of the theonym Sancus as meaning sky in Sabine given by Johannes Lydus, etymology that however is rejected by Dumezil and Briquel among others.[49] In conclusion all the known details concerning Sancus connect him to the sphere of the fides, of oaths, of the respect ofmpacts, and of their sanction, or divine guarantee against their breaking. These values are all proper to sovereign gods and common with Iuppiter (and with Mitra in Vedic religion). Sancus and Hercules Aelius Stilo's interpretation of the theonym as Dius Filius is based partly on the interchangeability and alternance of letters d and l in Sabine, which might have rendered possible the reading of Dius Fidius as Dius Filius, i.e. Dios Kouros, partly on the function of guarantor of oaths that Sancus shared with Hercules: Georg Wissowa called it a gelernte Kombination[50] , while interpreting him as the genius, (semo) of Iupiter.[51] Stilo's interpretration in its linguistic aspect looks to be unsupported by the form of the theonym in the Iguvine Tables, where it appears as Fisus or Fisovius Sancius, formula that includes the two component parts of the theonym.[52] This theonym is rooted in an ancient IE *bh(e)idh-tos and is formed on the rootstem *bheidh- which is common to Latin Fides. The connexion to Hercules looks to be much more substantial on theological grounds. Hercules, especially in ancient Italy, retained many archaic features of a founder deity and of a guarantor of good faith and loyalty. 180 Sancus Sancus and Mars At Iguvium Fisus Sancius is associated to Mars in the ritual of the sacrifice at the Porta Tesenaca as one of the gods of the minor triad, and this fact proves his military connection in Umbria. This might be explained by the military nature of the concept of sanction which implies the use of repression. The term sanctus too has in Roman law military implications: the walls of the city are sancti.[53] The martial aspect of Sancus is highlighted also in the instance of the Samnite legio linteata, a selected part of the army formed by noble soldiers bound by a set of particularly compelling oaths and put under the special protection of Iupiter. In this case the strict association of the ritual to Iupiter underlines the military aspect of the sovereign god that comes in to supplement the usual role of Mars.[54] A prodigy related by Livy concerning an avis sanqualis who broke a rainstone or meteorite fallen into a grove sacred to Mars at Crustumerium in 177 B. C. has also been seen by some scholars as a sign of a martial aspect of Sancus. Roger D. Woodard has interpreted Sancus as the Roman equivalent of Vedic god Indra, who has to rely on the help of the Maruts, corresponding to the twelf Roman semones of the carmen Arvale, in his task of killing the dragon Vrtra thus freeing the waters and averting draught. He traces the etymology of Semo to IE stemroot *seh(w) bearing the meanings of to pour, ladle, flow, drop related to rain and sowing. [55] In Roman myth Hercules would represent this mythic character in his killing of the monstre Cacus. Sancus would be identical to Mars and Hercules as shown by the old cults of the Salii of Tibur.[56] Sancus in Etruria As for Etruscan religion N. Thomas De Grummond has suggested to identify Sancus in the inscription Selvans Sanchuneta found on a cippus unearthed near Bolsena, however other scholars connect this epithet to a local family gentilicium.[57] The theonym Tec Sans found on bronze statues (of a boy and of the arringatore, public speaker) from the area near Cortona has been seen as an Etruscan form of the same theonym.[58] 181 Legacy The English words sanction and saint are directly derived from Sancus. The toponym Sanguineto is related to the theonym, through the proper name Sanquinius.[59] References [1] [2] [3] [4] K. Latte Roemische Religiongeschichte Muenchen 1960 p. 127 Dion. Hal. II 49, 2 Ovid Fasti VI 217-8; Properce IV 9, 74; Tertullian Ad Nationes II 9, 13; Varro Lingua latina V 52 Dion. Hal. IX 60; Ovid Fasti VI 213; CIL I 2nd 319 p. 220; S. B. Platner, T. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome London 1929 pp.469-470 [5] Varro Lingua Latina V 66 [6] R.A. Lanciani Pagan and Christian Rome Boston and New York 1893 pp. 32-33 [7] Festus sv. Sanqualis Porta p. 345 L [8] Varro Lingua Lat. V 52: Collis Mucialis: quinticeps apud aedem Dei Fidi; in delubro ubi aeditumus habere solet. [9] Plutarch Quaestiones Romanae 30; Pliny Nat. Hist. VIII 94; Festus sv. praebia p. 276 L: "Praebia rursus Verrius vocari ait ea remedia quae Gaia Caecilia, uxor Tarquini Prisci,invenisse existimatur, et inmiscuisse zonae suae, qua praecincta statua eius est in aede Sancus, qui deus dius fidius vocatur; et qua zona periclitantes ramenta sumunt. Ea vocari ait praebia, quod mala prohibeant." [10] Livy VIII 20, 8 [11] Dion. Hal. Antiquitates Romanae IV 58, 4 [12] S. B. Platner A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome London 1929 p. 469 [13] Claridge, Amanda (1998). Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. (p. 226) [14] CIL VI 568 [15] W. W, Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London, 1899, p. 139 [16] CIL XV 7253 [17] Livy XXXII 1. 10 Sancus [18] The First Apology, Chapter XXVI.—Magicians not trusted by Christians (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ schaff/ anf01. viii. ii. xxvi. html), Justin Martyr. [19] In a fragment preserved by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 2.49.2.; [20] Punica VIII 421 [21] As preserved by Varro, De lingua latina 5.66. [22] Stefan Weinstock, "Martianus Capella and the Cosmic System of the Etruscans," Journal of Roman Studies 36 (1946), p. 105, especially note 19. Martianus is likely to have derived his system from Nigidius Figulus (through an intermediate source) and Varro. [23] CIL I 2nd 2436: Se]monibu[s. [24] cf. E. Norden Aus altroemischer Priesterbuchen Lund, 1939, p.205 ff. [25] Festus s.v. medioxumi [26] Scheiffele in Pauly s.v. semones citing Priscianus p. 683; Festus s.v. hemona; Varro unreferenced from semideus; Hartung I. 41: from serere and Sabine Semones half-self, more like genii; also Gdywend Mythol. bei der Romer par. 261: in Sabine, godly people, maybe Lares. Besides belong to this cathegory all the dii medioxumi. [27] Pauly above. [28] cf. Ovid Metam. I 193-195 [29] Dahrenberg & Saglio Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines s.v. Semo Sancus [30] G.B. Pighi La preghirea romana in AA. VV. La preghira Roma, 1967 pp. 605-606 [31] Classical Review 1939 [32] Varro Lingua Latina V 53 [33] Jesse B. Carter in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics vol. 13 s.v. Salus [34] Macrobius Saturnalia I 16,8 [35] Dumezil ARR Paris 1974, Chirassi Colombo in ANRW 1981 p.405; Tertullian De Spectculis VIII 3 [36] Festus s.v. praebia; Robert E. A. Palmer "Locket gold, lizard green" in Etruscan influences on Itlian Civilisation 1994 [37] R. E. A. Palmer "Locket Gold Lizard Green" in J. F. Hall Etruscan Influences on the Civilizations of Italy 1994 p. 17 ff. [38] G. Wissowa Roschers Lexicon s.v. Sancus, Religion und Kultus der Roemer Munich 1912 p. 139ff.; E. Norden Aus der altroemischer Priesterbuechen Lund 1939 p. 202 ff.; K. Latte Rom. Religionsgechichte Munich 1960 p. 49-51 [39] Salus Semonia posuit populi Victoria; R.E.A. Palmer Studies of the northern Campus Martius in ancient Rome 1990 [40] Ara Salutus from a slab of an altar from Praeneste; Salutes pocolom on a pitcher from Horta; Salus Ma[gn]a on a cippus from Bagnacavallo; Salus on a cippus from the sacred grove of Pisaurum; Salus Publica from Ferentinum [41] G. Dumezil La religion Roamiane archiaque Paris, 1974; It. tr. p.189 [42] I. Rosenzweig London, 1937, p. ; D. Briquel; E. Norden [43] G. Wissowa in Roschers Lexicon 1909 s.v. Semo Sancus col. 3654; Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich, 1912, p. 131 f. [44] W. W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London, 1899, p. [45] La religion romaine archaique It. tr. Milano, 1977, p. 80 n. 25, citing also G. Wissowa in Roschers Lexicon s.v. Sancus, IV, 1909, col. 3168; Dumezil wholly rejects the tradition of the synecism of Rome. [46] cf.Livy I 21, 4; Servius Aen. I 292 on this prescription of Numa's [47] Livy VIII 20, 8; W. W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London 1899 p. 138; Irene Rosenzweig Ritual and Cult in Pre-Roman Iguvium London, 1937, p.210; D. Briquel "Sur les aspects militaires du dieu ombrien Fisus Sancius" in MEFRA 1979 p. 136 [48] O. Sacchi "Il trivaso del Quirinale" in Revue Internationale de Droit de l'Antiquite' 2001 pp. 309-311, citing Nonius Marcellus s.v. rituis (L p.494): Itaque domi rituis nostri, qui per dium Fidium iurare vult, prodire solet in compluvium., 'thus according to our rites he who wishes to swear an oath by Dius Fidius he as a rule walks to the compluvium (an unroofed space within the house)'; Macrobius Saturnalia III 11, 5 on the use of the private mensa as an altar mentioned in the ius Papirianum; Granius Flaccus indigitamenta 8 (H. 109) on king Numa's vow by which he asked for the divine punishment of perjury by all the gods [49] Lydus de Mensibus IV 90; G. Capdeville "Les dieux de Martianus Capella" in LPRDH 1995 p.290 [50] G. Wissowa Above. [51] Wiliam W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London, 1899, p. 136 who is rather critical of this interpretation of Wissowa's. [52] W. W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London, 1899, p. 137; Irene Rosenzweig Ritual and Cult of Pre-Roman Iguvium London, 1937 p. 275 as quoted by E. Norden Aus altroemischer Priesterbuchen Lund, 1939, p. 220 : "Iupater Sancius is identical with Semo Sancus Dius Fidius of the Latins. Here we see Fisus Sancius who originally was an attribute of Iupater himself in his function of the guardian of Fides, to develop into a separate god with a sphere of his own as preserver of oaths and treaties...The Umbrian god ...with the combination of the two forms of the Roman god in his name performs a real service in establishing the unity of Dius Fidius and Semo Sancus as the one god Semo Sancus Dius Fidius"; D. Briquel "Sur les aspects militaires du dieu ombrien Fisus Sancius" in Melanges de l'Ecole Francais de Rome Antiquite' 1979 p.134-135: datives Ia 15 Fiso Saci, VI b 3 Fiso Sansie; vocative VI b 9, 10, 12, 14 , 15 Fisovie Sansie; accusative VI b 8 Fisovi Sansi; genitive VI b15 Fisovie Sansie; dative VI b5,6, VII a 37 Fisovi Sansi; I a 17 Fisovi. [53] D. Briquel "Sur les aspects militaires du dieu ombrien Fisus Sancius" in Melanges de l'Ecole Francais de Rome Antiquite' 1979 pp.135-137 [54] D. Briquel Above [55] W. W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London 1899 p. 140 ; R. D. Woodard Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult Chicago 2006 p. 186 ff. 182 Sancus [56] R. D. Woodard Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult p.220 ff.; Macrobius Saturnalia III 12 [57] N. T. De Grummond Etruscan Myth Sacred History and Legend 2006 p. 141; Peter F. Dorcey The Cult of Silvanus: a Study in Roman Folk Religion p. 11 citing C. De Simone Etrusco Sanchuneta PP 39 (1984) pp. 49-53 [58] R. E. A. Palmer "Locket Gold Lizard Green" in J. F. Hall Etruscan Influences on the Civilizations of Italy 1994 p. 17 ff. [59] Palmer p. 16 and Norden p. 215, above. 183 External links • Ancient Library article (http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3037.html) Saritor In Roman mythology, Saritor was the god of hoeing and weeding. Saturn (mythology) Saturn (Latin: Saturnus) was a major Roman god of time, whose reign was depicted as a Golden Age of abundance and peace by many Roman authors. In medieval times he was known as the Roman god of dance, agriculture, justice and strength; he held a sickle in his left hand and a bundle of wheat in his right. His mother was Terra and his father was Caelus. He was identified in classical antiquity with the Greek deity Cronus, and the mythologies of the two gods are commonly mixed. Saturn's wife was Ops (the Roman equivalent of Rhea). Saturn was the father of Ceres, Jupiter, Veritas, Pluto, and Neptune, Juno, among others. Saturn had a temple on the Forum Romanum which contained the Royal Treasury. Saturn is the namesake of both Saturn, the planet, and Saturday (dies Saturni). Saturn is often identified with the Greek Cronus. In Hesiod's Theogony, a mythological account of the creation of the universe and Zeus' rise to power, Cronus is mentioned as the son of Uranus (the Greek equivalent of Roman Caelus), the heavens, and Gaia (the Greek equivalent of Terra), the earth. Hesiod is an early Greek poet and Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. He writes that Cronus seizes power, castrating and overthrowing his father Uranus. However, it was foretold that one day a mighty son of Cronus would in turn overthrow him, and Cronus devoured all of his children when they were born to prevent this. Cronus's wife, Rhea (often identified with the Roman goddess Ops), hid her sixth child, Zeus, on the island of Crete, and offered Cronus a large stone wrapped in swaddling clothes in his place; Cronus promptly devoured it. Zeus later overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, becoming the new supreme ruler of the cosmos. In the Roman tradition, in memory of the Golden Age of man, a mythical age when Saturn was said to have ruled, a great feast called Saturnalia was held during the winter months around the time of the winter solstice. It was originally only one day long, taking place on December 17, but later lasted one week. During Saturnalia, roles of master and slave were reversed, moral restrictions loosened, and the rules of etiquette ignored. It is thought that the Saturn (mythology) festivals of Saturnalia and Lupercalia were the roots of the carnival year. 184 Mythology of Saturn In Babylon he was called Ninib and was an agricultural deity. Saturn, called Cronus by the Greeks, was, at the dawn of the Ages of the Gods, the Protector and Sower of the Seed and his wife, Ops, (called Rhea by the Greeks) was a Harvest Helper. Saturn was one of the Seven Titans or Numina and with them, reigned supreme in the Universe. The Titans were of incredible size and strength and held power for untold ages, until they were deposed by Jupiter. In Hindu mythology and Astrology Saturn is called as Shani is embodied in the planet Saturn. Shani is the Lord of Saturday; the word "Shani" also denotes the seventh day or Saturday in most Indian languages. Shani is a Deva and son of Surya (the Hindu Sun God) and his wife Chhaya (Shadow goddess) and hence also known as Chayyaputra. He is the elder brother of Yama, the Hindu God of death, who in some scriptures corresponds to the deliverance of justice. Interestingly, Surya's two sons Shani and Yama judge. Shani gives us the results of one's deeds through one's life through appropriate punishments and rewards; Yama grants the results of one's deeds after death. The first inhabitants of the world were the children of Terra (Mother Earth) and Caelus (Father Sky). These creatures were very large and manlike, but without human qualities. They were the qualities of Earthquake, Hurricane and Volcano living in a world where there was yet no life. There were only the irresistible forces of nature creating mountains and seas. They were unlike any life form known to man. Three creatures born of Terra were monstrously huge with one hundred hands and fifty heads. Three others were individually called Cyclops, because each had only one enormous eye in the middle of their foreheads. Then, there were the Titans, seven of them, formidably large and none of whom were a purely destructive force. One was actually credited with saving man after creation. Caelus hated the children with the fifty heads. As each was born, he imprisoned it under the earth. Terra was enraged by the treatment of her children by their father and begged the Cyclopes and the Titans to help her put an end to the cruel treatment. Only one Titan, Saturn, responded. Saturn lay in wait for his father and, depending on the source, either castrated him or sliced him into a thousand pieces with his sickle. From Caelus' blood sprang the Giants, a fourth race of monsters, and the Erinyes (the Furies), whose purpose was to punish wrongdoing. They were referred to as "those who walk in darkness" and were believed to have writhing snakes for hair and eyes that cried blood. Though eventually all the monsters were driven from Earth, the Erinyes are to remain until the world is free of sin. With the deposing of his father, Saturn became the ruler of the Universe for untold ages and he reigned with his sister, Ops, who also became his wife. Saturn (mythology) 185 It was prophesied that one day Saturn would lose power when one of his children would depose him. To prevent this from happening, each time Ops delivered a child Saturn would immediately devour it. When her sixth child, Jupiter, was born, Ops had him spirited away to the island of Crete. She then wrapped a stone in his swaddling clothes. Her deception was complete when Saturn devoured it, thinking it was the child. When Jupiter was grown, he secured the job of cup-bearer to his father. With the help of Terra, his grandmother, Jupiter fed his father a potion that caused him to vomit up Jupiter's five immortal siblings, Vesta (Hestia), Ceres (Demeter), Juno (Hera), Pluto (Hades), and Neptune (Poseidon), who were still alive in their father's stomach. A devastating war that nearly destroyed the Universe ensued between Saturn and his five brothers and Jupiter and his five brothers and sisters. Jupiter persuaded the fifty headed monsters to fight with him which enabled him to make use of their weapons of thunder, lightning and earthquake. He also convinced the Titan Prometheus, who was incredibly wise, and his brother, to join his side. With his forces, Jupiter was victorious and the Olympians reigned supreme. Saturn was, again depending on the source, either castrated or sliced into a thousand pieces with his own sickle (as he had done to his father) and cast into the darkest and deepest part of Tartarus, the underworld. His brothers were imprisoned in Tartarus as well except for Atlas, the strongest Titan, who was given the burden of holding up the sky. Saturn Devouring His Son, painting by Goya sometime between 1819 and 1823 In Roman mythology,[1] when Jupiter ascended the throne, Saturn fled to Rome and established the Golden Age, a time of perfect peace and harmony, which lasted as long as he reigned. In memory of the Golden Age, the Feast of Saturnalia was held every year in the winter at the Winter Solstice. During this time no war could be declared, slaves and masters ate at the same table, executions were postponed, and it was a season for giving gifts. This was a time of total abandon and merry making. It refreshed the idea of equality, of a time when all men were on the same level. When the festival ended, the tax collectors appeared and all money owed out to government, landlords, or lenders had to be accounted for. This is another side to Saturn and its ruling sign, Capricorn: the settling of accounts. The time of the winter solstice is when the Sun enters the sign Capricorn. Hesiod[2] wrote of the five ages of mankind: Gold, Silver, two ages of Bronze and an age of Iron. The Age of Gold was the purest age, when no labor was required and weather was always pleasant. It was virtually a place of pleasant surroundings and of abundance. Death was not an unpleasant eventuality and people occupied their time in pleasant pursuits. Cronus ruled over this Golden Age. Saturn (mythology) 186 Astrological Beliefs Medieval and Renaissance scholars associated Saturn with one of the Four Temperaments of ancient medicine, melancholy. Physicians, scholars, philosophers and scientists, were rationalised to have a strong Saturn placement which gives them a tendency toward melancholy, but also wisdom. Astrological Saturn has always been associated with the letter of the law. Gnostics have identified Saturn with the god of Early Scripture, whom they regarded as a tyrannical father, obsessed with rigid enforcement of the law. There is a symbolic link between Saturn and the God of Early Scripture through the use of Saturday. Saturn's Day, the seventh day of Scripture, the holy day of rest. Saturn's function is contraction, which gives Saturn (called since ancient times "The Greater Malefic") a somewhat polarized role against Jupiter (called "The Greater Benefic") in astrology. In Vedic astrology Saturn and Jupiter are considered natural neutrals, but under closer relations become enemies (although William Lilly disagrees with this and considers them both friends). Similarly, Saturn is considered cold (slow) and dry (separate) whereas Jupiter is considered warm (speedy) and moist (inclusive). Where there is light Saturn brings darkness, where there is heat Saturn brings cold, where there is joy Saturn brings sadness, where there is life Saturn brings death, where there is luck Saturn brings misfortune (and sometimes heavy consequences for bad judgment or mistakes), where there is unity Saturn brings isolation, where there is knowledge Saturn brings fear, where there is hope Saturn brings skepticism and stalling. However these effects are not always negative. Saturn's properties of contraction and "crystallization" are said to create solidness in the world and give lasting form to everything physical and principle. Saturn is considered the only planet that doesn't cause over-expansion when negatively aspected with Jupiter, but rather causes Jupiter's expansion to remit. Death, particular in old age, has been associated with Saturn since ancient times. At times the freedoms created by the other planets are abused so that remorse follows. Saturn's color is black. The element associated with Saturn is lead. Saturn often stands for the father in the natal chart, as does the Sun, however with Saturn it usually indicates problems with the father. Saturn indicates a tyrannical, domineering parent who seeks to mold his children in his own image and force them to live by his standards. Children often become "swallowed up" by such domination. Saturn's connection with agriculture suggests the nature of time. The Golden Years is a term used to describe the retirement years and Saturn rules old age. Planet Saturn is a gas giant, the second largest planet in the solar system after Jupiter, and the sixth planet out from the Sun. The planet is widely known for its prominently visible rings. Saturn is a sister planet to Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune. Like most of the other planets in the solar system, Saturn is named after a Roman god. Just like with other planet's satellites, Saturn's moons are named after Greek mythology. In the ancient times, the planet Saturn was the farthest out of the five known planets other than Earth in the Solar System (along with Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter; Uranus and Neptune had not yet been discovered), although the rings were not discovered until Galileo observed the planet in 1610. Saturn (mythology) 187 References [1] Macrobius Saturnalia I,9; Vergil Aeneis VII, 49 [2] Hesiod Theogony Resources Mythology: Edith Hamilton The Only Astrology Book You Will Ever Need: Joanna Martine Woolfolk Mythic Astrology: Archetypal Powers In The Horoscope: Ariel Guttman and Kenneth Johnson. Parker's Astrology: Julia and Derek Parker Mysteries of freemasonry by John Fellows New larousse encyclopedia of mythology, introduction by Robert Graves Saturn Devouring His Son Saturn Devouring His Son is the name given to a painting by Spanish artist Francisco Goya. It depicts the Greek myth of the Titan Cronus (in the title Romanised to Saturn), who, fearing that his children would overthrow him, ate each one upon their birth. It is one of the series of Black Paintings that Goya painted directly onto the walls of his house sometime between 1819 and 1823. The work was transferred to canvas after Goya's death and now resides in the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Saturn Devouring His Son, c. 1819–1823. Oil mural transferred to canvas, 143cm x 81cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid Saturn Devouring His Son 188 Background In 1819, Goya purchased a house on the banks of Manzanares near Madrid called Quinta del Sordo (Villa of the Deaf Man). It was a small two-story house which was named after a previous occupant who had been deaf, although the name was fitting for Goya too, who had been left deaf after contracting a fever in 1792. Between 1819 and 1823, when he left the house to move to Bordeaux, Goya produced a series of 14 works, which he painted with oils directly onto the walls of the house. At the age of 73, and having survived two life-threatening illnesses, Goya was likely to have been concerned with his own mortality, and was increasingly embittered by the civil strife occurring Quinta del Sordo, c. 1900 in Spain. Although he initially decorated the rooms of the house with more inspiring images, in time he overpainted them all with the intense haunting pictures known today as the Black Paintings. Uncommissioned and never meant for public display, these pictures reflect his darkening mood with some intense scenes of malevolence and conflict.[1] Saturn Devouring His Son, a disturbing portrait of the god Saturn consuming one of his children, was one of six works with which Goya decorated the dining room. According to Roman myth, it had been foretold that one of the sons of Saturn would overthrow him, just as he had overthrown his father, Caelus. To prevent this, Saturn ate his children moments after each was born. His wife Ops eventually hid his sixth son, Jupiter, on the island of Crete, deceiving Saturn by offering a stone wrapped in swaddling in his place. Jupiter eventually supplanted his father just as the prophecy had predicted. Goya never named the works he produced at Quinta del Sordo; the names were assigned by others after his death,[2] and this painting is also known as just Saturn, Saturn Devouring One of His Sons, Saturn Devouring his Children or by the Spanish names Saturno devorando a su hijo or Saturno devorando a un hijo. Painting Goya depicts Saturn feasting upon one of his sons. His child's head and part of the left arm has already been consumed. The right arm has probably been eaten too, though it could be folded in front of the body and held in place by Saturn's crushing grip. The titan is on the point of taking another bite from the left arm; as he looms from the darkness, his mouth gapes and his eyes bulge white with the appearance of madness. The only other brightness in the picture comes from the white flesh,the red blood of the corpse, the white knuckles of Saturn as he digs his fingers into the back of the body, and his piercing eyes, wide with madness. There is evidence that the picture may have originally portrayed the titan with a partially erect penis,[3] but, if ever present, this disturbing addition was lost due to the deterioration of the mural over time or during the transfer to canvas; in the picture today the area around his groin is indistinct. It may even have been overpainted deliberately before the picture was put on public display.[4] Saturn Devouring His Son 189 Various interpretations of the meaning of the picture have been offered: the conflict between youth and old age, time as the devourer of all things, the wrath of God and an allegory of the situation in Spain, where the fatherland consumed its own children in wars and revolution. There have been explanations rooted in Goya's relationships with his own son, Xavier, the only of his six children to survive to adulthood, or with his live-in housekeeper and possible mistress, Leocadia Weiss; the sex of the body being consumed can not be determined with certainty. If Goya made any notes on the picture, they have not survived; as he never intended the picture for public exhibition, he probably had little interest in explaining its significance. It has been said that the painting is "essential to our understanding of the human condition in modern times, just as Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling is essential to understanding the tenor of the 16th century".[5] Goya may have been inspired by Peter Paul Rubens' 1636 picture of the same name. Rubens' painting, also held at the Museo del Prado, is a brighter, more conventional treatment of the myth: his Saturn exhibits less of the cannibalistic ferocity portrayed in Goya's rendition. However, some critics have suggested that Rubens' portrayal is the more horrific: the god is portrayed as a calculating remorseless killer, who – fearing for his own position of power – murders his innocent child. Goya's vision, on the other hand, shows a man driven mad by the act of killing Peter Paul Rubens' more refined Saturn his own son. In addition, the body of the son in Goya's picture is that of Devouring His Son (1636) may have inspired an adult, not the helpless baby depicted by Rubens. Goya had produced Goya. a chalk drawing of the same subject in 1796-7 that was closer in tone to Rubens' work: it showed a Saturn similar in appearance to that of Rubens', daintily biting on the leg of one of his sons while he holds another like a leg of chicken, with none of the gore or madness of the later work. Goya scholar Fred Licht has raised doubts regarding the traditional title however, noting that the classical iconographical attributes associated with Saturn are absent from the painting, and the body of the smaller figure does not resemble that of an infant.[6] The rounded buttocks and wide hips of the headless corpse has also called into question the identification of this figure as a male.[7] Transfer from the Quinta del Sordo Although never meant to be seen by the public, the paintings were obviously important works in Goya's oeuvre. When Goya went into self-imposed exile in France in 1823, he passed Quinta del Sordo to his grandson, Mariano. After various changes of ownership, the house came into the possession of the Belgian Baron Emile d'Erlanger in 1874. After 70 years on the walls of Quinta del Sordo, the murals were deteriorating badly and, in order to preserve them, the new owner of the house had them transferred to canvas under the direction of Salvador Martinez Cubells, the curator of the Museo del Prado. After showing them at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, d'Erlanger eventually donated them to the Spanish state. The effects of time on the murals, coupled with the inevitable damage caused by the delicate operation of mounting the crumbling plaster on canvas, meant that most of the murals required restoration work and some detail may have been lost, but in this respect Saturn Devouring His Son appears to have fared better than some of the other works. Saturn Devouring His Son 190 In Popular Culture The image was featured in two instances in the 2009 film Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps. The painting is featured in the office of Bretton James, who mentions it briefly when Jacob Moore inquires about it. Near the end of the movie, James rips the painting off the wall in a fit of anger as it seems to provoke his dire financial and political situation. Notes [1] "But never before and never since, as far as we know, has a major, ambitious cycle of paintings been painted with the intention of keeping the pictures an entirely private affair." Licht, 159 [2] Licht, 168 [3] Morden and Pulimood in Farthing, 375 [4] Connell, 209 [5] Licht, 71 [6] Licht, 168 [7] Connell, 210 References • Connell, Evan (2004). Francisco Goya: A Life. Counterpoint. pp. 256. ISBN 9781582433073. • Licht, Fred (1983). Goya: The Origins of the Modern Temper in Art. Icon. pp. 288. ISBN 0064301230. • Morden, Karen, and Pulimood, Stephen (2006). Stephen Farthing. ed. 1001 Paintings You Must See Before You Die. London: Quintet Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84403-563-8. • "Saturn Devouring One of His Sons" (http://www.museodelprado.es/coleccion/galeria-on-line/ galeria-on-line/obra/saturno-devorando-a-un-hijo/?no_cache=1). Museo del Prado. Retrieved 27 February 2007. • E. Weems. "The Black Paintings: Saturn" (http://eeweems.com/goya/saturn.html). Retrieved 27 February 2007. • Jay Scott Morgan. "The Mystery of Goya's Saturn" (http://web.archive.org/web/20061213003002/http://cat. middlebury.edu/~nereview/morgan.html). New England Review. Archived from the original (http://cat. middlebury.edu/~nereview/morgan.html) on 13 December 2006. Retrieved 27 February 2007. • "Goya's Black Paintings" (http://www.theartwolf.com/goya_black_paintings.htm). theartworlf. Retrieved 27 February 2007. • Milko A. García Torres. "Francisco José Goya" (http://www.imageandart.com/tutoriales/biografias/goya/ index.html) (in Spanish). Pinacoteca Universal Multimedia. Madrid: F & G Editores. Retrieved 27 February 2007. Silvanus (mythology) 191 Silvanus (mythology) Silvanus (Latin: "of the woods") was a Roman tutelary spirit or deity of woods and fields. As protector of forests (sylvestris deus), he especially presided over plantations and delighted in trees growing wild.[1] [2] [3] [4] He is also described as a god watching over the fields and husbandmen, protecting in particular the boundaries of fields.[5] The similarly named Etruscan deity Selvans may be a borrowing of Silvanus,[6] or not even related in origin.[7] Silvanus is described as the divinity protecting the flocks of cattle, warding off wolves, and promoting their fertility.[1] [8] [9] [10] Hyginus states that Silvanus was the first to set up stones to mark the limits of fields, and that every estate had three Silvani:[11] • a Silvanus domesticus (in inscriptions called Silvanus Larum and Silvanus sanctus sacer Larum) • a Silvanus agrestis (also called salutaris), who was worshipped by shepherds, and • a Silvanus orientalis, that is, the god presiding over the point at which an estate begins. Hence Silvani were often referred to in the plural. Attributes and associations Like other gods of woods and flocks, Silvanus is described as fond of Bronze statue of Silvanus, said to be from music; the syrinx was sacred to him,[1] and he is mentioned along with Nocera in southern Italy. the Pans and Nymphs.[2] [12] Later speculators even identified Silvanus with Pan, Faunus, Inuus and Aegipan.[13] He must have been associated with the Italian Mars, for Cato refers to him as Mars Silvanus.[9] In the provinces outside of Italy, Silvanus was identified with numerous native gods:[14] • Sucellos, Sinquas and Tettus in Gaul and Germany • Callirius, Cocidius and Vinotonus in Britain • Calaedicus in Spain • the Mogiae in Pannonia • Poininus in Moesia. The Slavic god Borevit has similarities with Silvanus. Silvanus (mythology) 192 Drawing of a relief of Silvanus from Rome. Worship The sacrifices offered to Silvanus consisted of grapes, ears of grain, milk, meat, wine and pigs.[1] [5] [15] [16] [17] In Cato's De Agricultura an offering to Mars Silvanus is described, to ensure the health of cattle; it is stated there that his connection with agriculture referred only to the labour performed by men, and that females were excluded from his worship.[9] [16] (Compare Bona Dea for a Roman deity from whose worship men were excluded.) Virgil relates that in the very earliest times the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians had dedicated a grove and a festival to Silvanus.[8] In literature In works of Latin poetry and art, Silvanus always appears as an old man, but as Votive statue of the ursarius cheerful and in love with Pomona.[5] [18] [19] [20] Virgil represents him as carrying (bear-catcher) of Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix to Silvanus, the trunk of a cypress (Greek: δενδροφόρος),[12] about which the following [21] [22] LVR-Archäologischer Park Xanten myth is told. Silvanus – or Apollo according to other versions – was in love with Cyparissus, and once by accident killed a hind belonging to Cyparissus. The latter died of grief, and was metamorphosed into a cypress.[23] [24] [25] In the Harry Potter series, the former Care of Magical Creatures teacher is named Silvanus Kettleburn. Silvanus (mythology) 193 References • This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Tibullus II.5.27, 30. Lucan. Pharsalia III.402. Pliny the Elder. Naturalis historia XII.2. Ovid. Metamorphoses I.193. Horace. Epodes II.21-22. Robert Schilling, "Silvanus," in Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), p. 146 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Uf2_kHAs22sC& pg=PA146& dq="borrowed+ from+ the+ Latin"+ "Etruscan+ Selvans"& hl=en& ei=WgHcTLLtE8fOnAe5npkX& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="borrowed from the Latin" "Etruscan Selvans"& f=false), concurring with Dumézil, Archaic Roman Religion, p. 616. [7] Peter F. Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion (Brill, 1992), pp. 10–12 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1YzWMQecwH4C& pg=PA10& dq="A+ popular+ theory+ traces+ Silvanus+ back+ to+ the+ Etruscan+ divinity+ Selvans"& hl=en& ei=RhfcTKbpOIrfnQfb1LUW& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="A popular theory traces Silvanus back to the Etruscan divinity Selvans"& f=false), noting earlier efforts to press an Etruscan etymology on Silvanus. [8] Virgil. Aeneid VIII.600-1. [9] Cato the Elder. De Re Rustica 83 [10] Nonnus II.324. [11] Hyginus. De limitibus constituendi, preface. [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] Virgil. Georgics I.20-1. Plutarch. Parallel Lives. Min. 22. Peter F. Dorcey (1992). The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion, p.32. ISBN 978-90-04-09601-1. Horace. Epistles II.1.143. Juvenal. VI.446, with associated scholia. Compare Voss. Mythol. Briefe, 2.68; Hartung, Die Relig. der Röm. vol. 2. p. 170, &c. Virgil. Georgics II.494 Horace. Carmina III.8. Ovid. Metamorphoses XIV.639. Servius. Commentary on the Aeneid III.680. Ovid. Metamorphoses X.106 Servius. Commentary on Virgil's Georgics I.20 Virgil. Eclogues X.26. Virgil. Aeneid III.680. External links • Cato's De Agricultura: (http://www.novaroma.org/religio_romana/cato_mars.html) an offering to Mars Silvanus (e-text in English and Latin) Sol (mythology) 194 Sol (mythology) Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism This article is about the sun god. For the sun goddess of the same name, see Sol. Sol was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. It was long thought that Rome actually had two different, consecutive sun gods. The first, Sol Indiges, was thought to have been unimportant, disappearing altogether at an Sol (mythology) early period. Only in the late Roman Empire, scholars argued, did solar cult re-appear with the arrival in Rome of the Syrian Sol Invictus. Recent scholarship has rejected this (see Sol Invictus). 195 Etymology The Latin sol for "Sun" is the continuation of the PIE heteroclitic *Seh2ul- / *Sh2-en-, cognate to Germanic Sol, Sanskrit Surya, Greek Helios, Lithuanian Saulė.[1] also compare Latin "solis" to Etruscan "usil". Today, "sol" is still the main word for sun in Spanish and other romance languages. "Sol" is used in contemporary English by astronomers and science fiction authors as the proper name of the Sun to distinguish the Sun from other stars, which may be the Suns of their own planetary systems. Sol in the Roman Republic According to Roman sources, the worship of Sol was introduced by Titus Tatius.[2] In Virgil he is the grandfather of Latinus, the son of Sol's daughter Circe who lived not far from Rome at Monte Circeo.[3] A shrine to Sol stood on the banks of the Numicius, near many important shrines of early Latin religion.[4] In Rome Sol had an "old" temple in the Circus Maximus according to Tacitus (AD 56 - 117),[5] and this temple remained important in the first three centuries AD.[6] There was also an old shrine for Sol on the Quirinal, where an annual sacrifice was offered to Sol Indiges on August 9th.[7] The Roman ritual calendars or fasti also mention a feast for Sol Indiges on December 11th, and a sacrifice for Sol and Luna on August 28th. Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed) represents the earlier, more agrarian form in which the Roman god Sol was worshipped. As the cult evolved the epithet "indiges" fell into disuse (see Sol Invictus). See also Di indigetes. Identification with Janus Various Roman philosophers speculated on the nature of the sun, without arriving at any consensus. A typical example is Nigidius, a scholar of the first century BC. His works have not survived, but writing five centuries later, Macrobius reports that Nigidius argued that Sol was to be identified with Janus and that he had a counterpart, Jana, who was Moon. As such, they were to be regarded as the highest of the gods, receiving their sacrifices before all the others.[8] Such views appear to have been restricted to an erudite elite - no ancient source aside from Macrobius mentions the equation of Sol with Janus - and had no impact on the well-attested cult of Sol as independent deity. Sol Invictus Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was long thought to have been a Roman state-supported sun god introduced from Syria by the emperor Aurelian in 274 and overshadowing other Eastern cults in importance,[9] until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I. However the evidence for this is meager at best,[10] and the notion that Aurelian introduced a new cult of the sun ignores the abundant evidence on coins, in images, in inscriptions, and in other sources for a strong presence of the sun god in Rome throughout the imperial period.[11] Tertullian (ca. AD 160 - AD 220) writes that the Circus Maximus was dedicated primarily to Sol.[12] There is no hiatus in the cult of Sol in Rome, nor any shift in the depictions of the god suggesting some sort of significant change under Aurelian. It is clear, however, that the cult of the sun did become much more important during his reign, not least with the institution of a new college of pontiffs for Sol. There is some debate over the significance of December 25th for the cult of Sol. According to a single, late source, the Romans held a festival on December 25 of Dies Natalis Invicti, "the birthday of the unconquered one." Most scholars assume Sol Invictus was meant, although our source for this festival does not state so explicitly.[13] December 25 was commonly indicated as the date of the winter solstice,[14] with the first detectable lengthening of daylight hours. There were also festivals on other days in December, including the 11th (mentioned above), as well Sol (mythology) as August. Gordon points out that none of these other festivals are linked to astronomical events.[15] When the festval on December 25th was instituted is not clear, which makes it hard to assess what impact (if any) it had on the establishment of Christmas. The official status of the cult of Sol after Aurelian was significant, but there is no evidence that it was the supreme cult of the state. Hoey exaggerates the importance of an inscription from Salsovia that supposedy indicates an official empire-wide cult-prescription for Sol on December 19th.[16] It actually simply states that at the command of the emperor Licinius the commanding officer of the detachment at Salsovia was to burn incense annually for a newly erected statue of Sol on November 18 (Hoey misread the date).[17] This simly means that Licinius accpted the erection of the statue in his honour. Throughout the fourth century the cult of Sol continued to be maintained by high-ranking pontiffs, including the renowned Vettius Agorius Praetextatus.[18] 196 References [1] [2] [3] [4] see e.g. EIEC, p. 556. August. de Civ. Dei, iv. 23 Virgil, Aeneid 12, 161-4. Pliny Nat. Hist. III 56. [5] Annals 15, 74. [6] Tertullian, de Spect. 8. [7] Quintilian Inst. 1,7,12; Fasti Amiternini (“a.d. V Idus Augustas: Soli Indigeti in colle Quirinali Feriae”), Fasti Vallensis (a.d. V Idus Augustas: Solis Indigetis in colle Quirinali Sacrificium Publicum), Fasti Maffeiani and Fasti Allifani. [8] Macrobius Saturnalia i. 9; an echo of Nigidius views i perhaps to be found in Cicero De Natura Deorum ii. 27 [9] A typical example of this line of thought can be foud in: Allan S. Hoey, "Official Policy towards Oriental Cults in the Roman Army" Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, 70, (1939:456-481) p 479f. [10] Gordon, Richard L.; Wallraff, Martin (Bonn). "Sol." Brill's New Pauly. Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and ; Helmuth Schneider . Brill, 2010. Brill Online. [11] Gordon (prev. note) cites S. E. Hijmans, The Sun Which Did Not Rise in the East. The Cult of Sol Invictus in the Light of Non-Literary Evidence, in: BABesch 71, 1996, 115-150. [12] De Spect. 8 [13] The Natalis Invicti is mentioned only in the Calendar of Philocalus which dates t AD 354 (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ pearse/ morefathers/ files/ chronography_of_354_06_calendar. htm) [14] When Julius Caesar introduced the Julian Calendar in 45 BC, December 25 was approximately the date of the solstice. In modern times, the solstice falls on December 21 or 22. [15] Gordon, Richard L.; Wallraff, Martin (Bonn). "Sol." Brill's New Pauly. Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and ; Helmuth Schneider . Brill, 2010. Brill Online. [16] "An inscription of unique interest from the reign of Licinius embodies the official prescription for the annual celebration by his army of a festival of Sol Invictus on December 19" (Hoey 1939:480 and note 128). [17] Inscription nr. 5 in Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris Graecae et Latinae 2, Bucharest 1980. The prescription is for "die XIV Kal(endis) Decemb(ribus)" i.e. the 14th day before the kalends of December which is November 18th. [18] CIL VI,1778, (http:/ / www1. ku-eichstaett. de/ epigr/ uah-bilder. php?bild=PH0009413) and 1779. (http:/ / www1. ku-eichstaett. de/ epigr/ uah-bilder. php?bild=PH0005618;PH0005615;PH0005616;PH0005617) Sol Invictus 197 Sol Invictus Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, "to the Unconquered Sun". Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Sol Invictus 198 Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Sol Invictus was the official sun god of the later Roman empire. In 274 Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a refoundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol,[1] a revival of the cult of Elagabalus[2] or completely new.[3] The god was favoured by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine.[4] The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 AD.[5] and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.[6] A festival on 25 Dec. is sometimes thought to be responsible for the date of Christmas.[7] Use of the phrase Invictus (unconquered) was an epithet used for various Roman divinities in the Roman Empire. In the Roman Calendar of the early empire these include Jupiter Invictus and Mars Invictus. It was in use from the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period for a range of deities, such as Hercules, Apollo and Silvanus,[8] and was therefore a well-established form when applied to Mithras by Roman devotees from the 2nd century onwards. It has a clear association with solar deities and solar monism; as such, it became the preferred epithet of Rome's traditional Sol and the novel, short-lived Roman state cult to Elagabalus, an Emesan solar deity who headed Rome's official pantheon under his namesake emperor.[9] The earliest dated use of Sol invictus is in a dedication from Rome, AD 158.[10] Another, stylistically dated to the 2nd century AD, is inscribed on a Roman phalera: "inventori lucis soli invicto augusto" (to the contriver of light, sol invictus augustus ).[11] Here "augustus" is most likely a further epithet of Sol as "august" (an elevated being, divine or close to divinity), though the association of Sol with the Imperial house would have been unmistakable and was already established in iconography and stoic monism.[12] These are the earliest attested examples of Sol as invictus, but in AD 102 a certain Repoussé silver disc of Sol Invictus, Roman, 3rd century, found at Pessinus (British Museum) Sol Invictus Anicetus restored a shrine of Sol; Hijmans (2009, 486, n. 22) is tempted "to link Anicetus' predilection for Sol with his name, the Latinized form of the Greek word ἀνίκητος, which means invictus".[13] 199 Elagabalus The first sun god consistently termed invictus was the provincial Syrian god Elagabalus. According to the Historia Augusta, the teenaged Severan heir adopted the name of his deity and brought his cult image from Emesa to Rome. Once installed as emperor, he neglected Rome's traditional State deities and promoted his own as Rome's most powerful deity. This ended with his murder in 222. The Historia Augusta refers to the deity Elagabalus as "also called Jupiter and Sol" (fuit autem Heliogabali vel Iovis vel Solis).[14] This has been seen as an abortive attempt to impose the Syrian sun god on Rome;[15] but because it is now clear that the Roman cult of Sol remained firmly established in Rome throughout the Roman period,[16] this Syrian Sol Elagabalus has become no more relevant to our understanding of the Roman Sol than, for example, the Syrian Jupiter Dolichenus is for our understanding of the Roman Jupiter. Sol Invictus Aurelian The Roman gens Aurelia was associated with the cult of Sol.[17] After his victories in the East, the emperor Aurelian thoroughly reformed the Roman cult of Sol, elevating the sun-god to one of the premier divinities of the empire. Where previously a priests of Sol had been simply sacerdotes and tended to belong to lower ranks of Roman society,[18] they were now pontifices and members of the new college Aurelian in his radiate crown, on a silvered of pontifices instituted by Aurelian. Every pontifex of Sol was a bronze coin struck at Rome, 274-275 member of the senatorial elite, indicating that the priesthood of Sol was now highly prestigious. Almost all these senators held other priesthoods as well, however, and some of these other priesthoods take precedence in the inscriptions in which they are listed, suggesting that they were considered more prestigious than the priesthood of Sol.[19] Aurelian also built a new temple for Sol, bringing the total number of temples for the god in Rome to (at least) four[20] He also instituted games in honor of the sun god, held every four years from AD 274 onwards. The confusion surrounding Aurelian's reforms has been significant, much of it rooted in the mistaken opinion that he was introducing a new cult, which, as is now clear, he was not. The following constitute the most common errors of fact attributed to Aurelian and his reforms. 1. Aurelian called his sun god Sol Invictus to differentiate him from the earlier Roman god Sol. Actually, Aurelian is twice as likely to call Sol Oriens on his coins as he is Sol Invictus.[21] Only one of the fifteen or so pontifices of Sol adds the epithet invictus; all others simply call themselves "pontifex Solis".[22] 2. Aurelian built his new temple for a Syrian sun god, not the Roman one. Sol Invictus There is no credible evidence to support this, and ample evidence to refute it. The "Syrian Sol-hypothesis" is therefore now rejected by all specialists in the field.[23] 3. Aurelian inaugurated his new temple dedicated to Sol Invictus and held the first games for Sol on December 25, 274, on the supposed day of the winter solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun. This is not only pure conjecture, but goes against the best evidence available.[24] There is no record of celebrating Sol on December 25 prior to CE 354/362. Hijmans lists the known festivals of Sol as August 8 and/or 9, August 28, and December 11. There are no sources that indicate on which day Aurelian inaugurated his temple and held the first games for Sol, but we do know that these games were held every four years from CE 274 onwards. This means that they were presumably held in CE 354, a year for which perchance a Roman calendar, the Chronography of 354 (or calendar of Filocalus), has survived. This calendar lists a festival for Sol and Luna on August 28, Ludi Solis (games for Sol) for October 19–22, and a Natalis Invicti (birthday of the invincible one) on December 25. While it is widely assumed that the invictus of December 25 is Sol, the calendar does not state this explicitly.[25] The only explicit reference to a celebration of Sol in late December is made by Julian the Apostate in his hymn to King Helios written immediately afterwards in early CE 363. Julian explicitly differentiates between the one-day, annual celebration of late December 362 and the multi-day quadrennial games of Sol which, of course, had also been held in 362, but clearly at a different time.[26] Taken together, the evidence of the Calendar of Filocalus and Julian's hymn to Helios clearly shows, according to Hijmans and others, that the ludi of October 19–22 were the Solar Games instituted by Aurelian. They presumably coincided with the dedication of his new temple for Sol.[27] 4. After Aurelian, Sol became supreme deity of the Roman Empire. (Hijmans 2009, chapter 9) raises serious doubts about this contention. 200 Constantine Emperors portrayed Sol Invictus on their official coinage, with a wide range of legends, only a few of which incorporated the epithet invictus, such as the legend SOLI INVICTO COMITI, claiming the Unconquered Sun as a companion to the Emperor, used with particular frequency by Constantine.[28] Statuettes of Sol Invictus, carried by the standard-bearers, appear in three places in reliefs on the Arch of Constantine. Constantine's official coinage continues to bear images of Sol until 325/6. A solidus of Constantine as well as a gold medallion from his reign depict the Emperor's bust in profile twinned ("jugate") with Sol Invictus, with the legend INVICTUS CONSTANTINUS[29] Constantine decreed (March 7, 321) dies Solis—day of the sun, "Sunday"—as the Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]: On the venerable day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits because it often happens that another day is not suitable for grain-sowing or vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost.[30] Coin of Emperor Constantine I depicting Sol Invictus with the legend SOLI INVICTO COMITI, circa 315. Identical reverse as above but with Emperor Licinius on head Constantine's triumphal arch was carefully positioned to align with the colossal statue of Sol by the Colosseum, so that Sol formed the dominant backdrop when seen from the direction of the main approach towards the arch.[31] Sol Invictus 201 Sol and the other Roman Emperors Berrens[32] deals with coin-evidence of Imperial connection to the Solar cult. Sol is depicted sporadically on imperial coins in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, then more frequently from Septimius Severus onwards until AD 325/6. Sol invictus appears on coin legends from AD 261, well before the reign of Aurelian.[33] Connections between the imperial radiate crown and the cult of Sol are postulated. Augustus was posthumously depicted with radiate crown, as were living emperors from Nero (after AD 65) to Constantine. Some modern scholarship interprets the imperial radiate crown as a divine, solar association rather than an overt symbol of Sol; Bergmann calls it a pseudo-object designed to disguise the divine and solar connotations that would otherwise be politically controversial[34] [35] but there is broad agreement that coin-images showing the imperial radiate crown are stylistically distinct from those of the solar crown of rays; the imperial radiate crown is depicted as a real object rather than as symbolic light.[36] Hijmans argues that the Imperial radiate crown represents the honorary wreath awarded to Augustus, perhaps posthumously, to commemorate his victory at the battle of Actium; he points out that henceforth, living emperors were depicted with radiate crowns, but state divi were not. To Hijmans this implies the radiate crown of living emperors as a link to Augustus. His successors automatically inherited (or sometimes acquired) the same offices and honours due to Octavian as "saviour of the Republic" through his victory at Actium, piously attributed to Apollo-Helios. Wreaths awarded to victors at the Actian Games were radiate.[37] Sol Invictus and Sunday One day of the week was named after Sol, the sun. But there was no observance of any of these days in the way that the Jews observed Saturday or the Christians Sunday. The first Sunday closing law was enacted by Constantine in 321 AD, and refers to the "day of the sun", and forms the basis of subsequent Christian legislation in this area.[38] Sol Invictus and Christianity The Philocalian calendar of 354 AD gives a festival of "Natalis Invicti" on 25 Dec. There is limited evidence that this festival was celebrated before the mid 4th century AD.[39] [40] Whether the 'Sol Invictus' festival "has a strong claim on the responsibility for our December date" of Christmas (Catholic Encyclopedia (1908)[41] ) or not has been called into question by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, who challenged this theory by arguing that a December 25 date was determined simply by calculating nine months beyond March 25, regarded as the day of Jesus’ conception (the Feast of the Annunciation).[42] In the 5th century, Pope Leo I (the Great) spoke of how the celebration of Christ's birth coincided with the sun's position increasing in the sky in several sermons on the Feast of the Nativity. Here is an excerpt from his 26th sermon [43]: But this Nativity which is to be adored in heaven and on earth is suggested to us by no day more than this when, with the early light still shedding its rays on nature, there is borne in upon our senses the brightness of this wondrous mystery. Sol Invictus 202 According to the New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, article on Constantine the Great: "Besides, the Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Christians in a Christian sense, as demonstrated in the Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum (c. 250) discovered beneath St. Peter's in the Vatican." Indeed "...from the beginning of the 3rd century "Sun of Justice" appears as a title of Christ".[45] Some consider this to be in opposition to Sol Invictus. Some see an allusion to Malachi  4:2. According to Ramsay MacMullen, the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi wrote in the 12th century: Mosaic of Sol (the Sun) in Mausoleum M in the "It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 [44] pre-fourth-century necropolis under St December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights Peter's Basilica. Some have interpreted it as in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the representing Christ. Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." [46] See also • Saturnalia • Victory over the Sun Notes [1] See S.E.Hijmans, "The sun that did not rise in the east", Babesch 71 (1996) p.115-150 [2] See Gaston Halsberghe, "The cult of Sol Invictus", Leiden: Brill, 1972 [3] As Hijmans states (p.115): "Scholars have consistently postulated a clear distinction between the Republican Sol Indiges and the Imperial Sol Invictus." and p.116 "We should keep in mind, however, that most scholars agree that this cult[Sol Indiges] was never important, and that it had disappeared altogether by the beginning of the second century A.D." [4] Halsberghe, "The cult of Sol Invictus", p.155: "Up to the conversion of Constantine the Great, the cult of Deus Sol Invictus received the full support of the emperors. The many coins showing the sun god that these emperors struck provide official evidence of this." and p.169 "the custom of representing Deus Sol Invictus on coins came to an end in A.D. 323." [5] Halsberghe, "The cult of Sol Invictus", p.170 n.3: "CIL VI, 1778, dates from A.D. 387." [6] Halsberghe, p.170, n.4: "Augustine, Sermones, XII; also in Ennaratio in Psalmum XXV; Ennaratio II, 3." [7] Heim, "Solstice d'hiver, solstice d'ete", Latomus 59 (1999), p.640-660 reviews the different opinions. [8] Hijmans, "The sun which did not rise in the east", p.124: Hercules lnvictus is also mentioned on coins, and on inscriptions he is almost as popular as Sol Invicnts. Other invicti on inscriptions include Jupiter, Mercurius, Satumus and Silvanus. [9] The Roman cult to Sol is continuous from the "earliest history" of the city to (at the latest) the institution of Christianity as an exclusive Roman State religion. Scholarly assertions that Rome's traditional Sol and Sol Invictus as different deities are refuted in Hijmans (2009, pp. Chapter 1) (a reworking of Hijmans, 1996. Matern 2001, Wallraff 2002, and Berrens 2004 all follow Hijmans in rejecting the notion that Sol Invictus was somehow a separate, distinct solar deity. Sol Invictus [10] Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum VI, 715: Soli Invicto deo / ex voto suscepto / accepta missione / honesta ex nume/ro eq(uitum) sing(ularium) Aug(usti) P(ublius) / Aelius Amandus / d(e)d(icavit) Tertullo et / Sacerdoti co(n)s(ulibus) (http:/ / www1. ku-eichstaett. de/ epigr/ uah-bilder. php?bild=PH0008364) (Publius Aelius Amandus dedicated this to the god Sol Invictus in accordance with the vow he had made, upon his honorable discharge from the equestrian guard of the emperor, during the consulship of Tertullus and Sacerdos); see: J. Campbell, The Roman army, 31 BC-AD 337: a sourcebook (1994), p. 43; Halsberghe 1972, p. 45. (http:/ / books. google. ca/ books?id=M1doAAAAMAAJ& q="Aelius+ Amandus"& dq="Aelius+ Amandus") [11] Guarducci, M., "Sol invictus augustus," Rendiconti della Pont. Accademia Romana di archeologia, 3rd series 30/31 (1957/59) pp 161ff. An illustration is provided in Kantorowicz, E. H., "Gods in Uniform" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 105.4 (August 1961: 368-393) 383, fig. 34. Sol Invictus [12] For "august[us]" as divine epithet, see Hornum, Nemesis, the Roman state and the games (1993), 36-9. ( on-line (http:/ / books. google. ca/ books?id=-innYh2yO48C& pg=PA37& lpg=PA37& dq=augustus+ divine+ epithet& source=bl& ots=KvZyIgFEkB& sig=8UTE7X2INYdd4thps3sPLHnkT4k& hl=en& ei=AzT7SrmjGdK0tgfWtcWfCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CBAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=augustus divine epithet& f=false)) Augusta is a common epithet for Nemesis (51 occurrences according to Hornum) but augustus is quite rare for Sol. Hornum also cites august as an epithet for the Lares from 58 BCE (Hornum 1993, 37 n. 23), decades before it was granted to Octavian. [13] On that shrine, (Hijmans 2009, pp. 483–508 (chapter 5)) [14] Historia Augusta, 1, 5: English translation (Loeb) from Thayer (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Historia_Augusta/ Elagabalus/ 1*. html#note14) & Latin text (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ L/ Roman/ Texts/ Historia_Augusta/ Elagabalus/ 1*. html) [15] See in particular Halsberghe 1972. [16] Hijmans 1996, Matern 2001, Wallraff 2002, Berrens 2004, Hijmans (2009)). [17] J.C. Richard, “Le culte de Sol et les Aurelii. A propos de Paul Fest. p. 22 L.”, in: Mélanges offerts à Jacques Heurgon. L'Italie préromaine et la Rome républicaine, Rome, 1976, 915-925. [18] (Hijmans 2009, pp. 504–5) [19] For a full list of the pontifices of Sol see J. Rupke (ed.), Fasti Sacerdotum (2005), p. 606. Memmius Vitrasius Orfitus lists his priesthoods as pontifex of Vesta, one of the quindecimviri sacris faciundis, and pontifex of Sol, in that order (Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum vol. 6, 1739 1742). In a list of eight priesthoods, Vettius Agorius Praetextatus puts Pontifex Solis in third place (CIL , 1779 (http:/ / oracle-vm. ku-eichstaett. de:8888/ epigr/ epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+ VI,+ 01779& r_sortierung=Belegstelle)). [20] The other three were in the Circus Maximus, on the Quirinal, and in Trastevere. (Hijmans 2009, chapter 5) [21] Sol Oriens: Göbl, "Die Muenzpraegung des Kaisers Aurelianus", MIR 47 (1995), precise p. numbers to be inserted soon; Sol Invictus, idem. ( [22] We know the names of fourteen pontifices: L. Caesonius Ovinius Manlius Rufinianus Bassus, Virius Lupus Iunius Gallienus, L. Aelius Helvius Dionysius, T. Flavius Postumius Titianus, L. Crepereius Rogatus, M. Iunius Priscillianus Maximus, Iunius Postumianus, Iulius Aurelianus, Gaius Ceionius Rufius Volusianus, Memmius Vitrasius Orfitus (father-in-law of Symmachus), Vettius Agorius Praetextatus (one of the leading figures in the pagan Renaissance of the late 4th century), Gaius Vettius Cossinius Rufinus, and Q. Clodius Flavianus. All are listed s.v. in Rupke's Fasti Sacerdotum with references to the primary sources. Only Iunius Gallienus adds the epithet invictus to Sol [23] Hijmans 1996, Matern 2001, Wallraff 2002, Berrens 2004, (Hijmans 2009) [24] The best English summary of this issue is (Hijmans 2009, pp. 585–592), with ample references to earlier literature (primarily in German). (http:/ / dissertations. ub. rug. nl/ FILES/ faculties/ arts/ 2009/ s. e. hijmans/ vol1/ 09_c9. pdf) [25] The full text of the calendar is available here (http:/ / www. tertullian. org/ fathers/ chronography_of_354_06_calendar. htm) [26] See three different sections of the hymn: near the beginning, in c. 3 he exhorts his reader to celebrate the annual festival of Sol as it is celebrated in the ruling city; in c. 41, he draws a contrast between the quadrennial games for Sol (tet?aet??????? ????a?) which he characterizes as relatively new, and this annual festival - the two are clearly not the same; in c. 42-3, lastly, he states that this annual festival in honour of the rebirth of the sun takes place immediately after the Saturnalia (which ended on December 23). [27] Besides (Hijmans 2009), see (M. R. Salzman, "New Evidence for the Dating of the Calendar at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome" Transactions of the American Philological Association 111 (1981, pp. 215-227) p. 221. [28] A comprehensive discussion of all sol-coinage and -legends per emperor from Septimius Severus to Constantine can be found in Berrens 2004. [29] The medal is illustrated in Jocelyn M.C. Toynbee, Roman Medallions (1944, reprinted 1987) plate xvii, no. 11; the solidus is illustrated in J. Maurice, Numismatique Constantinienne vol. II, p. 236, plate vii, no. 14 [30] Excellent discussion of this decree by Wallraff 2002, 96-102. [31] E. Marlowe, “Framing the sun. The Arch of Constantine and the Roman cityscape”, Art Bulletin 88 (2006) 223-242. [32] S. Berrens, Sonnenkult und Kaisertum von den Severern bis zu Constantin I. (193-337 n. Chr.) Stuttgart: Steiner 2004 (Historia-Einzelschriften 185). [33] Berrens 2004, precise p. number to follow. The coinage Elagabalus does not use invictus for Roman Sol, nor the Emesan Solar deity Elagabalus. [34] Bergmann 1998, 121-123 [35] S. Hijmans, “Metaphor, Symbol and Reality: the Polysemy of the Imperial Radiate Crown”, in: C.C. Mattusch (ed.), Common ground. Archaeology, art, science, and humanities. Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Boston, August 23–26, 2003, Oxford (2006), 440-443; (Hijmans 2009, pp. 80–84, 509–548) [36] Bergmann 1998, 116-117; Hijmans 2009, 82-83. [37] Hijmans 2009, 509-548. A mosaic floor in the Baths of the Porta Marina at Ostia depicts a radiate victory crown on a table as well as a victorious competitor wearing one. (http:/ / www. ostia-antica. org/ regio4/ 10/ 10-1. htm) [38] On the venerable Day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country, however, persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits; because it often happens that another day is not so suitable for grain-sowing or for vine-planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost. (Given the 7th day of March, Crispus and Constantine being consuls each of them for the second time [A.D. 321].) -- Source: Codex Justinianus, lib. 3, tit. 12, 3; trans. in Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol. 3 (5th ed.; New York: Scribner, 1902), p. 380, note 203 Sol Invictus 1. [39] Wallraff 2001: 174-177. Many earlier scholars were so convinced that the winter solstice must have been a longstanding festival of Sol that they see evidence where there was none. Hoey (1939: 480), for instance, writes: "An inscription of unique interest from the reign of Licinius embodies the official prescription for the annual celebration by his army of a festival of Sol Invictus on December 19". The inscription (Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 8940) actually prescribes an annual offering to Sol on November 18 (die XIV Kal(endis) Decemb(ribus), i.e. on the fourteenth day before the Kalends of December). [40] Text at (http:/ / www. tertullian. org/ fathers/ index. htm#Chronography_of_354) Parts 6 and 12 respectively. [41] 1908 Catholic Encyclopedia: Christmas (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 03724b. htm): Natalis Invicti [42] Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Benedict XVI), The Spirit of the Liturgy, trans. John Saward (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000), p. 108; cf. p. 100. He regards the old theories as no longer sustainable. March 25 was also considered to be the day of Jesus’ death (although obviously this has to be considered in relation to the dates of the Jewish passover in possibly relevant years), and the day of creation. See also H. Rahner, Griechische Mythen in christlicher Deutung. Darmstadt, 1957. An English translation is available as Greek Myths and Christian Mystery, trans. Brian Battershaw (New York: Harper Row, 1963). [43] http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ fathers/ 360326. htm [44] http:/ / www. saintpetersbasilica. org/ Necropolis/ Scavi. htm [45] New Catholic Encyclopedia, "Christmas" [46] (cited in Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries, Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p. 155) 204 Bibliography • Berrens, Stephan (2004) (in German), Sonnenkult und Kaisertum von den Severern bis zu Constantin I. (193-337 n. Chr.) (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/57010712), Geschichte (Franz Steiner Verlag); Historia (Wiesbaden, Germany), F. Steiner, ISBN 9783515085755 • Hijmans, S (2003), "Sol Invictus, the Winter Solstice, and the Origins of Christmas", Mouseion Calgary 3.3: 377–398, ISSN 14969343, OCLC 202535001 • Hijmans, Steven E (2009) (Thesis/dissertation), Sol : the sun in the art and religions of Rome (http:// dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/arts/2009/s.e.hijmans/vol1/05_c5.pdf), ISBN 9036739314 • Matern, Petra (2002) (in German), Helios und Sol : Kulte und Ikonographie des griechischen und römischen Sonnengottes (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/53857589), Ege Yayınları, ISBN 9789758070534 External links • Encyclopedia Britannica Online: Sol (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/552806/Sol) • Probus and Sol, includes images of coins (http://web.archive.org/web/20050403203429/http://nis-www. lanl.gov/~ctr/probus.html) • Roman-Emperors: Aurelian (http://www.roman-emperors.org/aurelian.htm) • Gibbon's Decline and Fall: Triumph of Aurelian (http://www.ccel.org/g/gibbon/decline/volume1/chap11. htm#triumph) • Gibbon's references for Aurelian's Temple of Sol Invictus (http://www.ccel.org/g/gibbon/decline/volume1/ nt11/085.htm) • Clement A. Miles, Christmas in Ritual and Tradition, Christian and Pagan (1912): December 25 and the Natalis Invicti (http://www.worldspirituality.org/december-25.html) • Catholic Encyclopedia (1908): Christmas (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03724b.htm) • Ancient sources (http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/sol_invictus.htm) Soranus (mythology) 205 Soranus (mythology) Soranus was a Sabine god adopted into ancient Roman religion. He was worshipped on Mt. Soracte in Etruria. The are was sacred to underworld gods, like Diespiter[1] . The worshippers of Apollo Soranus, after his cult had been subsumed by Apollo, were called Hirpi Sorani ("wolves of Soranus", from Sabine hirpus "wolf"). They were firewalkers and carried about the entrails of the victims during ceremonies[2] [3] [4] [5] . Soranus was identified with Dis, the Roman god of the underworld, or with Apollo[6] , a Greek god adopted by the Romans, and had a female partner, Feronia, whose sanctuary was located next to his[7] . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Servius' commentary to Aeneid, XI. 785 Servius' commentary to Aeneid, XI. 784 Pliny, Naturalis Historia, VII. 2 Silius Italicus, Punica, V. 174 Strabo, Geography, chapter V Virgil, Aeneid, XI. 786 [7] Strabo, Geography, chapter V External links • Myth Index - Soranus (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/S/Soranus.html) Sors For the village in Azerbaijan, see Sors, Azerbaijan; for the ancient Roman method of divination by drawing lots, see Sortes (ancient Rome). In Roman mythology, Sors was a god of luck. Although not much is said about the Roman god, he is mentioned in various stories and prayed to, or asked for assistance in certain points; "Sors, guide my arrow" Spiniensis 206 Spiniensis In Roman mythology, Spiniensis was the god of thorns. People prayed to him when they removed thorny plants from their fields, as he presided over the digging out of thorn bushes and guarded the field against thorns. His name comes from spina ("spine").[1] References [1] Ferguson, J. (1988). "Divinities" (p. 835). In M. Grant & R. Kitzinger (eds.), Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean. Greece and Rome. Volume II (pp. 847–860). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Statanus In Roman mythology, Statanus, also known as Statulinus or Statilinus, was a deity who presided over a child's first attempts to stand up. Statanus, along with his wife, Statina, guarded children as they left their parents' homes for the first time and then returned. These two gods were among the ancient, formless di indigetes of primitive Roman religion. References • Ferguson, J (1988). "Divinities" (p. 853) in M. Grant & R. Kitzinger (Eds.), Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean. Greece and Rome. Volume II (pp. 847–860). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Sterquilinus In Roman mythology, Sterquilinus ("manure"; also Stercutus or Sterculius) was a god of fertilization. He may have been equivalent to Picumnus. The Larousse Encyclopaedia of Mythology gives the name as Stercutius, a pseudonym of Saturn, under which the latter used to supervise the manuring of the fields. Early Romans were an agrarian civilization and, functionally, most of their original pantheon of gods (not the later ones they adapted to Greek stereotypes) were of a rural nature with figures such as Pomona, Ceres, Flora, Dea Dia; so it was only apt for them to have a god supervising the basics of organic fertilization. References in popular culture • Sterculius was in "Peace, Love & Understanding", the second pilot episode of Beavis and Butt-head, where his spirit rose from a port-a-potty crushed by a monster truck. In a rare moment of lucid thought, Butt-head correctly identifies Sterculius. Summanus 207 Summanus Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion, Summanus (Latin: Summānus) was the god of nocturnal thunder, as counterposed to Jupiter, the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder.[1] His precise nature was unclear even to Ovid.[2] Summanus The temple of Summanus was dedicated during the Pyrrhic War in 276 BC on June 20[3] [4] It stood at the west of the Circus Maximus, perhaps on the slope of the Aventine. It seems the temple had been dedicated because the statue of the god which stood on the roof of the temple of Iupiter Capitolinus had been struck by a lightningbolt[5] Every June 20, the day before the summer solstice, round cakes called summanalia, made of flour, milk and honey shaped as wheels,[6] were offered to him as propitiation: the wheel might be a solar symbol. Summanus also received a sacrifice of two black oxen or whethers. Dark victims were typically offered to chthonic deities.[7] Saint Augustine records that in earlier times Summanus had been more exalted than Jupiter, but with the construction of a temple that was more magnificent than that of Summanus, Jupiter became more honored.[8] Cicero recounts that the clay statue of the god which stood on the roof of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was struck by a thunderbolt: its head was nowhere to be seen. The haruspices announced that it had been hurled into the Tiber River, where indeed it was found on the very spot indicated by them.[9] The temple of Summanus itself was struck by lightning in 197 BC.[10] Pliny thought that he was of Etruscan origin, and one of the nine gods of thunder.[11] Varro, however, lists Summanus among gods he considers of Sabine origin, to whom king Titus Tatius dedicated altars (arae) in consequence of a votum.[12] Paulus Diaconus considers him a god of lightning.[13] The name Summanus may be derived from the Latin sub-manus (cf. mane, Matuta) for "preceding the morning", but was formerly thought to be from Summus Manium "the greatest of the Manes,"[14] or sub-, "under" + manus, "hand." Georges Dumézil[15] has argued that Summanus would represent the uncanny, violent and awe-inspiring element of the gods of the first function, connected to heavenly sovereignty. The double aspect of heavenly sovereign power would be reflected in the dichotomy Varuna-Mitra in Vedic religion and in Rome in the dichotomy Summanus-Dius Fidius. The first gods of these pairs incarnate the violent, nocturnal, mysterious aspect of sovereignity while the second ones would reflect its reassuring, daylight and legalistic aspect. According to Martianus Capella,[16] Summanus is another name for Pluto as the "highest" (summus) of the Manes. This identification is taken up by later writers such as Camões ("If in Summanus' gloomy realm / Severest punishment you now endure …") [17] and Milton, in a simile to describe Satan visiting Rome: "Just so Summanus, wrapped in a smoking whirlwind of blue flame, falls upon people and cities".[18] 208 Summanus and Mount Summano Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m.) in the Alps near Vicenza (Veneto, Italy) is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto, Iupiter Summanus and the Manes . The area was one of the last strongholds of ancient religion in Italy as is shown by the fact that Vicenza had no bishop til 590 CE. Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary area that dates back to the first iron age (IX century) and was continuously active til late antiquity (at least IV century CE). The local flora is very peculiar as in ancient times pilgrims used to bring flowers from their native lands. The mountain top is frequently hit by lightningbolts. The mountain has a deep grotto (named Bocca Lorenza) in which according to a local legend a young shepherdess got lost and disappeared. The story looks to be an adaptation of the myth of Pluto and Proserpina.[19] The content of this section is adapted from the entry Monte Summano of WP Italian. Summanus 209 Notes and references [1] Paulus Festi epitome p.188 L 2nd. [2] "The temple is said to have been dedicated to Summanus, whoever he may be" (quisquis is est, Summano templa feruntur): Ovid, Fasti 6, 731. Translation by James G. Frazer, Loeb Classical Library. Pliny mentions the temple at Natural History 29.57 (= 29.14). [3] Ovid fasti VI 729-731; Fasti Esquil., Venus., Amit.: ad XII Kal. Iul.; CIL I 2nd p. 211, 221,243, 320 [4] Pliny Nat. Hist. XXIX 14; Livy Periochae XIV [5] S. Ball Platner, T. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Baltimore 1928 p. 408, citing Cicero de Div. I 10; Livy Periochae XIV; Iordanes I 2, 14-15; 98-100 [6] Festus p.557 L [7] John Scheid, "Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors", in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 264; Raffaele Pettazzoni, "The Wheel in the Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples," in Essays on the History of Religions (Brill, 1967), p. 107. [8] Augustine, City of God IV 23 [9] Cicero De Divinatione I 10 [10] Livy AUC XXXII 29, 1 [11] Natural History 2.53 (alternative numbering 52 or 138): "The Tuscan books inform us, that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms, that there are eleven different kinds of them, and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. Of these the Romans retained only two, ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter, and the nocturnal to Summanus; this latter kind being more rare, in consequence of the heavens being colder" (Tuscorum litterae novem deos emittere fulmina existimant, eaque esse undecim generum; Iovem enim trina iaculari. Romani duo tantum ex iis servavere, diurna attribuentes Iovi, nocturna Summano, rariora sane eadem de causa frigidioris caeli). English translation by John Bostock, via Perseus Digital Library. [12] Varro Lingua Latina V 74. [13] Entry on Dium above [14] Summanus (http:/ / www. 1911encyclopedia. org/ Summanus). [15] Myth et epopee vol. III part 2 chapt. 3; Mitra-Varuna: essai sur deux representations indoeuropeennes de la souverainete' Paris 1948 2nd; La religion romaine archaique Paris 1974; It. tr. Milano 1977 p. 184 [16] Martianus Capella, De nuptiis 2.164. [17] Os Lusíadas, IV, 33, translated as The Lusiad by Thomas Moore Musgrave (1826). [18] In the Latin poem "In Quintum Novembris" (lines 23–24): Talibus infestat populos Summanus et urbes / cinctus caeruleae fumanti turbine flammae. [19] Lucio Puttin Monte Summano: storia, arte e tradizioni Schio, 1977 Terminus (god) 210 Terminus (god) Terminus is often pictured as a bust on a boundary stone, here the CONCEDO NVLLI or concedo nulli means "yield no ground". Topics in Roman mythology Major gods Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna Topics Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared Other minor Roman deities Penates Genius Lemures Manes Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Terminus (god) 211 Terminus In Roman religion, Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers; his name was the Latin word for such a marker. Sacrifices were performed to sanctify each boundary stone, and landowners celebrated a festival called the "Terminalia" in Terminus' honor each year on February 23. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill was thought to have been built over a shrine to Terminus, and he was occasionally identified as an aspect of Jupiter under the name "Jupiter Terminalis". Ancient writers believed that the worship of Terminus had been introduced to Rome during the reign of the first king Romulus (traditionally 753–717 BC) or his successor Numa (717–673 BC). Modern scholars have variously seen it as the survival of an early animistic reverence for the power inherent in the boundary marker, or as the Roman development of proto-Indo-European belief in a god concerned with the division of property. Worship The name of the god Terminus was the Latin word for a boundary stone,[1] and his worship as recorded in the late Republic and Empire centred on this stone, with which the god could be identified.[2] Siculus Flaccus, a writer on land surveying, records the ritual by which the stone was sanctified: the bones, ashes, and blood of a sacrificial victim, along with crops, honeycombs, and wine, were placed into a hole at a point where estates converged, and the stone was driven in on top.[3] On February 23 annually, a festival called the Terminalia was celebrated in Terminus' honor, involving practices which can be regarded as a reflection or "yearly renewal" of this foundational ritual.[4] Neighboring families would garland their respective sides of the marker and make offerings to Terminus at an altar—Ovid identifies these, again, as crops, honeycombs, and wine. The marker itself would be drenched in the blood of a sacrificed lamb or pig. There followed a communal feast and hymns in praise of Terminus.[2] [5] These rites were practised by private landowners, but there were also related public ceremonies. Ovid refers to the sacrifice of a sheep on the day of the Terminalia at the sixth milestone from Rome along the Via Laurentina;[2] it is likely this was thought to have marked the boundary between the early Romans and their neighbors in Laurentum.[5] Also, a stone or altar of Terminus was located in the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Rome's Capitoline Hill. Because of a belief that this stone had to be exposed to the sky, there was a small hole in the ceiling directly above it.[2] [6] On occasion Terminus' association with Jupiter extended to regarding Terminus as an aspect of that god; Dionysius of Halicarnassus refers to "Jupiter Terminalis",[7] and one inscription names a god "Juppiter Ter."[8] There is some evidence that Terminus' associations could extend from property boundaries to limits more generally. Under the Republican calendar, when the intercalary month Mercedonius was added to a year, it was placed after February 23 or February 24,[9] and some ancient writers believed that the Terminalia on February 23 had once been the end of the year.[10] Diocletian's decision in 303 AD to initiate his persecution of Christians on February 23 has been seen as an attempt at enlisting Terminus "to put a limit to the progress of Christianity".[11] History Ancient views Ancient authors agreed that the worship of Terminus was of Sabine origin, ascribing its introduction to Rome either to Titus Tatius, the Sabine colleague of Rome's founding king Romulus (traditional reign 753–717 BC),[12] or to Romulus' successor Numa Pompilius (717–673 BC).[7] [13] Those authors who gave the credit to Numa explained his motivation as the prevention of violent disputes over property.[7] [13] Plutarch further states that, in keeping with Terminus's character as a guarantor of peace, his earliest worship did not involve blood sacrifices.[13] The stone in the Capitoline Temple was believed to have been among the altars located on the Capitoline Hill before the Temple was built under Tarquinius Priscus (traditional reign 616–579 BC) or Tarquinius Superbus (535–510 BC). When the augurs took the auspices to discover whether the god or goddess of each altar was content for it to be Terminus (god) moved, Terminus refused permission, either alone or along with Juventas the goddess of youth. The stone was therefore included within the Capitoline Temple, and its immovability was regarded as a good omen for the permanence of the city's boundaries.[2] [14] 212 Modern views According to the dominant scholarly view during the late 19th and much of the 20th century, Roman religion was originally animistic, directed towards spirits associated with specific objects or activities which were only later perceived as gods with independent personal existence. Terminus, with his lack of mythology and his close association with a physical object, seemed a clear example of a deity who had developed little from such a stage.[4] This view of Terminus retains some recent adherents,[5] but other scholars have argued from Indo-European parallels that the personalised gods of Roman religion must have preceded the city's foundation. Georges Dumézil regarded Jupiter, Juventas and Terminus as the Roman form of a proto-Indo-European triad, comparing the Roman deities respectively to the Vedic Mitra, Aryaman, and Bhaga. In this view the sovereign god (Jupiter/Mitra) was associated with two minor deities, one concerned with the entry of men into society (Juventas/Aryaman) and the other with the fair division of their goods (Terminus/Bhaga).[8] Notes and references [1] Herbert Jennings Rose; and John Scheid (2003). "Terminus". In Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd edition, revised ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1485–1486. ISBN 0-19-860641-9. [2] Ovid, Fasti 2.639–684 (http:/ / www. tonykline. co. uk/ PITBR/ Latin/ OvidFastiBkTwo. htm#_Toc69367696). [3] Siculus Flaccus, De Condicionibus Agrorum 11 (http:/ / www. intratext. com/ IXT/ LAT0339/ _P4. HTM#11). [4] W. Warde Fowler (1899). The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic: An Introduction to the Study of the Religion of the Romans (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ romanfestivalsof00fowluoft). London: Macmillan and Co.. pp. 324–327. . Retrieved 2007-03-24. [5] H. H. Scullard (1981). Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-500-40041-5. [6] Samuel Ball Platner; and Thomas Ashby (1929). "Terminus, Fanum" (http:/ / efts. lib. uchicago. edu/ cgi-bin/ eos/ eos_page. pl?DPI=100& callnum=DG16. P72& ident=512). A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 512. . Retrieved 2007-03-19. [7] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 2.74.2–5 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Dionysius_of_Halicarnassus/ 2C*. html#74. 2). [8] Georges Dumézil (1996) [1966]. Archaic Roman Religion: Volume One. trans. Philip Krapp. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 200–203. ISBN 0-8018-5482-2 (hbk.); ISBN 0-8018-5480-6 (pbk.). [9] Herbert Jennings Rose; and Simon R. F. Price (2003). "Calendar, Roman". In Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd edition, revised ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 274. ISBN 0-19-860641-9. [10] Varro, De Lingua Latina 6.3 (http:/ / www. thelatinlibrary. com/ varro. ll6. html); Ovid, Fasti 2.47–54 (http:/ / www. tonykline. co. uk/ PITBR/ Latin/ OvidFastiBkTwo. htm#_Toc69367683). [11] J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz (1979). Continuity and Change in Roman Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 247. ISBN 0-19-814822-4. [12] Varro, De Lingua Latina 5.10 (http:/ / www. thelatinlibrary. com/ varro. ll5. html). [13] Plutarch, Roman Questions 15 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Roman_Questions*/ A. html#15); Numa 16 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Lives/ Numa*. html#16). [14] Livy 1.55 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Liv. + 1. 55); Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 3.69.3–6 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Dionysius_of_Halicarnassus/ 3D*. html#69. 3). Terminus (god) 213 Further reading • Piccaluga, Giulia (1974) (in Italian). Terminus: I segni di confine nella religione romana. Rome: Edizioni dell'Ateneo. OCLC 1989261. • Woodard, Roger D. (2006). Indo-European Sacred Space. Vedic and Roman Cult. Urbana-Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02988-7. • Reviewed by Marco V. García-Quintela (2007), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2007.02.36 (http://ccat.sas. upenn.edu/bmcr/2007/2007-02-36.html). Retrieved on June 13, 2007. Tiberinus (god) Tiberinus is a figure in Roman mythology. He was added to the 3000 rivers (sons of Oceanus and Tethys), as the genius of the river Tiber. According to Virgil's epic Aeneid, he helped Aeneas in his travel from Troy, suggesting to him that he land in Latium (see founding of Rome) and gave him much other precious advice. With Manto, Tiberinus was the father of Ocnus.[1] Tiberinus (statue from the Campidoglio, Rome) Tiberinus is also known as the river god who found the twins Romulus and Remus and gave them to the she-wolf Lupa (who had just lost her own cubs) to suckle. He later rescued and married Rhea Silvia, the mother of the twins and a Vestal Virgin who had been sentenced to death. References [1] Virgil, Aeneid, X, 198ff Altar, showing Tiberinus (bottom right) revealing the twins Tibertus 214 Tibertus In Roman mythology, Tibertus is the god of the river Anio, a tributary of the Tiber. He is not to be confused with Tiburtus, the legendary founder of Tibur. Vagitanus In ancient Roman religion, Vagitanus or Vaticanus was one of a number of childbirth deities who influenced or guided some aspect of parturition, in this instance the newborn's crying.[1] The name is related to the Latin noun vagitus, "crying, squalling, wailing," particularly by a baby or an animal, and the verb vagio, vagire.[2] Vagitanus has thus been described as the god "who presided over the beginning of human speech,"[3] but a distinction should be made between the first cry and the first instance of articulate speech, in regard to which Fabulinus (fari, "to speak"; cf. fabula) was the deity to invoke.[4] Vagitanus has been connected to a remark by Pliny that only a human being is thrown naked onto the naked earth on his day of birth for immediate wails (vagitus) and weeping.[5] In ancient Rome, Vagitanus or Vaticanus was invoked as the god who opened the newborn's mouth to wail; the first syllable of his name, pronounced wa in Classical Latin, was thought to be onomatopoeic These "divine functionaries" (German Sondergötter) whose names express their sphere of influence are considered characteristic of Indo-European religions.[6] The name Vaticanus in connection to vagitus is discussed by Aulus Gellius and Augustine of Hippo. Gellius quotes Varro, who is generally acknowledged also as Augustine's main source on ancient Roman theology:[7] We have been told that the word Vatican is applied to the hill, and the deity who presides over it, from the vaticinia, or prophecies, which took place there by the power and inspiration of the god; but Marcus Varro, in his book on Divine Things, gives another reason for this name. "As Aius," says he, "was called a deity, and an altar was built to his honour in the lowest part of the new road, because in that place a voice from heaven was heard, so this deity was called Vaticanus, because he presided over the principles of the human voice; for infants, as soon as they are born, make the sound which forms the first syllable in Vaticanus, and are therefore said vagire (to cry) which word expresses the noise which an infant first makes.[8] Despite the insistence on an etymological connection between the god's name and vagitus, Gronovius thought the correct form should be Vaticanus, and that Vagitanus was Vulgar Latin rather than classical.[9] Augustine mentions Vagitanus/Vaticanus three times in Book 4 On the City of God in deriding the "mob" of Roman gods (turba deorum). In demonstrating that the names of gods reveal their function, he points to Vaticanus, "who presides over the cries (vagitibus) of infants," noting elsewhere that among the many deities associated with childbirth, Vaticanus is the one who opens the mouth of the newborn in crying (in vagitu).[10] Vagitanus 215 References [1] Beryl Rawson, Children and Childhood in Roman Italy (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 136–137 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=o8IwHDOpeWYC& pg=PA137& dq=Vagitanus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1972& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=0& cd=14#v=onepage& q=Vagitanus& f=false) [2] Emilio Lorìa, Salute e magia attraverso i secoli (Padua: Piccin Nuova, 1994), p. 41 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NDJzL1Z5vnkC& pg=PA40& dq=Vagitanus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1972& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=0& cd=52#v=onepage& q=Vagitanus& f=false) [3] George C. Simmons, Education and Western Civilization: Greece, Rome, and the Middle Ages (College Readings, 1972), p. 93. [4] Kathryn Hinds, Life in the Roman Empire: Religion (Marshall Cavendish, 2005), p. 52 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=feAe0fXXDhsC& pg=PA52& dq=Fabulinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1932& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=17#v=onepage& q=Fabulinus& f=false); Antonio Verone, Rediscovering Pompeii: Exhibition by IBM-ITALIA, New York City («L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990), p. 135 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ciNtH6c9RDQC& pg=PA135& dq=Fabulinus+ "names+ reflect+ their+ specific+ domains"& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& as_brr=0& cd=1#v=onepage& q=Fabulinus "names reflect their specific domains"& f=false) [5] Pliny, Natural History 7.1 (in English (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Plin. + Nat. + 7. 1& fromdoc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0137)): hominem tantum nudum et in nuda humo natali die abicit ad vagitus statim et ploratum; see Morell's notes online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=dnNAAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA50& dq=Deus+ Vagitanus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=71#v=onepage& q=Deus Vagitanus& f=false) [6] Jan Gonda, "Reflections on the Indo-European Medium II," in Selected Studies (Brill, 1975), vol. 1, p. 158 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=r7G7Dg9mhN8C& pg=PA158& dq=Fabulinus& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=1932& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=2010& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=23#v=onepage& q=Fabulinus& f=false) [7] Varro's works "were the closest equivalent to an encyclopedia Augustine had": Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia (Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999), p. 863 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=GcVhAGpvTQ0C& pg=PA863& dq=Varro+ Augustine's+ source& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=50& as_brr=3& cd=2#v=onepage& q=Varro Augustine's source& f=false) [8] Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 16.17: Et agrum Vaticanum et eiusdem agri deum praesidem appellatum acceperamus a vaticiniis, quae vi atque instinctu eius dei in eo agro fieri solita essent. Sed praeter hanc causam M. Varro in libris divinarum aliam esse tradit istius nominis rationem: "Nam sicut Aius" inquit "deus appellatus araque ei statuta est, quae est infima nova via, quod eo in loco divinitus vox edita erat, ita Vaticanus deus nominatus, penes quem essent vocis humanae initia, quoniam pueri, simul atque parti sunt, eam primam vocem edunt, quae prima in Vaticano syllabast idcircoque "vagire" dicitur exprimente verbo sonum vocis recentis. English translation by William Beloe, The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius (London, 1795), vol. 3, pp. 247–248 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=5P8RAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA248& dq=Vaticanus+ OR+ Vagitanus+ intitle:Attic+ intitle:Nights& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=1#v=onepage& q=Vaticanus OR Vagitanus intitle:Attic intitle:Nights& f=false) [9] Jakob Gronovius, note to Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 16.18, in Auli Gellii: Noctes Atticae (London, 1824), p. 1522 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=RtoIAAAAQAAJ& pg=RA1-PA62& dq=Deus+ Vagitanus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=126#v=onepage& q=Deus Vagitanus& f=false) See also Atti della Reale Accademia di Archeologia, Lettere e Belle Arti 9 (Naples, 1879), p. 148 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OqUOAAAAQAAJ& pg=RA1-PA148& dq=Deus+ Vagitanus& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=54#v=onepage& q=Deus Vagitanus& f=false) [10] Augustine of Hippo, De civitate Dei 4.8: Vaticanus, qui infantum vagitibus praesidet (4.8) and ipse in uagitu os aperiat et uocetur deus Vaticanus (4.11); mentioned again in passing at 4.21. Vejovis 216 Vejovis Vejovis or Vejove (Latin: Vēiovis or Vēdiovis; rare Vēive or Vēdius) is a Roman god. Romans believe that Vejovis is one of the first gods to be born. He is a god of healing, and became associated with the Greek Asclepius.[1] He is mostly worshipped in Rome and Bovillae in Latium. On the Capitoline Hill and on the Tiber Island, temples have been erected in his honor.[2] In spring, goats have been sacrificed to avert plagues. Vejovis is portrayed as a young man, holding a bunch of arrows, pilum, (or lightning bolts) in his hand, and is accompanied by a goat. He may be based on the Etruscan god of vendetta, known to them by the name Vetis written on the Piacenza Liver, a bronze model used in haruspical divination. The studies about Vejovis are very poor and unclear. They show a constant updating of his condition and his use by people: escaping from netherworld, Volcanic God responsible for marshland and earthquakes,[3] [4] and later guardian angel in charge of slaves and fighters refusing to lose. God of deceivers, he is called to protect right causes and to give pain and deception to enemies. His temple has been described as a haven safe from police for wrongly persecuted people, and dedicated to the protection of the new comers in Rome, but this view is probably wrong.[5] The legend shows him more like an entity escaping from hell and trying to join the light and heaven, awesome fighter and protector of any people victims of unfairness. Aulus Gellius, in the Noctes Atticae, speculated that Vejovis is the inverse or ill-omened counterpart of Jupiter; compare Summanus. Aulus Gellius observes that the particle ve- that prefixes the name of the god also appears in Latin words such as vesanus, "insane," and thus interprets the name Vejovis as the anti-Jove. Aulus Gellius also informs us that Vejovis received the sacrifice of a female goat, sacrificed ritu humano;[6] this obscure phrase could either mean "after the manner of a human sacrifice" or "in the manner of a burial."[7] He has been identified with Apollo, with the infant Jupiter, and speculatively as the Anti-Jupiter (i.e. the Jupiter of the Lower World) as suggested by his name. In art, he is depicted as a youth holding a Laurel wreath and some arrows, next to a goat. He had a temple between the two peaks of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, where his statue had a beardless head and carried a bundle of arrows in his right hand. It stood next to a statue of a goat. There is no firm evidence that he is a god of expiation and the protector of runaway criminals.[8] Sacrifices have been made to him annually on March 7: A festival of Vejovis is held on this day, celebrating an ancient Etruscan or Latin deity whose exact function is lost by Roman times. He is possibly the subterranean counterpart of Jupiter, whose earthquakes and volcanoes mirrored Jupiter's thunder and lightning; however he is also at times identified with Apollo or as a younger version of Jupiter himself.[9] In fact, Vejovis had three festivals in the Roman Calendar: on 1 January, 7 March, and 21 May.[10] Vejovis in Roman religion, a god with uncertain attributes, worshiped in Rome between the two summits of the Capitoline Hill (the Arx and the Capitol) and on Tiber Island (both temples date from just after 200 BC) and at Bovillae, 12 miles southeast of Rome. His name may be connected with that of Jupiter (Jovis), but there is little agreement as to its meaning: he may be a “little Jupiter” or a “Sinister Devils Scorpion” for his enemies.[11] Vejovis accepted a she-goat sacrifice humano ritu, meaning either "on behalf of the dead" or instead of a human sacrifice. At least, it is evidence to say this deity can have two faces, one for allies and one for enemies, his functions evolved with time and his progression, and he is not so simple to understand and to describe. Vejovis 217 References [1] Roman Medicine By John Scarborough (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=a5c1AAAAIAAJ& dq=vediovis& q=vediovis& pgis=1#search) [2] The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: in 30 volumes By Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago University of, Encyclopaedia Britannica Staff, Encyclopaedia Britannica(ed.) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1BMrAAAAMAAJ& dq=vediovis& q=vediovis& pgis=1#search) [3] Celebrating Wiccan Spirituality: Spells, Sacred Rites, and Folklore for Each ... By "Lady Sabrina" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=mEW3ysNMFawC& lpg=RA3-PA123& dq=vediovis& pg=PA123) [4] Classical Quarterly By Classical Association (Great Britain) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1u4LAAAAIAAJ& dq=vediovis& q=vediovis& pgis=1#search) [5] Kent J. Rigsby, Asylia, 576 [6] Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, book 5, section 12 (http:/ / www. thelatinlibrary. com/ gellius5. html) [7] Adkins and Adkins, Dictionary of Roman Religion (Facts On File, 1996) ISBN 0-8160-3005-7 [8] Kent J. Rigsby, Asylia, 576-77 [9] Nova Roma: Calendar of Holidays and Festivals (http:/ / www. novaroma. org/ calendar/ januarius. html#Vediovis) [10] The Nature of the Gods By Marcus Tullius Cicero (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CPG_4CpoWfUC& lpg=PA207& dq=vediovis& pg=PA207) [11] The Cambridge History of Classical Literature By E. J. Kenney (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-zlwiI7A734C& lpg=PA105& dq=vediovis& pg=PA106) Verminus In Roman mythology, Verminus was the Roman god who protected cattle from disease. The god may have been inherited from the Indigetes, whom the Romans conquered in 218 BC. An altar dedicated by consul (or duovir) Aulus Postumius Albinus in 151 BC to Verminus was discovered in 1876,[1] [2] and was housed in the museum of the Antiquarium Comunale in Rome.[3] A 2nd century inscription dedicated to the god has been considered to be a reaction to increased worm infections among humans. However, Spanish veterinary scientist M. Cordero del Campillo has concluded that it was due to an epidemic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals.[4] An altar to Verminus was discovered on Viminal Hill in Rome.[5] References [1] Adkins, Roy; Adkins, Lesley (1996). Dictionary of Roman religion. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-3005-7. " Verminus (http:/ / www. fofweb. com/ activelink2. asp?ItemID=WE49& iPin=RREL1399& SingleRecord=True)" [2] Elizabeth Rawson (1973). "Scipio, Laelius, Furius and the Ancestral Religion" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 299175). The Journal of Roman Studies 63: 161–74. doi:10.2307/299175. . " p 161 (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0075-4358(1973)632. 0. CO;2-J)". [3] Frothingham AL (1917). "Vediovis, the Volcanic God: A Reconstruction" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 288964). The American Journal of Philology 38 (4): 370–91. doi:10.2307/288964. ISSN 0002-9475. . " p 375 (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0002-9475(1917)38:42. 0. CO;2-R)". [4] Cordero-del-Campillo M (1999). "On the Roman god Verminus". Hist Med Vet 24 (1): 11–9. PMID 11623710. [5] Jesse Benedict Carter (Jan-Mar 1909). "The Death of Romulus" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 496877). American Journal of Archaeology 13 (1): 19–29. doi:10.2307/496877. . " p 28 (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0002-9114(190901/ 03)13:12. 0. CO;2-O)". Vertumnus 218 Vertumnus In Roman mythology, Vertumnus — also Vortumnus or Vertimnus — is the god of seasons, change[1] and plant growth, as well as gardens and fruit trees. He could change his form at will; using this power, according to Ovid's Metamorphoses (xiv), he tricked Pomona into talking to him by disguising himself as an old woman and gaining entry to her orchard, then using a narrative warning of the dangers of rejecting a suitor (the embedded tale of Iphis and Anaxarete) to seduce her. The tale of Vertumnus and Pomona was the only purely Latin tale in Ovid's Metamorphoses.[2] Roman cult and possible Etruscan origin Varro was convinced that Vortumnus was Etruscan, and a major god.[3] Vertumnus' cult arrived in Rome around 300 BC, and a temple to him was constructed on the Aventine Hill by 264 BC, the date of the fall of Volsinii (Etruscan Velzna) to the Romans. Propertius also asserts that the god was Etruscan, and came from Volsinii. The name Vortumnus appears to derive from Etruscan Voltumna. It was likely then further contaminated in popular [4] etymology by a pre-existing Latin word vertēre meaning "to change", hence the alternative form, Vertumnus. Sextus Propertius refers to a bronze statue of Vortumnus[5] that replaced an ancient wooden statue that was placed in a simple shrine called the signum Vortumni, located at the Vicus Tuscus near the Forum Romanum[6] and decorated according to the changing seasons. The base of the statue was discovered in 1549, perhaps still in situ, but has since been lost. Its inscription referred to a restoration Vertumnus and Pomona by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout Vertumnus and Pomona by Luca Giordano (1682–1683), private collection to the statue made in Vertumnus the early 4th century AD: [7] [8] MAXIMIANI . 219 VORTUMNUS TEMPORIBUS DIOCLETIANI ET Vortumnus' festival was called the Vertumnalia and was held 13 August.[9] The origin and nature of Vortumnus that is the subject of the elegy of Sextus Propertius, our major literary source for this god, is presented as if the statue in the Vicus Tuscus were addressing a passer-by.[10] Ovid recalled a time (Fasti, vi, June 9 "Vestalia") when the Roman forum was still a reedy swamp, when That god, Vertumnus, whose name fits many forms, Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo (now at Skokloster Castle, Sweden). Wasn’t yet so-called from damming back the river (averso amne). Image of Vertumnus and Pomona in later art The subject Vertumnus and Pomona appealed to European sculptors and painters of the 16th through the 18th centuries for its opportunity to contrast young fresh female beauty with an aged crone, providing a wholly disguised erotic subtext,[11] . Donald Lateiner points out that Ovid does remark that the kisses given by Vertumnus were such as an old woman would never have given: qualia numquam vera dedisset anus: "so Circe's smile conceals a wicked intention, and Vertumnus' hot kisses ill suit an old woman's disguise"[12] . A rococo Vertumne et Pomone, by Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, 1760. The subject was even woven into tapestry in series with the generic theme Loves of the Gods, of which the mid-sixteenth century Brussels hanging at Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, woven to cartoons attributed to Jan Vermeyen, must be among the earliest. François Boucher provided designs for the tapestry-weaver Maurice Jacques at the Gobelins tapestry manufactory for a series that included Vertumnus and Pomona (1775–1778), and, extending the theme of erotic disguise, Jupiter wooing Callisto in the guise of Diana: an example is at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Mme de Pompadour, who sang well and danced gracefully, had played the role of Pomone in a pastoral presented to a small audience at Versailles;[13] the sculpture by Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne (1760) alludes to the event. Joseph Brodsky wrote a poem about Vertumnus. Vertumnus and Pomona in an allée of the Summer Garden, St. Petersburg, by Francesco Penso, called "Cabianca", 1717 Vertumnus 220 Modern interpretations of Vertumnus and Pomona David Littlefield finds in the episode a movement from rape to mutual desire, effected against an orderly, "civilised" Latian landscape[14] Conversely, Roxanne Gentilcore reads in its diction and narrative strategies images of deception, veiled threat and seduction, in which Pomona, the tamed hamadryad now embodying the orchard, does not have a voice[15] . References [1] " Vertumnus then, that turn'st the year about," (Thomas Nashe, Summer's Last Will and Testament (1592, printed 1600)). [2] it is called the first purely Latin tale by Charles Fantazzi, "The revindication of Roman myth in the Pomona-Vertumnus tale", in N. Barbu et al., eds. Ovidianum (Bucharest, 1976:288, as Roxanne Gentilcore noticed, in "The Landscape of desire: the tale of Pomona and Vertumnus in Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'", Phoenix 49.2 (Summer 1995:110-120) p. 110 ("It has also been called the first exclusively Latin tale") and note 1. [3] Varro, De lingua latina V.46: "Ab eis [the Etruscans] dictus Vicus Tuscus, et ideo ibi Vortumnum stare, quod is deus Etruriae princeps" [4] As given by Sextus Propertius, Elegy 4. Propertius' editor L. Richardson Jr. (1977)notes that this etymology is not philologically sound. [5] Sextus Propertius, Elegy 4.2.41-46 [6] Michael C. J. Putnam, "The Shrine of Vortumnus" American Journal of Archaeology vol 71,  2, pp 177-179 (April 1967). [7] CIL VI.1.804 [8] R. Lanciani (1903) Storia degli scavi di Roma vol. II, p. 204f. [9] Ovid, Fasti. [10] E. C. Marquis (1974) "Vertumnus in Propertius 4, 2". Hermes, vol 102, no 3, pp 491-500. [11] Similar subtly pornographic uses were made of the theme of Zeus disguised as Diana, and Callisto. [12] Donald Lateiner (1996) "Nonverbal Behaviors in Ovid's Poetry, Primarily Metamorphoses 14", The Classical Journal, vol 91 no 3, pp 225-253 (February-March 1996). [13] "Pourquoi [[Le Devin du Village (http:/ / www. threeweb. ad. jp/ ~nityshr/ fronbun/ dvpastoral. htm)] est un pastorale?"] [14] David Littlefield (1965) "Pomona and Vertumnus: a fruition of history in Ovid's Metamorphoses" Arion vol 4, p 470. [15] Roxanne Gentilcore (1995) "The Landscape of Desire: The Tale of Pomona and Vertumnus in Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'" Phoenix vol 49, no 2, pp 110-120 (Summer 1995). External links • Statue of Vertumnus in the Lowe Museum (http://www6.miami.edu/lowe/art_greco_roman.htm) • Museu Gulbenkian tapestry (http://www.museu.gulbenkian.pt/obra.asp?num=2329&nuc=a10&lang=en) • Getty Museum tapestry (http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=6166) Vervactor 221 Vervactor In Roman mythology, Vervactor was the god of the first ploughing. Viduus In Roman mythology, Viduus ("divider") was the god who separated the soul and the body after death. In music, Viduus is a progressive technical death metal band, founded by bassist and vocalist Malethoth Kazynanenko. Virtus (deity) See Virtus (disambiguation) for other meanings. In Roman mythology, Virtus was the deity of bravery and military strength, the personification of the Roman virtue of virtus. The Greek equivalent deity was Arete. He/she was identified with the Roman god Honos (personification of honour), and was often honoured together with him. As reported in Valerius Maximus[1] , this joint cult led to plans in 210 BC by Marcus Claudius Marcellus to erect a joint temple for them both.[2] This led to objections from the pontifical college that, if a miracle should occur in such a temple, the priests would not know to which of the two gods to offer the sacrifice in thanks for it. Marcellus therefore erected a temple for Virtus alone which was the only way in to a separate temple of Honos, financing them both with the loot from his sacking of Syracuse and defeats of the Gauls. This temple was at the Porta Capena, and later renovated by Vespasian. This deity was represented in a variety of ways - for example, on the coins of Tetricus, it can appear as a matron, an old man, or a young man, with a javelin or only clothed in a cape. Gallic coin featuring Virtus. Modern era In 1776, Virtus was made the central figure in Seal of Virginia and the subsequent state's flag which features the seal. The Virginia Four-Dollar Note, a Continental currency, had a similar Virtus pictured on its obverse. U.S. Continental currency Virginia Four-Dollar Note of 1776 (obverse) with Virtus at the left. Virtus (deity) 222 References [1] "Honos et Virtus" (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ L/ Roman/ Texts/ Valerius_Maximus/ 1*. html#1. 8). A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ home*. html). 15 June 2007. . Retrieved 28 June 2007. [2] "Valeri Maximi" (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Honos_et_Virtus. html). Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium. 22 April 2007. . Retrieved 28 June 2007. Volturnus This page is about the Roman river-god. For Vulturnus, the Roman god of the east wind, see Anemoi. In Roman mythology, Volturnus was a god of the waters, probably derived from a local Samnite cult. His festival, Volturnalia, was held on August 27. The Volturno river in Campania is named in his honour. Vulcan (mythology) Vulcan wearing the exomis (tunic) and pilos (conical hat), Roman bronze, 1st century AD? Vulcan (mythology) 223 Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Vulcan (mythology) 224 Vulcanalia Observed by Ancient Romans Type Date Pagan, Historical August 22 Celebrations Bonfires in honour of Vulcan Observances Sacrifice of fish Vulcan (Latin: Vulcanus), aka Mulciber, is the god of beneficial and hindering fire,[1] including the fire of volcanoes in ancient Roman religion and Roman Neopaganism. He is known as Sethlans in Etruscan mythology. He was worshipped at an annual festival on August 23 known as the Volcanalia. The god belongs to the most ancient stage of Roman religion: Varro citing the Annales Maximi, recalls that king Titus Tatius had dedicated altars to a series of deities among which Vulcan is mentioned.[2] Vulcan was identified with the Greek god of fire and smithery, Hephaestus. Etymology The origin of the name is unclear and debated. Roman tradition maintained that it was related to Latin words connected to lightning (fulgur, fulgere, fulmen), which in turn was thought of as related to fire.[3] This interpretation is supported by Walter William Skeat in his etymological dictionary as meaning 'lustre'.[4] It has been supposed that his name was not Latin but related to that of the Cretean god Velchanos, a god of nature and the nether world.[5] Wolfgang Meid has refused this identification as phantastic.[6] Christian Guyonvarc'h has proposed the identification with the Irish name Olcan (Ogamic Ulccagni, in the genitive). Vassilij Abaev compares it with the Ossetic -waergon, a variant of the name of Kurdalaegon, the smith of the Nart saga. Since the name in its normal form Kurdalaegon is stable and has a clear meaning (kurd smith+ on of the family+ Alaeg name of one of the Nartic families), this hypothesis has been considered unacceptable by Dumezil.[7] Worship Vulcan's oldest shrine in Rome, called the Vulcanal, was situated at the foot of the Capitoline in the Forum Romanum, and was reputed to date to the archaic period of the kings of Rome,[8] [9] and to have been established on the site by Titus Tatius,[10] the Sabine co-king, with a traditional date in the 8th century BC. It was the view of the Etruscan haruspices that a temple of Vulcan should be located outside the city,[11] and the Vulcanal may originally have been on or outside the city limits before they expanded to include the Capitoline Hill.[1] The Volcanalia sacrifice was offered here to Vulcan, on August 23.[8] Vulcan also had a temple on the Campus Martius, which was in existence by 214 BC.[1] [12] The Romans identified Vulcan with the Greek smith-god Hephaestus, and he became associated like his Greek counterpart with the constructive use of fire in metalworking. A fragment of a Greek pot showing Hephaestus found at the Volcanal has been dated to the 6th century BC, suggesting that the two gods were already associated at this date.[9] However, Vulcan had a stronger association than Hephaestus with fire's destructive capacity, and a major concern of his worshippers was to encourage the god to avert harmful fires. His festival, the Vulcanalia, was celebrated on August 23 each year, when the summer heat placed crops and granaries most at risk of burning.[1] [13] During the festival bonfires were created in honour of the god, into which live fish or small animals were thrown as a sacrifice, to be consumed in the place of humans.[14] Vulcan was among the gods placated after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64.[15] In response to the same fire, Domitian (emperor 81–96) established a new altar to Vulcan on the Quirinal Hill. At the same time a red bull-calf and red boar were added to the sacrifices made on the Vulcanalia, at least in that region of the city.[16] Vulcan (mythology) It is recorded that during the Vulcanalia people used to hang their cloths and fabrics under the sun.[17] This habit might reflect a theologic connection between Vulcan and the divinized sun.[18] Another custom observed in this day required that one should start working at the light of a candle, probably to propitiate a beneficial use of fire by the god.[19] In addition to the Volcanalia on August 23, the date May 23, which was the second of the two annual Tubilustria or ceremonies for the purification of trumpets, was sacred to Vulcan.[13] [20] A flamen, one of the flamines minores named flamen Volcanalis was preposed to the cult of the god. The flamen Volcanalis officed a sacrifice to goddess Maia, held every year at the Kalendae of May.[21] 225 Theology The nature of the god is connected to religious ideas concerning fire. The Roman concept of the god seems to be connected to the destructive and fertilizing powers of fire. In the first aspect he is worshipped to avert its potential danger to harvested wheat in the Volcanalia and his cult is located outside the boundaries of the original city to avoid its causing fires in the city itself.[22] This power is however considered useful if directed against enemies and such a choice for the location of the god's cult could be interpreted in this way too. The same idea underlies the dedication of the arms of the defeated enemies, as well as those of the survived general in a devotion ritual to the god. Andrea Mantegna: Parnas, Vulcan, god of fire Through comparative interpretation this aspect has been connected to the third (or defensive) fire in the Vedic theory of the three sacrificial fires.[23] Another meaning of Vulcan is related to male fertilizing power. In various Latin and Roman legends he is the father of famous characters, such as the founder of Praeneste Caeculus, Cacus, a primordial monstrous being that inhabited the site of the Aventine in Rome and Roman king Servius Tullius. In a variant of the story of the birth of Romulus the details are identical even though Vulcan is not explicitly mentioned.[24] Some scholars think that he might be the unknown god who impregnated goddesses Fortuna Primigenia at Praeneste and Feronia at Anxur. In this case he would be the father of Jupiter.[25] However this view is in conflict with that which links the goddess to Jupiter, as his daughter (puer Jovis) and her mother too as primigenia, meaning "primordial". In all of the above mentioned stories the god's fertilizing power is related to that of the fire of the house hearth. In the case of Caeculus, his mother was impregnated by a spark that dropped on her womb from the hearth while she was sitting nearby[26] . Servius Tullius's mother Ocresia was impregnated by a male sex organ that miraculously appeared in the ashes of the sacrificial ara, at the order of Tanaquil, Tarquinius Priscus's wife.[27] Pliny the Elder tells the same story, but states that the father was the Lar familiaris.[28] The divinity of the child was recognized when his head was surrounded by flames and he remained unharmed.[29] Through the comparative analysis of these myths archaeologist Andrea Carandini opinates that Cacus and Caca were the sons of Vulcan and of a local divine being or a virgin as in the case of Caeculus. Cacus and Caca would represent the metallurgic and the domestic fire, projections of Vulcan and of Vesta. These legends date back to the time of preurban Latium. Their meaning is quite clear: at the divine level Vulcan impregnates a virgin goddess and generates Jupiter, the king of gods; at the human level he impregnates a local Vulcan (mythology) virgin (perhaps of royal descent) and generates a king[30] The first mention of a ritual connection between Vulcan and Vesta is the lectisternium of 217 BC. Other facts hinting to this connection seem to be the relative proximity of the two sanctuaries and Dionysius of Halicarnassus 's testimony that both cults had been introduced to Rome by Titus Tatius to comply with a vow he had made in battle.[31] Varro confirms the fact.[32] Vulcan is related to two equally ancient female goddesses Stata mater[33] , perhaps the goddess who stops fires and Maia.[34] Herbert Jennings Rose interprets Maia as a goddess related to growth by connecting her name with IE root *MAG.[35] Macrobius relates Cincius's opinion that Vulcan's female companion is Maia. Cincius justifies his view on the grounds that the Flamen Volcanalis sacrificed to her at the Kalendae of May. In Piso's view the companion of the god is Maiestas.[36] According to Gellius too Maia was associated to Vulcan and he backs his view by quoting the Roman priests's ritual prayers in use.[37] However Maiestas and Maia are possibly the same divine person: compare Ovid's explanations of the meaning of the name month May.[38] The god is the patron of trades related to ovens (cooks, bakers, confectioners) as it is attested in the works of Plautus,[39] Apuleius (the god is the cook at the wedding of Amor and Psyche)[40] and in Vespa's short poem in the Anthologia Latina about the litigation between a cook and a baker.[41] 226 Sons of Vulcan According to Hyginus' Fabulae, sons of Vulcan are Philammon, Cecrops, Erichthonius, Corynetes, Cercyon, Philottus and Spinther[42] aka Hephaestus Mythology Through his identification with the Hephaestus of Greek mythology, he came to be considered as the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, jewellery and armor for various gods and heroes, including the thunderbolts of Jupiter. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and husband of Maia and Venus. His smithy was believed to be situated underneath Mount Etna in Sicily. As the son of Jupiter, the king of the gods, and Juno, the queen of the gods, Vulcan should have been quite handsome, but, baby Vulcan was small and ugly with a red, bawling face. Juno was so horrified that she hurled the tiny baby off the top of Mount Olympus. Vulcan fell down for a day and a night, landing in the sea. Unfortunately, one of his legs broke as he hit the water, and never developed properly. From the surface, Vulcan sunk like a pebble to the cool blue depths where the sea-nymph, Thetis, found him and took him to her underwater grotto, and raised him as her own son. Vulcan had a happy childhood with dolphins as his playmates and pearls as his toys. Late in his childhood, he found the remains of a fisherman's fire on the beach and became fascinated with an unextinguished coal, still red-hot and glowing. Vulcan carefully shut this precious coal in a clamshell and took it back to his underwater grotto and made a fire with it. On the first day after, Vulcan stared at this fire for hours on end. On the second day, he discovered that when he made the fire hotter with bellows, certain stones sweated iron, silver or gold. On the third day he beat the cooled metal into shapes: bracelets, chains, swords and shields. Vulcan made pearl-handled knives and spoons for his foster mother, he made a silver chariot for himself, and bridles so that seahorses could transport him quickly. He even made slave-girls of gold to wait on him and do his bidding. Vulcan (mythology) Later, Thetis left her underwater grotto to attend a dinner party on Mount Olympus wearing a beautiful necklace of silver and sapphires, which Vulcan had made for her. Juno admired the necklace and asked as to where she could get one. Thetis became flustered causing Juno to become suspicious and, at last, the queen god discovered the truth: the baby she had once rejected had grown into a talented blacksmith. Juno was furious and demanded that Vulcan return home, a demand that he refused. However he did send Juno a beautifully constructed chair made of silver and gold, inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Juno was delighted with this gift but, as soon as she sat in it her weight triggered hidden springs and metal bands sprung forth to hold her fast. The more she shrieked and struggled the more firmly the mechanical throne gripped her; the chair was a cleverly designed trap. For three days Juno sat fuming, still trapped in Vulcan's chair, she couldn't sleep, she couldn't stretch, she couldn't eat. It was Jupiter who The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velázquez, finally saved the day, he promised that if Vulcan released Juno he (1630). This painting was produced during the would give him a wife, Venus the goddess of love and beauty. Vulcan renaissance, at a time when the god was no longer agreed and married Venus. He later built a smithy under Mount Etna being worshipped. on the island of Sicily. It was said that whenever Venus is unfaithful, Vulcan grows angry and beats the red-hot metal with such a force that sparks and smoke rise up from the top of the mountain, to create a volcanic eruption. According to Virgil, Vulcan was the father of Caeculus.[43] To punish mankind for stealing the secrets of fire, Jupiter ordered the other gods to make a poisoned gift for man. Vulcan's contribution to the beautiful and foolish Pandora was to mould her from clay and to give her form. He also made the thrones for the other gods on Mount Olympus. 227 Sanctuaries Vulcan's main and oldest sanctuary in Rome was the Volcanal, located in the area Volcani, an open air site at the foot of the Capitolium, at the North West corner of the Roman Forum, where stood an ara dedicated to the god, with a perennial fire. According to Roman tradititon the sanctuary had been dedicated by Romulus. He had placed on the site a bronze quadriga dedicated to the god, a war pray of the Fidenates. According to Plutarch though the war in question was that against Cameria, that occurred sixteen years after the foundation of Rome.[44] There Romulus would have also dedicated to Vulcan a statue of himself and an inscription in Greek listing his successes. Plutarch states that Romulus was represented crowned by Victory. Moreover he would have planted a sacred lotus tree in the sanctuary that was still alive at the time of Pliny the Elder and was said to be as old as the city.[45] It has been hypothesized that the sanctuary belonged to the porch when the Forum was still outside of town. The Volcanal is mentioned twice by Livy in connexion to the prodigium of the rains of blood happened in 183 and 181 B. C.[46] The area Volcani was probably a locus substructus. It was five meters higher than the Comitium[47] and from it the kings and the magistrates of the beginnings of the republic addressed the people before the building of the rostra.[48] On the Volcanal there was also a statue of Horatius Cocles[49] that had been moved here from the Comitium, locus inferior, after it had been struck by lightning. Aulus Gellius tells that some haruspices were summoned to expiate the prodigium, and they had it moved to a lower site where sunlight never reached out of their hatred for the Romans. The fraud though was uncovered and the haruspices executed. Later it was found that the statue should be placed on a higher site, thence it was placed in the area Volcani.[50] Vulcan (mythology) In 304 BC a temple to Concordia was built in the area Volcani: it was dedicated by aedilis curulis Cnaeus Flavius.[51] According to Samuel Ball Platner in the course of time the Volcanal should have been more and more encroached upon by the surrounding buildings until it was totally covered over. Nonetheless cult was still alive in the first half of the imperial era, as is testified by the finding of a dedica of Augustus's dating 9 B.C. At the beginning of 20th century behind the Arch of Septimius Severus were found some ancient tufaceous foundations that probably belonged to the Volcanal and traces of a rocky platform, 3.95 meters long and 2.80 meters wide, that had been covered with concrete and painted in red. Its upper surface is dug by several narrow channels and in front of there are the remains of a draining channel made of tufaceous slabs. The hypothesis was made that this was Vucan's ara itself. The rock shows signs of damages and repairs. On the surface there are some hollows, either round or square, that bear resemblance to graves and were interpreted as such in the past[52] , particularly by Von Duhn. This scholar after the discovery of cremation tombs in the Forum, maintained that the Volcanal was originally the site were corpses were cremated.[53] Another temple was erected to he god before 215 BC in the Campus Martius, near the Circus Flaminius, where games in his honour were held during the festival of the Volcanalia. 228 Vulcan outside Rome At Ostia the cult of the god, as well as his sacerdos, was the most important of the town. The sacerdos was named pontifex Vulcani et aedium sacrarum: he had under his jurisdiction all the sacred buildings in town and could give or withhold the authorisation to erect new statues to Eastern divinities. He was chosen for life, perhaps by the council of the decuriones, and his position was the equivalent of the pontifex maximus in Rome. It was the highest administrative position in the town of Ostia. He was selected among people who had already held public offices in Ostia or in the imperial administration. The pontifex was the sole authority who had a number of subordinate official to help discharge his duties, namely three praetores and two or three aediles. These offices were only religious and different from the omonymous civil ones.[54] On the grounds of a fragmentary inscrption found at Annaba (ancient Hippo Regius) it is considered possible that writer Suetonius had held this office.[55] From Strabon[56] we know that at Pozzuoli there was an area called in Greek agora' of Hephaistos (Lat. Forum Vulcani). The place is a plain where many solphurous vapour outlets are located (currently Solfatara). Pliny the Elder records that near Modena fire came out from soil statis Vulcano diebus, on fixed days devoted to Vulcan.[57] Legacy Vulcan is the patron God of the English steel making city of Sheffield. His statue sits on top of Sheffield Town Hall. A Vulcan Statue located in Birmingham, Alabama is the largest cast iron statue in the world.[58] The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn originates from Vulcan. See also • Vulcan of the alchemists Vulcan (mythology) 229 References [1] Georges Dumézil (1996) [1966]. Archaic Roman Religion: Volume One. trans. Philip Krapp. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 320–321. ISBN 0-8018-5482-2 (hbk.); ISBN 0-8018-5480-6 (pbk.). [2] Varro ling. Lat. V, X: "...Et arae Sabinum linguam olent, quae Tati regis voto sunt Romae dedicatae: nam, ut annales dicunt, vovit Opi, Florae, Vediovi Saturnoque, Soli, Lunae, Volcano et Summano, itemque Larundae, Termino, Quirino, Vortumno, Laribus, Dianae Lucinaeque..." [3] Varr. Ling. Lat. V, 10: "Ignis a gnascendo, quod huic nascitur et omne quod nascitur ignis succendit; ideo calet ut qui denascitur cum amittit ac frigescit. Ab ignis iam maiore vi ac violentia Volcanus dictus. Ab eo quod ignis propter splendorem fulget, fulgur et fulmen, et fulguritum quod fulmine ictum." [4] W. W. Skeat Etymological Dictionary of the English Language New York 1963 (first published 1882) s.v. volcano: "cf. Sanskrit varchar-s: lustre". [5] A. B. Cook Zeus: a study in Ancient religion 1925 Vol. II, pp. 945 ff. [6] W. Meid "Etr. Velkhans- Lat. Volcaanus" Indogermanische Forschugungen, 66 (1961) [7] G. Dumezil La religion romaine archaique Paris, 1974, part I, chap. [8] Samuel Ball Platner; and Thomas Ashby (1929). "Volcanal" (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Volcanal. html). A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 583–584. . Retrieved 2007-07-28. [9] Beard, Mary; John North and Simon Price (1998). Religions of Rome Volume 2: A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. no. 1.7c. ISBN 0-521-45015-2 (hbk.); ISBN 0-521-45646-0 (pbk.). [10] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, II.50.3; Varro V.74. [11] Vitruvius 1.7 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Vitruvius/ 1*. html#7); see also Plutarch, Roman Questions 47 (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Roman_Questions*/ C. html#47). [12] Livy, Ab Urbe condita 24.10.9 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0144:book=24:chapter=10). [13] W. Warde Fowler (1899). The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic: An Introduction to the Study of the Religion of the Romans (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ romanfestivalsof00fowluoft). London: Macmillan and Co.. pp. 123–124, 209–211. . Retrieved 2007-07-28. [14] Sextus Pompeius Festus, On the Meaning of Words, s.v. " piscatorii ludi (http:/ / remacle. org/ bloodwolf/ erudits/ Festus/ p. htm)"; Varro, On the Latin Language 6.3 (http:/ / www. thelatinlibrary. com/ varro. ll6. html). [15] Tacitus, Annals 15.44.1 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0078:book=15:chapter=44). [16] Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 4914, translated by Robert K. Sherk (1988). The Roman Empire: Augustus to Hadrian. Translated Documents of Greece and Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. no. 99. ISBN 0-521-33887-5. [17] Paulinus of NolaLetters XXXII, 139 [18] G. Dumezil Fetes romaines d'ete' et d'automne Paris 1975; It. transl. p. 70 [19] Pliny the Younger Lett. III, 5 [20] Ovid, Fasti 5.725–726 (http:/ / www. tonykline. co. uk/ PITBR/ Latin/ OvidFastiBkFive. htm#_Toc69367933). [21] Macr. Sat. I,12,18; A. Gell. Noct. Att. XIII, 23, 2 [22] Plutarch Questiones Romanae 47; Vitruvius De architectura I,7,1 [23] G. Dumezil La religion romaine archaique Paris, 1974, part 2, chap. 2 [24] Plutarch Rom. 2, 3-6 [25] J. Champeaux Fortuna, I, Fortuna dans la religion romaine archaique Rome, 1982; A. Mastrocinque Romolo. La fondazione di Roma tra storia e leggenda Este, 1993 [26] Verg. Aen. VII, 680 [27] Ovid Fas. VI, 627 [28] Pl.the Elder Nat. Hist. XXXVI, 204 [29] Ovid Fas. VI, 625-636 [30] A. Carandini La nascita di Roma Turin, 1997, p. 52 [31] Dion. Ant. Rom. II, 50, 3 [32] Varr. Ling. Lat. V, 73 see above [33] CIL VI, 00802, found in Rome [34] A. Gell. Noct. Att. XII, 23, 2: "Maiam Volcani" [35] H. J. Rose A dictionary of classical antiquities It. transl., Turin, 1995 [36] Macr. Sat. I, XII, 18 [37] A. Gell. Noct. Att. XIII, 23, 2 [38] Ovid Fas. V, 1-52 Maiestas; 81-106 Maia [39] Plaut. Aulularia 359, [40] Apul. Metamorph. VI, 24, 2 [41] Iudicium coci et pistoris iudice Vulcano. [42] Hyginus Fabulae 158 Vulcan (mythology) [43] Virgil, Aeneid 7.678–681 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Verg. + A. + 7. 678); Servius on Aeneid 7.678 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Serv. + A. + 7. 678& fromdoc=Perseus:text:1999. 02. 0053). [44] Plut. Romulus 24 [45] Pliny the Elder Nat. Hist. XVI, 236 [46] Livy Ab Urbe Condita XXXIX,46; XL, 19, 2 [47] Dion. of Hal. Antiq. Rom. II, 50, 2 [48] Dion. of Hal. Antiq. Rom. XI, 39, 1 [49] Plutarch Publicola, 16 [50] A. Gell. Noct. Att. IV, 5; Gellius writes that the episode was recorded in the XI book of the Annales Maximi and by Verrius Flaccus Memor. I [51] Livy Ab Urb. Cond. IX, 46 [52] Richter BRT iv 15-16 [53] Von Duhn Italische Graeberkunde i. 413 sqq. [54] C. Pavolini La vita quotidiana a Ostia Roma-Bari ,1986 [55] AE 1953, 00073; G. Gaggero Introduction to Suetonius's Life of the twelf Caesars Milan 1994 [56] Strabone Geografia. L'Italia V,4,6, Milan 1988 [57] Pliny the Elder Nat. Hist. II, 240 [58] "History of Vulcan Park" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080215192202/ http:/ / www. visitvulcan. com/ history. html). Vulcan Park. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. visitvulcan. com/ history. html) on 2008-02-15. . Retrieved 2008-02-24. 230 External links • Vulcanalia article in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/ Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Vulcanalia.html) • Vulcan God of Fire (Roman Mythology) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gbfAT0sKhU) Art historically oriented visual exploration. 231 Roman Goddesses Abeona In ancient Roman religion, Abeona was a goddess who protected children the first time they left their parents' home, safeguarding their first steps alone. This deity was among the di indigetes ("indigenous gods") of Rome, abstract deities and concepts that predated the many later syncretisms of various cultures' mythologies. References • Grimal, Pierre (1986). The Dictionary of Classical Mythology (p. 231). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20102-5. Abundantia This article is about the Roman goddess. For the Christian saint, see Saint Abundantia. Abundantia (Latin pronunciation: /abʊnˈdantia/) was the Roman goddess of good fortune, abundance and prosperity. Within Roman mythology, the figure of Abundantia was considered to be a minor deity: the personification of luck, abundance and prosperity, and was also the guardian of the cornucopia – the horn of plenty. It was with this that she distributed food and money. The main version of the origin of the cornucopia is similar in both the Greek and the Roman mythology, in which the king of the gods, having accidentally broken the horn of the mystical goat in play, promised that the horn would never run empty the fruits of her desire. The horn was then later to be passed into the keeping of Abundantia. While there are few temples or signs of worship for Abudantia to be found within Rome, she has also been described in the past as 'the beautiful maiden of success', and as such is largely featured in art. Often portrayed as holding the cornucopia and sheaves of corn or wheat [1] , while allowing the contents to fall to the ground, Abundantia's form has graced Roman coins in ages past. Abudantia has withstood the tests of time, taking on the form of the French 'Olde Dame Habonde'; also known as Domina Abundia, and Notre Dame d'Abondance, a beneficial fairy figure found throughout Teutonic mythology, and poetry of the Middle Ages. Within texts related to this figure it is said that she would bestow the gift of plenty and of good fortune to those she visits, and in modern society is the patron of gamblers – the revered Lady Fortune. Abundantia 232 References [1] Raphael: The Roman religious paintings, ca. 1508-1520‎ - Page 264 Acca Larentia Acca Larentia or Acca Larentina was a mythical woman, later goddess, in Roman mythology whose festival, the Larentalia, was celebrated on December 23. Foster mother In one mythological tradition (that of Licinius Macer, et al.), she was the wife of the shepherd Faustulus, and therefore the adoptive mother of Romulus and Remus, whom she is said to have saved after they were thrown into the Tiber on the orders of Amulius. She had twelve sons, and on the death of one of them Romulus took his place, and with the remaining eleven founded the college of the Arval brothers (Fratres Arvales).[1] She is therefore identified with the Dea Dia of that collegium. The flamen Quirinalis acted in the role of Romulus (deified as Quirinus) to perform funerary rites for his foster mother.[2] Benefactor of Rome Another tradition holds that Larentia was a beautiful girl of notorious reputation, roughly the same age as Romulus and Remus, during the reign of Ancus Marcius in the 7th century BC. She was awarded to Hercules as a prize in a game of dice, and locked in his temple with his other prize, a feast. When the god no longer had need of her, he advised her to marry the first wealthy man she met, who turned out to be an Etruscan named Carutius (or Tarrutius, according to Plutarch). Larentia later inherited all his property and bequeathed it to the Roman people. Ancus, in gratitude for this, allowed her to be buried in the Velabrum, and instituted an annual festival, the Larentalia, at which sacrifices were offered to the Lares.[3] Plutarch explicitly states that this Laurentia was a different person from the Laurentia who was married to Faustulus, although other writers, such as Licinius Macer, relate their stories as belonging to the same being.[4] [5] Prostitute Yet another tradition holds that Larentia was neither the wife of Faustulus nor the consort of Hercules, but a prostitute called "lupa" by the shepherds (literally "she-wolf", but colloquially "courtesan"), and who left the fortune she amassed through sex work to the Roman people.[6] Connection to Lares Whatever may be thought of the contradictory accounts of Acca Laurentia, it seems clear that she was of Etruscan origin, and connected with the worship of the Lares, from which her name may or may not be derived. This relation is also apparent in the number of her sons, which corresponds to that of the twelve country Lares.[7] [8] T.P. Wiseman explores the connections among Acca Larentia, Lara, and Larunda in his books Remus: A Roman Myth and The Myths of Rome. Acca Larentia 233 Functions Like Ceres, Tellus, Flora and others, Acca Laurentia symbolized the fertility of the earth, in particular the city lands and their crops. Acca Larentia is also identified with Larentina, Mana Genita, and Muta. References  Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Acca Larentia". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] According to Massurius Sabinus in Aulus Gellius (I. c.) Macer, apud Macrob. I.e.; Ovid Fast. iii. 55, &c. ; Plin. PI. N. xviii. 2 Compare Varro, De lingua Latina v. p. 85, ed. Bip. Macrobius Saturnalia i. 10; Plutarch, Romulus, 4, 5, Quaest. Rom. 35; Aulus Genius vi. 7; Valerius Antias Hornblower, Simon (1996). "Acca Larentia". The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3. Valer. Ant. ap. Gell. I. c,; Livy, i. 4. Macrob. Sat. I. c.; compare M'uller, Etrusleer, ii. p. 103, &c.; Hartung, Die Religion der Romer^ ii. p. 144, &c. Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Acca Larentia" (http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. com/ smith-bio/ 0015. html). In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. pp. 6.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870). Aequitas æquitas is the nominative form of the Latin æquitatem, meaning justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness, and is the source of the modern word "equity".[1] In ancient Rome, it could refer to either the legal concept of equity, or fairness between individuals.[2] [3] In Roman mythology, Aequitas, also known as Aecetia, was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Like Aequitas on the reverse of this antoninianus struck under Roman Emperor Abundantia, she is depicted with a Claudius II. The goddess is holding her symbols, the balance and the cornucopia. cornucopia, representing wealth from commerce. She is also shown holding a balance, representing equity and fairness. During the Roman Empire, Aequitas was sometimes worshipped as a quality or aspect of the emperor, under the name Aequitas Augusti. The "Percalcare" was a solemn office, whose task was to measure the Aequitare and to read the Equitare.[4] Aequitas 234 References [1] http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?term=equity [2] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OKMicP_RRn8C& pg=PA49& lpg=PA49& dq=Cicero,+ aequitas& source=bl& ots=Z6OcJ6dFfW& sig=xM-Nc9xWOSagavPmOjYGSptcd0g& hl=en& ei=Eaf2SbuwI5Gktwfw0bjBDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7 [3] upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-06192006-083839/unrestricted/01chapters1-2.pdf [4] cit: "Ex his manifestum est Aequitare, idem esse quod Percalcare, atque adeo legendum esse Equitare. Solemnis autem erat modus investiturae, seu aliquem mittendi in posessionem rei alicuius." Glossarium mediæ et infimæ latinitatis conditum a Carolo Dufresne, domino Du Cange ; auctum a monachis ordinis S. Benedicti cum supplementis integris D.P. Carpenterii et additamentis Adelungii et aliorum digessit G.A.L. Henschel. Published 1840 by Firmin Didot fratres in Parisiis. article: Aequitare Aeternitas In Roman mythology, Aeternitas was the personification of eternity. This goddess was symbolized by a phoenix or a worm/snake biting its own tail, wrapped up in a circle (an Ouroboros). Aeternitas on an antoninianus by Trebonianus Gallus. The goddess, on the reverse of the coin, in holding her holy animal, a phoenix. Alemonia 235 Alemonia In ancient Roman religion, the goddess Alemonia or Alemona was responsible for feeding fetuses in utero. Early Roman religion was concerned with the interlocking and complex interrelations between gods and humans. In this, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority. A sub-group of deities covered the general realm of infancy and childhood.[1] In this area, Alemonia was called upon as a general guardian and tutelary deity to protect the health and safety of the unborn. References [1] "Reference Guide to Roman Mythology" (http:/ / web. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ RomPan. html). . Retrieved 2008-09-17. Angerona In Roman mythology, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. She is sometimes identified with the goddess Feronia. According to ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans and their flocks from angina (quinsy). Also she was a protecting goddess of Rome and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which might not be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies. It was even thought that Angerona itself was this name; a late antique source suggests it was Amor, i.e. Roma inverted. Sorania and Hirpa have also been put forward as candidates for the secret name. Modern scholars regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, Acca Larentia, and Dea Dia; or as the goddess of the new year and the returning sun (according to Mommsen, ab angerendo = ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀναφέρεσθαι. τὸν ἥλιον). Her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, was celebrated on the 21st of December. The priests offered sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, which was bound and closed (Macrobius i. 10; Pliny, Nat. Hist. iii. 9; Varro, L. L. vi. 23). She was worshipped as Ancharia at Faesulae, where an altar belonging to her has been discovered. In art, she was depicted with a bandaged mouth and a finger pressed to her lips, demanding silence. Angerona statue in the Schönbrunn palace in Vienna Angerona 236 References •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. For further reading • Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Diva Angerona," reprinted in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill, 1980), pp. 21–24 online. [1] References [1] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xWaOxU28Nn4C& pg=PA21& dq=%22Angerona+ was+ a+ goddess%22+ inauthor:Wagenvoort& lr=& as_brr=0 Angitia In Roman mythology, Angitia (also Angita or Angu'ita) is a snake goddess who was worshipped by the Marsi people of central Italy. She was believed to have been once a being who actually lived in that neighbourhood, taught the people remedies against the poison of serpents, and had derived her name from being able to kill serpents by her incantations.[1] As snakes were often associated with the healing arts in ancient Roman mythology, Angita is believed to have been mainly a goddess of healing. She was particularly venerated by the Marsi, a people from central Italy (may be same as Angita). She had powers of witchcraft and was a master in the art of miraculous and herbal healing, especially when it came to snakebites. She was also attributed with a wide range of powers over snakes, including the power to kill snakes with a touch. Many Romans claim that she is the same as Bona Dea. According to the account given by Servius, the goddess was of Greek origin, for Arigitia was the name given by the Marrubians to Medea, who after having left Colchis came to Italy with Jason and taught the people the above mentioned remedies. Silius Italicus identifies her completely with Medea. Her name occurs in several inscriptions, in one of which she is mentioned along with Angerona, and in another her name appears in the plural form. From a third inscription it seems that she had a temple and a treasury belonging to it. The Silvia Angitia between Alba and lake Fucinus derived its name from her.[1] References [1] Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, page 178 (v. 1) (http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. com/ smith-bio/ 0187. html) • This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870). Anna Perenna 237 Anna Perenna Anna Perenna was an old Roman deity of the circle or "ring" of the year, as the name (per annum) clearly indicates. Her festival fell on the Ides of March (March 15), which would have marked the first full moon in the year in the old lunar Roman calendar when March was reckoned as the first month of the year, and was held at the grove of the goddess at the first milestone on the Via Flaminia. It was much frequented by the city plebs. Macrobius' (Saturnalia 1.12.6) related that offerings were made to her ut annare perannareque commode liceat, i.e. "that the circle of the year may be completed happily." and that people sacrificed to her both publicly and privately. Johannes Lydus (De Mensibus 4.49) says that public sacrifice and prayers were offered to her to secure a healthy year. Ovid in his Fasti (3.523f) provides a vivid description of the revelry and licentiousness of her outdoor festival where tents were pitched or bowers built from branches, where lad lay beside lass, and people asked that Anna bestow as many more years to them as they could drink cups of wine at the festival. Origin Ovid then tells that Anna Perenna was the same Anna who appears in Virgil's Aeneid as Dido's sister and that after Dido's death, Carthage was attacked by the Numidians and Anna was forced to flee. Eventually Anna ended up in ship which happened to be driven by a storm right to Aeneas' settlement of Lavinium. Aeneas invited her to stay, but his wife Lavinia became jealous. But Anna, warned in a dream by Dido's spirit, escaped whatever Lavinia was planning by rushing off into the night and falling into the river Numicus and drowning. Aeneas and his folk were able to track Anna part way. Eventually Anna's form appeared to them and Anna explained that she was now a river nymph hidden in the "perennial stream" (amnis perennis) of Numicus and her name was therefore now Anna Perenna. The people immediately celebrated with outdoor revels. Ovid then notes that some equate Anna Perenna with the Moon or with Themis or with Io or with Amaltheia, but he turns to what he claims may be closer to the truth, that during the Plebeian revolt the rebels ran short on food and an old woman of Bovillae named Anna baked cakes and brought them to the rebels every morning. The Plebeians later set up an image to her and worshipped her as a goddess. Next Ovid relates that soon after old Anna had become a goddess, the god Mars attempted to get Anna to persuade Minerva to yield to him in love. Anna at last pretends that Minerva has agreed and the wedding is on. But when Mars' supposed new wife was brought into his chamber and Mars removed the veil he found to his chagrin that it was not Minerva but old Anna, which is why people tell coarse jokes and sing coarse songs at Anna Perenna's festivities. Since the festival of Anna Perenna is in the month of Mars, it is reasonable that the Mars and Anna Perenna should be associated, at least in some rites at that time, as cult partners. Ovid also tells that Anna, although Magistra Silverman believes her to be fully grown, was actually a person of small stature. The idea of the good soul and the bad soul offering advice from above a person's shoulders is thought to have come from the idea that Anna told Dido what to do with Aeneas. Anna Perenna 238 Cult Two places of worship of Anna Perenna are attested. One in Buscemi, Sicily, where in 1899 some inscriptions to Anna and Apollo were found, and in Rome, where a fountain devoted to Anna Perenna rites was unearthed in 1999[1] . References [1] http:/ / www. duke. edu/ web/ classics/ grbs/ FTexts/ 47/ Mastroc. pdf •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. External links • Obscure Goddess Online Dictionary (http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/annaperenna.html) Annona (goddess) Annona (from Latin annus, year), in Roman mythology, is the personification of the produce of the year. She is represented in works of art, often together with Ceres, with a cornucopia (horn of plenty) in her arm, and a ship's prow in the background, indicating the transport of grain supply to the city of Rome over the sea. She frequently occurs on coins of the empire, standing between a modius (corn-measure) and the prow of a galley, with ears of corn in one hand and a cornucopia in the other; sometimes she holds a rudder or an anchor. References  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. On the right side of this Nero sestertius, Annona standing right, holding cornucopiae, facing Ceres seated left, holding grain-ears and torch; modius on garlanded altar between them; ship's stern behind. Antevorte 239 Antevorte In Roman mythology, Antevorte or Antevorta was the goddess of the future, also known as Porrima. She and her sister Postverta (or Postvorta) were described as companions or siblings of the goddess Carmenta, and sometimes referred to as "the Carmentae"[1] [2] [3] . They may have originally been two aspects of Carmenta, namely those of her knowledge of the future and the past (compare the two-faced Janus). Antevorta and Postvorta had two altars in Rome and were invoked by pregnant women as protectors against the dangers of childbirth[4] . Antevorta was said to be present at the birth when the baby was born head-first; Postverta, when the feet of the baby came first. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Ovid, Fasti, I. 633 Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, XVI. 16 Macrobius, Saturnalia, I. 7 Varro, cited by Aulus Gellius in his Attic Nights, XVI. 16 External links • Myth Index - Antevorta (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/A/Antevorta.html) Appiades The Appiades are the five Roman goddesses who had a temple near the Appian aqueducts. They are Concordia, Minerva, Pax, Venus, and Vesta. External links • http://www.pantheon.org/articles/a/appiades.html Aurora (mythology) 240 Aurora (mythology) Aurora is the Latin word for dawn, the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology and Latin poetry. Like Greek Eos and Rigvedic Ushas (and possibly Germanic Ostara), Aurora continues the name of an earlier Indo-European dawn goddess, *Hausos. Roman mythology In Roman mythology, Aurora, goddess of the dawn, renews herself every morning and flies across the sky, announcing the arrival of the sun. Her Aurora, by Guercino, 1621-23: the ceiling fresco in the Casino Ludovisi, Rome, is a parentage was flexible: for Ovid, she classic example of Baroque illusionistic painting could equally be Pallantis, signifying the daughter of Pallas,[1] or the daughter of Hyperion.[2] She has two siblings, a brother (Sol, the sun) and a sister (Luna, the moon). Rarely Roman writers[3] imitated Hesiod and later Greek poets and made the Anemoi, or Winds, the offspring of the father of the stars Astraeus, with Eos/Aurora. Aurora appears most often in Latin poetry with one of her mortal lovers. A myth taken from the Greek Eos by Roman poets tells that one of her lovers was the prince of Troy, Tithonus. Tithonus was a mortal, and would age and die. Wanting to be with her lover for all eternity, Aurora asked Zeus to grant immortality to Tithonus. Zeus granted her wish, but she failed to ask for eternal youth for him and he wound up aging eternally. Aurora turned him into a grasshopper. Aurora (mythology) 241 Usage in literature and music From Homer's Iliad : Now when Dawn in robe of saffron was hastening from the streams of Okeanos, to bring light to mortals and immortals, Thetis reached the ships with the armor that the god had given her. (19.1) But soon as early Dawn appeared, the rosy-fingered, then gathered the folk about the pyre of glorious Hector. (24.776) From Virgil's Aeneid : Aurora now had left her saffron bed, And beams of early light the heav'ns o'erspread, When, from a tow'r, the queen, with wakeful eyes, Saw day point upward from the rosy skies. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (I.i), Montague says of his lovesick son Romeo But all so soon as the all-cheering sun Should in the furthest east begin to draw The shady curtains from Aurora's bed, Away from the light steals home my heavy son... In the poem "Tithonus" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Aurora is described thus: Once more the old mysterious glimmer steals From thy pure brows, and from thy shoulders pure, And bosom beating with a heart renewed. Thy cheek begins to redden through the gloom, Thy sweet eyes brighten slowly close to mine, Ere yet they blind the stars, and the wild team Which love thee, yearning for thy yoke, arise, And shake the darkness from their loosened manes, And beat the twilight into flakes of a fire[4] In singer-songwriter Björk's Vespertine track, Aurora is described as: Aurora Goddess sparkle A mountain shade suggests your shape I tumble down on my knees Fill my mouth with snow The way it melts I wish to melt into you In Chapter 2 of Walden, Where I Lived and What I Lived for, Henry David Thoreau states: Every morning was a cheerful invitation to make my life of equal simplicity, Aurora Taking Leave of Tithonus 1704, by Francesco Solimena Aurora (mythology) and I may say innocence, with Nature herself. I have been as sincere a worshipper of Aurora as the Greeks. I got up early and bathed in the pond; that was a religious exercise, and one of the best things which I did. 242 Depiction in art • • • • • Aurora by Guercino (1591–1666) The Countess de Brac as Aurora by Jean-Marc Nattier (1685–1766) Aurora e Titone by Francesco de Mura (1696–1782) The Gates of Dawn by Herbert James Draper (1863–1920) Aurora and Cephalus by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin (1774–1833) Popular culture In the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica, it is suggested that the character Kara Thrace is the re-incarnation or at least enacts the role of the goddess Aurora / Eos as a fictional Lord of Kobol/ Angel in the service of a higher power. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] "When Pallantis next gleams in heaven and stars flee..." (Ovid, Fasti iv. 373. Fasti v.159; also Hyginus, Preface to Fabulae. The examples given in translation at TheoiProject (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Titan/ Eos. html) are all Greeks or Greek-inspired. D.A. Harris, Tennyson and personification: the rhetoric of 'Tithonus' , 1986 Averna 243 Averna In Roman mythology, Averna was the queen of the dead. She may be equivalent to Proserpina. Bellona (goddess) See Enyo for the Greek counterpart, and Bellona for other meanings of this word. Bellona was an Ancient Roman goddess of war, similar to the Ancient Greek Enyo. Bellona's attribute is a sword and she is depicted wearing a helmet and armed with a spear and a torch. Politically, all Senate meetings relating to foreign war were conducted in the Templum Bellonae (Temple of Bellona) on the Collis Capitolinus outside the pomerium. Bellona's festival was celebrated on June 3. Etymology The name "Bellona" derived from the Latin word for "war" (bellum), and is directly related to the modern English word "belligerent" (lit., "war-waging"). In earlier times she was called Duellona, the name being derived from a more ancient word for "battle". Bellona, by Rembrandt. Attributes In art, she is portrayed with a helmet, sword, spear, and torch. Ammianus Marcellinus, in describing the Roman defeat at the Battle of Adrianople refers to "Bellona, blowing her mournful trumpet, was raging more fiercely than usual, to inflict disaster on the Romans". In later culture Near the beginning of Shakespeare's Macbeth (I.ii.54), Macbeth is introduced as a violent and brave warrior when the Thane of Ross calls him "Bellona's bridegroom" (i.e. Mars). The goddess has also proved popular in post-Renaissance art as a female embodiment of military virtue, and an excellent opportunity to portray the feminine form in armour and helmet. Bellona appears in the prologue of Rameau's opera, Les Indes Galantes. Bellona (goddess) 244 Also, the "Temple of Bellona" was a popular choice of name for the small mock-temples that were a popular feature of eighteenth and nineteenth century English landscaped gardens (e.g. William Chambers's 1760 Temple of Bellona for Kew Gardens, a small Doric temple with a four-column facade to contain plaques honouring those who served in the Seven Years War of 1756-64). "Bellona", by Rodin. Samuel R. Delany's 1975 novel Dhalgren is set in the city of Bellona. The detective novel "The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club" takes place at a (fictional) London club whose membership is composed of active or retired military officers, named after the goddess. Salis family (origin Grisons) crest, late nineteenth century version on an album cover. Bronze sculpture of Bellona, 17th century, Royal Castle in Warsaw. Salis crest, an English version on silver entree dish cover, 1865. Bona Dea 245 Bona Dea Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Bona Dea ("The Good Goddess") was a divinity in ancient Roman religion. She was associated with chastity and fertility in women, healing, and the protection of the Roman state and people. According to Roman literary sources, she was brought from Magna Graecia at some time during the early or middle Republic, and was given her own state Bona Dea cult on the Aventine Hill. All ancient sources agree that men were barred from her mysteries and the possession of her true name. Given that male authors had limited knowledge of her rites and attributes, ancient speculations about her identity abound, among them that she was a Latin form of Damia or Demeter; an aspect of Terra, Ops, the Magna Mater or Ceres; or the wife or daughter of the god Faunus, thus an equivalent or aspect of Fauna, who could prophesy the fates of women. Bona Dea's Italic antecedents probably had many cultic equivalents among the earth and fertility goddesses of the Graeco-Roman world: nocturnal rites, predominantly or exclusively female intitiates, female priestesses, sacrifice of a sow, and religious mysteries that involved music, dance and wine. In the city of Rome, one or several such cults were probably adapted to fit the requirements of Roman morality. Two annual festivals to Bona Dea are known. One was held in May, at her Aventine temple. This was almost certainly open to respectable women of all classes but may have fallen into official disfavour or disuse at some time during the mid-Republican era: a dedication or rededication by a Vestal Virgin in 126 BC was annulled as unlawful by the Senate. From some time during the Republican era, another festival was held in December, led by the Vestal Virgins pro populo Romano (on behalf of the Roman people). This brought Bona Dea's cult into the heart of the city. It was held at the house of Rome's senior annual magistrate, and was hosted by his wife for a select, invited group of matrons and female attendants. The ritual space was cleansed of any male presence, and decorated with plants of all kinds, except for myrtle, a plant of Venus and thus a sign of venery. A sow was sacrificed to the goddess, followed by feasting and music. This is the only certain occasion in which Vestals and Roman matrons met for a religious purpose, and the only well-attested use of blood-sacrifice and wine-drinking by Roman women within a legitimate religious context. The rites gave lawful, temporary release from particular constraints imposed on women of all social classes by Roman tradition; the goddess' May rites probably offered similar forms of catharsis. Bona Dea's private festival came to particular prominence in the late Republican era, when the politician Publius Clodius was prosecuted for his sacrilegious intrusion on the rites. The mysteries remained officially secret, but some key details emerged during and after the trial. These remain central to modern reconstructions and interpretations of the goddess' rites and mythology. Augustus restored Bona Dea's Aventine temple and her May 1 rites; his wife Livia was identified with the goddess as an ideal virtuous matron. Little is known of further developments in her cult. Hadrian restored her Aventine temple, or built another. The rites remained a subject of male curiosity and speculation, both religious and prurient. Bona Dea's provincial and rural cults were probably led by virgin or matron priestesses, perhaps drawn from local elites. Some inscriptions conflate or identify her with other earth deities, such as Ceres and Magna Mater. Her Imperial image is a sedate Roman matron with a cornucopia and a snake. The remains of her Imperial temples show her connections with the Imperial family and its cult. Personal dedications to her are attested among all classes, especially plebeians, freedmen and women, and slaves. Approximately one third of all dedications to her are from men, some of whom may have been directly involved in her cult: one claims to have been her priest. 246 Origins, attributes and domains No original Roman sources survive for Bona Dea's earliest forms of cult. In the Imperial era, Macrobius identifies her with Maia, Terra, Magna Mater and Fauna. He sees her origin in the Latin goddess Damia (probably Demeter), who was brought to Rome and given a temple on the Aventine Hill, after the capture of Tarentum (272 BC), a Latin city of Magna Graecia.[1] Bona Dea's December rites have key elements in common with the Thesmophoria rites to Demeter.[2] Coin images of Bona Dea shown her enthroned, holding a cornucopia. A snake entwines her arm, as a sign of her healing and regenerative powers. Bona Dea 247 Festival and cult in Rome Republican era Bona Dea had two major annual festivals in the city of Rome. Her official public festival was held at her Aventine temple on May 1. Very little is known of its rites, which are inferred as some form of mystery; they were concealed from the public gaze and forbidden to men. They may have been open to female initiates of all classes. Its Aventine foundation connects it to Rome's plebeian commoner class, whose emergent aristocracy and tribunate resisted patrician claims to rightful religious and political dominance. Bona Dea's May festival may have fallen into official disuse, or official disrepute, at some time or various times during the Middle Republican era. Its 123 BC dedication or re-dedication of an altar, shrine and couch for the goddess by the Vestal Virgin Liciania was immediately annulled as unlawful by the Roman Senate.[3] Roman writers assumed that the goddess' May festival provided the ritual model for her Winter festival.[4] Bona Dea's Winter festival was held in early December. Roman sources are unclear as to whether this was held in addition to her May festival, or was intended to replace or displace it. It was not marked on any religious calendar, but was dedicated to the public interest and involved the Vestals, and was therefore official in some sense. It was held at the house of the senior annual Roman magistrate cum imperio, whether consul or praetor. Roman literary sources describe it as a nocturnal festival, hosted by the magistrate's wife, attended by respectable matrons of elite Roman families and supervised by the Vestals. The evening before the rites, all males must leave the house; even male animals and portraits must be removed. The magistrate's wife and her assistants[5] made bowers of vine-leaves, and decorated the house's banqueting hall with "all manner of growing and blooming plants" except for myrtle, whose presence and naming were expressly forbidden. A banquet table was prepared, with a couch (pulvinar) for the goddess. Bona Dea's cult image was brought from her temple and set up in the hall, along with the image of a snake, and was treated as an honoured guest. While her image reclined on her couch, Bona Dea's meal was prepared: the entrails (exta) of a sow, sacrificed to her on behalf of the Roman people (pro populo Romano), and a libation of sacrificial wine.[6] The remainder of the festival was a nocturnal, women-only banquet, with female musicians, fun and games (ludere), and wine; the last was euphemistically referred to as "milk", and its container as a "honey jar".[7] The festival allowed and required the temporary removal of customary constraints imposed on Roman women of all classes by Roman tradition. The rites underlined the pure and lawful sexual potency of virgins and matrons, in a context that excluded any reference to male persons or creatures, male lust or seduction.[8] Clodius and the Bona Dea scandal In 62 BC, the Winter rites were hosted by Pompeia, wife of Julius Caesar, senior magistrate in residence and pontifex maximus. A leading popularist politician, Publius Clodius, was said to have intruded, dressed as a woman. The presence of a man had vitiated the rites, so the Vestals were obliged to repeat them. The senate and pontifices held inquiry on the matter and Clodius was charged with desecration, which carried a death-sentence. The case was prosecuted by Cicero, whose wife Terentia had hosted the previous year's rites. After two years of legal wrangling, Clodius was acquitted – which Cicero put down to jury-fixing and other backroom dealings – but his reputation was permanently damaged.[9] Though Caesar publicly distanced himself from the affair as much as possible – certainly from his wife, whom he divorced – he was not simply a leading politician whose personal honour had been affronted. As pontifex maximus, he was ultimately responsible for the ritual purity and piety of public and private religion: he had to ensure that the Vestals had acted correctly, then chair the inquiry into what were essentially his own household affairs. Although he had been correctly absent from the rites, as paterfamilias he was responsible for their piety. Worse, the place of the alleged offense was the state property loaned to every pontifex maximus for his tenure of office.[10] The case was therefore very high profile, and much commented. It remains the most important single source in modern reconstructions and interpretations of the goddess' rites and mythology: the rites remained officially secret, but many Bona Dea details emerged during and after the trial, and remained permanently in the public domain. Some fueled later theological speculation, as in Plutarch and Macrobius. Others fed the prurient male imagination; given their innate moral weakness, what might women do when given wine and left to their own devices? Such anxieties were nothing new. They underpinned Rome's traditional strictures against female autonomy but the scandal was further intensified by its broader context: the turbulent Late Republican era, whose seemingly endless series of civil wars were taken as symptoms of divine anger, provoked by personal ambition, impiety and religious negligence. Clodius was a populist politician, a tribune of the people.[11] His prosecution was at least partly driven by opposition to him and his politics: Cicero represented both as threats to moral and religious security. Though the trial effectively put paid to Clodius' career, its scandalous revelations also undermined the sacred dignity and authority of the Vestals, the festival, the goddess, the pontifex maximus and, by association, Caesar and Rome itself. Some fifty years later, the princeps Augustus had to deal with its repercussions.[12] 248 Imperial Era With his victory at Actium, Octavian won a lasting peace but his own position was not yet secure. His adoptive father, Julius Caesar, had courted the Roman masses and their representatives against the traditionalists in the Senate, and had been murdered as a would-be tyrant or divine monarch. Octavian defined himself with care, less as his father's heir than as restorer of Rome's Republic, traditional religion and social values, on behalf of the Roman senate and people.[13] Compared to some other festivals for the gods and goddesses of Rome's state-supported cults, Bona Dea's were relatively small affairs, but fifty years on from the scandal of 63 its taints remained. Augustus had inherited them, and not only through association with the pontificate of his adoptive father, he had married into them. Livia, his wife, was related – distantly, through the Claudian side – to the long-dead, still-notorious Clodius.[14] In 12 BC Augustus became pontifex maximus, which gave him overall authority in Rome's religious affairs, and direct control over the selection of vestals and their behaviour in office.[15] He refounded Bona Dea's official Aventine temple and May 1 festival: they had once been briefly re-founded by Livia's more distant and respectable ancestress, the Vestal Licinia.[16] Livia's name did not, and could not appear in the official religious calendars, but Ovid's Fasti associates her with May 1, and presents her as the ideal wife and "paragon of female Roman virtue".[17] The goddess' December festival may continued quietly, or it could simply have lapsed, with its reputation damaged irreparably. There is no evidence of its abolition. From the late 2nd century, an increasing religious syncretism presents Bona Dea as one of many aspects or names for Virgo Caelestis, the celestial Virgin, Great Mother of the gods, whom later mariologists identify as prototype for the Virgin Mary in Christian theology.[18] Scurrilous tales of the rites still circulated. Well over a century after Clodius' notorious case, the same theme titillated the same imaginative appetites. In Juvenal, Bona Dea's festival provides an opportunity for women of all classes – and men in drag – to get drunk and cavort indiscriminately in a sexual free-for-all.[19] Temple Bona Dea's Roman temple was situated on a lower slope of the northeastern Aventine Hill, beneath the height known as Saxum,[20] southeast of the Circus Maximus. Macrobius infers a foundation date in or shortly after 272 BC,[21] , but Cicero thought it much older. Very little is known of its history during the Republican era. In the middle Republican era, it may have fallen into disrepair or official disfavour. In 123 BC the Vestal Licinia gave the temple an altar, small shrine and couch for the goddess, but they were removed as unlawful by the pontifex maximus P. Scaevola.[22] Its use and status at the time of the Bona Dea scandal are unknown. In the Imperial era, it was restored by the empress Livia, wife of Augustus, and perhaps again by Hadrian.[23] and survived to at least the 4th century AD.[24] No traces remain of the temple. Nothing is known of its architecture or appearance, save that unlike most Roman temples it was walled. It was an important centre of healing; harmless snakes roamed its precincts, and it held a store of various medicinal herbs that could be dispensed at need by its priestesses. Men were forbidden entry Bona Dea but could dedicate offerings to the goddess.[25] 249 Provincial cults Very little is known of Bona Dea's provincial and municipal cults. They cannot have been led by the Vestals, whose powers were circumscribed by Rome's city walls.[26] At an Imperial cult centre in Aquileia, she was honoured as Augusta Bona Dea Cereria, possibly in connection with the corn dole.[27] She had other state cults at Ostia and Portus.[28] Private and public dedications associate her with agricultural deities such as Silvanus, and the virgin goddess Diana.[29] She is also named in some dedications of public works, such as the restoration of the Claudian Aqueduct.[30] Her provincial cults may have been less stringently exclusive of men than her cults in Rome itself. Various processions taken as festivals to Bona Dea by Roman witnesses – all of them male – might equally be in honour of Ceres, Dionysus, Priapus, or any of several fertility deities; possibly an elision of several. Even a mystery goddess might be treated to a public procession, but her essential mysteries would be reserved to her initiates, not exposed to all and sundry. Altars and dedications Despite the exclusively female, aristocratic connections of her winter festival at Rome, elite dedications to Bona Dea are outnumbered by those of the Roman plebs, particularly the ingenui. The greatest number of all are from freedmen and slaves. An estimated one-third of dedications to the goddess are from men; one, a provincial Greek, claims to be a priest of her cult. This is evidence of lawful variation – at least in the Roman provinces – from what Roman literary sources present as an absolute rule.[31] Most inscriptions to Bona Dea are simple and unembellished but some show serpents, often paired. Cumont (1932) remarks their similarity to the serpents featured in Pompeian lararia; serpents are associated with many earth-deities, and had protective, fertilising and regenerating functions, as in the cults of Aesculapius, Demeter and Ceres. Some Romans kept live, harmless snakes as household pets, and credited them with similarly beneficial functions.[32] Mythology Most sources identify Bona Dea as Faunus' wife. She secretly became drunk on wine, and when Faunus found out, he thrashed her with myrtle rods: in a version given by Lactantius, he thrashed her to death but regretted the deed and deified her.[33] Macrobius adds that she is "the same as Fauna, Ops or Fatua... It is said too that she was the daughter of Faunus, and that she resisted the amorous advances of her father who had fallen in love with her, so that he even beat her with myrtle twigs because she did not yield to his desires though she had been made drunk by him on wine. It is believed that the father changed himself into a serpent, however, and under this guise had intercourse with his daughter."[34] These myths attempt to explain Bona Dea's cult.[35] Versnel (1992) notes the elements common to Bona Death's myths and festival – "wine, myrtle, serpents and female modesty blemished" – and the Greek Thesmophoria, dedicated to Demeter.[36] Varro explains the exclusion of men from Bona Dea's cult as an aspect of her great modesty; no man but her husband had ever seen her, or heard her name. For Servius, this makes her the paragon of chaste womanhood.[37] Cult themes in modern scholarship Most women held little or no independent authority in matters of personal or public religion, regardless of status. Married women were under the control of their husbands: unmarried girls were under the authority of their fathers.[38] Women could not perform sacrifices at night, unless "offered for the people in proper form".[39] Some sources infer that women were completely banned from offering blood-and-wine sacrifice in their own right, and even banned from handling such materials.[40] However, the Vestal Virgins were exceptional and revered beings; Bona Dea their dress recalled the costume of a Roman bride on her wedding day. They were virgins, but not subject to their fathers' authority; and they were matrons, but independent of any husband. They held forms of privilege and authority otherwise associated only with Roman men, and were answerable only to the Senior Vestal and the pontifex maximus. Their ritual obligations and religious integrity were central to the well being of the Roman state and its citizens.[41] Most modern scholarship agrees that in Rome, the Vestals themselves performed the sacrifice.[42] The use of sacrificial wine at a nocturnal, all-women Roman festival is remarkable, perhaps unique to Bona Dea. Respectable Roman women of the late Republican and Imperial eras were allowed weak, sweetened or diluted wine, in moderation; but Roman traditionalists believed that in former, more virtuous times even this was forbidden them,[43] "for fear that they might lapse into some disgraceful act. For it is only a step from the intemperance of Liber pater to the forbidden things of Venus".[44] Bona Dea's rites did not merely permit the use of sacrificial-grade wine (temetum); they simultaneously required its disguise. It was contained in a covered vas (jar), called a mellarium (honey jar), whose content was called lac (milk).[45] The use of wine at the festival has been described as a relatively late substitution for original materials (milk and honey), and theologically absurd.[46] Staples (1998) explains this euphemistic use of wine with reference to Graeco-Roman mythography. Wine was a potentially dangerous invention of Liber-Dionysus, who was present as the male principle in certain "soft fruits", which included semen and grapes[47] Fauna's secretive and willing wine-drinking transgresses both Roman propriety and the divine laws of the Bona Dea herself, who is Fauna cleansed by punishment, then immortalised. Where Fauna virtuously resists her fathers outrageous lust, despite the wine and the thrashing with myrtle, she rejects his morally indefensible use of Venus's myrtle, and Liber's wine. The rites abjure the male essence of wine by renaming it "milk".[48] Milk and honey were more primitive foods, "markers par excellence of utopian golden times".[49] The vine-leaf bowers and the profusion of plants – any and all but the forbidden myrtle – converted the banqueting hall to a "primitive" dwelling, evoking the simple innocence of an ancestral golden age, under the divine authority of Bona Dea. By a similar association, the contents of any "honey jar" are made by bees. In Roman lore, bees would quit an adulterous household; they represented domestic virtue, sexual abstinence, industry and obedience.[50] Bona Dea abjures myrtle both as an instrument of her punishment and as a sign of Venus, who is associated with unbridled eroticism. Myrtle was never used in Roman bridal crowns; Roman weddings and married life were the domain of Juno.[51] 250 Notes [1] Staples, p.14. Macrobius' "Damia" was probably an ancient misreading or mistranslation of "Demeter", later institutionalised: thus in Macrobius, a Roman Magna Mater Damia. [2] Versnel, p.31ff. [3] Wildfang, pp.92 - 93, citing Cicero, De Domo Sua, 53.136. [4] See W. Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the period of the Republic, MacMillan (New York, 1899): 102 - 106. (http:/ / www. questia. com/ read/ 23313966?title=The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic: An Introduction to the Study of the Religion of the Romans) [5] Possibly, her own female servants. [6] The sacrifice could have been offered by the Vestals or, according to Plutarch, by the hostess; see Cult themes in this article. [7] Winter festival summary based on Brouwer (1989) as summarised in Versnel, p.32, and Wildfang, p.31. For Roman sources, cf. Plutarch, Lives: Life of Caesar, ix (711E), Life of Cicero, xix (870B); Juvenal, vi.339 (a satirical treatment); and Plutarch, Roman Questions, (Loeb), 20 - 35, available via link to Bill Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Roman_Questions*/ A. html) [8] Versnel, p.44. [9] Beard et al., pp. 129 - 130, 296 - 7. Clodius' mere presence would have been sacrilegious, but Clodius was also rumoured to have sought some sexual conquest: perhaps of the hostess. This would be an even more serious offense against Bona Dea. Cicero presented Clodius to the trial jury as an impious, low-class oaf, and his popularist policies as a threat to Roman tradition. See also Brouwer, p.xxiii, and Herbert-Brown, p.134. [10] Herbert-Brown, pp. 134, 141-3. [11] To qualify for election as a people's tribune, he had rejected his patrician status, and arranged his own adoption into a plebeian gens. His opponents considered him a thuggish opportunist. His patrician opponents in particular saw him as a dangerous social renegade. [12] Herbert-Brown, pp.141 - 143. Bona Dea [13] As dutiful heir, he deified the dead Caesar and established his cult. He took pains to distance himself from Caesar's mortal aspirations, and cultivate an aura of modesty. His religious reforms reflect an ideology of social and political unity. [14] Herbert-Brown, p.146. [15] His restoration of the Vestals began even before his pontificate. On his return from Actium, he was greeted by a procession of women, headed by the Vestals. [16] Phyllis Cunham, in Harriet Flower (ed), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p.155. googlebooks partial preview. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=i1rQqJo_flwC& pg=PA155& lpg=PA155& dq=Licinia+ Vestal+ Bona+ Dea& source=bl& ots=h6-uUI5VU9& sig=JZkwjWv5bLChMU7sPmzj3ht2o90& hl=en& ei=lbrtTIeuD5K4hAe61pTNDA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CE4Q6AEwBw#v=onepage& q=Licinia Vestal Bona Dea& f=false) The association is not unproblematic. Licinia was tried on an almost certainly trumped-up charge of broken chastity, but acquitted. She was re-tried, found guilty, and executed, on the strength of two prophecies in the Sibylline books. She was a contemporary of the Gracchi, and was probably a victim of the turbulent factional politics of the time. Augustus called in and examined all oracles and censored many; these would have included the Sybilline books. According to Herbert-Brown, p.144, he might have removed the prophecies that had been used to condemn Licinia. Presumably, the semi-official December festival was somehow sidelined. There is no evidence for its continuation or its abolition. [17] Herbert-Brown, p.130, citing Ovid, Fasti, 5. 148 - 158. As a non-divinity, Livia could not have appeared on the religious calendar. Claudius deified her long after her death. [18] Stephen Benko, The virgin goddess: studies in the pagan and Christian roots of mariology, BRILL, 2004, p.168. Other goddesses named Caelestis or Regina Caelestis (Heavenly Queen) include Juno, the Magna Mater (also known as "the Syrian Goddess" and Cybele), and Venus, the one goddess ritually excluded from Bona Dea's rites. [19] Juvenal, Satires, 6.316 - 344. The passage has been variously interpreted as slanderous misogyny and a satire on the same. [20] Traditionally, Remus took his auspices on the Saxum, the Aventine's lesser height and probably identical with Ennius' Mons Murcia. [21] This assumes Bona Dea identical with Damia, brought to Rome after the capture of Tarentum. [22] Wildfang, pp.92 - 93, citing Cicero, De Domo Sua, 53.136. Licinia may have been attempting to assert the independence of her order against the dominant traditionalists in of the Senate. Scaevola removed her donations as not made "by the will of the people". Thereafter, the Temple's official status is uncertain, until the Augustan era. [23] Ovid, Fasti, 5.157 - 158: Historia Augusta, Hadrian, 19, where Fecit et... Aedem Bonae Deae is sometimes interpreted as his rebuilding of Bona Dea's Aventine temple, though it could also refer to some other shrine to her. [24] The temple is listed in the 4th century Notitia Regionis, (Regio XII) [25] Samuel Ball Platner (revised by Thomas Ashby): A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press, 1929, p.85. courtesy link to Bill Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Bona_Dea_Subsaxana. html) [26] Parker, p.571. [27] Brouwer, p.412. [28] Brouwer, pp.402, 407. [29] Brouwer, p.21. [30] Brouwer, pp.79 - 80. [31] Brouwer, p.258. The estimate is in Peter F. Dorcey, The cult of Silvanus: a study in Roman folk religion, Columbia studies in the Classical tradition, BRILL, 1992, p.124, footnote 125. The claim to be a male priest of Bona Dea is from Inscriptiones Graecae, XIV 1499. [32] Franz Cumont, "La Bona Dea et ses serpents", Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, 1932, Vol. 49, Issue 49, pp.1 - 5. link to French language article at Persée. (http:/ / www. persee. fr/ web/ revues/ home/ prescript/ article/ mefr_0223-4874_1932_num_49_1_7221) [33] Versnel p.46, citing Plutarch, Roman Questions, 35: cf. Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, 5.18: Lactantius Divinae Institutiones, 1.22.9 - 11. [34] Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.12.20 - 29. [35] See Brouwer, p. xxiii. [36] Versnel, pp.35, 47. Thesomphoria was a three day festival; its participants, exclusively female, slept on "primitive" beds made of lugos, a willow species known to the Romans as agnos, or vitex agnus castis: supposedly an infertile tree, and a strong anaphrodisiac. Though wine is not attested at Thesmophoria, it may have been used. Like the Vestals, Demeter's priestesses were virgin. [37] Brouwer, pp.218, 221. [38] According to the arch-traditionalist Cato the Elder, a farm-bailiff's responsibilities include control of his wife, on behalf of his master. She should stay indoors, and not invite friends around; she must not gad about or take meals with friends. And she should not perform any sacrifice, or get anyone to do so on her behalf, without the master's consent. Cato the Elder, On Agriculture, 143, (Loeb edition, 1934) available at Bill Thayer's website. (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Cato/ De_Agricultura/ J*. html) [39] Cicero, De Legibus, 2.9.21. [40] Prohibitions against the handling of wine and the preparation of meat by Roman women occur in the Roman literature as examples of time-hallowed tradition, with the Vestals, who supervise Bona Dea's rites, as significant exceptions. However, some modern scholarship suggests lawful blood-and-wine sacrifice in other exclusively female and female-led cults. See Emily A. Hemelrijk, in Hekster, Schmidt-Hofner and Witschel (Eds.), Ritual Dynamics and Religious Change in the Roman Empire, Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Heidelberg, July 5–7, 2007), Brill, 2009, pp.253 - 267. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=Crzsx0aKeeYC& pg=PA255& lpg=PA255& dq=Cicero+ 2. 9. 21& source=bl& ots=Fg195Y2zd_& sig=Cqs2zBqEMYRCoP_Uq311PUvvapo& hl=en& ei=0ijYTILMHpOBhQeTr7j0BA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& 251 Bona Dea ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=Cicero 2. 9. 21& f=false) [41] Modern scholarship on the Vestals is summarised in Parker, pp. 563-601. [42] See discussion in Wildfang, pp.31 - 32. [43] Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, 10.23.1: available at Bill Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Gellius/ 10*. html). His principal source for this prohibition is the 2nd century BC moralist, Cato the Elder. See also Versnel, p.44. [44] Valerius Maximus, 2.1.5. [45] Versnell, p.32: "the most surprising aspect is the nature of the drinks: during this secret, exclusively female, nocturnal festival the women were allowed to drink - at the very least to handle - wine": see Versnel, p.45 and Wildfang, p.31. [46] Versnel, H.S., Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion: Transition and reversal in myth and ritual, BRILL, 1994, p.233. Brouwer (1989) regards the wine as a substitution for earlier sacrifices of milk and honey. [47] Staples, 85 - 90. [48] Staples, pp.125 - 126. [49] Versnel, p.45, citing Graf F., "Milch, Honig und Wein. Zum Verstindnis der Libation im Griechischen Ritual', In G. Piccaluga (ed.), Perennitas. Studi in onore di A. Brelich, Rome, 1980, pp.209 - 21. Some myths credit Liber-Dionysus with the discovery of honey; but not its invention. [50] Versnel,p. 45: "On the other hand, the mimicry may also have functioned as fuel for 'laughter of the oppressed"... "'say, dear, would you be so kind as to pass on the milk?'". [51] Myrtle was also "hardly if at all attested for the ancient Greek wedding". Versnel, p.44. 252 References and further reading • Beard, M., Price, S., North, J., Religions of Rome: Volume 1, a History, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 1998. • Brouwer, Henrik H. J., Bona Dea, The Sources and a Description of the Cult, Études préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'Empire romain, 110, BRILL, 1989. googlebooks partial preview. (http://books.google.co.uk/ books?hl=en&lr=&id=NHe98gAFmrYC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Bona+Dea:+the+sources+and+a+ description+of+the+cult&ots=RwEpuRuO1w&sig=8EpGt1u0OD0xdOZa9L66uo3fyNA#v=onepage&q& f=false) • Herbert-Brown, Geraldine, Ovid and the Fasti, An Historical Study, Oxford Classical Monographs, 1994. ISBN 9780198149354 googlebooks partial preview. (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QHr6DN2BWRUC& printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false) • Parker, Holt N., Why Were the Vestals Virgins? Or the Chastity of Women and the Safety of the Roman State, The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 125, No. 4 (Winter, 2004), pp. 563–601. • Staples, Ariadne, From Good Goddess to vestal virgins: sex and category in Roman religion, Routledge, 1998. googlebooks partial preview. (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cRS3E3u3HuAC&printsec=frontcover& dq="from+good+goddess+to+vestal+virgins"&source=bl&ots=KllwnTITiT& sig=l-AbqlFEBMahZgBu-AwZcLuGIVU&hl=en&ei=yO7iTKWCJsG2hAfYr7mxDg&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false) • Versnel, H. S., "The Festival for Bona Dea and the Thesmophoria", Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association, Greece & Rome, Second Series, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Apr., 1992), pp. 31–55. • Wildfang, Robin Lorsch, Rome's vestal virgins: a study of Rome's vestal priestesses in the late Republic and early Empire, Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2007, googlebooks partial preview. (http://books.google.co.uk/ books?id=eYetrQctq04C&pg=PA154&dq=wildfang,+robin+lorsch.+"rome's+vestal+virgins".+oxford:+ routledge&hl=en&ei=RGTYTOPdD4bvsgbW3p2NCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4& ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Bona Dea&f=false) Bubona 253 Bubona In Roman mythology, Bubona was a goddess, the numen of oxen.[1] Her name is known from book 4, chapter 24 of the book The City of God by Saint Augustine.[2] But as they knew that such things are granted to no one, except by some god freely bestowing them, they called the gods whose names they did not find out by the names of those things which they deemed to be given by them; sometimes slightly altering the name for that purpose, as, for example, from war they have named Bellona, not bellum; from cradles, Cunina, not cunæ; from standing corn, Segetia, not seges; from apples, Pomona, not pomum; from oxen, Bubona, not bos. and again in book 4, chapter 34: Without Segetia they had harvests; without Bubona, oxen; honey without Mellona; apples without Pomona: and, in a word, everything for which the Romans thought they must supplicate so great a crowd of false gods, they received much more happily from the one true God. References [1] Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1859). The New American Cyclopaedia (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=hmtMAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA32& dq=Bubona+ goddess+ -inauthor:augustine& lr=& num=100& as_brr=0). D. Appleton and Company. pp. v. 4 p. 32. . [2] Dyson, R.W. (1998). Augustine: The City of God against the Pagans (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521468434. Camenae Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: • • • • • • Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna • • • • • • Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared — Other Rustic Gods: • • • • • Bona Dea Carmenta Camenae Dea Dia Convector • • • • • Flora Lupercus Pales Pomona Egeria In Roman mythology, the Camenae (also Casmenae, Camoenae) were originally goddesses of childbirth, wells and fountains, and also prophetic deities. Camenae There were four Camenae: • • • • Carmenta Egeria Antevorta, or Porrima Postverta, or Postvorta, or Prorsa 254 The latter two were sometimes specifically referred to as the Carmentae, and in ancient times might have been two aspects of Carmenta rater then separate figures; in later times, however, they are distinct beings believed to protect women in labour. Carmenta or Carmentis was the chief among the nymphs, the spring and grove outside the Porta Capena was dedicated to her. On her festival day, the Carmentalia, which fell on January the 11 and 15, Vestal Virgins drew water from that spring for the rites. The Camenae were later identified with the Greek Muses; in his translation of Homer's Odyssey, Livius Andronicus rendered the Greek word Mousa as Camena. External links • Myth Index - Camenae [1] References [1] http:/ / www. mythindex. com/ roman-mythology/ C/ Camenae. html Candelifera In Roman mythology, Candelifera was a goddess of childbirth. She was usually associated with Lucina and Carmenta Early Roman Mythology focused on the interlocking and complex interrelations between gods and humans. In this, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority. A sub-group of deities covered the general realm of infancy and childhood.[1] In this area, Candelifera was called upon as a general guardian and tutelary deity to guide an unborn infant to Lucina and the experience of the child's first sight. References [1] "Reference Guide to Roman Mythology" (http:/ / web. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ RomPan. html). . Retrieved 2008-09-17. Cardea 255 Cardea In Roman mythology, Cardea was the goddess of health, thresholds and door hinges and handles, also associated with the wind. Her name comes from cardo, meaning door-pivot. She protected children against vampires and witches, and was also the benefactress of craftsmen. These powers were given to her by Janus, who was in love with her. Her associates also were Forculus and Limentinus[1] [2] . Her cult was important in ancient Rome. Masks, balls and figurines (oscilla) were hung from doorways or trees to encourage crop growth in reverence to her. The hawthorn tree was sacred to her. Ovid[3] said of Cardea, in what is apparently a religious formula, "Her power is to open what is shut; to shut what is open." References [1] Augustine, De civitate Dei, 4. 8 [2] Tertullian, De corona militis, 13 [3] Ovid, Fasti, 6. 101 ff; he appears to have confused her with Carna External links • Myth Index - Cardea (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/C/Cardea.html) • William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 1, page 612 (http://www. ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0621.html) Carmenta For the genus of Lepidoptera, see Carmenta (moth) In ancient Roman religion and myth, Carmenta was a goddess of childbirth and prophecy, associated with technological innovation as well as the protection of mothers and children, and a patron of midwives. She was also said to have invented the Latin alphabet. Carmenta as Nicostrata Carmenta 256 Background The name Carmenta is derived from Latin carmen, meaning a magic spell, oracle or song, and also the root of the English word charm. Her original name was Nicostrate, but it was changed later to honor her renown for giving oracles. She was the mother of Evander and along with other followers they founded the town of Pallantium, which later was one of the sites of the start of Rome. Gaius Julius Hyginus (Fab. 277) mentions the legend that it was she who altered fifteen letters of the Greek alphabet to become the Latin alphabet, which her son Evander introduced into Latium. Carmenta was one of the Camenae, and the Cimmerian Sibyl. The leader of her cult was called the flamen carmentalis. It was forbidden to wear leather or other forms of dead skin in her temple, which was next to the Porta Carmentalis in Rome. Her festival, called the Carmentalia, was celebrated primarily by women on January 11 and January 15. Duenos inscription (6th century BC) showing the earliest known forms of the Old Latin alphabet. References Primary sources • Ovid, Fasti i.461-542 • Servius, In Aeneida viii.51 • Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium i.10, 13 Porta Carmentalis (at location 12) Secondary sources • The Dictionary of Classical Mythology by Pierre Grimal, page 89 "Carmenta" • The Book of the City of Ladies, by Christine de Pizan, section I.33.2 External links • Roman Mythology [1] • List of Minor Roman Gods [21] • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, page 589 (v. 1) [2] References [1] http:/ / www. paralumun. com/ mythroman. htm [2] http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. com/ smith-bio/ 0598. html Ceres (mythology) 257 Ceres (mythology) Ceres Seated Ceres from Emerita Augusta, present-day Mérida, Spain (National Museum of Roman Art, 1st century AD) Goddess of grain, agricultural and human fertility, and motherly love Parents Siblings Children Saturn and Ops Vesta, Jupiter, Juno, Neptune and Pluto Proserpina, Liber? Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Ceres (mythology) 258 Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism In ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships. Her cult took many forms. She was the central deity in Rome's so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, and was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as "the Greek rites of Ceres". She played an essential role in Roman marriage and in funeral rites. Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales (Ceres' games). She was honoured in the May lustration of fields at the Ambarvalia festival, and at harvest-time. She is the only one of Rome's many agricultural deities to be listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. Her functions and cults were held equivalent to those of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology she came to share. Etymology and origins Ceres is linked to pastoral, agricultural and human fertility. Her name may derive from the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European root "ker", meaning "to grow", which is also the root for the words "create" and "increase"; Roman etymologists thought her name derived from the Latin verb gerere, "to bear, bring forth, produce". She is well-evidenced among regal Rome's neighbours, the ancient Latins, Oscans and Sabellians, less certainly among the Etruscans and Umbrians. An archaic Faliscan inscription of c.600 BC asks her to provide far (spelt wheat), a dietary staple of the Mediterranean world. Throughout the Roman era, Latin ceres was synonymous with grain and, by extension, with bread.[1] Ceres (mythology) 259 Cult development Archaic and regal eras Ceres' eponymous festival, Cerealia, is usually credited to Rome's second king, the semi-legendary Numa.[2] Her affinity and joint cult with Tellus, also known as Terra Mater (Mother Earth) may have also developed at this time. Much later, during the early Imperial era, Ovid describes these goddesses as "partners in labour"; Ceres provides the "cause" for the growth of crops and Tellus provides them a place to grow.[3] Republican era Ceres and the Aventine Triad In 496 BC, against a background of economic recession and famine in Rome, imminent war against the Latins and a threatened secession by Rome's plebs (citizen commoners), the dictator A. Postumius vowed a temple to Ceres, Liber and Libera on or near the Aventine Hill. The famine ended and Rome's plebeian citizen-soldiery co-operated in the conquest of the Latins. Postumius' vow was fulfilled in 493 BC: Ceres became the central deity of the new Triad, housed in a new-built Aventine temple.[4] She was also – or became – the patron goddess of the plebs. Plebeian tenant farmers, estate managers, agricultural factors and importers were a mainstay of Roman agriculture. Their enterprise was essential to the grain trade: and much of Rome's grain was imported from territories of Magna Graecia. Writers of the late Roman Republic and early Empire describe Ceres' Aventine temple and rites as conspicuously Greek.[5] In modern scholarship, this is taken as further evidence of long-standing connections between the plebeians, Ceres and Magna Graecia. It also raises unanswered questions on the nature, history and character of these associations: the Triad itself may have been a self-consciously Roman cult formulation based on Greco-Italic precedents.[6] To complicate matters further, when a new form of Cerean cult was officially imported from Magna Graecia, it was known as the ritus graecus (Greek rite) of Ceres, distinct from her older Roman rites.[7] The older forms of Aventine rites to Ceres remain uncertain: in most Roman cults, a male officiant's head was covered by a fold of his toga. In most forms of the Roman ritus graecus, a male celebrant wore Greek-style vestments, and remained bareheaded before the deity, or else wore a wreath. While Ceres' original Aventine cult was led by male priests, the ritus graecus Cereris was exclusively female.[8] Middle Republic Ceres and Proserpina Arnobius gives the introduction of an official, definitively Greek cult to Ceres and her daughter Proserpina as 205 BC,[9] soon before the end of the Second Punic War. This new ritus graecia cereris (Greek rite of Ceres) was imported from southern Italy, along with Greek priestesses to serve it: the latter were given Roman citizenship and thus owed responsibility and allegiance to the Roman state, so that they could pray to the gods "with a foreign and external knowledge, but with a domestic and civil intention". The cult was based on ancient, ethnically Greek cults to Demeter, most notably the Greek Thesmophoria to Demeter and Persephone, whose cults and myths also provided a basis for the Eleusinian mysteries[10] From at least this time, Demeter's temple at Enna, in Sicily, was acknowledged as Ceres' oldest, most authoritative cult centre, and Libera was recognised as Proserpina, Roman equivalent to Demeter's daughter Persephone.[11] Their joint cult recalls Demeter's search for Persephone, after the latter's rape and abduction into the underworld by Hades. The new cult to "mother and maiden" took its place alongside the old, but made no reference to Liber. Thereafter, Ceres was offered two separate and distinctive forms of official cult at the Aventine. Both might have been supervised by the male flamen Cerialis but otherwise, their relationship is unclear. The older form of cult included both men and women, and probably remained a focus for plebeian political identity and discontent. The new identified its exclusively females initiates and priestesses as upholders of Rome's Ceres (mythology) traditional, patrician-dominated social hierarchy and mores.[12] Ceres and Magna Mater A year after the import of the ritus cereris, patrician senators imported cult to the Greek goddess Cybele and established her as Magna Mater (The Great Mother) within Rome's sacred boundary, facing the Aventine Hill.[13] Like Ceres, Cybele was a form of Graeco-Roman earth goddess. Unlike her, she had mythological ties to Troy, and thus to the Trojan prince Aeneas, ancestor of Rome's founding father and first patrician Romulus. The establishment of official Roman cult to Magna Mater coincided with the start of a new saeculum (cycle of years). It was followed by Hannibal's defeat, the end of the Punic War and an exceptionally good harvest. Roman victory and recovery could therefore be credited to Magna Mater and patrician piety: so the patricians dined her and each other at her festival banquets. In similar fashion, the plebeian nobility underlined their claims to Ceres. Up to a point, the two cults reflected a social and political divide but when certain prodigies were interpreted as evidence of Ceres' displeasure, the senate appeased her with a new festival, the ieiunium Cereris.[14] In 133 BC, civil unrest spilled into violence when the plebeian noble Tiberius Gracchus bypassed the Senate and appealed directly to the popular assembly to pass his proposed land-reforms. He and many of his supporters were murdered by their conservative opponents. At the behest of the Sibylline oracle, the senate sent the quindecimviri to Ceres' ancient cult centre at Henna in Sicily, the goddess' supposed place of origin and earthly home. Some kind of religious consultation or propitiation was given, either to expiate Gracchus' murder – as later Roman sources would claim – or to justify it as the lawful killing of a would-be king or demagogue, a homo sacer who had offended Ceres' laws against tyranny.[15] 260 Late Republic In Late Republican politics, aristocratic traditionalists and popularists still laid competing claims to Ceres' favour. Traditionalists and patricians appealed to her divine agency in fostering social unity. Popularists used her name and attributes to appeal their guardianship of plebeian interests, particularly the annona and frumentarium. Plebeian nobles and aediles used the same to point out their ancestral connections with plebeian commoners. Towards the end of the Republic, in the decades of Civil War that ushered in the Empire, such images and dedications proliferate on Rome's coinage: Julius Caesar, his opponents, his assassins and his heirs alike claimed the favour and support of Ceres and her plebeian proteges, with coin issues that celebrate Ceres, Libertas (liberty) and Victoria (victory).[16] Imperial era Imperial theology conscripted Rome's traditional cults as upholders of the Imperial Pax (peace). The emperor Augustus began the restoration of Ceres' Aventine Temple; his successor Tiberius completed it.[17] Cerean symbols and attributes are associated with several figures on the Augustan Ara Pacis; one doubles as a portrait of the Empress Livia. Another has been variously identified in modern scholarship as Tellus, Venus, Pax or Ceres, or in Spaeth's analysis, a deliberately broad composite of them all. Images of Ceres are found on Imperial coins and monuments throughout the Imperial era.[18] Various emperors are shown wearing her corona spicea. She is sometimes named Ceres Augusta; the Imperial title identifies her with the ruling princeps and his spouse, and conjointly responsible for agricultural prosperity and the provision of grain: a coin of the the emperor Claudius shows his mother Antonia as Augusta, wearing the corona spicea.[19] A coin of Nerva (reigned AD 96 - 98) evinces the continued reliance of the urban plebs on the princeps' gift of frumentio (corn dole).[20] In Britain, a soldier's inscription of the 2nd century AD attests to Ceres' role in the popular syncretism of the times. She is "the bearer of ears of corn", the "Syrian Goddess", identical with the universal heavenly Mother, the Magna Mater and Virgo, virgin mother of the gods. She is peace and virtue, and inventor of justice: she weighs "Life and Right" in her scale.[21] Ceres (mythology) During the Late Imperial era, Ceres gradually "slips into obscurity". The last official coinage to show an Imperial family member with her symbols is an issue of Septimius Severus (AD 193 - 211), which shows his wife, Julia Domna in the corona spicea. After the reign of Claudius Gothicus, she has disappeared from coins of any kind. Even so, an initiate of Ceres' mysteries is attested in the 5th century AD, after the official abolition of all non-Christian cults.[22] 261 Temples Vitruvius (c.80 - 15 BC) describes the "Temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus" (her Aventine Temple) as typically Araeostyle, having widely spaced supporting columns, with architraves of wood, rather than stone. This species of temple is "clumsy, heavy roofed, low and wide, [its] pediments ornamented with statues of clay or brass, gilt in the Tuscan fashion".[23] He recommends that temples to Ceres be sited "in a solitary spot out of the city, to which the public are not necessarily led but for the purpose of sacrificing to her. This spot is to be reverenced with religious awe and solemnity of demeanour, by those whose affairs lead them to visit it."[24] During the early Imperial era Pliny the Younger restored an ancient, "old and narrow" temple to Ceres, sited on his rural property near Como. It contained an ancient wooden cult statue of the goddess, which he replaced. Though this was unofficial, private cult (sacra privata) its annual feast on the Ides of September, the same day as the Epulum Jovis, was attended by pilgrims from all over the region.[25] Cults and cult themes Agricultural fertility Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat (far), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of agriculture to humankind; before this, it was said, man had subsisted on acorns, and wandered without settlement or laws. Ceres was first to "break open the earth", and the most ancient of her festivals marked the most important times and activities of the agricultural cycle. She held the power to fertilise, multiply and fructify plant and animal seed. Their offspring were thus the physical incarnations of her power: in religious law, they were hers. In January, Ceres and Tellus were offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow at the movable Feriae Sementivae, which was almost certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the intestines (exta) presented in an olla (earthenware pot).[26] In a rural context, Cato the Elder describes the offer to Ceres of a porca praecidanea (a pig, offered before the sowing).[27] A priest of Ceres, possibly the flamen cerialis invoked the goddess, and a further twelve minor agricultural deities who assisted her: they are listed by Servius (On Vergil, 1.21).[28] Ceres' major festival, Cerealia, was held from mid to late April. Its original form is unknown; it may have been founded during the regal era. During the Republican era, it was organised by the plebeian aediles, and included ludi circenses (circus games). These opened with a horse race in the Circus Maximus, whose starting point lay just below the Aventine Temple of Ceres, Liber and Libera.[29] In a nighttime ritual after the race, blazing torches were tied to the tails of live foxes, who were released into the Circus. The origin and purpose of this ritual are unknown; it may have been intended to cleanse the growing crops and protect them from disease and vermin, or to add warmth and vitality to their growth.[30] From c.175 BC, Cerealia included ludi scaenici (theatrical religious events), held through April 12 to 18.[31] Various rural and urban festivals were held at harvest-time. Before the harvest, Ceres was offered a propitiary grain sample (praementium).[32] Ceres (mythology) Human fertility, marriage and nourishment Several of Ceres' ancient Italic precursors are connected to human fertility and motherhood; the Roman goddess Angerona (associated with childbirth) has been identified with the Pelignan goddess Angitia Cerealis.[33] In the late 2nd century AD, Festus describes a wedding ceremony, during which a torch is carried in honour of Ceres; Pliny the Elder "notes that the most auspicious wood for wedding torches came from the spina alba, the may tree, which bore many fruits and hence symbolised fertility". This practice may represent the continuation of a much earlier identification or conflation of Ceres with Tellus (as Terra Mater), a personification of the fertile earth itself, who was invoked in the auspices at Roman weddings. Tellus was offered sacrifice by the bride; a sow is the most likely victim. Varro describes the sacrifice of a pig as "a worthy mark of weddings" because "our women, and especially nurses" call the female genitalia porcus (pig). Spaeth (1996) believes Ceres may have been included in the sacrificial dedication, because she is closely identified with Tellus and "bears the laws" of marriage. The most solemn form of marriage, confarreatio, required that the bride and groom share a cake made of far, the ancient wheat-type particularly associated with Ceres.[34] The cult to Ceres and Proserpina reinforced and formalised Ceres' connection with traditional Roman ideals of female virtue, motherhood and its attendant duties: promotion of her cult is associated with the development of a plebeian nobility, a fall in the patrician birthrate and a rise in the birthrate among plebeian commoners.[35] The late Republican Ceres Mater (Mother Ceres) is genetrix (progenitress) and alma (nourishing) and in the early Imperial era she receives joint cult with Ops Augusta, Ceres' own mother in Imperial guise and a bountiful genetrix in her own right.[36] Laws and liminality Ceres was patron and protector of plebeian laws, rights and Tribunes. The foundation of her Aventine cult was contemporaneous with the passage of the Lex Sacrata, which established the office and person of plebeian tribunes, and probably plebeian aediles, as inviolate. The tribunes were representatives of the Roman people, and immune to arrest or threat. The life and property of any who violated this law were forfeit to Ceres. Her Aventine temple served the plebeians as cult centre, treasury, and archive. When the Lex Hortensia of 287 BC extended plebeian law to all Roman citizens, the official decrees of the Senate (senatus consulta) were placed in the same archive, under guardianship of Ceres and her plebeian aediles. Livy puts the reason bluntly: the consuls could no longer seek advantage by arbitrarily tampering with the laws of Rome. Ceres was thus the patron goddess of written laws; Vergil calls her legifera Ceres (Law-bearing Ceres), in direct translation of Demeter's Greek epithet, thesmophoros.[37] Fines against those who offended "Ceres' laws" were automatically her property. Her aediles sold any goods distrained as part of capital penalty or in lieu of fines and used the proceeds to fund her temple and cult.[38] Her temple might also have offered sanctuary or asylum for the needy, or for those threatened with arbitrary arrest by patrician magistrates.[39] Ceres' role as protector of laws continues throughout the Republican era. Those who approved the murder of Tiberius Gracchus in 133 BC justified his death as punishment for his offense against the Lex sacrata of the goddess Ceres: those who deplored this as murder appealed to Gracchus' sancrosanct status as tribune under Ceres' protection. In 70 BC, Cicero refers to this killing in connection with Ceres' laws and cults, during his prosecution of Verres, Roman governor of Sicily, for extortion.[40] The case included circumstantial details of Verres' irreligious exploitation and abuse of Sicilian grain farmers – under Ceres' special protection at the very place of her "earthly home" – and thefts from her temple, including an ancient image of the goddess herself.[41] Faced by the mounting evidence against him, Verres abandoned all defence and withdrew to a prosperous exile. Soon after, Cicero won election as aedile. Likewise, crimes against fields and harvest were crimes against the people and their protective deity. Landowners who allowed their flocks to graze on public land were fined by the plebeian aediles, on behalf of Ceres and the people of Rome. Ancient laws of the Twelve Tables forbade the magical charming of field crops from a neighbour's 262 Ceres (mythology) field into one's own, and invoked the death penalty for the illicit removal of field boundaries.[42] An adult who damaged or stole field-crops should be hanged "for Ceres".[43] Any youth guilty of the same offense was to be whipped or fined double the value of damage.[44] Some of Ceres' functions may be categorised as liminal. Her first plough-furrow opened the earth (Tellus' realm) to the world of men and created the first field and its boundary; she thus determined the course of settled, lawful, civilised life. She mediated between plebeian and patrician factions. She oversaw the transition of women from girlhood to womanhood, from unmarried to married life and motherhood and the growth of children from infancy. Despite her chthonic connections to Tellus, she was not, according to Spaeth, an underworld deity. Rather, she maintained the boundaries between the realms of the living and the dead. Given the appropriate rites, she would help the deceased into afterlife as an underworld shade (Di Manes): otherwise, the spirit of the deceased might remain among the living as a wandering, vengeful ghost. For her service, well-off families offered Ceres sacrifice of a pig. The poor could offer wheat, flowers, and a libation.[45] The expectations of afterlife for initiates in the sacra Cereris may have been somewhat different, as they were offered "a method of living" and of "dying with better hope".[46] The mundus of Ceres The mundus cerialis (literally "the world" of Ceres) was a pit or underground vault in Rome. Cato describes its shape as a reflection or inversion of the dome of the upper heavens.[47] It was normally sealed by a stone lid known as the lapis manalis.[48] Its origins, uses and location are disputed,[49] and it was opened on only three occasions in the religious year, August 24, October 5 and November 8. The circumstances of this ceremony remain obscure: the days when the mundus was open are identified in the oldest Roman calendar as C(omitiales) (days when the Comitia met) but by later authors as dies religiosus, when it would be irreligious to perform any official work: this apparent contradiction has led to the suggestion that the whole mundus ritual was not contemporary with Rome's early calendar or early Cerean cult, but was a later Greek import.[50] Nevertheless, these three days are intimate to the official festivals of the agricultural cycle, being clustered within the harvest period: the mundus rite of August 24 follows Consualia (an agricultural festival) and precedes Opiconsivia (another such). With the mundus opened, and the fact announced by the declaration "mundus patet", offerings were made there to agricultural or underworld deities, including Ceres as goddess of the fruitful earth and guardian of its underworld portals. On these days, the spirits of the dead could lawfully emerge from below and roam among the living, in what Warde Fowler describes as ‘holidays, so to speak, for the ghosts’. When it was re-sealed, they returned to the realms of the dead.[51] Apart from the festivals of Parentalia and Lemuralia, these rites at the mundus cerialis on particular dies religiosi are the only known, regular official contacts with the spirits of the dead, or Di Manes. This may represent a secondary or late function of the mundus, attested no earlier than the Late Republican Era, by Varro.[52] Warde Fowler speculates its original function as a storehouse (penna) for the best of the harvest, to provide seed-grain for the next planting, becoming a largely symbolic penna of the Roman state. In Plutarch, the digging of such a pit to receive first-fruits and small quantities of native soil was an Etruscan colonial city-foundation rite.[53] The rites of the mundus suggest Ceres as guardian deity of seed-corn, an essential deity in the establishment and agricultural prosperity of cities, and a door-warden of the underworld's afterlife, in which her daughter Proserpina rules as queen-companion to Pluto or Dis.[54] Expiations In Roman theology, prodigies were abnormal phenomena that manifested divine anger at human impiety. In Roman histories, prodigies are clustered around perceived or actual threats to the equilibrium of the Roman state, in particular, famine, war and social disorder. As abnormal phenomena, prodigies could not be dealt with through ordinary, calendrical forms of cult but might be otherwise expiated through urgent, appropriate religious action. The establishment of Ceres' Aventine cult has itself been interpreted as an extraordinary expiation after the failure of crops and consequent famine. In Livy's history, Ceres is among the deities placated after a remarkable series of prodigies that accompanied the disasters of the Second Punic War: during the same conflict, a lighting strike at her 263 Ceres (mythology) temple was expiated. A fast in her honour is recorded for 191 BC, to be repeated at 5-year intervals.[55] After 206, she was offered at least 11 further official expiations. Many of these were connected to famine and manifestations of plebeian unrest, rather than war. From the Middle Republic onwards, expiation was increasingly addressed to her as mother to Proserpina. The last known followed Rome's Great Fire of 64 AD.[56] The cause or causes of the fire remained uncertain, but its disastrous extent was taken as a sign of offense against Juno, Vulcan, and Ceres-with-Proserpina, who were all were given expiatory cult. Champlin (2003) perceives the expiations to Vulcan and Ceres in particular as attempted populist appeals by the ruling emperor, Nero.[57] 264 Images of Ceres No images of Ceres survive from her pre-Aventine cults; the earliest date to the middle Republic, and show the Hellenising influence of Demeter's iconography. Some late Republican images recall Ceres' search for Proserpina. Ceres bears a torch, sometimes two, and rides in a chariot drawn by snakes; or she sits on the sacred kiste (chest) that conceals the objects of her mystery rites.[58] Augustan reliefs show her emergence, plant-like from the earth, her arms entwined by snakes, her outstretched hands bearing poppies and wheat, or her head crowned with fruits and vines.[59] In free-standing statuary, she commonly wears a wheat-crown, or holds a wheat spray. Moneyers of the Republican era use Ceres' image, wheat ears and garlands to advertise their connections with prosperity, the annona and the popular interest. Some Imperial coin images depict important female members of the Imperial family as Ceres, or with some of her attributes.[60] Priesthoods Ceres was served by several public priesthoods. Some were male; her senior priest, the flamen cerialis, also served Tellus and was usually plebeian by ancestry or adoption.[61] Her public cult at the Ambarvalia, or "perambulation of fields" identified her with Dea Dia, and was led by the Arval Brethren ("The Brothers of the Fields"); rural versions of these rites were led as private cult by the heads of households. An inscription at Capua names a male sacerdos Cerialis mundalis, a priest dedicated to Ceres' rites of the mundus.[62] The plebeian aediles had minor or occasional priestly functions at Ceres' Aventine Temple and were responsible for its management and financial affairs including collection of fines, the organisation of ludi Cerealia and probably the Cerealia itself. Their cure (care and jurisdiction) included , or came to include, the grain supply (annona) and later the plebeian grain doles (frumentationes), the organisation and management of public games in general, and the maintenance of Rome's streets and public buildings.[63] Otherwise, in Rome and throughout Italy, as at her ancient sanctuaries of Henna and Catena, Ceres' ritus graecia and her joint cult with Proserpina were invariably led by female sacerdotes, drawn from women of local and Roman elites: Cicero notes that once the new cult had been founded, its earliest priestesses "generally were either from Naples or Velia", cities allied or federated to Rome. Elsewhere, he describes Ceres' Sicilian priestesses as "older women respected for their noble birth and character".[64] This was the only Roman public priesthood reserved to matrons and was held in the highest honour. Priestesses of Ceres far outnumbered her few male priests, and would have been influential figures in their communities.[65] [66] Ceres (mythology) 265 Myths and theology The complex and multi-layered origins of the Aventine Triad and Ceres herself allowed multiple interpretations of their relationships; Cicero asserts Ceres as mother to both Liber and Libera, consistent with her role as a mothering deity. Varro's more complex theology groups her functionally with Tellus, Terra, Venus (and thus Victoria) and with Libera as a female aspect of Liber.[67] No native Roman myths of Ceres are known. According to interpretatio romana, which sought the equivalence of Roman to Greek deities, she was an equivalent to Demeter, one of the Twelve Olympians of Greek religion and mythology; this made Ceres one of Rome's twelve Di Consentes, daughter of Saturn and Ops, sister of Jupiter, mother of Proserpina by Jupiter and sister of Juno, Vesta, Neptune and Pluto. Ceres' known mythology is indistinguishable from Demeter's: Ceres with cereals "When Ceres sought through all the earth with lit torches for Proserpina, who had been seized by Dis Pater, she called her with shouts where three or four roads meet; from this it has endured in her rites that on certain days a lamentation is raised at the crossroads everywhere by the matronae."[68] Ceres had strong mythological and cult connections with Sicily, especially at Henna (Enna), on whose "miraculous plain" flowers bloomed throughout the year. This was the place of Proserpina's rape and abduction to the underworld and the site of Ceres' most ancient Sanctuary.[69] According to legend, she begged Jupiter that Sicily be placed in the heavens. The result, because the island is triangular in shape, was the constellation Triangulum, an early name of which was Sicilia. Legacy The word cereals derives from Ceres, commemorating her association with edible grains. Statues of Ceres top the domes of the Missouri State Capitol and the Vermont State House serving as a reminder of the importance of agriculture in the states' economies and histories. There is also a statue of her on top of the Chicago Board of Trade Building, which conducts trading in agricultural commodities. The dwarf planet Ceres (discovered 1801), is named after this goddess. And in turn, the chemical element cerium (discovered 1803) was named after the dwarf planet. A poem about Ceres and humanity features in Dmitri's confession to his brother Alexei in Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, Part 1, Book 3, Chapter 3. Ceres appears as a character in William Shakespeare's play The Tempest (1611). An aria in praise of Ceres is sung in Act 4 of the opera The Trojans by Hector Berlioz. The goddess Ceres is one of the three goddess offices held in the Grange or Patrons of Husbandry. The other goddesses are Pomona, and Flora. Ceres is depicted on the Seal of New Jersey as a symbol of prosperity. Ceres (mythology) 266 Notes and references [1] Spaeth, 1990, pp. 1, 33, 182. See also Spaeth, 1996, pp. 1 - 4, 33-34, 37. Spaeth disputes the identification of Ceres with warlike, protective Umbrian deities named on the Iguvine Tablets, and Gantz' identification of Ceres as one of six figures shown on a terracotta plaque at Etruscan Murlo (Poggio Civitate). [2] Ceres' senior, male priesthood was a minor flaminate. This priesthood and its rites (including the Cerealia) were supposedly innovations of Numa. Whether or not Numa existed, the antiquity of Ceres' Italic cult is attested by the threefold inscription of her name c.600 BC on a Faliscan jar; the Faliscans were close neighbours of Rome. See Spaeth, 1996, pp. 4, 5, 33 - 34. [3] Ovid Fasti, 1.673 - 684. [4] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 8 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA142& vq=lavinium& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA142#v=onepage& q& f=false), 44. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5g3YDlPvbeMC& lpg=PA44& vq=Liber Cicero& dq= Spaeth, Barbette S. , & pg=PA44#v=onepage& q& f=false) [5] Wiseman, 1995, p.133 and notes 20, 22. [6] The Sibylline Books were written in Greek; according to later historians, they had recommended the inauguration of Roman cult to the Greek deities Demeter, Dionysus and Persephone. See also Cornell, T., The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c.1000–264 BC), Routledge, 1995, p. 264, for Greek models as a likely basis in the development of plebeian political and religious identity from an early date. [7] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 4, 6 - 13. For discussion of ritus graecus and its relation to Ceres' cult, see Scheid, pp. 15-31. [8] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 4, 6 - 13. For discussion of ritus graecus and its relation to Ceres' cult, see Scheid, pp. 15-31. [9] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 4, 6 - 13. Arnobius is mistaken in believing this to be the introduction of Ceres' cult to Rome; but his belief may reflect the high profile and ubiquity of the "Greek cult of Ceres" during the later Imperial period, and possibly the fading of a distinctively Aventine form of her cult, whether at her Aventine temple or elsewhere. [10] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 13, citing Cicero, Balbus, 55.5., and p. 60. From the late Republican era, the Eleusinian mysteries became increasingly popular. Early Roman initiates at Eleusis in Greece included Sulla and Cicero; thereafter many Emperors were initiated, including Hadrian, who founded an Eleusinian cult centre in Rome itself. [11] Scheid, p.23. [12] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 13, 15, 60, 94 - 97. [13] Cybele's cult image was brought by the Vestal Virgin Claudia Quinta, as an errand of State. [14] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 15, 94 - 97. [15] Both interpretations are possible. On the whole, Roman sources infer the expedition as expiatory; for background, see Valerius Maximus, 1.1.1., and Cicero, In Verres, 2.4.108 et passim, cited by Olivier de Cazanove, in Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p 56. For debate and challenge to Roman descriptions of the motives for this expedition, see Spaeth, 1990, pp. 182-195. Spaeth finds the expedition an attempt to justify the killing of T. Gracchus as official, right and lawful, based on senatorial speeches given soon after the killing; contra Henri Le Bonniec, Le culte de Cérès à Rome. Des origines à la fin de la République, Paris, Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1958. Le Bonniec interprets the consultation as an attempt to compensate the plebs and their patron goddess for the murder. [16] The plebeian L. Assius Caeicianus, identifies his plebeian ancestry and duties to Ceres on a denarius issue, c.102 BC. For this and remainder see Spaeth, 1996, pp. 97 - 100 and further coin images between pp. 32 - 44. [17] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 6-8, 86ff. [18] Spaeth argues for the identification of the central figure in the Ara Pacis relief as Ceres. It is more usually interpreted as Tellus. See Spaeth, 1996, 127 - 134. [19] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 26, 30. [20] Spaeth, 1996, p. 101. [21] Benko, pp.112 - 114: see also pp.31, 51, citing Apuleius, Metamorphoses, 11.2, in which Isis reveals to Lucius that she, Ceres and Proserpina, Artemis and Venus are all aspects of the one "Heavenly Queen"; cf Juno Caelestis, "Queen of Heaven", the Romanised form of Tanit. [22] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 30, 62, citing EE 4.866 for the 5th century mystes Cereris. [23] Vitruvius, On Architecture, 3.1.5 available at penelope. edu (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Vitruvius/ 3*. html#1. 5) [24] Vitruvius, On Architecture, 1.7.2 available at penelope. edu (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Vitruvius/ 1*. html#7. 2) [25] Pliny the Younger, Epistles, 9.39: cited by Oliver de Cazanove, in Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p.56. [26] John Scheid, in Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p 264; and Varro, Lingua Latina, 5.98. [27] Spaeth, 1996, p. 35: "The pregnant victim is a common offering to female fertility divinities and was apparently intended, on the principle of sympathetic magic, to fertilise and multiply the seeds committed to the earth." [28] "Vervactor who turns fallow land, Reparator who prepares fallow land, Imporcitor who plows with wide furrows, Insitor who sows, Obarator who ploughs, Occator who harrows, Sarritor who weeds, Subruncinator who thins out, Messor who harvests, Conuector who carts, Conditor who stores, and Promitor who distributes the grain." Servius' list is cited in Spaeth, 1996, p.36. See also Cato the Elder, On Agriculture, 134, for the porca praecidanea. Ceres (mythology) [29] Wiseman, 1995, p.137. [30] Spaeth, 1996, pp.36 - 37. Ovid offers a myth by way of explanation: long ago, at ancient Carleoli, a farm-boy caught a fox stealing chickens and tried to burn it alive. The fox escaped, ablaze; in its flight it fired the fields and their crops, which were sacred to Ceres. Ever since (says Ovid) foxes are punished at her festival. [31] A plebeian aedile, C. Memmius, is credited with Ceres' first ludi scaeneci. He celebrated the event with the dole of a new commemorative denarius; his claim to have given "the first Cerealia" represents this innovation. See Spaeth, 1996, p.88. [32] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 35 - 39: the offer of praemetium to Ceres is thought to have been an ancient Italic practice. In Festus, "Praementium [is] that which was measured out beforehand for the sake of [the goddess] tasting it beforehand". In the historical period, the praementium was offered at Ceres' temple. [33] Spaeth, 1996, 103 - 105. [34] Benko, p.177. [35] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 5, 6, 44-47. The "most auspicious wood for wedding torches" is from Pliny the Elder, Historia Naturalis, 30.75; the relevant passage from Varro is Rerum Rusticarum, 2.4.10. Servius, On Vergil's Aeneid, 4.58, "implies that Ceres established the laws for weddings as well as for other aspects of civilized life." [36] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 42 - 43, citing Vetter, E., 1953, Handbuch der italienischen Dialekte 1. Heidelberg, for connections between Ceres, Pelignan Angitia Cerealis, Angerona and childbirth. [37] Cornell, T., The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c.1000–264 BC), Routledge, 1995, p. 264, citing vergil, Aeneid, 4.58. [38] Livy's proposal that the senatus consulta were placed at the Aventine Temple more or less at its foundation (Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 3.55.13) is implausible. See Spaeth, 1996, p.86 - 87, 90. [39] The evidence is inconclusive. Discussion is in Spaeth, 1996, p.84. [40] David Stockton, Cicero: a political biography, Oxford University Press, 1971, pp.43 - 49. Cicero's published account of the case is usually known as In Verrem, or Against Verres. [41] Cicero, Against Verres, Second pleading, 4.49 - 51:English version available at wikisource. [42] Ogden, in Valerie Flint, et al., Athlone History of Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome, Vol. 2, Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 1998, p.83: citing Pliny, Natural History, 28.17 - 18; Seneca, Natural Questions, 4.7.2 [43] Cereri necari, literally "killed for Ceres". [44] Spaeth, 1996, p.70, citing Pliny the elder, Historia naturalis, 18.3.13 on the Twelve Tables and cereri necari; compare the terms of punishment for violation of the sancrosancticity of Tribunes. [45] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 55 - 63. See also Viet Rosenberger, in Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p 296, for sacrifice of a pig at funerals. [46] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 60 - 61, 66; citing Cicero, de Legibus, 2.36. As initiates of mystery religions were sworn to secrecy, very little is known of their central rites or beliefs. [47] Festus p. 261 L2, citing Cato's commentaries on civil law. [48] Apparently not the same Lapis manalis used by the pontifices to alleviate droughts. [49] Candidates for location include the site of Rome's Comitium and the Palatine Hill, within the city’s ritual boundary (pomerium). According to Roman tradition, it had been dug and sealed by Romulus at Rome's foundation. See Spaeth, pp.63-5: W. Warde Fowler, "Mundus Patet" in Journal of Roman Studies, 2, (1912), pp.25-33: available online at Bill Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ secondary/ journals/ JRS/ 2/ Mundus*. html): M. Humm, "Le mundus et le Comitium : représentations symboliques de l’espace de la cité," Histoire urbaine, 2, 10, 2004. French language, full preview. (http:/ / www. cairn. info/ revue-histoire-urbaine-2004-2-page-43. htm) [50] M. Humm, "Le mundus et le Comitium : représentations symboliques de l’espace de la cité," Histoire urbaine, 2, 10, 2004. French language, full preview. (http:/ / www. cairn. info/ revue-histoire-urbaine-2004-2-page-43. htm) [51] W. Warde Fowler, "Mundus Patet" in Journal of Roman Studies, 2, 1912, pp.25-26: Warde Fowler notes the possibilty that pigs were offered: also (pp.35-36) seed-corn, probably far, from the harvest. [52] Cited in Macrobius, 1.16.18. [53] Plutarch, Romulus, 11. [54] In Festus, the mundus is an entrance to the underworld realm of Orcus, broadly equivalent to Pluto and Dis Pater. For more on Ceres as a liminal deity, her earthly presidence over the underworld and the mundus, see Spaeth, 1996, pp. 5, 18, 31, 63-5. For further connection between the mundus, the penates, and agricultural and underworld deities, see W. Warde Fowler, "Mundus Patet" in Journal of Roman Studies, 2, (1912), pp.25-33: available online at Bill Thayer's website (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ secondary/ journals/ JRS/ 2/ Mundus*. html) [55] Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 36.37.4-5. Livy describes the fast as a cyclical ieiunium Cereris; but see also Viet Rosenberger, in Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p 296; if expiatory, it may have been a once-only event. [56] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 14 - 15, 65 - 7. [57] For the circumstances of this expiation, and debate over the site of the Cerean expiation, see Edward Champlin, Nero, Harvard University Press, 2003, pp.191-4: this expiation is usually said to be at the Aventine Temple. Champlin prefers the mundus (at or very near the Comitia). Google-books preview (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=30Wa-l9B5IoC& pg=PA192& lpg=PA192& dq=Ceres+ expiation+ 64& source=bl& ots=nw4fjjZZou& sig=mQgFhj6imD-jJayU8pFN0BCMLyM& hl=en& ei=hMMtTeyzB427hAf3hK2dCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CC4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage& q& f=false) 267 Ceres (mythology) [58] Spaeth, pp.11, 61. [59] Spaeth, p.37, illustrated at fig. 7. [60] Spaeth, pp.97-102. [61] Rome's legendary second King, Numa was thought to have instituted the flamines, so Ceres' service by a flamen cerialis suggested her oldest Roman cult as one of great antiquity. [62] CIL X 3926. [63] Responsibility for the provision of grain and popular games lent the aedileship a high and politically useful public profile. See Cursus honorum. [64] Spaeth, 104-5, citing Cicero, Pro Balbus, 55, and Cicero, Contra Verres, 2.4.99. The translations are Spaeth's. [65] A Roman matron was any mature woman of the upper class, married or unmarried. While females could serve as Vestal Virgins, few were chosen, and those were selected as young maidens from families of the upper class. [66] Spaeth, 1996, pp. 4-5, 9, 20 (historical overview and Aventine priesthoods), 84 - 89 (functions of plebeian aediles), 104 - 106 (women as priestesses): citing among others Cicero, In Verres, 2.4.108; Valerius Maximus, 1.1.1; Plutarch, De Mulierum Virtutibus, 26. [67] C.M.C. Green, "Varro's Three Theologies and their influence on the Fasti", in Geraldine Herbert-Brown, (ed)., Ovid's Fasti: historical readings at its bimillennium, Oxford University Press, 2002. pp. 78-80. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=CeFErNPdXOMC& lpg=PP1& ots=jKfOltwDm_& dq=Ovid's Fasti: historical readings at its bimillennium By Geraldine Herbert-Brown& pg=PA78#v=onepage& q& f=false) [68] Servius on Vergil, Aeneid, 4.609. Cited in Spaeth, 107. [69] Spaeth, 1996, p. 129. 268 Bibliography • Benko, Stephen, The virgin goddess: studies in the pagan and Christian roots of mariology, BRILL, 2004. • Scheid, John, "Graeco Ritu: A Typically Roman Way of Honoring the Gods," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 97, Greece in Rome: Influence, Integration, Resistance, 1995, pp. 15–31. • Spaeth, Barbette Stanley, "The Goddess Ceres and the Death of Tiberius Gracchus", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1990. • Spaeth, Barbette Stanley, The Roman goddess Ceres, University of Texas Press, 1996. • Wiseman, T.P., Remus: a Roman myth, Cambridge University Press, 1995 Cinxia 269 Cinxia In Roman mythology, Cinxia was the goddess of marriage. She was concerned with the proper dress of the bride. The name also occurs as an epithet of Juno. References Michael Jordon, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 Clementia In Roman mythology, Clementia was the goddess of forgiveness and mercy. She was deified as a celebrated virtue of Julius Caesar, who was famed for his forbearance, especially following Caesar's civil war with Pompey from 49 BC. In 44 BC, a temple was consecrated to her by the Roman Senate, possibly at Caesar's instigation as Caesar was keen to demonstrate that he had this virtue. In a letter to his friend Atticus, Cicero is discussing Caesar's clementia: "You will say they are frightened. I dare say they are, but I'll be bound they're more frightened of Pompey than of Caesar. They are delighted with his artful clemency and fear the other's wrath." Again in For Deistarus Cicero discusses Caesar's virtue of clementia. "Yes, you, Gaius Caesar, are the only conqueror in 34 whose hour of triumph none save combatants have fallen. We, free men born in freedom's fairest clime, so far from finding you a tyrant, have seen in you a leader of unbounded mercy in the day of victory. There is not much information surrounding Clementia's cult; it would seem that she was merely an abstraction of a particular virtue, one that was revered in conjunction with revering Caesar and the Roman state. Clementia was seen as a good trait within a leader, it also the Latin word for "humanity" or "forbearance". This is opposed to Saevitia which was savagery and bloodshed. Yet, she was the Roman counterpart of Eleos the Greek goddess of mercy and forgiveness who had a shrine in Athens. In traditional imagery, she is depicted holding a branch and a scepter, and may be leaning on a column. Cloacina 270 Cloacina In Roman mythology, Cloacina (derived from the Latin word "cloaca" meaning "sewer" or "drain") was the goddess who presided over the Cloaca Maxima, the system of sewers in Rome. The Cloaca Maxima was a sewer said to be begun by Tarquinius Priscus and finished by Tarquinius Superbus. Titus Tatius, who reigned with Romulus, erected a statue to her. She was originally derived from Etruscan mythology. As well as controlling sewers, she was also a protector of sexual intercourse in marriage. Regardless of her original source, she later became identified with Venus. Worship Cloacina was worshipped as an aspect of Venus at the small Shrine of Venus Cloacina, situated before the Basilica Aemilia on the Roman Forum and directly above the Cloaca Maxima. Some Roman coins had images of Cloacina or her shrine on them. Cloacina was also worshipped with rhymed prayer. References • Information on Cloacina [1] • Article on Cloacina and sewers [2] References [1] http:/ / www. vroma. org/ ~jruebel/ cloacina. html [2] http:/ / www. sewerhistory. org/ articles/ wh_era/ cloacina/ cloacina. pdf Collatina In Roman mythology, Collatina was the goddess of hills (cf. Latin collis "hill"). Her name is known from St. Augustine's work The City of God[1] , and is not attested otherwise. References [1] Augustine, De civitate Dei, 4. 8 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7Tp7iwzRyDMC& pg=PA145& dq=Forculus+ roman+ god& hl=en& ei=Ofa6TPS1EI7Nswa-gfnXDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=1& ved=0CC8Q6wEwAA#v=snippet& q=The Romans could scarcely& f=false) Concordia (mythology) 271 Concordia (mythology) In Roman religion, Concord (Latin: Concordia, "harmony") was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. Her Greek version is Harmonia, and the Harmonians and some Discordians equate her with Aneris.[1] Her opposite is Discordia (or the Greek Eris). The cult of Concordia Augusta ("Majestic Harmony") was of special importance to the imperial household. Dedicatory inscriptions to her, on behalf of emperors and members of the imperial family, were common.[2] Concordia, standing with a patera and two cornucopiae, on the reverse of this coin of Aquilia Severa. In art In art, Concordia was depicted sitting, wearing a long cloak and holding onto a patera (sacrificial bowl), a cornucopia (symbol of prosperity), or a caduceus (symbol of peace). She was often shown in between two other figures, such as standing between two members of the Royal House shaking hands. She was associated with a pair of female deities, such as Pax and Salus--or Securitas and Fortuna. The latter pair of concepts (security and fortune) could also be represented by Hercules and Mercury.[3] Temples The oldest Temple of Concord, built in 367 BC by Marcus Furius Camillus, stood on the Roman Forum. Other temples and shrines in Rome dedicated to Concordia were largely geographically related to the main temple, and included (in date order): • a bronze shrine (aedicula) of Concord erected by the aedile Gnaeus Flavius in 304 BC "in Graecostasis" and "in area Volcani" (placing it on the Graecostasis, close to the main temple of Concord). He vowed it in the hope of reconciling the nobility who had been outraged by his publication of the calendar, but the senate would vote no money for its construction and this thus had to be financed out of the fines of condemned usurers.[4] It must have been destroyed when the main temple was enlarged by Opimius in 121 B.C. • one built on the arx (probably on the east side, overlooked the main temple of Concord below). It was probably vowed by the praetor Lucius Manlius in 218 BC after quelling a mutiny among his troops in Cisalpine Gaul,[5] with building work commencing in 217 and dedication occurring on 5 February 216.[6] • a temple to Concordia Nova, marking the end Julius Caesar had brought to civil war. It was voted by the senate in 44 B.C.[7] but was possibly never built. • a temple built by Livia according to Ovid's Fasti VI.637‑638 ("te quoque magnifica, Concordia, dedicat aede Livia quam caro praestitit ipsa viro" - the only literary reference to this temple). The description of the Porticus Liviae follows immediately, and it is probable therefore that the temple was close to or within the porticus, but the small rectangular structure marked on the Marble Plan (frg. 10) can hardly have been a temple deserving of the epithet "magnifica" (HJ 316). In Pompeii, the high priestess Eumachia dedicated a building to Concordia Augusta.[8] Concordia (mythology) 272 References [1] "Mythics of Harmonia" (http:/ / discordia. loveshade. org/ ek-sen-trik-kuh/ mythics. html). . Retrieved 2007-12-20. [2] H.L. Wilson (1912). "A New Collegium at Rome" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 497104). American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 16 (1): 94–96. doi:10.2307/497104. . [3] Claridge, Amanda. Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. (The section about the Temple of Concordia Augusta) [4] Liv. IX.46; Plin. NH XXXIII.19; Jord. I.2.339. [5] Liv. XXII.33.7; cf. XXVI.23.4. [6] Liv. XXIII.21.7; Hemerol. Praen. ad Non. Feb., Concordiae in Arce;1 CIL I2 p233, 309; p138Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 86, Concordiae in Capitolio; Hermes 1875, 288; Jord. I.2.112. [7] Cass. Dio XLIV.4. [8] Pompeii Forum Project (1997), Inscription from the Eumachia Building (http:/ / pompeii. virginia. edu/ pompeii/ tti/ eb-insc/ eb-insc-top. html) & its analysis (http:/ / pompeii. virginia. edu/ pompeii/ tti/ eb-insc/ eb-insc-anal. html) Cuba (mythology) In ancient Roman religion, Cuba was a goddess of infants. Early Roman religion was concerned with the interlocking and complex interrelations between gods and humans. In this, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority. A sub-group of deities covered the general realm of infancy and childhood.[1] In this area, Cuba was called upon as a general guardian and tutelary deity of infants and was invoked by mothers trying to make their babies sleep. References [1] "Reference Guide to Roman Mythology" (http:/ / web. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ RomPan. html). . Retrieved 2008-09-17. External links • Myth Index - Edulica, Potina and Cuba (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/E/Edulica.html) • Myth Index - Cuba, Cunina and Rumina (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/C/Cuba.html) Cunina 273 Cunina In ancient Roman religion, Cunina was a minor goddess of infants. She was responsible for guarding the cradle. Early Roman religion was concerned with the interlocking and complex interrelations between gods and humans. In this, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority. A sub-group of deities covered the general realm of infancy and childhood.[1] In this area, Cunina was called upon as a general guardian and tutelary deity of the cradle and protectress of the nursery. References [1] "Reference Guide to Roman Mythology" (http:/ / web. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ RomPan. html). . Retrieved 2008-09-17. • Michael Jordon, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 External links • Myth Index - Cuba, Cunina and Rumina (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/C/Cuba.html) Cura Cura is the name of a divine figure whose name means "Care" or "Concern" in Latin. Hyginus seems to have created both the personification and story for his Fabulae, poem 220. In crossing a river, Cura gathered clay and, engrossed in thought, began to mold it. When she was thinking about what she had already made, Jove arrived on the scene. Cura asked him to grant it spiritus, "breath" or "spirit." He grants her request readily, but when she also asked to give her creation her own name, he forbade it, insisting that it had to carry his name. While the two were arguing, Tellus (Earth) arose and wanted it to have her name because she had made her body available for it. The judgment is finally rendered by Saturn. He determines that since the spiritus was granted by Jove, he should have it in death; Tellus, or Earth, would receive the body she had given; because Cura, or Care, had been the creator, she would keep her creation as long as it lived. To resolve the debate, homo, "human being," would be the name, because it was made from humus, earth. The story attracted the attention of Heidegger, who observed, "The double sense of cura refers to care for something as concern, absorption in the world, but also care in the sense of devotion." Heidegger regards the fable as a "naive interpretation" of the philosophical concept that he terms Dasein, "being-in-the-world."[1] Heidegger's use of this fable in casting the female Cura as creator has been seen as an inversion of the equivalent Christian myth, in which woman is created last, with the centrality of Cura as a challenge to the Western concept of self-sufficiency and "atomization" of the individual.[2] Cura 274 References [1] For the Latin as well as an English translation, see Martin Heidegger, History of the Concept of Time: Prolegomena, translated by Theodore Kisiel (Indiana University Press, 1985, originally published 1979), pp. 302–303 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZMGwuhOqzXAC& pg=PA302& dq=Hyginus+ Cura+ river+ OR+ clay& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=3#v=onepage& q=Hyginus Cura river OR clay& f=false) [2] Katrin Froese, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Daoist Thought: Crossing Paths In-between (SUNY Press, 2006), p. 188 online. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=GA9wImRqv9AC& pg=PA187& dq=cura+ goddess& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=7#v=onepage& q=cura goddess& f=false) Dea Dia Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: • • • • • • Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna • • • • • • Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared — Other Rustic Gods: • • • • • Bona Dea Carmenta Camenae Dea Dia Convector • • • • • Flora Lupercus Pales Pomona Egeria In Roman mythology, Dea Dia is the goddess of growth. She was sometimes identified with Ceres, and sometimes with the equivalent Greek goddess Demeter. She was worshiped during Ambarvalia, a festival to Ceres. Every May, her priests, the Fratres Arvales, held a three day festival in her honor.[1] References [1] Notes on Strabo's account (5.3) (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text. jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 01. 0239:book=5:chapter=3& highlight=dea,dia) Dea Tacita 275 Dea Tacita In Roman mythology, Dea Tacita ("the silent goddess") was a goddess of the dead. In later times, she was equated with the earth goddess Larunda. In this guise, Dea Tacita was worshipped at a festival called Larentalia on December 23. Goddesses Mutae Tacitae were invoked to destroy a hated person: in this inscription (Année epigr. 1958, 38, 150) someone asks "ut mutus sit Quartus" and "erret fugiens ut mus". These silent goddesses are the personification of terror of obscurity. References • Ovid, Fastus 2, v. 572 • Plutarch, Parallel Lives (Numa Pompilius), v. 8.6 Decima (mythology) In Roman mythology, Decima was one of the Parcae, or the Fates. She measured the thread of life with her rod. She was also revered as the goddess of childbirth. Her Greek equivalent was Lachesis. Deverra In Roman mythology, Deverra (apparently from Latin deverro "to sweep away") was one of the three gods that protected midwives and women in labor, the other two being Pilumnus and Intercidona. Symbolised by a broom used to sweep away evil influences, she ruled over the brooms used to purify temples in preparation for various worship services, sacrifices and celebrations. References • Myth Index - Deverra, Intercidona and Pilumnus [1] Diana (mythology) 276 Diana (mythology) Ancient Roman religion Practices and beliefs Imperial cult  · festivals  · ludi mystery religions · funerals temples · auspice · sacrifice votum · libation · lectisternium Priesthoods College of Pontiffs · Augur Vestal Virgins · Flamen · Fetial Epulones · Arval Brethren Quindecimviri sacris faciundis Dii Consentes Jupiter · Juno · Neptune · Minerva Mars · Venus · Apollo · Diana Vulcan · Vesta · Mercury · Ceres Other deities Janus · Quirinus · Saturn · Hercules · Faunus · Priapus Bacchus (Liber) · Bona Dea · Ops Castor and Pollux · Cupid Chthonic deities: Proserpina · Dis Pater · Pluto · Orcus · Hecate · Di Manes Domestic and local deities: Lares · Di Penates · Genius Hellenistic deities: Sol Invictus · Magna Mater · Isis · Mithras Deified emperors: Divus Julius  · Divus Augustus See also List of Roman deities Related topics Roman mythology Glossary of ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Greece Etruscan religion Gallo-Roman religion Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Diana (lt. "heavenly" or "divine") was the goddess of the hunt, being associated with wild animals and woodland, and also of the moon in Roman mythology. In literature she was the equal of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult beliefs she was Italic, not Greek, in origin. Diana was worshiped in ancient Roman religion and is currently Diana (mythology) revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Dianic Wicca, a largely feminist form of the practice, is named for her. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess and looked after virgins and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, Diana, Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Along with her main attributes, Diana was an emblem of chastity. Oak groves were especially sacred to her. According to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman deities: Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife; and Virbius, the woodland god. 277 Etymology Diana (pronounced with long 'i' and a') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to later 'divus', 'dius', as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky.[1] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w meaning bright sky or daylight, from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus (god), dies (day, daylight). Theology The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Dumezil[2] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods, referred to in histories of religion as 'frame gods'. Such gods, while keeping the original features of celestial divinities, i.e. transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters, did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions - that of becoming dei otiosi,[3] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind. The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connexion with light, inaccessibility, virginity, and her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (dium) in its sovereignty, supremacy, impassibility, and indifference towards such secular matters as the fates of men and states. At the same time, however, she is seen as active in ensuring the succession of kings and in the preservation of mankind through the protection of childbirth. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. 1) The institution of the rex Nemorensis, Diana's sacredos in the Arician wood, who held its position til somebody else challenged and killed him in a duel, after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood. This ever totally open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantee of the continuity of the kingly status through successive generations.[4] The same meaning implying her function of bestower of regality is testified by the story The Diana of Versailles a 2nd Century marble statue of Diana, copied from an earlier Greek original. Diana (mythology) related by Livy of the prediction of empire to the land of origin of the person who would offer her a particularly beautiful cow.[5] 2) Diana was also worshipped by women who sought pregnancy or asked for an easy delivery. This kind of worship is testified by archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as by ancient sources, e.g. Ovid.[6] According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. Having renounced the world, in his roles of father and king, he attained the status of an immortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation. The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous function: he is born first and will die last. He too gives origin to kingship and the first king, bestowing on him regal prerogatives. Diana, although a female deity, has exactly the same functions, preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession. Dumezil's interpretation appears deliberately to ignore that of James G. Frazer, who links Diana with the male god Janus as a divine couple.[7] Frazer identifies the two with the supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees, particularly oaks. In this interpretative schema, the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May.[8] 278 Physical Description Diana often appeared as a young woman, age around 13 to 19. It was believed that she had a fair face like Aphrodite with a tall body, slim, small hips, and a high forehead. As a goddess of hunting, she wore a very short tunic so she could hunt and run easily and is often portrayed holding a bow, and carrying a quiver on her shoulder, accompanied by a deer or hunting dog. Sometimes the hunted creature would also be shown. As goddess of the moon, however, Diana wore a long robe, sometimes with a veil covering her head. Both as goddess of hunting and goddess of the moon she is frequently portrayed wearing a moon crown. Diana (mythology) 279 Worship Diana was initially just the hunting goddess, associated with wild animals and woodlands. She also later became a moon goddess, supplanting Titan goddess Luna. She also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the countryside. Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13,[9] when King Servius Tullius, himself born a slave, dedicated her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-sixth century BC. Being placed on the Aventine, and thus outside the pomerium, meant that Diana's cult essentially remained a 'foreign' one, like that of Bacchus; she was never officially 'transferred' to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia,[10] where her priest, the Rex Nemorensis remained. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes,[11] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized,[12] "a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome".[13] Diana was regarded with great reverence by lower-class citizens and slaves; slaves could receive asylum in her temples. This fact is of difficult interpretation. Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes.[14] Diana huntress, by Houdon. Louvre Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of the specifically Anatolian "Diana" of Ephesus, where the Temple of Artemis stood, Diana was usually depicted for educated Romans in her Greek guise. If she is accompanied by a deer, as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration, above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of hunting. The deer may also offer a covert reference to the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon), who saw her bathing naked. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his own hunting dogs to kill him. Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible. In Acts of the Apostles, Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity, jealously rioted in her defense, shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28, New English Bible). Sanctuaries Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba before the town was destroyed by the Romans. The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato.[15] She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill, according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius. Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium, i.e. original territory of the city, in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans. Other sanctuaries we know about are listed here below: Temple of Diana, in Evora, Portugal. Colle di Corne near Tusculum[16] where she is referred to with the archaic Latin name of deva Cornisca and where existed a collegium of worshippers.[17] Diana (mythology) The Algidus Mount, also near Tusculum[18] At Lavinium[19] At Tivoli, where she is referred to as Diana Opifera Nemorensis[20] A sacred wood mentioned by Livy[21] ad computum Anagninum(near Anagni). On Mount Tifata, near Capua in Campania.[22] In Ephesus, where she was worshiped as Diana of Ephesus and the temple used to be one of world's seven wonders. 280 Legacy In religion Diana's cult has been related in Early Modern Europe to the cult of Nicevenn (aka Dame Habond, Perchta, Herodiana, etc.). She was related to myths of a female Wild Hunt. Wicca Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her, which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine.[23] In some Wiccan texts Lucifer is a name used interchangeably for Diana's brother Apollo. (See [24] Sacred-texts.com). Stregheria In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches; witches being the wise women healers of the time. Goddess Diana created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come. It is said Diana (1892 - 93), Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Bronze, that out of herself she divided into the darkness and the light, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City keeping for herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother Apollo, the light. Goddess Diana loved and ruled with her brother Apollo, the god of the Sun. (Charles G. Leland, Aradia: The Gospel of Witches) Since the Renaissance the mythic Diana has often been expressed in the visual and dramatic arts, including the opera L'arbore di Diana. In the sixteenth century, Diana's image figured prominently at the Château de Fontainebleau, in deference to Diane de Poitiers, mistress of two French kings. At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV, the Apollo-like "Sun King" liked to surround himself. There are also references to her in common literature. In Shakespeare's play, Romeo and Juliet, many references are made to Diana. Rosaline, a beautiful woman who has sworn to chastity, is said to have "Dian's wit". Later on in the play, Romeo says, "It is the East, and Juliet is the sun. Arise fair sun, and kill the envious moon." He is saying that Juliet is better than Diana and Rosaline for not swearing chastity. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Leo Delibe ballet 'Sylvia'. The plot deals with Sylvia, one of Diana's nymphs and sworn to chastity and Diana's assault on Sylvia's affections for the shepherd Amyntas. In Jean Cocteau's 1946 film La Belle et la Bête it is Diana's power which has transformed and imprisoned the beast. Diana (mythology) 281 In literature In Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre Diana appears to Pericles in a vision, telling him to go to her temple and tell his story to her followers. Diana is also used by Shakespeare in the famous play As You Like It to describe how Rosaline feels about marriage. Diana is used by Shakespeare in Twelfth Night when Orsino compares Viola (in the guise of Cesario) to Diana. "Diana's lip is not more smooth and rubious" Dian(a) is used again by Shakespeare in his play about racial identity Othello to describe Desdemona's face metaphorically after he believes she is having an affair with Cassio. There is also a reference to Diana in Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing where Hero is said to seem like 'Dian in her orb', in terms of her chastity. The Goddess is also referenced indirectly in Shakespeare's player A Midsummer Night's Dream. The character Hippolyta states "And then the moon, like to a silver bow new bent in Heaven". She refers to Diana, Goddesse of the moon, who is often depicted with a silver hunting bow. In the same play the character Hermia is told by the Duke Theseus that she must either wed the character Demetrius "Or on Diana's alter to protest for aye austerity and sinle life". He refers to her becoming a nun, with the Goddesse Diana having connotations of chastity. In The Merchant of Venice Portia states "I will die as chaste as Diana, unless I be obtained by the manner of my father's will". (I.ii) In Romeo & Juliet, Romeo describes Rosaline, saying that "She hath Dian's wit". Carlos Fuentes's novel entitled, Diana o la cazadora solitaria (Diana, The Gooddess Who Hunts Alone), was based on The Goddess. Diana Soren was also a character that being described as having the same personality as the goddess. In "The Knight's Tale" in The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, Emily prays to Diana to be spared from marriage to either of her admirers Arcite or Palomon. In "To Science", the sonnet by Edgar Allan Poe, science "dragged Driana from her car" (9). In language Both the Romanian word for "fairy", Zână[25] and the Leonese word for "water nymph", xana, seem to come from the name of Diana. In Arts Diana had become one of the most popular theme of arts. Painters like Titian, Peter Paul Rubens, François Boucher, Nicholas Poussin had made her as a major theme. Most of stories that being exposed are the stories of Diana with Actaeon, story of Callisto, and when she rested after hunting. Some famous work of arts with Diana theme are : Pomona (left, symbolizing agriculture), and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration • Diana and Actaeon, Diana and Callisto, and Death of Actaeon by Titian. • Diana and Callisto, Diana Resting After Bath, and Diana Getting Out of Bath by François Boucher. • Diana Bathing With Her Nymphs by Rembrandt. • Diana and Endymion by Poussin. • Diana and Callisto, Diana and Her Nymph Departing From Hunt, Diana and Her Nymphs Surprised By A Faun by Rubens. Diana (mythology) • The famous fountain at Palace of Caserta, Italy, created by Paolo Persico, Brunelli, Pietro Solari told a story about when Diana being surprised by Acteon. • A sculpture by Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain could be seen at the Musée du Louvre. • A sculptural mascot [26] on the Diana car manufactured by the Diana Motors Company. 282 In Beaux Arts Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture, and Diana, representing Commerce, which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits. In Parma at the convent of San Paolo, Antonio Allegri da Correggio painted the camera of the Abbess Giovanna Piacenza's apartment. He was commissioned in 1519 to paint the ceiling and mantel of the fireplace. On the mantel he painted an image of Diana riding in a chariot pulled possibly by a stag. In Film Diana/Artemis appears at the end of the 'Pastoral Symphony' segment of 'Fantasia'. Other • In the funeral oration of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997, her brother drew an analogy between the ancient goddess of hunting and his sister - 'the most hunted person of the modern age'. • William Moulton Marston used the Diana myth as a basis for Wonder Woman. • For the album art of Progressive metal band Protest the Hero's second studio album Fortress, Diana is depicted, protected by rams and other animals. The theme of Diana is carried throughout the album. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] G.Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris, 1974, part 3, chap.1 G. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974, part 3, chap.1 M. Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Ovid Fasti III, 262-271 T. Livius Ab urbe condita I, 3-7 Ovid Fasti III,262-271 J. Frazer The golden bough 1922, chaps. 1, 12, 16 J.G. Frazer Dying gods, 1912; Geza Roheim Animism, magic and the divine king London, 1972, part 3, (see in particular chap. The king of May) [9] The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. Arthur E. Gordon, "On the Origin of Diana", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932, pp. 177-192) p 178. [10] Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder, in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. (Gordon 1932:178 note, and p. 181). [11] commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro, Lingua Latina v.43; the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny's Natural History, xliv. 91, 242. [12] The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia, Greek cities of Magna Graecia, in the fifth century BCE. [13] Gordon 1932:179. [14] quoted by Dumezil La religion romaine archaique Paris, 1974,part 3, chap. 1 [15] Cato Origins fr.62: "Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus, Aricinus, Laurens, Coranus, Tiburtis, Pometius, Ardeatis, Rutulus." [16] Pliny the elder Naturalis Historia XVI, 242 [17] CIL, 975; CIL XIV,2633 [18] Horace, Carmina, I, 21, 5-6; Carmen Saeculare [19] CIL XIV,2112 [20] CIL, 3537 [21] Livy Ab urbe condita XXVII, 4 [22] Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome, American Academy 1919, pp 322-328 Diana (mythology) [23] Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition (http:/ / www. witchvox. com/ va/ dt_va. html?a=uswi& c=trads& id=8451). From The Witches Voice. Retrieved 2007-05-23. [24] Sacred-texts.com (http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ pag/ aradia/ ara05. htm) [25] Zână (http:/ / dexonline. ro/ search. php?cuv=ZẤNÄ) in DEX '98 and NODEX. [26] http:/ / www. flickr. com/ photos/ digitaldeviant/ 256613131/ 283 External links • Landscape with Diana and Callisto painting (http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/picture-of-month/ displaypicture.asp?venue=7&id=130) • Diana and her Nymphs painting (http://www.wga.hu/art/d/domenich/diana.jpg) Disciplina In Roman mythology, Disciplina was a minor deity and the personification of discipline.[1] The word disciplina itself, a Latin noun, is multi-faceted in meaning; it refers to education and training, self-control and determination, knowledge in a field of study, and an orderly way of life. The goddess embodied these qualities for her worshippers. She was commonly worshipped by imperial Roman soldiers, particularly those who lived along the borders of the Roman Empire;[2] altars to her have been found in Great Britain and North Africa. The fort of Cilurnum along Hadrian's Wall was dedicated to the goddess Disciplina, as witnessed by an extant dedicatory inscription on a stone altar found in 1978.[3] Her chief virtues were frugalitas, severitas and fidelis—frugality, sternness, and faithfulness. In worshiping Disciplina, a soldier became frugal in every way: with money, with energy and actions. The virtue of severitas was shown in his focused, determined, not easily dissuaded, and decisive behavior. He was faithful to his unit, his army, the officers and the Roman people. References [1] Eileen Holland, Holland's Grimoire of Magickal Correspondences: A Ritual Handbook, 2005, Career Press, 307 pages ISBN 1564148319. [2] Paul Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, 2007, Blackwell Publishing, 600 pages ISBN 140512153X [3] "The epigraphy of Cilurnum" (http:/ / www. roman-britain. org/ places/ cilurnum. htm) Domiduca 284 Domiduca In Roman mythology, the goddess Domiduca (Adeona) protects children on the way back to their parents' home. Also, Domiduca and Domiducus were two gods of marriage who were believed to protect the bride on her way to the house of the bridegroom. The names occur as epithets of Jupiter and Juno. [1] Early Roman Mythology focused on the interlocking and complex interrelations between gods and humans. In this, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority. A sub-group of deities covered the general realm of infancy and childhood.[2] In this area, Domiduca was called upon as a general guardian and tutelary deity of children to ensure their safety as they traveled home. References [1] http:/ / www. mythindex. com/ roman-mythology/ D/ Domiduca. html [2] "Reference Guide to Roman Mythology" (http:/ / web. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ RomPan. html). . Retrieved 2008-09-17. Edusa In ancient Roman religion, Edusa or Edulica was a goddess of nourishment who guarded over children as they learned to eat solid foods (weaning). Early Roman religion was concerned with the interlocking and complex interrelations between gods and humans. In this, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority. A sub-group of deities covered the general realm of infancy and childhood.[1] In this area, Edusa was called upon as a general guardian and tutelary deity of infants to ensure their safety as they were weaned from breast feeding onto solid foods. References [1] "Reference Guide to Roman Mythology" (http:/ / web. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ RomPan. html). . Retrieved 2008-09-17. External links • Myth Index - Edulica, Potina and Cuba (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/E/Edulica.html) Egeria (mythology) 285 Egeria (mythology) Egeria was a nymph attributed a legendary role in the early history of Rome as a divine consort and counselor of the Sabine second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, to whom she imparted laws and rituals pertaining to ancient Roman religion. Her name is used as an eponym for a female advisor or counselor. Function Egeria as a nymph or minor goddess of the Roman religious system is of unclear origin; she is consistently, though in no very clear way, associated with another figure of the Diana type; their cult is known [1] to have been celebrated at sacred groves, such as the renowned site of Nemi at Aricia, and another one close to A 16th-century drawing of Egeria Rome, expedient for her presumed regular meetings with King Numa; both goddesses are also associated with water gifted with wondrous, religious or medical properties (the source in that grove at Rome was dedicated to the exclusive use of the Vestals[2] ); their cult was associated with other, male figures of even more obscure meaning, such as one named Virbius[3] , or a Manius Egerius, presumably a youthful male, that anyway in later years was identified with figures like Atys or Hippolyte, because of the Diana reference (see Frazer). Described sometime as a "mountain nymph" (Plutarch), she is usually regarded as a water nymph and somehow her cult also involved some link with childbirth, like the Greek goddess Ilithyia. But most of all, Egeria gave wisdom and prophecy in return for libations of water or milk at her sacred groves. This quality has been made especially popular through the tale of her relationship with Numa Pompilius (the second legendary king of Rome, that succeeded its founder Romulus); In this myth she is shown as counselor and guide to King Numa in the establishment of the original framework of laws and rituals of Rome, and in this role she is somehow uniquely in Roman mythology associated with "sacred books"; Numa (latin "numen" designates "the expressed will of a deity"[4] ) is reputed to have written down the teachings of Egeria in "sacred books" that he made bury with him; when some chance accident brought them back to light some 400 years later, they were deemed by the Senate inappropriate for disclosure to the people and destroyed by their order[5] ; what made them inappropriate was certainly of "political" nature but apparently has not been handed down by Valerius Antias, the source that Plutarch was using.Dionysius of Halicarnassus hints that they were actually kept as a very close secret by the Pontifices[6] . She is also gifted with oracular capabilities (she interpreted for Numa the abstruse omens of gods, for instance the episode of the omen from Faunus[7] ). In another episode she helps Numa in a battle of wits with Jupiter himself, whereby Numa sought to gain a protective ritual against lightning strokes and thunder[8] . The name Egeria has been diversely interpreted; it might mean "of the black poplar" (needs source); George Dumézil[9] proposed it came from "e-gerere", suggesting it came from her childbirth role, though this sounds very unlikely; her role as prophetess and author of "sacred books" (even through the proxy of Numa) would compare[10] her to the Etruscan figure of Vegoia (alleged author among other things of "Libri Fulgurales", which give keys to interpreting the meaning of lightning strokes, seen as ominous messages from deities, a variety of them) . Numa also invoked communicating with other deities, such as Muses[11] ; hence naturally enough, the somewhat "pale" figure of Egeria was later categorized by the Romans as one of the Camenae, deities who came to be equated with the Greek Muses as Rome fell under the cultural influence of Greece; so Dionysius of Halicarnassus listed Egeria (mythology) Egeria among the Muses.[12] . The precise level of her relationship to Numa has been described diversely sometimes as Amica[13] , but ordinarily has been qualified with the more respectful coniuncta ("consort"); Plutarch is very evasive as of the actual mode, and hints that Numa himself entertained a level of ambiguïty[14] . In later years that tradition came under critical review in Juvenal's day.[15] . Numa Pompilius died in 673 BC of old age. According to Ovid's Metamorphoses, after Numa's death Egeria was transformed into a spring, this sort of place being a usual site of inspiration and prophecy in antiquity.[16] . 286 At Aricia Egeria may predate Roman myth: she could have been of Italic origin in the sacred forest of Aricia in Latium, her immemorial site, which was equally the grove of Diana Nemorensis ("Diana of Nemi"). At Aricia there was also a Manius Egerius, a male counterpart of Egeria.[17] Egeria mourns Numa (1669) by Claude Lorrain At Rome A grove sacred to Egeria in connection with Numa stood close by a busy gate of Rome, the Porta Capena , near where the Baths of Caracalla were built in the third century. In the second century, when Herodes Atticus recast an inherited villa nearby as a great landscaped estate, the natural grotto was formalized as an arched interior with an apsidal end where a statue of Egeria once stood in a niche; the surfaces were enriched with revetments of green and white marble facings and green porphyry flooring and friezes of mosaic. The primeval spring, one of dozens of springs that flow into the river Almone, was made to feed large pools, one of which was known as Lacus Salutaris or "Lake of Health". Juvenal regretted an earlier phase of architectural elaboration: Nymph of the Spring! More honour’d hadst thou been, If, free from art, an edge of living green, Thy bubbling fount had circumscribed alone, And marble ne’er profaned the native stone.[18] The ninfeo was a favored picnic spot for nineteenth-century Romans and can still be visited in the archaeological park of the Caffarella, between the Appian Way and the even more ancient Via Latina.[19] Apse of the Ninfeo d'Egeria, Parco Cafarella, Rome Egeria (mythology) 287 In modern literature • In Nathaniel Lee's English Restoration tragedy Lucius Junius Brutus (1680), Egeria appears in a vision to Brutus' son Titus. • In Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest, the priest Chasuble refers to Cecily's tutor Miss Prism as "Egeria." Notes [1] James George Frazer, The Golden Bough,I, The magician king in primitive societies [2] Plutarch, "The parallel lives, Numa Pompilius" [3] Georges Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque, Bibliothèque historique Payot, ISBN 2-22889297-1, 1974, 2000, appendice sur la religion des Etrusques [4] Georges Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque, Bibliothèque historique Payot, ISBN 2-22889297-1, 1974, 2000, appendice sur la religion des Etrusques,p47 [5] Plutarch, "The parallel lives, Numa Pompilius" [6] note by Gerard Walter, editor of Plutarch's Parallel lives translation by Jacques Amyot, La Pléïade volume n°43, 1967 [7] Georges Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque, Bibliothèque historique Payot, ISBN 2-22889297-1, 1974, 2000, appendice sur la religion des Etrusques p377 [8] Plutarch, "The parallel lives, Numa Pompilius, §XXVII" [9] Georges Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque, Bibliothèque historique Payot, ISBN 2-22889297-1, 1974, 2000, appendice sur la religion des Etrusques [10] Vegoia and Egeria [11] Plutarch, "The parralel lives, Numa Pompilius" [12] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ii. 6o. [13] or "girlfriend" in Juvenal's sceptical phrase [14] Plutarch, "The parallel lives, Numa Pompilius, 4.2 and 8.6. [15] Alex Hardie, "Juvenal, the Phaedrus, and the Truth about Rome" The Classical Quarterly New Series, 48.1 (1998), pp. 234-251. [16] Ovid, Metamorphoses xv. 479. [17] Encyclopædia Britannica 1911. [18] Juvenal, Satire 3.17–20, as translated by William Gifford. [19] Information about the Park of the Caffarella (http:/ / www. romacivica. net/ tarcaf/ engfra/ cafgen_e. htm) External links • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911: (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/ECG_EMS/EGERIA.html) Egeria • Roma Sotterranea: Il ninfeo di Egeria: (in Italian) Ruins of Egeria's Nymphaeum (http://www.romasotterranea. it/ita/sub/280.php) • Park of the Caffarella (http://www.romacivica.net/tarcaf/engfra/cafgen_e.htm) Empanda 288 Empanda In Roman mythology, Empanda or Panda was a goddess or a surname of Juno. According to Festus,[1] she was a dea paganorum. Varro[2] connects the word with pandere, but explains it by panem dare, so that Empanda would be the goddess of bread or food. She had a sanctuary near the gate, called after her the porta Pandana, which led to the capitol.[3] Her temple was an asylum, which was always open, and needy supplicants who came to it were supplied with food from the resources of the temple. In the opinion of Leonhard Schmitz, this custom shows the meaning of the name Panda or Empanda: it is connected with pandere, to open; she is accordingly the goddess who is open to or admits any one who wants protection. Hartung[4] thinks that Empanda and Panda are only surnames of Juno. References • This article incorporates text by Leonhard Schmitz from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1870). Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] (s. v. Empanda) – cited by Schmitz ap. Non. p. 44; comp. Gell. xiii. 22; Arnobius iv. 2 – cited by Schmitz (Festus, s. v. Pandana; Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 42.) – cited by Schmitz (die Religion der Röm. ii. p. 76, &c.) – cited by Schmitz Epona In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was particularly a goddess of fertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, cornucopia, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures[1] suggested that the goddess and her horses were leaders of the soul in the after-life ride, with parallels in Rhiannon of the Mabinogion. Unusually for a Celtic deity, most of whom were associated with specific localities, the worship of Epona, "the sole Celtic divinity ultimately worshipped in Rome itself,"[2] was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries CE. Etymology of the name Although known only from Roman contexts, the name Epona, 'Great Mare' is from the Gaulish language; it is derived from the inferred proto-Celtic *ekwos 'horse'[3] — which gives rise to modern Welsh ebol 'foal' — together with the augmentative suffix -on frequently, though not exclusively, found in theonyms (for example Sirona, Matrona, and the usual Gaulish feminine singular -a.[4] In an episode preserved in a remark of Pausanias,[5] an Epona, 3rd c. AD, from Freyming (Moselle), France (Musée Lorrain, Nancy) Epona archaic Demeter too had also been a Great Mare, who was mounted by Poseidon in the form of a stallion and foaled Arion and the Daughter who was unnamed outside the Arcadian mysteries.[6] Demeter was venerated as a mare in Lycosoura in Arcadia into historical times. 289 Evidence for Epona Fernand Benoit[7] found the earliest attestations of a cult of Epona in the Danubian provinces and asserted that she had been introduced in the limes of Gaul by horsemen from the east. This suggestion has not been generally taken up. Although the name is in origin Gaulish, dedicatory inscriptions to Epona are in Latin or, rarely, Greek. They were made not only by Celts, but also by Germans, Romans and other inhabitants of the Roman Empire. An inscription to Epona from Mainz, Germany, Epona and her horses, from Köngen, Germany, identifies the dedicator as Syrian.[8] A long Latin inscription of the first About 200 AD. century BCE, engraved in a lead sheet and accompanying the sacrifice of a filly and the votive gift of a cauldron, was found in 1887 at Rom, Deux-Sèvres, the Roman Rauranum. The inscription offers to the goddess an archaic profusion of epithets for a goddess, Eponina 'dear little Epona': she is Atanta, horse-goddess Potia 'powerful Mistress' (compare Greek Potnia) and "Heppos" (ίππος = horse), Dibonia (Latin, the 'good goddess')", Catona 'of battle', noble and good Vovesia.[9] Her feast day in the Roman calendar was December 18 as shown by a rustic calendar from Guidizzolo, Italy,[10] although this may have been only a local celebration. She was incorporated into the Imperial cult by being invoked on behalf of the Emperor, as Epona Augusta or Epona Regina. The supposed autonomy of Celtic civilisation in Gaul suffered a further setback with Fernand Benoit's study[11] of the funereal symbolism of the horseman with the serpent-tailed ("anguiforme") daemon, which he established as a theme of victory over death, and Epona; both he found to be late manifestations of Mediterranean-influenced symbolism, which had reached Gaul through contacts with Etruria and Magna Graecia. Benoit compared the rider with most of the riders imaged around the Mediterranean shores. Perceptions of native Celtic goddesses had changed under Roman hegemony: only the names remained the same. As Gaul was Romanized under the early Empire, Epona’s sovereign role evolved into a protector of cavalry.[12] The cult of Epona was spread over much of the Roman Empire by the auxiliary cavalry, alae, especially the Imperial Horse Guard or equites singulares augustii recruited from Gaul, Lower Germany, and Pannonia. A series of their dedications to Epona and other Celtic, Roman and German deities was found in Rome, at the Lateran.[13] As Epane she is attested in Cantabria, northern Spain, on Mount Bernorio, Palencia.[14] A bizarre euhemeristic account of the birth of Epona that does not reflect Celtic beliefs can be found in Plutarch's life of Solon: Giambattista Della Porta's edition of Magia naturalis (1589), a potpourri of the sensible and questionable, remarks, in the context of unseemly man-beast coupling, Plutarch's Life of Solon, in which he "reports out of Agesilaus, his third book of Italian matters, that Fulvius Stella loathing the company of a woman, coupled himself with a mare, of whom he begot a very beautiful maiden-child, and she was called by a fit name, Epona..." Epona 290 Iconography Sculptures of Epona fall into five types, as distinguished by Benoit: riding, standing or seated before a horse, standing or seated between two horses, a tamer of horses in the manner of potnia theron and the symbolic mare and foal. In the Equestrian type, common in Gaul, she is depicted sitting side-saddle on a horse or (rarely) lying on one; in the Imperial type (more common outside Gaul) she sits on a throne flanked by two or more horses or foals.[15] In distant Dacia, she is represented on a stela (now at the Szépmüvézeti Museum, Budapest) in the format of Cybele, seated frontally on a throne with her hands on the necks of her paired animals: her horses are substitutions for Cybele's lions. A relief of Epona, flanked by two pairs of horses, from Roman Macedonia. In Roman texts and inscriptions Epona is mentioned in The Golden Ass by Apuleius, where an aedicular niche with her image on a pillar in a stable has been garlanded with freshly-picked roses.[16] In his Satires, the Roman poet Juvenal also links the worship and iconography of Epona to the area of a stable.[17] Small images of Epona have been found in Roman sites of stables and barns over a wide territory. In Great Britain The probable date of ca. 1400 BCE ascribed to the giant chalk horse carved into the hillside turf at Uffington, in southern England, is too early to be directly associated with Epona a millennium and more later, but clearly represents a Bronze Age totem of some kind. The English traditional hobby-horse riders parading on May Day at Padstow, Cornwall and Minehead, Somerset, which survived to the mid-twentieth century, even though Morris dances had been forgotten, may have deep roots in the veneration of Epona, as may the English aversion to eating horsemeat.[18] At Padstow formerly, at the end of the festivities the hobby-horse was ritually submerged in the sea.[19] A provincial though not crude small (7.5 cm high) Roman bronze of a seated Epona, flanked by a small mare and stallion, found in England,[20] is conserved in the British Museum.[21] Lying on her lap and on the patera raised in her right hand are disproportionately large ears of grain; ears of grain also protrude from the mouths of the ponies, whose heads are turned towards the goddess. On her left arm she holds a yoke, which curves up above her shoulder, an attribute unique to this bronze statuette.[22] The Welsh goddess Rhiannon rides a white horse and has many attributes of Epona. A south Welsh folk ritual call Mari Lwyd (Grey Mare) is still undertaken in December - an apparent survival of the veneration of the goddess. The pantomime horse is thought to be a related survival. Epona 291 Today On Mackinac Island, Michigan, Epona is celebrated each June with stable tours, a blessing of the animals and the Epona and Barkus Parade. Mackinac Island, Michigan does not permit any personal automobiles: the primary source of transportation remains the horse, so celebrating Epona has special significance on this island in the Upper Midwest.[23] In popular culture • Link, from The Legend of Zelda series games, rides a horse named Epona in four installments: The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time (1998), The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask (2000), The Legend of Zelda: Four Swords Adventures (2004) and The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess (2006). In Twilight Princess the player is given the option to change the name of the horse, but Epona is the default name. • In Rosemary Sutcliff's 1977 historical novel, Sun Horse, Moon Horse, the White Horse of Uffington is created as an invocation to Epona. • In Morgan Llywelyn's novel, The Horse Goddess, Epona is a Celtic woman who possesses Druidic powers. • Omnia (a Dutch PaganFolk band) has dedicated a song called 'Epona' to the Celtic goddess, which appears on the album Sine Missione. • Enya has a song titled 'Epona'. • As part of the European Space Agency Giotto Mission to Halley's Comet, an experiment by Irish Scientists from St. Patrick's College, Maynooth was named EPONA; this was also an acronym for Energetic Particle ONset Admonitor.[24] [25] • In S.M. Stirling's Dies the Fire series, the character of Rudi Mackenzie rides a large, majestic black mare named Epona, who will allow no one but him to ride her. • Epona is the chief deity in the Goddess of Parthalon series by P.C. Cast. Her priestess always rides a white mare. The releveant books start with Bk. 1 "Divine by Mistake" and currently the last book is Bk. 5 "Brighid's Quest". Notes [1] Salomon Reinach, "Épona", Revue archéologique (1895:163-95); Henri Hubert, Mélanges linguistiques offerts à M. J.Vendryes (1925:187-198). [2] Phyllis Pray Bober, reviewing Réne Magnen, Epona, Déesse Gauloise des Chevaux, Protectrice des Cavaliers in American Journal of Archaeology 62.3 (July 1958, pp. 349-350) p. 349. Émile Thevenot contributed a corpus of 268 dedicatory inscriptions and representations. [3] Compare Latin equus, Greek hippos. [4] Delmarre, 2003:163-164. [5] Pausanias, viii.25.5, 37.1 and 42.1 The myth was noted in Bibliotheke 3.77 and reflected also in a lost poem of Callimachus and in Ptolemy Hephaestion's "New History ( Theoi.com: texts (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Olympios/ DemeterFamily. html#Poseidon)). [6] Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks (1951) pp 184ff "Demeter, and Poseidon's stallion-marriages". [7] Benoît, F. (1950). Les mythes de l'outre-tombe. Le cavalier à l'anguipède et l'écuyère Épona. Brussels, Latomus Revue d'études latines. [8] CIL 13, 11801 [9] G.S.Olmstead, "Gaulish and Celti-Iberian poetic inscriptions" Mankind Quarterly 28.4, pp339-387. [10] Vaillant, 1951. [11] Benoit 1950. [12] Oaks 1986:79-81. [13] Spiedel, 1994. [14] Simón. [15] Nantonos, 2004. [16] "respicio pilae mediae, quae stabuli trabes sustinebat, in ipso fere meditullio Eponae deae simulacrum residens aediculae, quod accurate corollis roseis equidem recentibus fuerat ornatum." (iii.27). In Robert Graves' translation of The Golden Ass, he has interposed an explanatory "the Mare-headed Mother" that does not appear in the Latin text; it would have linked Epona with the primitive mythology of Demeter, who was covered as a mare by Poseidon in stallion-form (see above); there is no justification for identifying Epona with Demeter, however. [17] Satire VIII lines 155-57, where the narrator derides a consul for his inappropriate interest in horses: Epona 292 Meanwhile, while he sacrifices sheep and a reddish bullock in the fashion of ancient king Numa, before the altar of Jupiter he swears an oath only by Epona and the images painted at the reeking stables. interea, dum lanatas robumque iuuencum more Numae caedit, Iouis ante altaria iurat solam Eponam et facies olida ad praesepia pictas. [18] Theo Brown, "Tertullian and Horse-Cults in Britain" Folklore 61.1 (March 1950, pp. 31-34) p. 33. [19] Herbert Kille, "West Country hobby-horses and cognate customs" Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society 77 (1931) [20] Wiltshire is believable, but was added to the provenance, merely "trouvée en Angleterre", after the piece had been described in the sale catalogue of the Ferencz Pulszky collection, Paris, 1868. [21] "provincial, but not barbaric" is the assessment of the style by Catherine Johns, "A Roman Bronze Statuette of Epona", The British Museum Quarterly 36.1/2 (Autumn 1971:37-41). [22] Identified as a yoke by Catherine Johns 1971; its misidentification as a serpent has led to misleading identification of a "chthonic" Epona. [23] [http:// Mackinac Island Lilac Festival (http:/ / www. mackinacislandlilacfestival. org). [24] Susan McKenna-Lawlor Profile (http:/ / www. zoominfo. com/ people/ McKenna-Lawlor_Susan_3678935. aspx) Contribution to the Leonardo Space and the Arts Workshop on Sunday, March 21, 1999 [25] McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P., "Ireland's contribution to deep space missions" Irish Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0021-1052), vol. 18, March 1988, pp 179-183. (http:/ / adsabs. harvard. edu/ full/ 1988IrAJ. . . 18. . 179M) References • Benoît, F. (1950). Les mythes de l'outre-tombe. Le cavalier à l'anguipède et l'écuyère Épona. Brussels, Latomus Revue d'études latines. • Delamarre, X. (2003). Dictionaire de la Langue Gauloise. 2nd edition. Paris, Editions Errance. • Euskirchen, Marion (1993). "Epona" Dissertation, Bonn 1994 (Sonderdruck aus: Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 74.1993.) • Evans, Dyfed Llwyd (2005–2007), Epona: a Gaulish and Brythonic goddess (Divine Horse) (http://www. celtnet.org.uk/gods_e/epona.html) • Green M. J. (1986), The Gods of the Celts, Stroud, Gloucestershire. • Magnen, R. Epona (Delmas, 1953). • Nantonos and Ceffyl (2004), Epona.net, a scholarly resource (http://www.epona.net) • Oaks, L. S. (1986), "The goddess Epona", in M. Henig and A. King, Pagan Gods and Shrines of the Roman Empire (Oxford), pp 77–84. • Reinach, Salomon (1895). "Épona". Revue archéologique 1895, 163-95, • Simón, Francisco Marco, "Religion and Religious Practices of the Ancient Celts of the Iberian Peninsula" in e-Keltoi: The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula, 6 287-345, section 2.2.4.1 ( on-line (http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/ celtic/ekeltoi/volumes/vol6/6_6/marco_simon_6_6.html)) • Speidel, M. P. (1994). Riding for Caesar: the Roman Emperors' Horse Guards. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. • Thevenot, Emile 1949. "Les monuments et le culte d' Epona chez les Eduens," L'antiquité Classique 18 pp 385–400. Epona and the Aedui. • Vaillant, Roger (1951), Epona-Rigatona, Ogam, Rennes, pp 190–205. External links • Epona (http://www.epona.net/introduction.html) Fauna (goddess) 293 Fauna (goddess) In Roman mythology, Fauna is an alternate name for: • Bona Dea, was a goddess of fertility, healing, virginity and women, also known as Marica • Ops, a fertility deity and earth-goddess of Sabine origin • Terra (goddess), the goddess of the Earth Faustitas In Roman mythology, the goddess Faustitas (Latin: "good fortune") had the responsibility of protecting the herd and livestock. According to Horace [1] , she walked about farmlands together with Ceres, ensuring their fruitfulness. References [1] Horace, Odes 4. 5. 18 Febris In Roman mythology, Febris ("fever") was the goddess who embodied, but also protected people from fever and malaria. Febris had three temples in ancient Rome, of which one was located between the Palatine and Velabrum[1] [2] [3] [4] . She may have originated from the Etruscan god Februus. Among her characteristic attributes are 'shrewdness' and 'honesty', according to Seneca the Younger's Apocolocyntosis[5] . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Valerius Maximus, Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings, 2. 5. 6 Cicero, On The Laws, 2. 11 Cicero, On The Nature of Gods, 3. 25 Claudius Aelianus, Various History (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ aelian/ ), 12. 11 Seneca the Younger, Apocolocyntosis, 6 External links • Myth Index - Febris (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/F/Febris.html) • William Smith Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 2, page 142 (http://www. ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1250.html) Fecunditas 294 Fecunditas In Roman mythology, Fecunditas (Latin: "fecundity, fertility") was the goddess of fertility. She was portrayed as a matron, sometimes holding a cornucopia or a hasta pura, with children in her arms or standing next to her[1] . Nero dedicated a temple at Rome to Fecunditas, on occasion of his daughter's birth[2] . References [1] Madden, F. Smith, C. R., Stevenson, S. W. A Dictionary of Roman coins. London, 1889. - p. 377, under Fecunditas (http:/ / www. forumancientcoins. com/ numiswiki/ view. asp?key=fecunditas) [2] Tacitus, Annals, 15. 23 Felicitas 295 Felicitas These articles cover the Ancient Roman Comitium of the Republican era Structures- Rostra, Curia Hostilia, Curia Julia, Lapis Niger, Temple of Felicitas Politicians- Cicero, Gaius Gracchus, Julius Caesar Assemblies- Roman Senate, comitia curiata In Roman mythology, Felicitas (meaning "good luck" or "fortune") was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire. Felicitas was unknown before the mid-2nd century BC, Felicitas holding a caduceus and a cornucopia, two symbols of when a temple was dedicated to her in the Velabrum in health and wealth, on this coin of the Roman Emperor Valerian. the Campus Martius by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, using booty from his 151–150 BC campaign in Spain. The temple was destroyed by a fire during the reign of Claudius and was never rebuilt. Another temple in Rome was planned by Julius Caesar and was erected after his death by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on the site of the Curia Hostilia, which had been restored by Lucius Cornelius Sulla but demolished by Caesar in 44 BC. This temple no longer existed by the time of Hadrian, and its site probably lies under the church of Santi Martina e Luca. The word felicitas, "luck", is also the source of the word and name felicity. References • Champeaux, Jacqueline (1987). Fortuna. Recherches sur le culte de la Fortune à Rome et dans le monde romain des origines à la mort de César. II Les Transformations de Fortuna sous le République (pp. 216–236). Rome: Ecole Française de Rome. ISBN 2-7283-0041-0. • Hammond, N.G.L. & Scullard, H.H. (Eds.) (1970). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (p. 434). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-869117-3. • Richardson, L. (1992). A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (p. 150). Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4300-6. Ferentina 296 Ferentina Ferentina was the patron goddess of the city Ferentinum, Latium. She was protector of the Latin commonwealth. She was also closely associated with the Roman Empire. A grove sacred to the goddess was used as the site of a famous meeting of the leaders of the Latin towns with the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, at the beginning of his reign. The leading citizen of Aricia, Turnus Herdonius was murdered at the command of Tarquinius, by being drowned in the sacred waters of the grove. [1] References [1] Livy Ab urbe condita 1.50-52 Feronia (mythology) For other uses, see Feronia. In ancient Roman religion, Feronia was a goddess broadly associated with fertility and abundance. She was especially honored among plebeians and freedmen. Her festival, the Feroniae, was November 13, during the Ludi Plebeii ("Plebeian Games"), in conjunction with Fortuna Primigenia; both were goddesses of Praeneste.[1] Origins and functions Varro places Feronia in his list of Sabine gods[2] who had altars in Rome. Inscriptions to Feronia are found mostly in central Italy.[3] She was among the deities that Sabine moneyers placed on their coins to honor their heritage.[4] She may have been introduced into Roman religious practice when Manius Curius Dentatus conquered Sabinum in the early 3rd century BC.[5] Many versions of Feronia’s cult have been supposed, and it is not quite Head identified as Feronia (Archaeologic clear that she was only one goddess or had only one function in ancient Museum of Rieti) times. Some Latins believed Feronia to be a harvest goddess, and honoured her with the harvest firstfruits[6] in order to secure a good harvest the following year. Feronia also served as a goddess of travellers, fire, and waters. In Vergil's Aeneid, troops from Feronia's grove fight on the side of Turnus against Aeneas.[7] The Arcadian king Evander recalls how in his youth he killed a son of Feronia, Erulus, who like Geryon had a triple body and a triple soul; Evander thus had to kill him thrice.[8] Erulus, whom Vergil identifies as king at Praeneste, is otherwise unknown in literature.[9] Feronia (mythology) 297 Cult sites Feronia had a temple at the base of Mt. Soracte.[10] The Lucus Feroniae, or "grove of Feronia" (Fiano Romano) was the site of an annual festival in her honour,[11] which was in the nature of a trade fair.[12] The place, in the territory of Capena in southwestern Etruria, was plundered of its gold and silver by Hannibal's retreating troops in 211 BCE, when he turned aside from the Via Salaria to visit the sanctuary;[13] later it became an Augustan colonia. Its status as a colony is recorded in a single inscription, copied in a manuscript of the rule of the Farfa Abbey[14] as colonia Iulia Felix Lucoferonensis.[15] Ruin of the temple of Feronia at Largo di Torre Another important site was in Anxur (Terracina, southern Latium), Argentina where Servius recorded a joint cult of "the boy Jupiter" (puer Iuppiter) under the name of Anxyrus and "Juno the Virgin" (Iuno virgo), whom he identifies as Feronia.[16] According to another tradition, slaves who had just been freed might go to the shrine at Terracina and receive upon their shaved heads the pileus, a hat that symbolized their liberty. Her temple in the Campus Martius, in what is now Largo di Torre Argentina, may have been dedicated by Curtius Dentatus following his victory over the Sabines. His building program also included the Anio Vetus, a major new aqueduct, and a number of fountains are near the temple.[17] Her cults at Aquileia and Terracina were near springs that were used in her rites.[18] The Augustan poet Horace speaks of the water (lympha) of Feronia, in which "we bathe our face and hands."[19] The Feralia on February 21 is a festival of Jupiter Feretrius, not Feronia. Freedmen and libertas Varro identified Feronia with Libertas, the goddess who personified Liberty.[20] According to Servius,[21] Feronia was a tutelary goddess of freedmen (dea libertorum). A stone at the Terracina shrine was inscribed "let deserving slaves sit down so that they may stand up free." Livy notes[22] that in 217 BC freedwomen collected money as a gift for Feronia.[23] Continuation Charles Godfrey Leland found surviving traditions concerning the "witch" Feronia in 19th century Tuscany.[24] References [1] William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), pp. 252–254; Peter F. Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion (Brill, 1992), p. 7. [2] Varro, De lingua latina 5.74 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=wHEGcPZZmHwC& pg=PA114& dq=Novensides& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=100& as_brr=3& cd=30#v=onepage& q=Novensides& f=false) (Latin). [3] Dorcey, The Cult of Feronia, p. 109. [4] Gary D. Farney, Ethnic Identity and Aristocratic competition in Republican Rome (Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 82. [5] Farney, Ethnic Identity, p. 286, citing Coarelli. [6] Livy xxvi.11.8. [7] Vergil, Aeneid 7.800. [8] Aeneid 8.564, and Servius's note to the passage. [9] Lee Fratantuono, Madness Unchained: A Reading of Virgil's Aeneid (Lexington Books, 2007), pp. 242 and 248. [10] Strabo, v: Sub monte Soracte urbs est Feronia... [11] Strabo, v.2.9; Filippo Coarelli, I Santuari del Lazio in eta Repubblicana (Rome) 1987 [12] Karl Otfried Müller, Die Etrusker (1828) identified her as a goddess of the marketplace. Feronia (mythology) [13] Livy. [14] Codex Vaticanus Latinus 6808. [15] Lily Ross Taylor, "The Site of Lucus Feroniae" The Journal of Roman Studies 10 (1920), pp. 29-36. Taylor identified the site as Nazzano [16] Coarelli 1987; Servius, note to Aeneid 7.799. [17] John W. Stamper, The Architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 44–45. [18] Farney, Ethnic Identity, p. 286. [19] Horace, Satires 1.5.24, as cited by R.B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time and Fate (Cambridge University Press, 1951), p. 480 [20] Servius, in his note to Aeneid 8.564, says that Varro called the goddess Liberty Feronia or Fidonia. [21] Servius, note to Aeneid 8.564. [22] Livy, 22.1.18. [23] Dorcey, The Cult of Silvanus, p. 109. [24] Leland, Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition 1892, ch. III "Feronia" 298 Fides (goddess) In Roman religion, Fides was the goddess of trust. Her temple on the Capitol was where the Roman Senate signed and kept state treaties with foreign countries, and where Fides protected them. She was also worshipped under the name Fides Publica Populi Romani ("Public (or Common) Trust of the Roman People"). She Pompeia Plotina coin, celebrating Fides on the reverse. is represented by a young woman crowned with an olive branch, with a cup or turtle, or a military ensign in hand. She wears a white veil or stola; her priests wore white cloths, showing her connexion to the highest gods of Heaven, Jupiter and Dius Fidius. Rome's second king, Numa Pompilius instituted a yearly festival devoted to Fides, and established that the major priests (the three flamines maiores) be borne to her temple in an covered arched chariot drawn by two horses. There they should conduct her services with their heads covered and right hands wrapped up to the fingers to indicate absolute devotion to her.[1] Her Greek equivalent was Pistis. References [1] Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:21 External links • Myth Index - Fides (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/F/Fides.html) Flora (mythology) 299 Flora (mythology) Topics in Roman mythology Important Gods: • • • • • • Jupiter Mars Quirinus Vesta Juno Fortuna • • • • • • Minerva Mercury Vulcan Ceres Venus Lares Roman Kingdom Religion in ancient Rome Flamens Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies compared — Other Rustic Gods: • • • • • Bona Dea Carmenta Camenae Dea Dia Convector • • • • • Flora Lupercus Pales Pomona Egeria In Roman mythology, Flora was a goddess of flowers and the season of spring. While she was otherwise a relatively minor figure in Roman mythology, being one among several fertility goddesses, her association with the spring gave her particular importance at the coming of springtime. Her festival, the Floralia, was held in April or early May and symbolized the renewal of the cycle of life, drinking, and flowers. Her Greek equivalent was Chloris. Flora was married to Favonius, the wind god, and her companion was Hercules. Her name is derived from the Latin word "flos" which means "flower." In modern English, "Flora" also means the plants of a particular region or period. [1] Flora achieved more prominence in the neo-pagan revival of Antiquity among Renaissance humanists than she had ever enjoyed in ancient Rome. She is the main villian of the ballet The Awakening of Flora. Flora (mythology) 300 References • Ovid, Fasti V.193-212 • Macrobius, Saturnalia I.10.11-14 • Lactantius, Divinae institutions I.20.6-10 Flora or HebeMarie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun FloraLouise Abbéma 1913 Goddess Flora depiction Rembrandt van Rijn, 1634 Portrait of Flora Rembrandt van Rijn, 1635 Detail of Flora from Primavera by Botticelli, c. 1482 Monument of Flora in Szczecin, Poland External links • The Obscure Goddess Online Directory: Flora [2] References [1] http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ flora [2] http:/ / www. thaliatook. com/ OGOD/ flora. html Fornax (mythology) 301 Fornax (mythology) In Roman mythology, Fornax was the goddess of hearth (the literal meaning of her name) and baking. Her festival, the Fornacalia, was celebrated on February 17, and announced by curio maximus[1] [2] . References [1] Ovid, Fasti, II. 525 ff [2] Sextus Pompeius Festus, under Fornacalia External links • Myth Index - Fornax (http://www.mythindex.com/roman-mythology/F/Fornax.html) • William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 2, page 180 (http://www. ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1288.html) Fortuna Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the goddess of fortune and personification of luck in Roman religion. She might bring good luck or bad: she could be represented as veiled and blind, as in modern depictions of Justice, and came to represent life's capriciousness. She was also a goddess of fate: as Atrox Fortuna, she claimed the young lives of the princeps Augustus' grandsons Gaius and Lucius, prospective heirs to the Empire.[1] Her father was said to be Jupiter and like him, she could also be bountiful (Copia). As Annonaria she protected grain supplies. June 11 was sacred to her: on June 24 she was given cult at the festival of Fors Fortuna.[2] [3] Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana Fortuna 302 Cult Fortuna's Roman cult was variously attributed to Servius Tullius – whose exceptional good fortune suggested their sexual intimacy[4] – and to Ancus Marcius.[5] She had a temple at the Forum Boarium and a sacred precinct on the Quirinalis as Fortuna Populi Romani (the Fortune of the Roman people). Her identity as personification of chance events was closely tied to virtus (strength of character). Public officials who lacked virtues invited ill-fortune on themselves and Rome: Sallust uses the infamous Catiline as illustration – "Truly, when in the place of work, idleness, in place of the spirit of measure and equity, caprice and pride invade, fortune is changed just as with morality".[6] An oracle at the Temple of Fortuna Primigena in Praeneste used a form of divination in which a small boy picked out one of various futures that were written on oak rods. Cults to Fortuna in her many forms are attested throughout the Roman world. Dedications have been found to Fortuna Dubia (doubtful fortune), Fortuna Brevis (fickle or wayward fortune) and Fortuna Mala (bad fortune). Fortuna and Pontos She is found in a variety of domestic and personal contexts. During the early Empire, an amulet from the House of Menander in Pompeii links her to the Egyptian goddess Isis, as Isis-Fortuna.[7] She is functionally related to the God Bonus Eventus,[8] who is often represented as her counterpart: both appear on amulets and intaglio engraved gems across the Roman world. Her name seems to derive from Vortumna (she who revolves the year): the earliest reference to the Wheel of Fortune, emblematic of the endless changes in life between prosperity and disaster, is 55 BCE.[9] In Seneca's tragedy Agamemnon, a chorus addresses Fortuna in terms that would remain almost proverbial, and in a high heroic ranting mode that Renaissance writers would emulate: "O Fortune, who dost bestow the throne’s high boon with mocking hand, in dangerous and doubtful state thou settest the too exalted. Never have sceptres obtained calm peace or certain tenure; care on care weighs them down, and ever do fresh storms vex their souls. ...great kingdoms sink of their own weight, and Fortune gives way ‘neath the burden of herself. Sails swollen with favouring breezes fear blasts too strongly theirs; the tower which rears its head to the very clouds is beaten by rainy Auster.... Whatever Fortune has raised on high, she lifts but to bring low. Modest estate has longer life; then happy he whoe’er, content with the common lot, with safe breeze hugs the shore, and, fearing to trust his skiff to the wider sea, with unambitious oar keeps close to land."[10] Ovid's description is typical of Roman representations: in a letter from exile[11] he reflects ruefully on the "goddess who admits by her unsteady wheel her own fickleness; she always has its apex beneath her swaying foot." Fortuna 303 Middle Ages Fortuna did not disappear from the popular imagination with the ascendancy of Christianity by any means.[12] Saint Augustine took a stand against her continuing presence, in the City of God: "How, therefore, is she good, who without discernment comes to both the good and to the bad? ...It profits one nothing to worship her if she is truly fortune... let the bad worship her...this supposed deity".[13] In the 6th century, the Consolation of Philosophy, by statesman and philosopher Boethius, written while he faced execution, reflected the Christian theology of casus, that the apparently random and often ruinous turns of Fortune's Wheel are in fact both inevitable and providential, that even the most coincidental events are part of God's hidden plan which one should not resist or try to change. Fortuna, then, was a servant of God,[14] and events, individual decisions, the influence of the stars were all merely vehicles of Divine Will. In succeeding generations Boethius' Consolation was required reading for scholars and students. Fortune crept back in to popular acceptance, with a new iconographic trait, "two-faced Fortune", Fortuna bifrons; such depictions continue into the 15th century.[15] The humiliation of Emperor Valerian by king Shapur I of Persia (260) passed into European cultural memory as an instance of the reversals of Fortuna. In Hans Holbein's pen-and-ink drawing (1521), the universal lesson is brought home by its contemporary setting. Albrecht Dürer's engraving of Fortuna, ca 1502 The ubiquitous image of the Wheel of Fortune found throughout the Middle Ages and beyond was a direct legacy of the second book of Boethius's Consolation. The Wheel appears in many renditions from tiny miniatures in manuscripts to huge stained glass windows in cathedrals, such as at Amiens. Lady Fortune is usually represented as larger than life to underscore her importance. The wheel characteristically has four shelves, or stages of life, with four human figures, usually labeled on the left regnabo (I shall reign), on the top regno (I reign) and is usually crowned, descending on the right regnavi (I have reigned) and the lowly figure on the bottom is marked sum sine regno (I have no kingdom). Medieval representations of Fortune emphasize her duality and instability, such as two faces side by side like Janus; one face smiling the other frowning; half the face white the other black; she may be blindfolded but without scales, blind to justice. She was associated with the cornucopia, ship's rudder, the ball and the wheel. The cornucopia is where plenty flows from, the Helmsman's rudder steers fate, the globe symbolizes chance (who gets good or bad luck), and the wheel symbolizes that luck, good or bad, never lasts. Fortuna 304 Fortune would have many influences in cultural works throughout the Middle Ages. In Le Roman de la Rose, Fortune frustrates the hopes of a lover who has been helped by a personified character "Reason". In Dante's Inferno (vii.67-96) Virgil explains the nature of Fortune, both a devil and a ministring angel, subservient to God. Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium ("The Fortunes of Famous Men"), used by John Lydgate to compose his Fall of Princes, tells of many where the turn of Fortune's wheel brought those most high to disaster, and Boccaccio essay De remedii dell'una e dell'altra Fortuna, depends upon Boethius for the double nature of Fortuna. Fortune makes her appearance in Carmina Burana (see image). The Christianized Lady Fortune is not autonomous: illustrations for Boccaccio's Remedii show Fortuna enthroned in a triumphal car with reins that lead to heaven,[16] and appears in chapter 25 of Machiavelli's The Prince, in which he says Fortune only rules one half of men's fate, the other half being of their own will. Machiavelli reminds the reader that Fortune is a woman, that she favours a strong, or even violent hand, and that she favours the more aggressive and bold young man than a timid elder. Even Shakespeare was no stranger to Lady Fortune: When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes I all alone beweep my outcast state ... — Sonnet 29 Fortuna lightly balances the orb of sovereignty between thumb and finger in a Dutch painting of ca 1530 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg) Pars Fortuna in Astrology In Astrology the term ‘Pars Fortuna’ represents a mathematical point in the zodiac derived by the longitudinal positions of the Sun, Moon and Ascendant (Rising sign) in the birth chart of an individual. It represents an especially beneficial point in the horoscopic chart. In Arabic Astrology, this point is called Arabian Parts.[17] The procedure followed for fixing one’s Pars Fortuna in ancient and traditional astrology depended on the time of birth, viz., during daylight or night time (whether the Sun was above or below the horizon). In modern western astrology the day time formula only was used for many years, but with more knowledge of ancient astrology, the two calculation method is now often used. llustration by Al-Biruni (973-1048) of different phases of the moon, from the Persian Kitab al-tafhim The formula for calculating the day time Part of Fortune (PF) is (using the 360 degree positions for each point): PF = Ascendant + Moon - Sun The formula for the night-time Part of Fortune is PF = Ascendant + Sun - Moon Each calculation method results in a different zodiac position for the Part of Fortune.[18] Al Biruni (973 – 1048), an 11th-century mathematician, astronomer and scholar, who was the greatest proponent of this system of prediction, listed a total of 97 Arabic Parts, which were widely used for astrological consultations. Paul Vachier has prepared an Arabic Parts Calculator for all the Arabic Parts.[19] Fortuna 305 Aspects of Fortuna • Fortuna Annonaria brought the luck of the harvest • Fortuna Belli the fortune of war • Fortuna Primigenia directed the fortune of a firstborn child at the moment of birth • Fortuna Virilis attended a man's career • Fortuna Redux brought one safely home • Fortuna Respiciens the fortune of the provider • Fortuna Muliebris the luck of a woman. Typical of Roman attitudes, the fortune of a woman in marriage, however, was Fortuna Virilis. • Fortuna Victrix brought victory in battle • Fortuna Augusta the fortune of the emperor [20] • Fortuna Balnearis the fortune of the baths.[20] • Fortuna Conservatrix the fortune of the Preserver [21] • Fortuna Equestris fortune of the Knights.[21] • Fortuna Huiusque fortune of the present day.[21] • Fortuna Obsequens fortune of indulgence.[21] • Fortuna Privata fortune of the private individual.[21] • Fortuna Publica fortune of the people.[21] • Fortuna Romana fortune of Rome.[21] • Fortuna Virgo fortune of the virgin.[21] • Pars Fortuna[22] Lady Fortune in a Boccaccio manuscript See also • • • • The Wheel of Fortune Fortune favours the bold Carmina Burana (Orff) (opening theme: O Fortuna) Goth's Column Notes [1] Marguerite Kretschmer, "Atrox Fortuna" The Classical Journal 22.4 (January 1927), 267 - 275. [2] Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome,; (London: Oxford University Press) 1929: on-line text (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Fors_Fortuna. html). [3] Ovid, Fasti VI. 773‑786. [4] Varro, De Lingua Latina VI.17. [5] Plutarch; see Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome,; (London: Oxford University Press) 1929: on-line text (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Italy/ Lazio/ Roma/ Rome/ _Texts/ PLATOP*/ Fors_Fortuna. html). [6] Verum ubi pro labore desidia, pro continentia et aequitate lubido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur, Sallust, Catilina, ii.5. His view of fortuna is discussed in Etienne Tiffou, "Salluste et la Fortuna", Phoenix, 31.4 (Winter 1977), 349 - 360. [7] Allison, P., 2006, The Insula of Menander at Pompeii: Vol.III, The Finds; A Contextual Study, Oxford: Claredon Press [8] Greene, E.M., “The Intaglios”, in Birley, A. and Blake, J., 2005, Vindolanda: The Excavations of 2003-2004, Bardon Mill: Vindolanda Trust, pp187-193 [9] Cicero, In Pisonem. Fortuna [10] Agamemnon, translation by Frank Justus Miller ( on-line text (http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Text/ SenecaAgamemnon. html)) [11] Ovid, Ex Ponto, iv, epistle 3. [12] Howard R. Patch, The Goddess Fortuna in Medieval Literature, 1927 is the basic study. [13] Augustine, City of God, iv.18-18; v.8. [14] Selma Pfeiffenberger, "Notes on the Iconology of Donatello's Judgment of Pilate at San Lorenzo" Renaissance Quarterly 20.4 (Winter 1967:437-454) p 440. [15] As Pfeiffenberger observes, citing A. Laborde, Les manuscrits à peintures de la Cité de Dieu, Paris, 1909: vol. III, pls 59, 65; Pfeiffenberger notes that there are no depictions of a Fortuna bifrons in Roman art. [16] Noted by Pfeiffenberger 1967:441. [17] -Part of Fortune (http:/ / www. cafeastrology. com/ partoffortune. html); David Plant, "Fortune, Spirit and the Lunation Cycle" (http:/ / www. skyscript. co. uk/ fortune. html) [18] David Plant, op. cit. (http:/ / www. skyscript. co. uk/ fortune. html). [19] Paul Vachier, "Arabic Parts" (http:/ / www. noendpress. com/ pvachier/ arabicparts/ index. php). [20] http:/ / www. thaliatook. com/ OGOD/ augusta. html Augusta [21] http:/ / www. mlahanas. de/ RomanEmpire/ Mythology/ Fortuna. html Fortuna [22] Arabic Parts (http:/ / www. noendpress. com/ pvachier/ arabicparts/ index. php) 306 References • David Plant, "Fortune, Spirit and the Lunation Cycle" (http://www.skyscript.co.uk/fortune.html) • www.cafeastrology.com Part of Fortune (http://www.cafeastrology.com/partoffortune.html) • • • • Howard Rollin Patch (1923), Fortuna in Old French Literature Lesley Adkins, Roy A. Adkins (2001) Dictionary of Roman Religion Howard Rollin Patch (1927, repr. 1967), The Goddess Fortuna in Medieval Literature Howard Rollin Patch (1922), The Tradition of the Goddess Fortuna in Medieval Philosophy and Literature External links • Michael Best, "Medieval tragedy" (http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLTnoframes/drama/medievaltragedy.html) • Arya, Darius Andre (January 27, 2006) [2002] (PDF). The Goddess Fortuna in Imperial Rome: Cult, Art, Text (http://hdl.handle.net/2152/152). Theses and Dissertations from The University of Texas at Austin. Austin: University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2007-07-08. Fraus 307 Fraus In Roman mythology, Fraus was the goddess of treachery. A helper of Mercury, the word "fraud" has its origin in her name. Her Greek equivalent was Apate. In Celtic Mythology, Fraus was a very offensive curse word used to describe whores and prostitutes. Fulgora (mythology) In Roman mythology, Fulgora was the female personification of lightning. External links • List of Minor Roman Gods [21] Furrina Furrina (or Furina), was a Roman goddess dating from the Republican era. Her function in the Roman pantheon was mostly unknown at the time of Cicero. However, modern archaeological research has revealed some tenuous evidence that seems to indicate that Furrina was both associated with water and, perhaps, with the Furies. Her antiquity is proven by the fact that she was one the Roman deities who had their own flamen, named Furrinalis, one of the minores.[1] According to Georges Dumezil Furrina was a goddess of springs, her name being related to the Indoeuropean root *bhr-u-n, Skr. bhurvan, indicating the moving or bubbling of water, Got. brunna spring, Latin fervere (from *fruur > furr by metathesis of the vowel), to bubble or boil.[2] Compare English fervent, effervescent etc. Dumezil remarks that in the chronological order Roman of festivals, those separated by an interval of three days were interconnected and belonged to the same function, accepting an observation already made by Georg Wissowa. In the second half of July the grouping included the two Lucaria on the 19th and 17th, the Neptunalia on the 23rd and the Furrinalia on the 25th. This grouping is devoted to woods and running waters, intended as a shelter and relief from the heat of the season, canicula. The goddess had a sacred spring and a shrine in Rome,[3] located on the South Western slopes of Mount Janiculum, on the right bank of the Tiber. The site has survived to the present day in the form of a grove, included within the gardens of Villa Sciarra. Excavations on the site conducted in 1910 have identified a well and a system of underground channels, as well as some inscriptions. However these findings look to be of later date (2nd century CE) and perhaps not the original spring.[4] According to Cicero another sanctuary dedicated to the cult of Furrina was located near Satricum.[5] Other than this, the only well known fact relevant to Furrina is that Gaius Sempronius Gracchus was killed in the "Grove of Furrina." Her placation was the duty of the Flamen Furrinalis, and she had a feast day on July 25. Furrina 308 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Varro Lingua Latina VI G. Dumezil Fetes romaines d'ete' et d'automne Paris, 1975 Cicero Ad Quintum fratrem 3, 1, 12 Samuel B. Platner (and T. Ashby) A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, 1927 s.v. Cicero Ad Quintum Fratrem 3, 1, Bibliography • Altheim, Franz (1938). A History of Roman Religion. Harold Mattingly, trans. London: Metheun. • Dowden, Ken (2000). European Paganism: The Realities of Cult from Antiquity to the Middle Ages (http:// books.google.com/books?id=b-QfhYxtKScC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage& q=&f=false). London: Routledge. Gallia (goddess) Gallia was a Romano-Gallic goddess, possibly related to the region of Europe known to the Romans as Gallia (Gaul). The only evidence of her name to date is an altar set up at Vindolanda by its auxiliary garrison of the 4th cohort of Gauls, stationed there from the early 3rd century onwards.[1] Its inscription reads: “ CIVES GALLI DE GALLIAE CONCORDES QUE BRITANNI ” Of which a free translation would be "The troops from Gaul dedicate this statue to the goddess Gallia with the full support of the British born troops". Notes [1] Selkirk, A. "A ritual statue from Vindolanda." Current Archaeology 205: 4-5 (2006) Hecate 309 Hecate Hecate The Hecate Chiaramonti, a Roman sculpture of triple Hecate, after a Hellenistic original (Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican Museums Abode Symbol Parents Roman equivalent Underworld Paired Torches, Keys, Dogs Perses and Asteria Trivia English Hecate or Hekate (ancient Greek Ἑκάτη, Hekátē, pronounced English pronunciation: /ˈhɛkətiː/ or [1] pronunciation: /ˈhɛkət/ in English) is a chthonic Greco-Roman goddess associated with magic and crossroads. She is attested in poetry as early as Hesiod's Theogony. An inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances is also testimony to her presence in archaic Greek religion.[2] Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, "she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition."[3] She has been associated with childbirth, nurturing the young, gates and walls, doorways, crossroads, magic, lunar lore, torches and dogs. William Berg observes, "Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens."[4] But he cautions, "The Laginetan goddess may have had a more infernal character than scholars have been willing to assume."[5] In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with magic, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a "crone goddess",[6] though this characterization appears to conflict with her frequent characterization as a virgin in late antiquity.[7] She closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia. Etymology, spelling, and pronunciation Notable proposed etymologies for the name Hecate are: • From the Greek word for 'will'.[8] • From Greek Ἑκάτη [Hekátē], feminine equivalent of Εκατός Hekatos, obscure epithet of Apollo.[9] This has been translated as "her that operates from afar", "her that removes or drives off",[10] "the far reaching one" or "the far-darter".[11] • From the Egyptian goddess of childbirth, Heqet.[12] Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses refers to "triple Hecat"[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the Elizabethan-Jacobean period.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the Hecate influence of Shakespeare for the then-predominant pronunciation of "Hecate" without the final E.[15] 310 Representations The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced, not triplicate. Lewis Richard Farnell states: The evidence of the monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate is almost as full as that of the literature. But it is only in the later period that they come to express her manifold and mystic nature. Before the fifth century there is little doubt that she was usually represented as of single form like any other divinity, and it was thus that the Boeotian poet imagined her, as nothing in his verses contains any allusion to a triple formed goddess.[16] The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found in Athens, with a dedication to Hecate, in writing of the style of the 6th century. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head; she is altogether without attributes and character, and the only value of this work, which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription, is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form, and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion.[17] Triple Hecate and the Charites, Attic, 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek, Munich) Greek deities series Primordial deities Titans and Olympian deities Aquatic deities Personified concepts Other deities Chthonic deities • • • • • Demeter Erinyes Gaia Hades Hecate • • • • • Iacchus Melinoe Persephone Triptolemus Trophonius Hecate The 2nd-century traveller Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration, left), shows three single images against a column; round the column of Hecate dance the Charites. Some classical portrayals show her as a triplicate goddess holding a torch, a key, and a serpent. Others continue to depict her in singular form. In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus, and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog, one serpent, and one horse. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar.[18] Hecate's triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar, now in Berlin, wherein she is shown with three bodies, taking part in the battle with the Titans. In the Argolid, near the shrine of the Dioscuri, Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia; He reported the image to be the work of Scopas, stating further, "This one is of stone, while the bronze images opposite, also of Hecate, were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes, son of Mothon." (Description of Greece 2.22.7) A 4th century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner.[19] It shows Hecate, with a hound beside her, placing a wreath on the head of a mare. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs, and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. Sometimes dogs themselves were sacrificed to her. This is sometimes offered as an indication of her non-Hellenic origin, as dogs very rarely played this role in genuine Greek ritual.[20] In the Argonautica, a 3rd century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material,[21] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea, her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water, and dressed in dark robes, Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe, sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust. He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey, then to retreat from the site without looking back, even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs.[22] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity. 311 Mythology Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace.[23] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina, a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs.[23] Lagina, where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year, lay close to the originally Macedonian colony of Stratonikeia, where she was the city's patroness.[24] In Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes, namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness, bearing little resemblance to the night-walking crone she became. Additionally, this led to her role of aiding women in childbirth and the raising of young men. Hecate 312 Hesiod records that she was esteemed as the offspring of Gaia and Uranus, the Earth and Sky. In Theogony he ascribed great powers to Hecate: [...] Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven, and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea.[25] According to Hesiod, she held sway over many things: Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother's only child, she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honors.[25] Hecate, Greek goddess of the crossroads; drawing by Stéphane Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques, nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris, 1880 Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child, the daughter of Perses and Asteria, a star-goddess who was the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon. Hesiod's inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars, in that he seems to hold her in high regard, while the testimony of other writers, and surviving evidence, suggests that this was probably somewhat exceptional. It is theorized that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers.[26] Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia,[23] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate, such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus, the father of Mausolus, are attested,[27] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times, at her unrivalled[28] cult site in Lagina. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins, it has been argued that "Hecate must have been a Greek goddess."[29] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date.[30] Hecate If Hecate's cult spread from Anatolia into Greece, it is possible it presented a conflict, as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon, above all by Artemis and Selene. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. Other than in the Theogony, the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage, or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness, and a mighty helper and protector of humans. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that, because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans, she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians. One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis.[26] Here, Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. She scorns and insults Artemis, who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal's suicide. Artemis then adorns the dead body with jewelry and commands the spirit to rise and become her Hecate, who