School Libraries and Productive Pedagogy: Moving Beyond Information Literacy Ross J. Todd School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers,

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Slide 1 School Libraries and Productive Pedagogy: Moving Beyond Information Literacy Ross J. Todd School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 4 Huntington Street NEW BRUNSWICK NJ 08901 rtodd@scils.rutgers.eduwww.cissl.scils.rutgers.eduwww.scils.rutgers.edu/~rtodd Slide 2 Courage to Think Outside the Box Preparing our students today for tomorrow's unknown world, being able to predict an uncertain future, and moving into it with confidence, takes courage and conviction. Indeed, the best way to predict the future is to work towards creating it, and creating it begins today, not tomorrow. This means that although we respect and are informed by our past, we also have the courage and determination to think and act divergently (Todd, in Effective libraries in international schools (Markuson, 1999), 1999, 9) Slide 3 POSITION VACANT Visioneema Valley School Information-Learning Specialist Primary Responsibilities: Through VVS library as a dynamic agent of learning, to develop all students as clear and effective thinkers and communicators, self-directed and independent learners, creative, reflective and practical problem solvers, and informed citizens. Slide 4 School Library Profile Vision Valley K-12 Day School library is a physical and digital learning-centered space that fosters effective connection, interaction and utilization of information for achieving stated learning outcomes it provides space that is structured to accommodate multiple learning styles and teaching styles it provides space to facilitate multiple pathways to information, instructional interventions and learning outcomes: print and digital collections, storytelling, formal learning-teaching, technological access Slide 5 Required Qualifications expertise in design of instructional interventions for learning through information at class, group and individual level expertise in mutually negotiating, planning and implementing instructional interventions as partner- leader with school administrators, teachers, students and local community expertise in mutually negotiating, planning and implementing a whole-school library program which articulates the integrated nature of information, learning processes and knowledge outcomes Slide 6 Required Qualifications expertise in the provision of learning-oriented professional development targeted to whole school success with learning outcomes experience as literacy specialist particularly in area of reading comprehension and reading enrichment experience in integrating information technology in curricular areas expertise in evidence-based practice and outcomes- based evaluation information management and school library administration Slide 7 Are you read to apply for the job? Slide 8 11 Pathways to Obsolescence Media: Plural of Medium. Invoking the distant powers to rescue you from your plight; derived from the Latin Mediocrum, meaning not quite up to standard Information: all the stuff that we like to keep tidy and straight on the shelves Lifelong learning: That vague state in some distant future which enables me to stop worrying about doing anything meaningful now to enable it to happen Collaboration: A guiltifying process of ensuring I spend my days in cataloguing instead of instructional intervention Slide 9 11 Pathways to Obsolescence Research paper: a neat, grammatically correct written piece usually enclosed in a plastic sleeve or folder Reading motivation: encouraging kids to read what they want as long as long as it suits the selection policy and the moral high ground of the school librarian Project: A preconceived notion of what students will do, how long it will take and what credit it is worth without regard for assessing process or gaining formative feedback Information skills: Week 1, day 1 Time to tell them about Dewey, again and again, year after year Slide 10 11 Pathways to Obsolescence Advocacy: a process of administrator bashing to ensure that the librarian assumes a position of authority outside library land Weeding: a diversionary tactic of focusing on the unnecessary; talking about weeding the collection in stead of weeding the profession Information Literacy: Yes, I do IL, I do Dewey! Information literacy is not about Information or sources, it is about the learner Slide 11 THE SCHOOL LIBRARY IN THE INFORMATION AGE SCHOOL INFORMATIONPLACECollectionsTechnologyAccessStaffing Locating and finding information Information Literacy THESE ARE IMPORTANT KNOWLEDGESPACE Building knowledge through engagement with information Information scaffolds for learning Learning outcomes Making a difference THESE ARE LIBRARY GOALS Slide 12 Information Literacy: its dilemmas Goal of the library, platform / bandwagon for school librarians Goal of the library, platform / bandwagon for school librarians Deficiency Model rather than an Empowerment Model Deficiency Model rather than an Empowerment Model Who cares: perceived to be an add-on, not linked to curriculum outcomes and knowledge outcomes Who cares: perceived to be an add-on, not linked to curriculum outcomes and knowledge outcomes Is Information literacy the end? Or is it a means to an end? Is Information literacy the end? Or is it a means to an end? Infoliteracy babble Infoliteracy babble Slide 13 THE INTERCONNECTIVITY OF LEARNING Slide 14 Linking information to knowledge Linking mind and environment Linking self and others Linking deliberation and action Linking actions and outcomes Promoting an empowerment model towards knowledge construction, rather than a deficiency notion ie students are somehow deficient because they do not have information skills. Gathering evidence on which to base knowledge initiatives and decisions. Learning is about making and maintaining connections Slide 15 Learning in the Information Age School an active search for meaning and understanding by the learner learners constructing deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving it learners directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge learners encountering alternative perspectives and conflicting ideas so that they are able to transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings learners transferring new knowledge and skills to new circumstances learners taking ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning learners contributing to social well being, the growth of democracy, and the development of a knowledgeable society. Slide 16 Constructivist Approach to Learning 1.Students learn by being actively engaged and reflecting on that experience. (Dewey). 2.Students learn by building on what they already know. (Ausubel) 3.Students develop higher order thinking through guidance at critical points in the learning process. (Vygotsky) 4.Students development occurs in a sequence of stages. (Piaget) 5.Students have different ways of learning. (Gardener) 6.Students learn through social interaction with others. (Vygotsky) Slide 17 FROM INFORMATION TO KNOWLEDGE Knowledge, Knowledge, as the transforming effects of the school librarians interventions, is the reason for school libraries. Slide 18 In an Information Age School Library, the challenge is to celebrate the understood, not the found Slide 19 Slide 20 Moving Beyond Information Literacy Productive Pedagogy Guided Inquiry Partner-Leaders Librarian as information learning specialist Slide 21 Productive Pedagogy? Slide 22 The dimensions of Productive Pedagogy Intellectual Quality Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher order thinking Meta-language Substantive communication Quality Learning Environment Explicit quality criteria Engagement High Expectations Social Support Students self-regulation Student direction Significance Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration InclusivityConnectednessNarrative Slide 23 INTELLECTUAL QUALITY Knowledge is deep when focus is sustained on key concepts and ideas Students are able to demonstrate meaningful understanding of the central ideas and the relationships between them Students are encouraged to address multiple perspectives and/or solutions and to recognise that knowledge is often conflicting and problematic Students are engaged in thinking that requires them to organise, reorganise, apply, analyse, synthesise and evaluate knowledge and information (higher-order thinking) students learn to use complex terms relevant to their subject (meta- language) Students regularly engage in substantive conversations about the concepts and ideas can manifest in oral, written, artistic forms Slide 24 QUALITY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Learning environment provides high levels of support for learning: Explicit quality criteria Engagement High expectations Social support Self regulation Student direction Slide 25 Why does it matter? SIGNIFICANCE Students need to see why and understand that their learning matters and has real world connections Is their learning with the school librarian connected to real units and meaningful literacy support? Slide 26 SIGNIFICANCE Background knowledgeBackground knowledge Cultural knowledgeCultural knowledge Knowledge integrationKnowledge integration InclusivityInclusivity ConnectednessConnectedness NarrativeNarrative Slide 27 Guided Inquiry Guided inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that gradually lead towards deep knowledge and deep understanding, and independent learning. The guided inquiry approach is grounded in a constuctivist approach to learning for developing students competence with learning form a variety of sources while enhancing their understanding of the content areas of the curriculum. Slide 28 THE INFORMATION SEARCH PROCESS: FRAMEWORK FOR GUIDED INQUIRY Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or (affective) frustration direction/ disappointment doubt confidence doubt confidence Thoughtsvague-------------------------------------focused (cognitive) ----------------------------------------------- increased interest Actions seeking relevant information----------------------------seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting INFORMATION SEARCH PROCESS: C. Kuhlthau Slide 29 Characteristics of Guided Inquiry guided inquiry learning is initiated though compelling situations, and questions which meaningfully engage students in wanting to know, and which provide challenge and opportunity instructional activities put emphasis on meaningful, authentic activities that help the learner develop skills relevant to problem solving and to construct understandings students are more motivated to engage in their inquiry when they are able to exercise some choice over the specific questions they want to answer and how to present their new understandings an attempt is made to connect with students background knowledge Slide 30 Characteristics of Guided Inquiry instructional activities involve the students in thinking, acting, and reflecting, discovering and linking ideas, making connections, developing and transforming prior knowledge, skills, attitudes and values - higher order thinking and critical analysis occurs throughout instructional activities enable students to develop deep knowledge, deep understanding Students see that inquiry learning is developmental, an iterative process of advancing, consolidating, reinforcing, and involving whole person; opportunities for students to provide their understanding of concepts or ideas, and opportunities for sustained dialogue between students, and between teachers / school librarian and students Slide 31 Characteristics of Guided Inquiry learning activities closely resemble the ways that students will be expected to use their knowledge and skills in the real world focus on identifying and solving intellectual and/or real-world problems structured interventions are informed by the Information Search Process enable students to have the information seeking and use skills to engage in an active search for meaning and understanding students know how to engage with diverse information sources to build background knowledge, formulate a focus and collect pertinent information the focus is constructing mew knowledge, not just a source orientation students encounter deep knowledge and build deep understanding of the curriculum content students demonstrate a personal process of construction through the products they create that show their new understandings Slide 32 Characteristics of Guided Inquiry students have opportunity to communicate and share their new understandings the inquiry learning environment is one where academic and personal success and intellectual inquiry are valued and acknowledged, and one where students feel connected, cared for and trusted students are given feedback throughout their inquiry process that advances and nourishes their learning and continues to motivate them students are given opportunity to practice their new skills to sustain and support their learning beyond the formal classroom and school library experience inquiry learning is responsive to students personal, social and cultural worlds, valuing differences and cultivating an inclusive community Slide 33 Guided Inquiry and Productive Pedagogy in Action: Case Study Gill St Bernards School Gladstone NJ Slide 34 SAMPLE 43 Grade 9 students at Gill St Bernards School, Gladstone NJ (21 girls, 22 boys) Semester long course: Research Project School librarian / teacher collaboration (7 teachers) Instructional Intervention: Understanding the Information Search Process, information searching, information analysis and note taking 2 phases of course: Instructional intervention culminating in major oral presentation (7 weeks); guided free-choice research paper (7 weeks) within the theme: Celebration in Culture Slide 35 DATA COLLECTION 1.Written protocol at three key stages in the Information Search Process (Initiation, Formulation, Presentation) 2.Structured search logs kept by each student during the progress of assignment 3.Affective Domain (feelings) statement and Next Task statement 4.Product analysis at completion of the assignment Slide 36 PATTERNS IN CHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE: Initiation Initial representations were lists of unrelated concepts, and generalities, language associations Statements were primarily property (is a), manner (describe how something happens) Average number of statements 4 (range from 0-11) Random representation: unstructured, no clear sequence or organization; guess work I think that, or at best chronological / historical Some indication of inaccuracy / misrepresentation Acknowledge that students knew very little Motivated to learn: personal experiences, personal connections, intriguing facts about topic, curiosity, teacher/librarian recommendation Slide 37 PATTERNS IN CHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE Midpoint Focus Formulation Dramatic increase in number of statements; range from 6-34 statements; average number 17 Focus on Properties: describes characteristics; Manner: describe processes, styles, actions; Reason: explanations of how and why Some evidence of organizational structure of ideas; some attempt to develop conceptual grouping Key mechanism: writing of abstract and its feedback Slide 38 PATTERNS IN CHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE: Conclusion Clear and precise listing of properties, manner and increasing use of set membership Final representations also stronger on reasons, outcomes, causality, implications, predictive, reflective (increased complexity) Average number of statements: 31 (range 8 63) For 4 students, decrease in number of statements reflect higher levels of synthesis: coalescing lists into categories Higher levels of structural centrality and conceptual coherence -ie. overall integrated and interlinked structure Reflective, comparative, positional: personal ownership Slide 39 INTELLECTUAL QUALITY Higher order thinking: movement from description to explanation and reflection Deep knowledge: Evident in the nature of the sources students accessed, and the changing search patterns from generalist background information to specialist, detailed, information sources Evident in increased specificity of topic focus Deep understanding: evident in extent of recall and in the types of causal and predictive relationships portrayed Substantive conversation: Valuing of dialogue between teacher, librarian and students; fluency in written statements Knowledge as problematic: In some cases, students identified dealing with dealing with factual conflict or conflicting viewpoints and formulating their own (choice of topic); also evident in constructing arguments that show a basis for the claims they were making Meta-language: Use of language specific to the topic domain: not just provision of terms, but clarity of understanding these terms Increasing complexity of the language used to describe their knowledge, and the ordering of this knowledge into conceptually coherent units Slide 40 Perceptions of Knowledge Gained Know heaps more Know lots more, and surprised at breadth and depth of knowledge Know lots more, but still could learn more Know lots, but dissatisfaction about not knowing enough Slide 41 The Emotional Rollercoaster Very distinctive ebb and flow of emotions follows the deadlines that were crafted by the faculty and librarians to guide the students effectively through the research process. Increase in optimism and confidence as they identify a general topic and begin to investigate sources for relevant information Increase in negative emotionsoften reported here as stress, anxiety, and pressurejust as the deadlines for bibliographies and, particularly, outlines approach Submission: relief, confidence (because of level of research done); acknowledge that it was hard work but worthwhile Slide 42 Enablers of Learning Instructional intervention: 3 kinds of scaffolds valued by students: Reception Scaffolds: assist learners in garnering information from the diverse sources; direct the learner's attention to what is important, and to help them organize and record what they perceive. (Perceive structure in information) Transformation Scaffolds: assist learners in transforming the information they've received into some other form. This involves imposing structure on information Production Scaffolds: assist learners in actually producing something observable that conveys the complexity and richness of what they have learned. Slide 43 Quality Learning Environment and Social Support Staged process of learning; clear benchmarks Explicit quality criteria: feedback eg abstract (focus stage) Engagement: personal choice: provide a will to know High expectations (but also causes considerable stress) Social support: community of scholars. Valuing role of teacher and school librarian; instructional support clear involvement of teacher and librarian; teacher and librarian on the same page Students self regulation: knowing steps of good research Student direction: decisions about what next to do, identifying problems, opportunity to discuss problems; Information scaffolds as a regulatory and reflective device to determine immediate needs, manage emotions. Slide 44 Productive Pedagogy learned to follow a set plan and be organized help me through papers in high school, college and life in general getting genuine information is hard and tedious work learned the basics of writing a more professional research paper research approach is more complicated but creates a much better paper my project is amazing. I have put a lot of hard work into it Slide 45 The Students Guide to Good Research you need sufficient sources; if you dont, youre in trouble important to stay on top of your work budget your time better keep better track of resources Important to work ahead always have a plan if something goes wrong, and keep track of sources cite every source so there is no plagiarism Slide 46 The Last Word Ive just slipped out of the hands of a giant research monster who wanted to eat me feet first Slide 47 A time of bold action Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute. What you can do, or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it. Only engage and then the mind grows heated. Begin and then the work will be completed Goethe

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