The Land South Africas mainland: Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia, Angola, Malawi. South Africas islands: Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros, Mauritius Varied terrain. Forests, Kalahari and Namib deserts, grasslands on large plateau Platinum, uranium, gold, iron, diamonds The Kimberley Diamond Mine
Zambezi (Victoria Falls) main river Prevailing winds blow off shore. Keep Namibia coast dry. Moist air from Indian Ocean blows west. Gives eastern South Africa humid subtropical climate Drakensburg Mts. create rain shadow for Kalahari The Land 2
Cultures Long history of migration creates diversity 75% of South Africans are black Whites are Dutch (Afrikaners), German, British, French Blacks are Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Temba, Pondo Mostly Christians. Some Islam, Hindu, animism Most widely spoken language of whites is Afrikaans.
Economy Most are subsistence farmers Raise sorghum, cassava, corn Manufacturing 2 nd largest employer South Africa richest country, most industrial Produce cars, buses for Africa Ecotourism creates jobs Cassava Sorghum
Early History Khoisan first inhabitants, then Bantu farmers from West Africa 2,000 years ago with iron tools Shona built Great Zimbabwe, stone-walled capital, in late 1,000s. Traded gold. 1400s Europeans looked for route to Asia Portuguese found Cape of Good Hope 1652 Dutch built Cape Town, started slavery. British, French, German also settled. Descendants known as Boers Afrikaans language combined European, Khoisan, Bantu tongues
Later History 1800s Great Britain took over. Forced Boers inland Zulu dominated inland but British won battle British empire outlawed slavery so traded ivory tusks, gold, diamonds
Apartheid Early 1900s South Africa government made apartheid the law. (Next image click video) Blacks, Coloreds, Asians lived in poor homelands, travel restricted. Those working in city formed township slums Opposed by African National Congress 1912 Apartheid outlawed 1992. Nelson Mandela president. (Next image click video)
Culture Hundreds of ethnic groups Many languages. Most related to Khoisan (clicking sounds) or Bantu English official language in Namibia, Zimbabwe. Portuguese in Mozambique Religion is Christian, traditional beliefs Tswana of Botswana
Todays Issues Many infected with HIV/AIDS. 1 million Zambians. Life expectancy is 40 (Next image click video) Poverty, unemployment due to droughts South Africas $3,000 GDP highest in region, but still black-white gap Zimbabwe in economic collapse. Dictator Robert Mugabe took land from whites Wildlife tourism growing
Madagascar Physical Geography 4 th largest island in the world Separated from mainland Africa millions of years ago 12,000 plant species. 80 percent of wildlife native only to Madagascar, such as the lemur. (Click next image video) Coastal plain rises to interior mountains Only 5 percent of land is farmed sugar cane, vanilla, cassava, beans, bananas, cloves, coffee Logging is deforesting the country
Madagascar Political Geography Indonesians came on outriggers around 700 A.D. and mixed with Bantus from East Africa. French controlled it 1890-1960. Now have republic with power-sharing government Once called Malagasy Republic Malagasy Mythology and Christianity main religions Not wealthy country. Coffee exports and tourism have dropped.
South Africa Physical Geography 3 times the size of Texas Vast plateau in center. Drakensburg Mountains east, Kalahari north, Namib to west, Great Escarpment (cliffs) south. Highveld (coarse grassland) occupies most of plateau. Mining, wheat, corn Top gold and diamond exporter in world. Has 80% worlds platinum.
South Africa Political Geography Iron-working tribes from Central Africa moved here in 1500s. (Khoi, San) 1652 Dutch established trading post at Cape of Good Hope. British invaded 1815 and drove Dutch inland where they fought with British and native Zulus. Black South Africans lost all land and independence by late 1800s. 1910 Union of South African states and apartheid became law 1991 end of apartheid. 1994 Nelson Mandela first black president.
Zimbabwe Physical Geography Lies on high plateau, tropical with mild climate Landlocked Slightly larger than Japan or Montana Victoria Falls straddles the border with Zambia. Borders South Africa.
Zimbabwe Political Geography Walled city of Great Zimbabwe settled around 1000 A.D. 1888 natives gave mining rights to English English crushed Shona and Ndebele and became British colony of South Rhodesia in 1923 Independence as Rhodesia 1965 but world sanctioned because blacks had no power Free elections 1979 brought president (dictator) Robert Mugabe to power. Land redistribution to blacks ruined the economy. Now one of poorest nations on earth with lowest life expectancy (Picture with chickens to follow will automatically begin a video)