- Southeast Asia and Korea Around the orbit of China Chapter 12:5.
Southeast Asia and Korea Around the orbit of China Chapter 12:5.
Slide 1 Southeast Asia and Korea Around the orbit of China Chapter 12:5 Slide 2 Southeast Asia Labeling the map – Label each of the empires we discuss on your map as we…
Slide 1 Southeast Asia and Korea Around the orbit of China Chapter 12:5 Slide 2 Southeast Asia Labeling the map – Label each of the empires we discuss on your map as we go through the notes. Geography and Trade Influence of India and China – Hinduism and Buddhism Khmer Empire Saliendra and Srivijaya Dynasties – Importance of the Straits of Malacca Vietnam Korea – The Koryu Dynasty Slide 3 Places discussed in class Khmer Empire Koryu Dynasty India China Mongolia Philippines Saliendra and Srivijaya Dynasties Thailand/Siam Burma/Myanmar Vietnam Malaysia Sumatra and Java Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Women in SE Asia More Freedom – expected to manage family businesses, run household, and participate in trade – Additionally, heavily involved in rice cultivation, handicraft production, and marketing as well as bearing children – Daughters valued higher than in other parts of Asia! Bilateral Kinship – Male or female lineage – Marriage: Monogamous; money and property transferred to wife’s family (reverse in European and other Asian cultures!) – Bride Price versus Dowry Who is paying for the privilege of marriage? Slide 9 Women in SE Asia, continued Dutch observations: Women in SE Asia were “constant when married, but very loose when single,” and it was “thought to be an obstacle and an impediment to marriage for a girl to be a virgin.” Chinese: “In Cambodia it is the women who take charge of trade” Chinese: “It is the [Siamese] custom that all affairs are managed by wives… all trading transactions great and small.” British: “The women of Siam are the only merchants in buying goods, and some of them trade very considerably.” British: “Women in the Birman country… manage the more important mercantile concerns of their husbands.” Chinese: “In [Vietnam] every man is a soldier. The commercial operations are performed by women.” Slide 10 Slide 11 Mainland – the Khmer Monsoon trades – Indian influence: Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sanskrit to SE Asia – Theravada vs Mahayana Theravada – “Elders” – more conservative; textual and personal Mahayana – E and SE Asian practice; universal salvation Slide 12 Khmer Empire Present-day Cambodia – Funan expansion 800-1200 CE (peak influence) laid the groundwork for the Khmer Empire. Rice Crops – Could feed large populations – Three-to-four cultivations a year due to Khmer irrigation and agricultural policy – the purpose of government! Angkor Wat – one square mile of city-temple – Built for Vishnu, “The Preserver” – Also served as an observatory – Has been a Buddhist temple (Wat) since the 15 th Century Slide 13 Hinduism During the Gupta Empire, Hinduism became more monotheistic. Emphasis of Brahma – representing unity of all things – Brahma: The Creator – Vishnu: The Preserver/Savior/Protector – Shiva: The Destroyer – Other gods remain, but take a lesser role Slide 14 Angkor Wat Slide 15 One Square Mile Slide 16 Mount Meru, celestial mountain Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Celestial Mountains Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Island Traders Present-day Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia – Malay-speaking peoples, but all trade came through the area and they were very diverse (cultural diffusion…) Wealth gained by taxing trade Saliendra – Java (SE of Sumatra) – Buddhist Borobudur temple complex built c 800 CE Nine Terraced levels Srivijaya conquest 7 th -13 th century – Capital Palembang, on Sumatra – Center of Buddhist learning Slide 23 Slide 24 Borobodur: 9 th Century Slide 25 Mahayana Buddhist Shrine and Pilgrimage site Slide 26 Three Levels: Desire, Forms, Formlessness Slide 27 Vietnam Least influenced by India, but constant dealing with China 100 BCE-900 CE Chinese domination (Han conquest, T’ang retreat) Independent kingdom in 939 CE – Buddhism prominent – Women more freedom and influence than Chinese Ly Dynasty (1009-1225 CE) – Capital at Hanoi – Mongol attempts to conquer Vietnam all failed (1257, 1285, and 1287) Slide 28 Korea Peninsula bordered by mountains and sea Han conquest: 108 BCE – Centralized government, writing, Confucianism and Buddhism prominently acquired by Koreans – Forced withdrawal of Chinese with factionalizing peninsula Silla conquest of competitors mid-600s CE – Phonetic writing based on Chinese characters Slide 29 Koryu Dynasty (935-1392 CE) Est. by Wang Kon, rebel officer – Confucian civil service exams, universities, – Society divided between aristocrats and all others, led to rebellions in 1100s – 1231 Mongol invasion Tribute of 20,000 horses, clothing for 1 million soldiers, slaves – Mongol empire collapsed 1350s, Koryu overthrown 1392 CE Artwork – Celadon Pottery – Block printing of entire Buddhist Canon (Tripitaka Koreana) First time all Buddhist Scriptures written down in one set! Duplicates in the 13 th century, since originals were destroyed by Mongols Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Block Printing Slide 34