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Streaming media in education

1

Streaming Media ( )

: .. * .. * & .***

, , ** (...)

. , .. .

2

Streaming media in education

Copyright 2005

. , Ph.D. . , M.Sc. Ph.D.

email: gsioanni@upatras.gr email: d.m.garyfallidou@upatras.gr email: spiliot@otenet.gr

:

The Science Laboratory, Patras, Greece. (+30) 2610 997879 (+30) 2610 997595 (+30) 2610 997681

Copyright This publication is protected by a creative commons licence (Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike 1.0) For the complete text and an explanation of what this means, visit http://creativecommons.org/licences/by-nc-sa/1.0/ : . , Ph.D. . , M.Sc. -, Ph.D.

- Editing: . , Ph.D. . , M.Sc.

Published by: Education Highway Innovation Centre for School and new Technology Haffenstrasse 47-51 A-4020, Linz, Austria ISBN: 3-9500247-4-3 Linz 2005

Streaming media in education

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1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 streaming media ( ) . streaming media ( ). streaming: streaming media. 13 13 14 15 18 22 22 23

(streaming technology): 2.1 Internet is a best-effort network ( ).

2.2 Discreet media versus Continuous media; (i.e. time-discreet versus time-based media). (.. ).

2.3 Real time delivery versus soft-real-time delivery (VoD). ( 24 ) 2.4 2.5 Streaming versus downloading data. ( ). Pipelining ( ) 24 25

2.6 streaming servers ( ) streaming systems ( ). 25 2.7 2.8 Lossless versus lossy compression ( ) 26 27

2.9 Symmetric and non-symmetric compression algorithms ( - 29 ) 2.10 Multiplexing audio streams with video streams to create media-streams ( 30 ) 2.11 Redundancies exploited for achieving high compression ratios ( ) 31

2.12 Lost packets, quality degradation, and Group Of Pictures (GOP) ( , 33 , ) 2.13 Constant-bit-rate (CBR) versus constant quality (VBR) codecs (/ 34 / ) 2.14 Real life choices: encode for the lowest client bit-rate, encode multiple versions, or choose multirate-encoding ( : , 35 , ) 2.15 2.16 2.17 3 Interoperability of streaming media components ( ) Streaming over TCP/IP and UDP/IP ( TCP/IP UDP/IP) Specialised streaming protocols ( ) 36 37 38 41 41 41 42 43 44 47

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 (transmissive) (The discovery model) (Constructivist view)

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Streaming media in education 3.7 Reflexivity, social constructivism and sociocultural approaches. , 3.8 (ICT) 49 50

4 streaming media 52 ( ) 4.1 4.2 52 53

4.3 : 56 ; 4.4 4.5 4.6 : (explanatory learning) 58 62 63 64 66 67 69 70 , 60

4.7 : (Object Oriented Programming, OOP) 4.8 : 4.9 : , 4.10 4.11 5 (blended learning)

: 5.1 5.2

streaming media . 70 streaming . 71

5.3 : 73 ( ) 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Streaming already existing short video clips ( video clip) Streaming already existing longer videos ( ) media (): media , ; Consulting an online library ( ) 74 74 78 79 80 80 81 81 82

5.8 Capturing an educational event and producing a streaming medium ( , ) 5.9 () streaming medium ( ) 5.10 5.11 5.12 video-clips ( ) clips video stream .

5.13 virtual library ( ) : 84 5.14 : 84 5.15 streaming media ( ): 88 . 5.16 5.17 5.18 : (standards) (multimedia formats) 92 95 , , , streaming media ( )93

Streaming media in education 6 streaming media ( ) . 6.1 - : AiT 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 (Project based teamwork) 6.1.4 ( ) 6.1.5 . 6.2 - CSP 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 ( ) 6.3 CSP2 6.3.1 6.3.2 . 6.3.3 6.3.4 ( ) 6.4 Eduhi 1 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 ( ) 6.5 Eduhi 2 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 ( ) 6.6 Mayo Education Centre 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.7 Swedish TelePedagogic Knowledge Centre: , 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.8 6.9 6.10 7 : streaming media 1 : streaming media 2 : streaming media 3

5 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 101 101 103 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 111 111 112 112 113 114 114 115 115 116 117 118 120 121 121 122 124 125 128 129 131 132 132

7.1 7.2

7.3 . (Pre test) 134 7.3.1 ? 134 7.3.2 ? 135 7.3.3 ? 136 7.3.4 ; 137 7.3.5 (internet)? 138 7.3.6 ; 139 7.3.7 ; 140 7.3.8 141 ; 7.3.9 ;142

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Streaming media in education , 144 . , . 7.3.10 ; 144 7.3.11 146 ; 7.3.12 streaming media? (.. server 147 internet) 7.4 : Post test 7.4.1 ; 7.4.2 ; 7.4.3 ; 7.4.4 - ; 7.4.5 ; ( ) 7.4.6 ; 7.5 8 . 148 148 149 152 153 154 155 156 159 159 160 160 160 161 161 162 162

streaming media 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 : Bandwidth ( ) ( ) web Streaming or downloading ( )? whiteboards

data bases ( ) streamable media, . 162

8.10 E-beams and other alternatives offering interactivity of a sort (e-beams 164 ). 8.10.1 Whiteboard conversion kits: e-streams and the like ( whiteboard: e-streams ) 165 8.10.2 165 8.10.3 Wireless graphics pads ( ) 166 8.10.4 Tablet PCs 166 8.11 8.12 8.13 Mobile computing, laptops notebooks etc. ( , laptotps, notebooks ...) Tablet PCs media players 166 166 167

8.14 Personal digital assistants PDAs, and Palm-top computers ( PDAs, 167 Palm-top ) 8.15 8.16 8.17 Streamed vector-based animations 167 169 170 171 172 streaming (.. ) 169

8.18 Streamed three-dimensional video images (holographic video images): 3D-TV ( , 3D-TV) 8.19 8.20 Virtual reality (VR) ( ) Blogs, Vlogs, media blogs and all that, using RSS

Streaming media in education

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8.21 Real time translation and real time subtitling ( , 173 ) 8.22 Extending the software categories that utilise streaming media educationally ( streaming media) 9 10 173 174 175

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Streaming media in education

streaming media ( ) e-stream (Minerva) ( ). , : , , , , , . streaming media ( ) . (.. ), . . . , streaming media ( ). streaming (): streaming () , streaming media ( ). ( ) streaming media ( ). ( ) : . ! (ICT). , (blended learning), streaming media ( ) . , (e-learning) streaming media ( ). streaming media ( ) . , , . , , streaming media ( ),

Streaming media in education

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streaming media ( ). , ( ), . , , , streaming media ( ), . streaming media ( ). - (e-stream Minerva). streaming media ( ) . , e-stream. ( ) . , . . (error bars) . . . , , , . Streaming media ( ) , ( ) . , . . , -, , (ICT). streaming media ( ) . streaming media ( ) streaming media ( ). , , : 1. : video DVDs streaming media ( ); 2. : , , streaming media ( ) ; ( ); ( ) medium () ;

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Streaming media in education

: streaming media; ; ; ; streaming media; ; streaming media ;

Streaming media in education

11

e- stream (Minerva). - e-stream. : Anton Knierzinger, Caroline Weigner, and Petra Reiter Education Highway - Centre of Innovation for School and New Technology Ltd, Austria Helena Bijnens, Mathy Vanbuel, and Sally Reynolds ATiT - Audiovisual Technologies, Informatics and Telecommunications, Belgium Erica Lavagno, Eleonora Panto, and Augusta Giovannoli CSP s.c.a r.l. Innovazione nelle ICT, Italy Art Silleabhin Mayo Education Centre, Ireland Kennet Lindquist and Anna-Kaarina Lindquist, Swedish TelePedagogic Knowledge Centre, Sweden Rosetta McLeod, 8, .... , , . 6 . : , , pre-test ( ) , . K, . : Dr. , , , , , ... , streaming media, . 5.15 . K M streaming media . . , Minerva, e-stream, , . .

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Streaming media in education

. medium ( media) ( ), , .. , , , . streaming , .. , . streaming media , , () , ( ...) . , , . streaming media . streaming media , , , () () ( .. ) . , streaming media, (digital streaming media), , , , ( ), . , (internet) ( ) ( WiFi, WiMax, ...), .

. .1 ..

..

13

1 M. & . , .....

1.1 streaming media ( ) . - , . 1. ( ) broadband () internet (). multimedia ( ) . web-based video-on-demand ( ) . , . 2. , . : . . streaming , . steaming media on demand ( ) 3. streaming media (ICT) . , . 4 streaming media1

Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-3 2 Ibid. (i.e. in the same publication as the previous one) 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid.

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Streaming media in education

, . , streaming medium . , streaming media () (ICT) , internet transmitted media ( ) streaming media 5. internet transmitted media ( ) () VCR videos; ( ) "streamable media", . VCR videos : . , , , . : ) , ) , ) . e-streaming (Minerva 6). IP- delivered streaming media ( ) . . streaming media . , , .

1.2 streaming media ( ). '80 , . . . , . - (videoconferencing) . , , broadband () , xDSL., , , (UDP/IP or TCP/IP) . , , 5

Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-3 eStream Increasing the use of Streaming media in school education in Europe 110160-CP-1-2003-1-ATMINERVA-M

6

. .1 ..

..

15

streaming media. bandwidth ( - ), , . "circuit switched", packet switching, . streaming media ( ), , .

, web , . WEB streaming media . internet browsers, streaming media , , text conferencing, whiteboards, -, .. , ( ). 7,8 streaming media . streaming media .

1.3 streaming: streaming ( ) , (taken) internet. "" (taken) internet, (downloading), (. downloading) streaming. . , , . 9 streaming, internet () . (stream) . . O media player, . media player (browser), ( ). 10 , . O streaming technologies ( ) (7

Thornhill S., Asensio M., & Young C., (eds.) Video Streaming, a guide for educational development, Click and go video project, www.ClickandGoVideo.ac.uk, (2002), ISBN 0 9543804-0-1, pp. 10, and 21

Bijnens H., Bijnens ., Vanbu ., Streaming media in the classroom, Austria: EDUCATION HIGHWAY Innovation Centre. (2004), ISBN: 3-9500247-3-59

8

Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-3 Ibid.

10

16

Streaming media in education

) streaming server ( ) buffer ( ) ( ). () buffer. streaming medium . 11 live streaming () on demand ( ) . VoD Streaming: Video On Demand ( ) streaming server ( ), . VoD "soft-real-time delivery", streaming media (), . VoD - (single-viewer), "video multicasting on demand". , multicasting, "private broadcasting" ( ). VoD, on demand ( ) . (.. link - -) media server ( ) streaming medium. server video clip . Live streaming: ( ) , real time ( ) server ( ) . , (.. ), server ( ). "" streaming medium, : streaming server "" data stream ( ), . o data stream ( ), - , , , ( ) server ( ) (.. ). server ( ), , ( ). ( ) . , (.. ) ( ) . , (live streamed) "go back" .

11

Ibid.

. .1 ..

..

17

RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) (client - server application-level) OSI ( 2), (multimedia) streaming media IP. HTTP, ( HTTP) (bits) server ( ) (client computer). , VCR (.. , ....). RTSP (multisession), UDP TCT ( 2.17). Unicasting , server ( ) , server . , , clip: (stop), (Pause), (Positioning), . Multicasting -, . , . (private broadcasting). ( ) , ( on-demand multicasting scheme) stream () . , ! streaming TCP/IP , ( ) ( ) TCP/IP . streaming . , UDP/IP streaming streaming UDP/IP. , , , (network congestion) . , , . 12 ( stream). streaming medium ( ) bandwidth - , ( ) . , Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-312

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Streaming media in education

, 13. , : bandwidth ( ), , (RAM) , internet (). routers 14. streaming , . media prayers , (streaming) , ( 2.14 2.17.c). backbone , . streaming , internet 15, streaming . streaming servers streaming web-servers ( servers ). streaming servers streaming media, , , (bandwidth) . streaming, steaming servers , .

1.4 streaming media. . 16 on demand ( ), . on-line . ( ) . . , (media on demand) , media (on demand) . 21 . Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-314 15 16 13

Ibid. Ibid. Ibid.

. .1 ..

..

19

, streaming media to . streaming server . VoD, . , ( "Nearly Video on Demand", "Near Video on Demand", ( multicasting). streaming server , . . , internet 17,18 ( 2.7, 2.8, 2.9). (.. streaming). streaming . , , . ( 8.1 8.6), .

Thornhill S., Asensio M., & Young C., (eds.) Video Streaming, a guide for educational development, Click and go video project, www.ClickandGoVideo.ac.uk, (2002), ISBN 0 9543804-0-1, pp. 49 Bijnens H., Bijnens ., & Vanbu ., (Eds.), Streaming media in the classroom: EDUCATION HIGHWAY Innovation Centre, Austria (2004), ISBN: 3-9500247-3-518

17

22

Streaming media in education

2 (streaming technology): , .....

, ( ). , streaming () streaming () . , , streaming (). .

2.1 Internet is a best-effort network ( ). , . ( ) internet (), . , (, , , .), internet (), . , ( , ) () . internet () ( ). , , internet () . . , . ( ) routers () . router () . . ( client - ) ( ). (.. bits) (.. routers ). IP (Internet

.3

. & . .

23

protocol) . (best effort). (best-effort)! , , , . (identity number) . () , HTML, . discreet-media ( ), , time-discreet media ( ) . ( ) ( ). ( ) .

2.2 Discreet media versus Continuous media; (i.e. time-discreet versus time-based media). (.. ). continuous media ( ) time-based , . , ( ) , . continuous media ( non timediscreet ), , (binary digits) (encoding) sampling ( ) . ( 44100 CD). , client ( ) ; , , ( ). . ( ). real-time ( ), internet-phone ( ) .. Voice over Internet Protocol-VoIP , two-way video conference ( ). , , , . , .

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Streaming media in education

2.3 Real time delivery versus soft-real-time delivery (VoD). ( ) continuous media ( ), . (VoIP, ), . , . . Real-time data delivery ( ) . , : (.. ) , , , . data integrity ( ) timing integrity ( ) . (pre-recorded), (.. data integrity ) , (.. presentation timing integrity ) . soft-realtime delivery ( ), Video-onDemand-VoD ( ) . , , data integrity ( .. ), presentation timing integrity ( ). timing integrity ( ) ( soft ). .

versus downloading data. ( ). downloading () client ( ) internet server ( ). downloading () , ( ). client ( ) buffer ( ) . client ( ), downloading () . downloading () (.. ). downloading () . . (.. ). (.. ) : ()

2.4 Streaming

.3

. & . .

25

. , ( -frames) . , ( ). streaming ( ) downloading. , . client ( ) , , (.. pipelined, ). client ( ) , , o buffer ( .. volatile memory) . . (.. ). streaming ( ) , (.. ) client ( ) ( ). , , . ( ) (data buffering). (buffer), . O (buffer) . .

2.5 Pipelining ( ) media-server ( ), clients (). Pipelines ( ) media-server ( ) . (streaming), transmission bandwidth ( ) server client () . servers bandwidth ( ). , , client () client ().

2.6 streaming servers ( ) streaming systems ( ). streaming server ( )

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- . , . ( ) (.. ) streaming server ( ), . (.. disk arrays - , disk controllers - , communication controllers - , ...). . Streaming performance ( ) streaming server ( ) fault tolerance . (cluster) streaming servers ( ) (streaming). . streaming servers ( ) load balance ( ) , congestion () bandwidth ( ) . parallel server architectures ( ) multicast streaming ( ) .

2.7 encoding () (encoded - ). (decoding) . codec coder () decoder (), ( CPU) (integrated circuits-ICs ). (.. , , ...). Signal compression ( ) , ( -binary digits) . , (encryption) . ( ). .

.3

. & . .

27

multimedia streaming systems ( ), (data rate). : () resolution- (.. ) () Colour depth - ( -bits) () Frames per second - k . codec (/) (.. ) data rate ( ), o streaming ( ). H / (codec), . , .. (network bandwidth) (bit-rate). client computer ( ) . . , (hardware) client () . codek (/). video-streaming ( ) ( ) . , codec (/) streaming media .

2.8 Lossless versus lossy compression ( ) lossless compression ( ) . (.. ) . (.. ). (IT). Shannon-Fano, Huffman, Huffman , the adaptive Huffman coding ( ), the arithmetic coding ( ), LempelZiv-Welch (LZW) 45 .. WinZip, PKZIP, Stuffit, RAR, .., PNG (Portable Network Graphics), RLE (Run-Length Encoding) . , ( CDs), () . , . CD . high-end high-fidelity ( ) Welch, T. A., A Technique for High Performance Data Compression, IEEE Computer, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1984, pp. 8-19.45

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DVDs , lossless compression ( ), 2 ( ). CD 46. , Super Audio CD (SACD) 47 Direct Stream Transfer (DST - ) DVD. DVD audio Meridian Lossless Packing (MLP) ( ) DVD. lossless compression ( ) . , , , Orwell. CD MP3 . Hi-Fi, ( ), (.. sampling frequency , word-length - , shaping - ) ..), . lossy compression ( ) , , .. 1000:1. Lossy compression ( ): streaming video ( ) o . band width ( ). . ( 20 20000 Hz) . . , 120 ( .. ) ( ). 6 , . . streaming () ( ) (pixels) . , Bosi M., & Goldberg R. E., (foreword Chiariglione L.), Introduction to digital audio coding and standards, Springer, Kluwer Acad. Publishers, (2002), ISBN: 1402073577. Konstantinides K., An introduction to Super Audio CD and DVD-Audio, IEEE Signal processing Magazine, 20, 4 (2003), pp. 71-8247 46

.3

. & . .

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( ) (effective resolution) 120 . ( ), psychophysics (), psychoacoustics () psycho-optics (-). , ( Weber Fechner). , 60 Watt 120 Watt , ! ( ) .. 20Hz, . ( ) , / . lossy data compression ( ) 48. (still pictures), TIFF MNG 2 lossless ( ) lossy ( ). GIF . lossless ( ) , GIF (full colour), (quantize) ( ; dithering) 256 GIF. lossy ( ). : MPEG2, MPEG4, H.264 ( H.264 , 10 MPEG4). MPEG4 49, MPEG2. H.264, .

2.9 Symmetric

and

non-symmetric

compression

algorithms

( - ) . : . ( ) (.. ) (.. ) . . symmetric compressionRichardson I. E. G., Video Codec Design: developing image and video compression systems, Wiley,(2002) ISBN: 0471485535 Richardson I. E. G., H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression: video coding for next-generation multimedia, Wiley, (2003), ISBN: 047084837549 48

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algorithms ( ), ( ) . - ( ) ( ) . , , streaming server (- ). client computer ( ), , . : , (). (.. ) () . ( - supercomputers), .

2.10 Multiplexing audio streams with video streams to create mediastreams ( ) / (.. MPEG encoders) , , : audio stream encoder (/ ) video stream encoder (/ ). , multiplexed () / multiplexer () . multiplexer () time stamps ( ) ( ) . time stamps ( ) , , . (). , . , ( ) MPEG - (de-multiplex) . , (time stamps) , . , , (multiplexer). streaming server ( ), server , , . streaming server ( ), , multirate-encoding ( ) adaptive data-streaming ( ). 2. 14.

.3

. & . .

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2.11 Redundancies exploited for achieving high compression ratios( ) streaming Video ( ) lossy compression ( ) . image redundancies ( ) () . 1. Spatial (i.e. space-based) redundancy (within the same still-frame image): I frames ( : I ) intra-frame, spatial (i.e. space-based) redundancy ( ) (.. ). I frame. I frame . 2. Temporal (e.g. time-based) redundancy: P frames and B frames. ( : P ). (.. 25 30 fps ). , (pixels) , - . time-based compression ( ) , () ( , ). . 2 frame 2 , 3 2 .. , temporal redundancies ( ) . , video-clip ( ) (.. virtual cutter - 5.11 ), . MPEG, , inter-coded frames ( ): P-frames predictive frames ( ) B-frames ( ) bidirectional predictive frames ( ). P-frame motion estimation ( ) I frame, ( 2.1, ). P-frame I-frame, . I P P 2. 1 P I

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Streaming media in education

I-frame ( P- frame) ( ) . , ( ) , ( ) . ( ) P. ( - panning shot) , , . bits (binary digits - ) P-frame I-frame. P-frame P-frame, I-frame. B-frames I-frames P-frames, P-frames. B-frames ( 2.2). I B B P B B P 2. 2 B B P B B I

B-frames (bidirectional predictive frames), , (interpolation) P-frames. (video stream), B-frames bits ( ) , I-frames P-frames. I-frames ( ), P-frames B-frames . P-frame, I-frame ( P-frame) , (mediaplayer). B-frames, ( ), anchor frame (I-frame P-frame) anchor frame . buffer ( ). buffer ( ) , . (stream) . CODECS / , . , .

.3

. & . .

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3. Entropy encoding ( ) lossless compression ( ). JPEG, Entropy encoding lossless compression ( ), bits ( ) bits ( ) . RLE (Run Length Encoding), , . statistical encoding ( ) short codes ( ). CLUT (Colour Look-Up Table) , ( ) .

2.12 Lost packets, quality degradation, and Group Of Pictures (GOP)( , , ) , internet () . video-streaming ( ), ( ). , ( ). I frame ( ). , P-frames B-frames I frame, () ( I frame). ( ) I frames, . streaming medium ( ) .

I

B

B

P

B

B

P

B

B

P

B

B

I

2.3: Group Of Pictures ( ), and the beginning of the next GOP ( ) , 2.3, I frame 12 ( 11 ). , frame, 12 ( frame 1 ). , 25 30 (fps), . , , ( ) ( ). , (flicker) , .

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I frame ( I frame) Group of Pictures (GOP) , 2.3. , I frame . , , GOPs ( ) . GOPs ( ), - , , . , , bit-rate ( ), bandwidth ( ) . GOP ( ), P frames , . : GOPs ( ) . I frame , GOPs ( ) , . , , GOPs () . , risk management ( ), .

2.13 Constant-bit-rate (CBR) versus constant quality (VBR) codecs(/ / ) , (I, P, B frames). , . , bit-rate ( ) . (network resources) . bit-rate ( ), () , GOP () . Constant-Bit-Rate (CBR) encoderdecoder (/ ) codec. constant quality encoder ( ), , bit rate ( ). Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encoders ( ). ( ), . constant quality encoders ( ) . (.. , ) . , temporal (i.e. time-based) redundancy ( ) , . , P frames B frames, , , -

.3

. & . .

35

bits . bandwidth ( ) . , CBR , bit-rate ( ) . constant quality ( ) (.. VBR) , ( bit rate - ) VBR . ( buffer ).

2.14 Real life choices: encode for the lowest client bit-rate, encode multiple versions, or choose multi-rate-encoding ( : , , ) streaming server ( ), client (). . broadband ( ) , ADSL, . , , . ( ) (bit-rate), . ( bit-rate - bandwidth - ) . , streaming server ( ), . multiple encoded versions ( ) , multistream ( ) Multiple Bit Rate ( ) VBR (2.13), adaptive data-streaming ( ). . multi-rate encoding ( ). : 1. Video transcoding transcoder high bit-rate ( ) lower bit-rate ( ) . bit-rate ( ) . transcoding : () re-quantization (), () spatial downscaling, () temporal downscaling. transcoders

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Streaming media in education

, bit-rate ( ) ( ). , 20% , ( , , ). 2. Layered video encoding ( ) , base layer ( ), base quality ( ) enhancement layers ( ). T base layer ( ) ( bandwidth - ), enhancement layers ( ) ( bit rate - ). streaming server ( ) bandwidth ( ).

2.15 Interoperability of streaming media components ( ) streaming media ( ) Media Players ( ), streaming servers ( ), Encoders/Tools (/). . encoders () content-creation tools ( ) file-formats ( ) media-servers ( ). media-servers ( ) media-players ( ). Encoders () (. ) ( media-players ( ). 2.4 50 .

2.4

50

RTSP, frequently asked questions, http://www.rtsp.org/2001/faq.html, downloaded May 2005

.3

. & . .

37

2.16 Streaming over TCP/IP and UDP/IP ( TCP/IP UDP/IP) OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), , (. 2.5). , . ( ) . , physical layer ( ) ( bytes - ), (.. application layer- ) . . . , . transport layer ( ) UDP TCP, : streaming media ( ) , Transmission Control Protocol TCP ( ) , , HTTP/TCP/IP. (: ). , , ( ). Application Layer Services to user applications (e.g. HTTP, RTSP, FTP, etc) Presentation Layer Network communication services (e.g. compression, encryption) Session Layer Node-to-node communication control (hardly used) Transport Layer Reliable end-to-end network communication (e.g. TCP, UDP, RTP) Network Layer Initiation and termination of end-to-end network communication (e.g. IP) Data link Layer Logical link and access control Physical Layer Point-to point physical data lines (e.g. wire, cable, fibre optics, satellite links, network interface cards etc) (.. HTTP, RTSP, FTP, etc) (.. , ) ( ) (.. TCP, UDP, RTP) (.. IP) (.. , , , , ) 2.5: The OSI reference model

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Streaming media in education

media players ( ) . , , ( ) , HTTP/TCP/IP. ( 2.17) , ( ) firewalls ( ) proxy servers ( ) . User Datagram Protocol (UDP), TCP. UDP TCP, overheads ( ) . continuous () (.. time-based ). UDP streaming protocol ( ) UDP, . .

2.17 Specialised streaming protocols ( ) HTTP . , HTTP TCP, (timeline), (timeline). , TCP client-server ( / ) bandwidth ( ), . HTTP , . , TCP multicast ( ) . , ( ). . (a) Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) ( ) Real-Time Streaming Protocol ( ) , continuous media ( non time-discreet ) 51, streaming () , . RTSP ( RTP ). multicast stream ( ) multicast solutions ( ), multicast-unicast hybrid solutions ( ) internet (). , RTSP streaming commands ( ) timeHuuhtanen J, Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Helsinki http://www.tml.tkk.fi/Studies/Tik-110.300/1998/Essays/rtsp.html, (1998).51

University

of

Technology,

.3

. & . .

39

based searches ( ) media clips ( ), timestamp formats ( ), time-codes ( ). RTSP stream-control ( ) pause (), fast forward ( ), reverse ( ), absolute positioning ( ), Video Cassette Recorder (VCR ) . (b) Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) with Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP): (RTP/ RTCP) ( ) Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP - ) transport level ( ), middleware protocol ( ) proper transport level ( ) application protocols 52 ( ). RTP continuous media ( ), streaming () . RTP , RTSP, H.323, SIP, SAP/SDP, (format) . RTSP RTP multimedia data ( ). (gateways) , . RTP RTSP multicasting ( ) . . Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP ) RTP, lip synchronization ( ) Quality of Service (QoS ). RTSP/RTP/RTCP UDP/IP, TCP/IP. (c) Proprietary streaming protocols ( ) RTSP/RTP/RTCP , ( ). , UDP/IP, TCP/IP, . media () () media players ( ). proprietary () ( ). . , RTSP/RTP/RTCP. , , streaming media ( ) proprietary () . , multi-rate-encoding ( 2.14). Tanenbaum A. S., Computer Networks, 4th edition, Prentice-Hall, (2003), ISBN: 0-13-066102-3, Section 7.4, pp. 701 -74152

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proprietary () , media players ( ) ( media server - ). , , media players ( ), ( ) , (transfer protocol) . . , streaming server ( - ). RTSP/RTP/RTCP, UDP/IP, (.. RTSP/RTP/RTCP/UDP/IP) TCP/IP. , media players ( ) RTSP, HTTP/TCP/IP, streaming () .

.3

. & . .

41

3 * & . ***

, (..... - , ** , ...., ,

3.1 , , , , , . , , . , , . . () , , . ( ) , (ICT - ) . ICT, . (empiricist, theory) (constructivist,theory) . , . . , (Holding 53, 1987).

3.2 , , ,

Holding, B., Investigation of Schoolchildrens Understanding of the Process of Dissolving with Special Reference to the Conservation of Matter and the Development of Atomistic Ideas, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis: The University of Leeds, School of Education, Leeds (1987)

53

42

Streaming media in education

(Driver 54, 1983). Piaget 55 (1936): . , , ( ) , , . , , ( ), , (- phenomenalism) (Piaget p. 362). , , (Uncertainty Principle) Heisenberg, 1926. (.. , ..) . , , , . George Kelly 56 (1970) : (constructs) (construing systems) . . ( ) , . , . ; . (Kelly p.13).

3.3 (transmissive) . . , . . . . , , . 54 55 56

Driver, R., The Pupil as Scientist?, Open University Press, Milton Keynes (1983). Piaget, J., The origins of Intelligence in Children (transl. M. Cook), W.W. Norton, New York (1936/63). Kelly, G., A Brief Introduction to Personal Construct Theory. In D. Bannister (Ed.), Perspectives in Personal Construct Theory, Academic Press London (1970), pp.1-30.

.3

. & . .

43

.

3.4 (The discovery model) (heuristic) . (Driver 57, 1983). . ; ; (Wellington 58, 1981). , . , , . , . . , (.. ). , . , ( ), . (inductivist position), , Sir Francis Bacon 400 . , 20 (heuristic) (discovery method) Nuffield science schemes (UK). . (hypothetico-deductive) , (.. ), . 57 58

Driver, R., The Pupil as Scientist?: Open University Press, Milton Keynes (1983). Wellington, J. J., Whats supposed to happen, sir? Some problems with discovery learning, School Science Review, 63, (1981), pp. 163-73.

44

Streaming media in education

3.5 (Constructivist view) ( ) . (Driver & Bell 59, 1986, Millar & Driver 60, 1987). , , . . , (Anderson 61, 1984; Shank and Abelson 62, 1977), (Greeno 63, 1978; Larkin 64, 1983) human reasoning ( ) (Rumelhart & Norman 65, 1981; Osborne and Wittrock 66, 1985). (Personal Construct Theory) (1955) Kellys 67 . Kelly, . , -

59

Driver, R. & Bell, B., Students Thinking and the Learning of Science: A constructivist View, School Science Review, 67 (240), (1986), pp. 443-456. Millar, R. & Driver, R., Beyond Processes. Studies in Science Education, 14, (1987), pp.33-62 Anderson, R. C., Some Reflections on the Acquisition of Knowledge. Educational Researcher, 13(9): 5-10, (1984).

60 61

Abelson, H. & diSessa, A., Turtle Geometry: The Computer as a Medium for Exploring Mathematics, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1980). Greeno, J. G., A study of Problem Solving. In R. Glaser (ed.) Advances in Instructional Psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1978).64 63

62

Larkin, J. H., The role of Problem Representation in Physics. In D. Gentner & A. Stevens (eds.) Mental Models, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N. Jersey, Hillsdale (1983). Rumelhart, D. E. & Norman, D.A., Analogical Processes in Learning. In J. R. Anderson (ed.) Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N. Jersey, Hillsdale (1981). Osborne, R. & Wittrock, M., The Generative Learning Model and its Implications for Science Education. Studies in Science Education, 12, (1985) pp.59-87. Kelly, G. A., The Psychology of Personal Constructs. W.W. Norton & Co., New York (1955).

65

66

67

.3

. & . .

45

. (Pope & Gilbert 68, 1985, p.20) Rumelhart & Norman 69 (1981) ; . . - . , , . (Rumelhart. & Norman, p.338) ( ). , , Norman 70 (1981). , , . . . Solomon 71 (1987) , , . , , . . (p. 67) Edwards & Mercer 72 (1987) , . , , , , .

68

Pope, M. & Gilbert, J., Theories of Learning: Kelly, In Osborne, R. & Gilbert, J. (eds.) Some Issues of Theory in Science Education: University of Waikato. Hamilton, N.Z. (1985), pp. 19-41. Rumelhart, D. E. & Norman, D.A., Analogical Processes in Learning. In J. R. Anderson (ed.) Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N. Jersey, Hillsdale, (1981). Norman, D. A., Perspectives on Cognitive Science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N. Jersey, Hillsdale, (1981). Solomon, J., Social Influences on the Construction of Pupils Understanding of Science, Studies in Science Education, 14, (1987), pp. 63-82. Edwards, D. & Mercer, N., Common Knowledge: The Development of Understanding in the classroom. Methuen, London (1987).

69

70

71

72

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, . , , . , , , . : , . , , . (constructivist) , () . . . , / . . , . , . /, . , , , . , . . (.. ) ( ) , (Steier 73, 1995).73

Steier, F., From Universing to Conversing: An ecological Constructionist Approach to Learning and Multiple Description. In L. P. Steffe & J. Gale (eds.) Constructivism in Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N. Jersey, Hillsdale, (1995).

.3

. & . .

47

, . , . , : , . , , . , ( ) , . , (.. ) , . , ( ), , 74,75.

3.6 . Argyris 76 (1980) : (naturalistic) Alcorn 77 (1985) , , ( 3.1).

Ioannidis G. S., Garyfallidou D. M., and Vavougios D. G., Teachers ideas on computers after some initial Information Technology training. In: Valanides N. (Ed.), Proc. 1st IOSTE Symposium in Southern Europe Science and Technology Education: Preparing future citizens Paralimni, Cyprus , (2001), ISBN 9963-8519-24, Vol. 2, pp. 244 258 Ioannidis G. S., Garyfallidou D. M., Panagiotakopoulos C., and Vavougios D. G., Ideas on computers as held by arts students, after a course on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc. ICL2001 workshop: Interactive Computer aided Learning, Experiences and Visions, Villach, Austria , Kassel University Press (2001), ISBN 3-933146-67-476 77 75

74

Argyris, C. Inner Contradictions of Rigorous Research. New York: Academic Press (1980). Alcorn, N., Action Research: A Tool for School Development, Centre for Continuing Education, University of Auckland, N.Z. (1985).

48

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. 3.1

/

, . , . : . ( 3.2) Driver Oldham 78 (1986). , (computer aided learning and teaching). , / , .

78

Driver, R. & Oldham, V. A constructivist Approach to Curriculum Development in Science. Studies in Science Education, 13, (1986), pp.105-122.

.3 ;

. & . .

49

/

/

. 3.2 ()

(Phillips & Hollingsworth 79, 2005). (Altrchicher 80, 2005). Web-based () (Lamaster & Knop 81, 2004).

3.7 Reflexivity, social constructivism and sociocultural approaches., (reflexivity), . (Thompson 82, 1995). :79

Phillips, R. & Hollingsworth, S. From curriculum to Activism: a graduate degree program in literacy to develop teachers as leaders for equity through action, Educational Action Research, 13(1), (2005), pp. 85102.

Altrchicher, H. The role of the Professional Community in Action Research. Action Research, 13(1), (2005), pp. 11-26.81

80

Lamaster, J. K. & Knop, N. Improving Web-based Instruction: Using action research to enhance distance learning instruction. Action Research, 12(4), (2004). Thompson, W. P., Constructivism, Cybernetics, and Information Processing: Implications for Technologies of Research on Learning. In L. P. Steffe & J. Gale (eds.) Constructivism in Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N. Jersey, Hillsdale, (1995), pp. 123-132.

82

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, , , , . , , . , . , , . ( ), , . (culture). . , (Billet 83, 1996). (e-learning) 150 (Selinger 84, 2004).

3.8 (ICT) , (.. , ). , : ( ), , , (streaming media) . , , (interactive) . , (Hedberg 85, 2004).83

Billet, S., Situated learning: Bridging socio-cultural and cognitive theorising. Learning and Instruction, 6(3), (1996), pp. 263-280. Selinger, M., Cultural and pedagogical implications of a global e-learning programme. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(2), (2004), pp. 223-239. Hedberg, J., Designing multimedia: seven discourses. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(2), (2004), pp. 241-256.

84

85

.3

. & . .

51

.

52

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4 streaming media ( ) - * & . ***

, (.....) , ** , ...., ,

4.1 : -, - . . , - , -. (Henrickson 60, 2000) -, , . (.. ) , (.. ) . , . , . , ( ) - . . . , . , . , . - : () ( ) , , () 60

Henrickson, L., Communication Technology and Personal Identity Formation, Educational Technology & Society, 3 (3), (2000).

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, . , , , , ( ) . , ( UPD/IP TCP/IP streaming, GMS, GPRS, UMTS .) (.. ) . , , ( ). (dj vu) ;

4.2 , , , , . . (.4.1), (Moursund 61, 1990).

/

/

/

.4.1

, ( ) . , () () , . , (computer literacy) (Ioannidis & Garyfallidou 62 2001). 61

Moursund, D., Computer-Integrated Instruction In-service Notebook: Secondary School Social Studies. Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education, (1990). Ioannidis G. S. and Garyfallidou D. M., Education using information and communication technology (ICT), and ICT education: categories methods and trends. In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc. ICL2001 workshop:

62

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( ), ( ) - , . , ( ) , . , ( ) , . , , . : . , . , , , (Marton & Booth 63, 1997). 64 , , . . , / . , . , . , (hardware) / , , , . , , , . . , , Graphical User Interfaces ( ), Windows, / ! , ,Interactive Computer aided Learning, Experiences and visions, Kassel University Press, (2001), ISBN 3933146-67-4 63 Marton, F. & Booth, S., Learning and awareness. New Jersey: LEA, (1997). 64 Ioannidis G. S. and Garyfallidou D. M., Education using information and communication technology (ICT), and ICT education: categories methods and trends. In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc. ICL2001 workshop: Interactive Computer aided Learning, Experiences and visions, Kassel University Press, (2001), ISBN 3933146-67-4.

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55

. , . (Moursund 65,1990). , . , . , . . , . ( ) (software), 4.3. ( ) (.. C ), (.. ). , . , . , (computer integrated instruction), o H/Y . , , , . , . , . , . . , , . (CAD) . 4.3. . streaming media ( ) . , /, 65

Moursund, D., Computer-Integrated Instruction In-service Notebook: Secondary School Social Studies. Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education, (1990).

56

Streaming media in education

( ) . , / , /. ( ). - ( ), , , . / .

4.3 : ; , . 66, 67, 68 (1998,1999 & 2001) . ( ) . . . ( ) ( ). , . : (1) , (2) , (3) (DBMS), (4) , , , , (5) (6) . (media players), , , . , , browsers, (codec), Ioannidis G. S.: New technologies in education, in Proc. 1st Greek conference in Science Education and the use of IT in education, Thessaloniki, round-table contribution, proc. supplement published in Greek, (1998), pp. 15-20 Ioannidis G. S. and Garyfallidou D. M., Education using information and communication technology (ICT), and ICT education: categories methods and trends. In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc. ICL2001 workshop: Interactive Computer aided Learning, Experiences and visions, Kassel University Press, (2001), ISBN 3933146-67-4 Garyfallidou D. M., & Ioannidis G. S Educational software, multimedia, and internet a comparison with traditional teaching methods,., Proc. 1st International conference in Science Education, Cyprus (1999) (ISBN 9963-0-9062-1), published in Greek, pp. 281-29668 67 66

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player . ( ) . . , (1) MS-PowerPoint, (2) Toolbook ( Sumtotal), (3) Macromedia Authorware, (4) Macromedia Director, . . . , ( ) . . ( ) . , . , () , () , () () . , . , . ( ) . ( ) , . , , : 1) /. 2) . 3) , . ( ) . 4) ( ), . 5) . (links), . . 6) , . .

58

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(.. ) (.. ). , ( ). . , ( ) (authoring tools). , ( ) . , ( ) ( 4.7). . . , . , , . , streaming server ( ) . , . , ( ), , .

4.4 : , , , / . , () , . , : /; , ; ;

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59

; ; ; , , ; ; ; Fullan 69 (1982) , . , Roschelle 70 (1998). , , , , , . : ) , ) , ) . ) , ) ) . Java: Web: Handhelds: (Standards) o (metadata) o , o , Roschelle, (Educational Object Economy). Java, , , . Roschelle ( ) : . , . , . ( ) .

69 70

Fullan, M., The meaning of educational change. Teachers College Press, New York (1982). Roschelle, J., Henderson, B., Spohrer, J., & Lilly J., Banking on Educational Software: A Wired Economy Unfolds. Tecnos, 6 (4), (1997) pp.23-28.

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. , , , . . , : : , , , . . , . . , (Kaput 71, 1998). . , , , . , Pink 72 (2004) , , , , , (links). , - - , . , . , , , , .

4.5 , , . . . Kaput, J. Technology as a Transformative Force in Education: What Else is needed to Make it Work? Paper presented in the Workshop: New tools in education. New practices?, Computer Technology Institute, Athens (1998).72 71

Pink, S., Making links: on situating a new web site. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(2), (2004), pp. 211222.

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, . . , ( ) . , ( lossy, . .2.8) , . , , , , . , . . , , . , . ( estream ) . :. 1. bandwidth ( ) UDP/IP TCT/IP () . 2. () media server ( ) ( ) . 3. ( ) . 4. , , . 5. ( , ). 6. , . (.. , , ..). 7. . 8. , ( ). . 9. / , ( ) . 10. UPD/IP TCP/IP,

62

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. , ( media servers - - ). 11. , . 12. . . , . , : ) . . ) . . ) , , , . ) . , . , .

4.6 (explanatory learning) ( ) . (Resnick 73, 1995). : ; ; ; . , , , , . , . 73

Resnick, M., New Paradigms for Computing, New Paradigms for Thinking. In A. A. diSessa, C. Hoyles & R. Noss (Eds.) Computers and Exploratory Learning. NATO ASI Series; Series F: Computers and Systems Sciences, Vol.146, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1995).

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, , , . Logo (Papert, 1980; Abelson & diSessa, 1980) , . o .

4.7 : (Object Oriented Programming, OOP) . , , (Roschelle 74 et all, 1997). , , . , , . , (Educational Object Economy), . . , - . , . /. . . . : 1. . . , (.. , ). . 2. , , . 74

Roschelle, J., Educational Software. Components of Tomorrow, Paper presented in the Workshop: New tools in education. New practices?, Computer Technology Institute, Athens (1998).

64

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, ( ad hoc) . 3. O , . . ( ), . . , . , ( , ). . . , . , . . Atif, Benlamri, & Berri 75 (2003) , . , .

4.8

:

Synchronous e-learning: . - , (), ( ) , . , (.. ) . , .

75

Atif, Y., Bentamri, R., & Berri, J., Learning Objects Based Framework for Self-Adaptive Learning. Education and Information Technologies, 8(4), (2003), pp. 345-368.

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. , Yang & Liu 76 (2005) : . , , . , . . . , (chat rooms), S (Bulletin Board Services) , . Asynchronous e-learning: . , ( ) (.. , ) , . , . , ( ) . , ( ). , . , . , ( ) . , , , ! , . ( ). () (.. , , ).76

Yang, Z. & Liu, Q., Research and development of web-based virtual online classroom. Computers & Education, (in press), (2005).

66

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( ) , , . , 77 ( ). , ( ) , , : ( ) . . , ( ) .

4.9 : ,

, , , . , , . , () . . : , . , ( ) , . , . . , , . , ( ) . , . , . estream .Ioannidis G. S. and Garyfallidou D. M., Education using information and communication technology (ICT), and ICT education: categories methods and trends. In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc. ICL2001 workshop: Interactive Computer aided Learning, Experiences and visions, Kassel University Press, (2001), ISBN 3933146-67-477

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4.10 (blended learning) ; , . (blending) . online , , , synchronous on line delivery ( ), (Douglis 78, 2005). , (van Eiji, Pilot, & de Voogd 79, 2005). , : (blending learning environment). , . , . , . : - - - - (Mason 80, 200) ; , . . , , , ( 4.2). , , , , . , ; ; 78

Douglis, F. (2005) Blended learning: Choosing the right blend. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved May 9, 2005, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/start.htm Eiji, van J.P., Pilot, A., & Voogd, de P., Effects of Collaborative and Individual Learning in a Blended Learning Environment. Education & Information Technologies, 10(1-2), (2005), pp. 51-65. Mason, R.D., Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Distance Education. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Educational Technology.( Retrieved November 29, 2000), from the World Wide Web: http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Admin/Biblio/index.htm

79

80

68

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, . , , . (Completely integrated instructional design) . , . Figure 4.2. Decision components , for blended learning , - : , . (Zenger & Uehlein 81, 2001. , . , , , . , , , . . . .

81

Zenger, J., & Uehlein, C., Why Blended will Win, Training & Development, 55 (8), (2001), pp. 54-60.

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. , . , . ( , . , , . , .

4.11 . . . , . , . . . , . , . , . , , . , . , . , , . : ,

70

Streaming media in education

5 : . & . , ,

streaming media ( ) streaming media. streaming media, , streaming media . Joan Solomon (1992) 82: . , . 4 . - , . - (/ / ) - - . , . .

5.1 streaming media . : , , , videodisks, digital desktop video, CD-ROMs, , interactive TV ( ), (web-based media), (, ) . 80 interactivity () media (). , videodisks, digital desktop video, DVI, CD-i, multimedia (). video,82

Solomon J., Getting to know about energy - in school and society, The Falmer press (1992), ISBN 0 75070 018 1, pp. 116

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71

, (pause, rewind, or forward), , . DVI CD-i, real interactivity ( ) . click ( ) , , ... ( ) , , . , virtual reality techniques ( ) total-immersion VR techniques ( ). ( ) , , , . (hardware experts, analyst/programmers) . : () , . video . , , . , , , video . , , . Thornhill, Assncio and Young 83 (2002) , .

5.2 streaming . ( ) , . , . ( ). , , . ( ), , . media playing ( ) , ( ). , mediaplayer ( ) . ( ), Thornhill S., Asensio M., & Young C., (eds.) Video Streaming, a guide for educational development, Click and go video project, www.ClickandGoVideo.ac.uk, ISBN 0 9543804-0-1, pp. 1083

72

Streaming media in education

, ( ) . . internet (). , , . bandwidth ( ), , ( ), . , , ( ) . internet () , , Thornhill, Asensio, and Young 84 (2002) integration (). ( ) , , , discussion groups ( ), , quizzes ( ) .. ( ) . streaming video ( ) Virtual Learning Environment . . , clip , . clip . ( ..) internet () steaming technologies ( ) . . . ( ) 10 15 3 . ( ) , . , . . , , .

84

Ibid., pp. 6, 10, and 13

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73

, . 85. broadband internet ( ) , , , (.. , ..).

5.3 : ( ) : I. , , II. ( ) ( ) , . ( ), ( ) . video , ( ) . clips . , : I. i. ii. iii. iv. II. i. Streaming short video clips ( clips) Streaming longer videos: explanatory documentaries, tutorials ( videos: , , ) streaming medium ( ) Consulting an online library of educational learning resources ( )

( ) streaming medium ( )

Antonopoulos S. G., Garyfallidou D. M., Ioannidis G. S, Sianoudis J. A., Sotiropoulos D. J., Tsiokanos A. C., Innovative ways of combining teaching ICT with teaching science: video taking and editing by students and teachers, In HSci2005 2nd International Conference Hands-on Science: Science in a changing Education, (2005), ISBN 960-88712-1-2, pp. 63-69.

85

74

Streaming media in education

ii. iii.

iv. v. vi.

streaming medium ( ) video clips ( ) ( - - ). video clips (-) ( video editing). stream () irtual library ( ) : , , .

( ) . , ( ) . -, shareware ( ) , (. ) I.iii I.iv. video ( ) , ( II.vi) shareware ( ) freeware ( ). film ( ) ( ) . .

5.4 Streaming already existing short video clips ( video clip)( I.i 5.3) video clip . video clip , . , clip. clips . . , .

5.5 Streaming already existing longer videos ( )( I. ii 5.3) streaming video-clip . 10-20 , , , . video

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video clip ( I.iv, ). . ( ) , ( ) . : . . . , . streaming video, ( ). . (.. ) . , , , , . (.. , , ..) . . , ( ) (.. ) , . , 86 (2004) streaming media ( ) . a) video . , . : , . , . .. , ...

. Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-376

86

76

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streaming media , : b) . c) , d) - (b), (c) (d) broadband ( ) ( ). 1 2 ( 2) , video : , . , video , ... . , ( ) , ( ) . e) : , .. video , ... ( ) , . , . . , . streaming media ( ) , , . 1 2, ( 6.8 : streaming media 1). , , 5.16 : . ( ) . , - , . , , ,

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, . : , . : . , ( ) , , . : , . , ( ) . , . , . video , . films edutainment videos ( education entertainment). (video clip). , film. - streaming media ( ) . video, . , video , . film , ( ), . , , . () . . , , , , . , . , . ( )

78

Streaming media in education

. , . ( 10 ). : (a) ( ) , . (b) ( , ). , . , , ( ) . , films 1950 . . ( ) , , , internet ().

5.6 media (): media , ;( I.iii 5.3). , , ... II.iv, 5.11. ( ), ( ). ( ) . , , , . , .. . , , .. , , , . . , . e-stream .

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.. , . , , . , , ( ) ( ) . . . .

5.7 Consulting an online library ( )( I.iv 5.3) , , clip . () . , , , () . clips ( , MPEG7 ), , ( , ). ( , 8). ( ) , / clips . , , video . , . , video clips . , streaming media ( ) , clips. media () google-style . , , . , . ( , ). . , , , , .

80

Streaming media in education

5.8 Capturing an educational event and producing a streaming medium( , ) ( II.i 5.3). , / , . . . , . . , , , . , , , . . (.. , , ). .

5.9 () streaming medium ( )( II.ii 5.3). streaming media , . , , , , , . video , , , , . . / (. , , ) . . video . (.. , ) . . internet server ( ) . . video , .

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. .

5.10 video-clips ( )( II.iii 5.3). clip . clip , . . 5.11 ( clips video).

5.11 clips video( II.iv 5.3). . stream (). 15 -stream 15-30 . clip 15-30 , . . , (. 5-10 1 ). : () , video (video editor). ( ) , . media () . ( ) medium (). , video , , . ( ) ( ) , , ( national geographic , ). , ( ). , . , . film. (video editor) virtual cutter ( ). : video stream streaming server ( ), . virtual cutter ( ) stream () clip. clip ,

82

Streaming media in education

stream (), stream () , . (video editor), . () clips stream () streams (). . , stream () , , .

5.12 stream .( II.v 5.3). videos .. , , . : () , , . , / . , , . () , . () ( ) , , . , . , web site () , , animation ( ) , media (). , ( ) . , , . Antonopoulos S. G. et al. (2005) 87, video 4 (A to ), . 3 (A, B, ) . A) , , sensors () actuators ( ). MBL (i.e. Microprocessor Based Laboratory) . A.1 , , . . 87

Antonopoulos S. G., Garyfallidou D. M., Ioannidis G. S, Sianoudis J. A., Sotiropoulos D. J., Tsiokanos A. C., Innovative ways of combining teaching ICT with teaching science: video taking and editing by students and teachers, In HSci2005 2nd International Conference Hands-on Science: Science in a changing Education, (2005), ISBN 960-88712-1-2, pp. 63-69.

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, , . A.2 . , , , . / , / . B) : , / . . B.1 , , . B.2 . , , , , , , . (A) (B) . , media (). . . ( ): : . . () / . . C) : ( , , ), , , , , . . . , . , . , . edutainment ( ) , streams (). D) real life ( ) . real life ( ) :

84

Streaming media in education

a) : 5.8: Capturing an educational event and producing a streaming medium ( , ) b) , , .. 5.9: () streaming medium ( ) c) , . 5.8: Capturing an educational event and producing a streaming medium ( , ) . . . , ... , . . . . ( ) . , . , , ( ) .

5.13 virtual library ( ) : ( II.vi 5.3). stream, . , . , , ( ). , . , ( ) . freeware or shareware ( ) , , .

5.14 : - ( ) , ( ). ,

Ch.5 Teaching approaches: great opportunities and some pitfalls

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85

88. . , ; () . , , , . . 89: Video noise Digital Betacam Betacam SP, Betacam SX, IMX, DVCPro DV, DVCam, mini DV DVD SVHS, Hi-8 VHS Image Quality

, . ( ). formats ( ) , ( ) . , formats ( video) . , format ( ), , : () , () Antonopoulos S. G., Garyfallidou D. M., Ioannidis G. S, Sianoudis J. A., Sotiropoulos D. J., Tsiokanos A. C., Innovative ways of combining teaching ICT with teaching science: video taking and editing by students and teachers, In HSci2005 2nd International Conference Hands-on Science: Science in a changing Education, (2005), ISBN 960-88712-1-2, pp. 63-69.89 88

Kunkel T., Streaming media: Technologies Standards Applications, Wiley, ISBN 0-470-84724-7, p. 34

86

Streaming media in education

. , , . : (zoom) marketing ( ) , , ( ). CCD (Charged Coupled Device) , . CCDs ( ), . , . video / ( , formats ), interfaces ( ). , , interfaces ( ) . , . , , / firewire (. IEEE 1394 1394b). , , , USB USB2 90. firewire interfaces ( ) USB, 1394 standard (). , ( ), (.. ) , , . . . . pan and tilt . (real time), , , bandwidth (- ). , 2. , , , (.. ) . , medium () medium () streamed (), streaming server ( ) , medium () Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-37690

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87

() , . , , . , streaming () ( ) , . ; , , . 91. , , . , , . Streaming audio or video files ( ) , 92. streaming medium ( ) internet () LAN ( . , . , . , , , bandwidth (- ) Internet. , , 93. , . streaming . media () formats ( video) ( MPEG-4, RealMedia, Windows Media, QuickTime, or Nullsoft NSV etc.). , media () , , 94. streaming client () medium (). media players. , streaming media ( ). , 95. 56 Kbps modem ( ) streaming, internet (), . ISDN , . broadband ( ) xDSL Internet ( 1024 bps ) . . , , .. , Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-392 93 94 95 91

Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid.

88

Streaming media in education

, , bandwidth ( ) , . firewalls streaming media ( ) 96. .

5.15 streaming media ( ): . streaming media ( ), -. e-stream videos. ( 6). , . : 1. , , . film , , . clip , , . , . , zoom (zoom into) . 2 (depth of field) - , ( 2). 2. . 1. , . (. , , .) , . ( ), , , . . . , , ( 1), streaming (). 96

Ibid.

Ch.5 Teaching approaches: great opportunities and some pitfalls

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G.S.

89

, . .

. , , (.. ) . , . , . ( ). . 3. (.. ). (.. ) (.. ) . 4. . . , ( 2) . (. , , ..) . ( ) ( ). (panning shot) , ( panning shots) 5. : , . . 6. video. video, . . , . , (

90

Streaming media in education

) , . . , . , . , , . , . video : 1. , . . (.. , , , , ..) 2. . . , , . , . , , ... , ( ) . 3. , , , (, , ..) . 4. LCD video / / (parallax) . /, . , . , ( ), . / , : , , . , (.. / !).

Ch.5 Teaching approaches: great opportunities and some pitfalls

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91

5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

10.

11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

, 5.14 ( : ). . control ( ) ( ). control . , , ( 2) , . , , . (. ), . , (.. ), . 2 (.. ). , firewire . ( ), ( ), . , / , , ... , , , . video, . . , , ( ). . . . ( RAM , . ) , , , . . . . . , . .

92

Streaming media in education

, streaming () . streaming server .. . , , , , ... , . ( ) (.. , , ..). , ( ) . .

5.16 : , , . . , , ( ). , , , , . , . . -, , . media () 97. , streaming server( ) . , . , . , . , .97

Antonopoulos S. G., Garyfallidou D. M., Ioannidis G. S, Sianoudis J. A., Sotiropoulos D. J., Tsiokanos A. C., Innovative ways of combining teaching ICT with teaching science: video taking and editing by students and teachers, In HSci2005 2nd International Conference Hands-on Science: Science in a changing Education, (2005), ISBN 960-88712-1-2, pp. 63-69.

Ch.5 Teaching approaches: great opportunities and some pitfalls

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G.S.

93

98: (.. , , , , ) . , . , , .

5.17 , , , streaming media ( )

, video . , ( ). streaming media 99 ( ) : 1. . curriculum () medium () . : , , medium . : a) medium () ; , medium () . b) medium () ; c) ; d) ; e) medium () .. ; f) medium () , media () ; ; medium (); g) medium () ; 2. , . 1 , .Antonopoulos S. G., Garyfallidou D. M., Ioannidis G. S, Sianoudis J. A., Sotiropoulos D. J., Tsiokanos A. C., Innovative ways of combining teaching ICT with teaching science: video taking and editing by students and teachers, In HSci2005 2nd International Conference Hands-on Science: Science in a changing Education, (2005), ISBN 960-88712-1-2, pp. 63-69.99 98

Ioannidis G. S. and Garyfallidou D. M., Education using information and communication technology (ICT), and ICT education: categories methods and trends. In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc. ICL2001 workshop: Interactive Computer aided Learning, Experiences and visions, Kassel University Press, (2001), ISBN 3933146-67-4

94

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3. media (), . , , . medium (). . medium () . : a) medium () . b) medium () (. ). c) medium () , . video. medium () links () - , . . medium () , . 4. . medium () streamed (), site, , . , . 5. 100. , , . video , , video . 6. medium () streaming video ( video) . , medium (). , medium () , . 7. . 5.14 : . 8. , . . medium () . , , , medium () . 9. , medium .

Angelopoulos B.G, Garyfallidou D.M, Ioannidis G.S, Streaming media in education, In: Auer M. and Auer U. (Eds.) Proc International Conference ICL 2004: Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Kassel University Press (2004) ISBN 3-89958-089-3

100

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Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G.S.

95

, medium () , , . Streaming audio or video files ( ) , . , media () , , . streaming client () medium (). media players. , streaming media. MPEG-4 video ( , ). . talking head ( ), . MPEG , ( ) video . , ( , ).

5.18 (standards) (multimedia formats) , video 101. , video streaming (). media-players ( ) , , , media player ( ) video. ( ) media players . . : .mp4 .rm, .ram .asf MPEG) Level 4, MPEG-4 ( Motion Pictures Expert Group), ISO RealNetworks media players, Advanced Streaming Format MicroSoft. video, , slide shows ( ) MediaPlayer, . QuickTime Movie Apple windows

.mov

101

Poynton C., A technical introduction to digital video, Wiley,(1996), ISBN: 047112253X

96

Streaming media in education

video .avi (i.e. audio video interleaved), bitmap format, .dv . video-recording, , . ( animation -) ( vectorbased, ), (format) , . .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 97

6 streaming media ( ) . e-stream (Minerva)Education Highway - Centre of Innovation for School and New Technology Ltd. ATiT - Audiovisual Technologies, Informatics and Telecommunications CSP s.c.a r.l. Innovazione nelle ICT Mayo Education Centre Science and Education Centre, Patras, Greece Swedish TelePedagogic Knowledge Centre The Science Laboratory, School of Education, University of Patras, Greece , streaming medium ( ) . 102. streaming media ( ) , . streaming media ( ) . , ( ), .

6.1 - : AiT 5.3 . - Sint Lutgardis School, Antwerpen ( ): : St Lutgardis Antwerp ( , ) 103, ! 6.1.1 streaming media ( ) . media players , streaming media . : estream . . 103 : , .102

98

Streaming media in education

/ . , ( , ) . , , , , . . , . , , , . . , . : - 1: , , , , / streaming media ( ). - 2: : . - 3: . , , - 4: ( , , ) . - 5: : . , , . 6.1.2 : (constructivist), (collaborative) (experiential) - (constructivist): , , , . . . .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 99

. , , . : , . , . . - (collaborative) . , ) , , . . , . , , , . - (experiential) , . , , . . , , , . 6.1.3 (Project based teamwork) , . . . , , . , , , (ICT). , . , , , ( ), , (soundtrack) , (server) [ ].

100

Streaming media in education

6.1.4 ( ) . . Antwerp, , (ICT) , . , , . 2 , 16 8 , . ATiT 2004. 5 . , ,

11 3 . . ( : , , ). , , , , . (media): , , . 6.1.5 . , . , , .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

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6.2 - CSP 5.3 2 : IIS Olivetti ( ) Istituto Regina Margherita ( )

6.2.1 IIS Olivetti

Adobe Premiere ( ), , . , , . : , , . : 1. : - Sony - Sennheiser - DVD - 2. : / 3. (server) : Video Weber v.2.4 Zen Technologies Co., Ltd 4. : Adobe Premiere 5. : 6. Streaming( ) - Internet Explorer 5.x Netscape 6.x - Windows Media Player Istituto Regina Margherita HyperFilm (, , , ...). , (frames), , , . - . , .

102

Streaming media in education

1) HyperFilm: , .

player ( / Intel, Apple Macintosh MacOS 8) Macromedia Shockwave Apple QuickTime . HyperFilm ( ), CD-ROM. Hyperfilm: Hyperfilm : , , .

-VCR, . , . , . , : . , (hot spots) (. ).

(hot spots) " ". , , ,

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 103

. . , ( ) . , , , . : Hyperfilm Authoring Tool , hyperfilm. . , , Hyperfilm. : 1) Apple QuickTime ( ), 2) hyperfilm (, , ...), 3) , 4) " ", 5) , " " " ", 6) ( , , , ...), , 7) . , hyperfilm . 8) Publish hyperfilm CD-ROM . Hyperfilm , . , . , . . 6.2.2 . , . . , , . . , . , . , , , .

104

Streaming media in education

6.2.3 IIS Olivetti IIS Olivetti, . ICT: / , (LAN) . , : - , - , - , , - , , - , - , - , - , . .., , , , . . , . , , , . , , , . Istituto Regina Margherita 1. : : ) , ) , ) , ) , ) . , hyperfilm. 2. , , , 3. : , , . 4. hyperfilm: , , , . 5. Hyperfilm: , , .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 105

6. hyperfilm: , hyperfilm. 7. hyperfilm: hyperfilm , , . 6.2.4 ( )IIS Olivetti

, , . : : , : , , , , : , , . TDP (Technology Design Project) : - - ICT - Istituto Regina Margherita

hyperfilm NearFar. . V BS (a.s02-04) I.M.S Regina Margherita , hyperfilm , : , , , . :

106

Streaming media in education

- (Word): , ( , , ). . : . : . ( MPEG): .

6.3 CSP2 2: 2 : ITIS Vallauri ( ) ITIS Sobrero ( ) 6.3.1 ITIS Vallauri ( ) : 1. : - - - - DVD - 2. / : . 3. - -: Adobe Premiere, iMovie, Final Cut Pro, MS Windows Movie Maker, MS Producer, RealSystem Producer - 4. - Windows Media Encoder, RealSystem, Flash Communication, QuickTime 5. FTP - Frontpage 2000 or XP, Macromedia Dreamweaver MX 6. : 7. ( ) - Microsoft Windows Media Player, Apple Quicktime, Flash. ITIS Sobrero ( ) : 1. : - - - - DVD - 2. / : . 3.

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 107

- -: Adobe Premiere, iMovie, Final Cut Pro, MS Windows Movie Maker, MS Producer, RealSystem Producer - 4. - Windows Media Encoder, RealSystem, Flash Communication, QuickTime 5. FTP - Frontpage 2000 or XP, Macromedia Dreamweaver MX 6. : 7. ( ) - Microsoft Windows Media Player, Apple Quicktime, Flash. This teaching scenario is based on constructivism theory see section 6.2.2 6.3.2 . . 6.2.2 6.3.3 ITIS Vallauri ( ) : , , , , , . . , , . : , , . , , . Angelo Meo, Politecnico di Torino, , , . , . : / , , , , , . / , . , , . (, , , .).

108

Streaming media in education

ITIS Sobrero ( ) , Power Point, , , , . . "" , , . . . : 1. 2. ICT 3. : - - - - 6.3.4 ( ) ITIS Vallauri ( ) . , -, . , , . . . , , , . 3 / / . 3 5 . 4 . . 5 : 1. ICT ( ) 2. 3. 2 ..

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

ITIS Sobrero ( ) -. : - - - - - - - : - 1 : . - 2 : ( ) , . () - 3 : - . 2 : - - - - - - - -

6.4 Eduhi 1 : , (tutorials), 3 : : , HS 1 Freistadt ( , 4 ) HS St. Anna Steyr ( , 2 ) HLW Rohrbach ( , 2 )

110

Streaming media in education

, 3 104 ! 6.4.1 . ' http://estream.schule.at - . ( ) , ! ' , . , , , , , - . :

. . , . : : : ( ) - .104

: .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 111

-: ( ) (.. - , 3:15-4:25). , . -: : , . . : , . : ( , , ), . : ( , ,..). : . 6.4.2 constructivism theory ( ) 6.2.2 6.4.3 , . , , , , - . . . . . ( ) 1. . 2. (.. 3 3) 3. 10-15 ( ) 4. () . ( 10 1,..). . 5. . 6. . 7. . ( ) .

112

Streaming media in education

6.4.4 ( ) , . / . . : 1 2 3 4 , . , ( ) . (, , , .) . .. , etc. , . . . ( ) . 2 / . ( , , ) ( ,..). ,

6.5 Eduhi 2: (Energie AG) 3 . : AVE Prague VAK JC Budweis VAK Beroun ( A1 ) 2 : .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 113

6.5.1 , eduACADEMY . : http://www.eduhi.at/go/educast.php?castID=42 : demo1 : deutschkurse , . download, , , . :

eduACADEMY . , . : , / . / 1:1 , . . , . : : . (Download): (Word, PPT, XLS, PDF, ) . : .

114

Streaming media in education

: . . . : , . / , (browser) [Internet Explorer 6 and higher], Windows Media Player 9, ( 32 MB) (DSL - 768/128). 6.5.2 . 6.2.2 the , . . , . ( ,..) ( ). 6.5.3 . , , . . , . , - , . . - (tandem-learning). "-" () - (). . (...: ) . : : 3 - 2 . : 2 - : .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

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: 2 CD-ROM . : 4 , 8 . 6.5.4 ( ) / , . () : -, , - Energy AG,.. (, 24- ) . 16.00 , , . 2 . , . , / . . CD-ROM ( ). CDROM. audio-CD. - . . .

6.6 Mayo Education Centre . 3 Mayo Education Centre. : , , ,

116

Streaming media in education

. Sacred Heart Secondary School, Westport ( 4) Knockrooskey National School, Westport ( , 6 11-12 ) St. Patricks BNS, Castlebar ( 10 -12 ) , Sacred Heart Secondary School, . , , , . . 6.6.1

, Pinnacle Version 9 . / . (hardware) / (P4 2.4 MHz , 1GB RAM, 80GB DVD ). . (hardware) , , . Pinnacle Studio 9 , , DVD, .

Pinnacle Studio 9.

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 117

Pinnacle Studio 9 : : avi avi mpeg. : - . , , (sound tracks), , . (interface) . . : , MPEG AVI , (servers) . .

Pinnacle 6.6.2 Constructivism () ; --- ( ) --- . , . : 1. ( / ). 2. () , . , . () [ Dewey, Piaget Vigotsky ], . " " , , , . "" , ( ) , ( ) .

118

Streaming media in education

, , , , , . , , , . . . 20 , . , , , , . . . , , 180 , , --- --- . , , : ) , ) . , ( ), . , , "" . 6.6.3

; , . 1. . ( Dewey) , , " " . 2. , : . ,

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 119

, . . 3. : . , , , . ( Dewey ). 4. : . : . : , Vigotsky, . Elaine Gurain . . 5. : , , , , , . . , Dewey, , . , ( Dewey) , , . 6. : : , , , . , . . 7. : . , . , . . 8. : . , , , . 5-10 ( ). , . , , , .

120

Streaming media in education

9. . , . , , . " ", . . 6.2.2 6.6.4

5 : 1. . : A. , , . . B. , , , , , , . . , . C. Pinnacle Studio 9 . , , . D. , . E. . . ATiT Mayo Education Centre 2005. MEC ICT Art Suilleabhain. 2. , .

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 121

: A. . B. 1 . C. . . , , . ( - ). D. , . E. . F. Pinnacle Studio 9 G. . 3 . E-Stream Community ( eStream ): Leisler 3 MEC.

6.7 Swedish TelePedagogic Knowledge Centre:, ( ) , , , , , . , , / . , ICT, . ICT, (MWD), (MUVE), chats, blogs, ip-phones, . (. Tapscott 105, ).

105

Tapscott, D., Growing up digital: The rise of the new net-generation, McGraw-Hill Education, (1997), ISBN: 0-07063-3614

122

Streaming media in education

, . . . : , , , , : , , , , . , , . / , . , (.. , ). . , , , , . , , . / . , . / . / / / . / / . Software , . , VCP (www.VCP.biz) , . 6.7.1

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 123

(connectivism). George Siemens 106 - : : , , . , , . , , , . . Vaill 107 , , , , ... [] ( ) ( ) . , , ( ) . . , , ( .. ) . (.. ). . , . , . . , . , . . , , . . , , . . ( ) ( ), , . . . . . :106 107

Siemens, G. Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age, (1996), www.connectivism.ca Vaill, P. B., Learning as a Way of Being, San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Blass (Willey) (1996), ISBN: 0-78790246-2, p. 42.

124

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. . . . . , , . (, ) . . , , . , . 6.7.2 . ( ) . ( ) . , / . , , .

( 108, see http://www.ll.unimaas.nl/euro-cscl/Papers/133.doc) , , / / 108

Rahikainen, M., Lallimo, J. & Hakkarainen, K Progressive inquiry in CSILE environment: teacher guidance and students engagement http://www.ll.unimaas.nl/euro-cscl/Papers/133.doc

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, .. , , (.. ). , , , , , , , . : MVC/VCP eStream . - Streaming Video Diary (http://blogger.p2mn.com/), 10/10/04 Streaming Video Blog, : http://www.p2mn.com/wwwboard/videosupport5.html. , .. : Dede, C. Planning for neo-millennial learning styles IDG, Can we learn digitally? Lewis, D.S.Videoblogs and Podcasts Oblinger, D.B. Educating the net generation Ricardson, W. Blogging and RSS - .. Powerful New Web Tools for Educators Siemens, G. Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age Tapscott, D. Growing up digital: The rise of the new net-generation Thomas, R. Supporting online students with personal interactions.

6.8 : streaming media 1( .) streaming media . streaming medium ( ) . streaming medium ( ) , , , . streaming medium ( ) , , , ... , streaming media ( ) . ( ), ( ) streaming medium ( ). .

126

Streaming media in education

( ) . , . , ( ). 2 ( ) . ( ) of streaming media ( ). video estream server ( streaming server), , . II) pre-tests ( ). ( ) . ( ), , . , . , () , , , . III) pre tests . IV) , streaming media. curriculum ( ). V) . . , streaming video. VI) , , . ( streaming media , . ). VII) . I)

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 127

VIII) - 2-4 . . ( - ), ( ), ( , ). - . -, , . streaming media . . , ( ) . IX) . , . 15-20 7-10 . . , . ( ). . X) . . ( 109). , , . . . XI) post test . . XII) posttests. . ( : Streaming Technology in Education in Europe, ISBN 960-530-089-3 Patras Univesrity Press 2006 and at http://estream.schule.at/?url=productsevents the electronic book Creating, using and integrating streaming media in the teaching of science"109

128

Streaming media in education

) . post tests , streaming media ( ) streaming media. XIII) ( ) . post test, . , . XIV) pre post-test . . XV) . ( ) . . , , .. . . , , .. . .

6.9 : streaming media 2( , ) streaming media - ( internet- ). 6.8 ( 2). : I) video estream server ( streaming server), , . II) pre-tests ( ). II 6.8. III) pre tests . IV) O ( VI 6.8.)

Ch.6 Examples of implementing streaming media in education

Contributed by e-stream partner institutions 129

. VI) . ( ) . , , . , , , 2-4 . ( 5.16 6.8 VIII ). VII) post test . . VIII) posttests. . ( streaming media streaming media .. ) . post tests , streaming media ( ) streaming media. IX) pre post-test ( 6.8 XII). streaming server ( ) . . X) . ( ) . , pre test , , .. , ( / ). .

V)

6.10 : streaming media 3( streaming media . ) streaming media

130

Streaming media in education

( ) 6.8 ( 2). : I) video estream server ( streaming server), , . II) pre-tests ( ). II 6.8. III) pre tests . IV) . V) - 2-4 . ( 5.16 6.8 VIII ). VI) . , , . . , . . . -. . . VII) . . ( , ). VIII) post test . . IX) posttests. X) pst-tests pre post test .

Ch.7

.. & .. 131

7 . & . , ...,

e-stream streaming media ( ) . streaming media ( ) . , . streaming media ( ) , . streaming media ( ). streaming media ( ). steaming media , streaming media ( ). , , . . ( ) . . ( ) , , . . . , , . 110.110

: : ) Using existing streaming media to teach science, Construction and educational use of scientific video clips Streaming Technology in Education in Europe ISBN 960 530- 089 -3 Patras University Press ) Designing and constructing educational video clips and using them in science teaching International Conference ICL2006 Lifelong and Blended Learning, 27-29/09/2006 assel

132

Streaming media in education

7.1 : . (pre test) . (pre test) ( ). 2 : ) ) ( , , curriculum). . , . (pre test) 2. ( , , curriculum). . 2 . . . , . (. , , , .) 3. ( ) , (( , , curriculum) (post test). (post test) (pre test) . . . 1.

7.2 , . . , . (variance) Bessel (Bessel-corrected standard deviation) University Press ISBN 3-89958-195-4

Ch.7

.. & .. 133

. . (bias) . 2.5%, . , . ( ) . ( ) . . (error bars) () (standard deviation) , . . pre test ( ) , , . . (error bars) () (standard deviation) , . . , 100. , .

134

Streaming media in education

7.3 . (Pre test) , . video : 59 ( 12 - 15 ) 10 ( 15 - 17 ) 99 ( ) 106 , ( 10-11 ) 103 ( 16 - 20 ) 7.3.1 ? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

- 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0100.0 100.0 93.3 78.8

68.9

31.1

21.2 0.0 6.7 0.0

have

do not have

have

do not have

do not have = have = , , . . , , . ( ) .

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

135

7.3.2100 90 80

?100.0 93.2 88.1 80.0 74.6 80.0 100.0 100.0

7066.3 64.4 57.6 51.0 47.5 44.4

66.7 62.6 60.6

67.3

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

57.6

37.4 31.7

35.6 35.6

22.1 20.0 16.9 10.0 9.1 9.1 10.0 8.5 4.8 0.0 9.6 0.0 0.0

text

m ail

paint

info

encyclopaedias

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text = mail = / . paint = info = encyclopedias =

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, , . . 80% . . ( ). . .

13670 60 50 40 30 20 105.7 20.8 22.6 41.5 48.1 58.5

Streaming media in education

5.7

4.7 0.0

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. . , . 7.3.3 ? - 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 have8.7 1.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 98.0 91.3

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 have do not have50.9 49.1

do not have

have =

do not have =

, , .

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

137

. WEB . . 7.3.4100 90 80 70 60 50 40 3026.3 93.2

;

80.8 76.3 68.3 60.0 61.0 69.7

80.0 76.3 74.7 69.7

60.0

50.0 45.8 42.3 36.5 33.9 27.9 20.0 16.2 13.5 20.2 15.3 10.2 7.1 0.0 2.9 0.0 10.6 0.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 35.6

20 10 0 text m ail

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, , . . . curriculum ( )

13850 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 text0.9 20.8 16.0 12.3 37.7 38.7

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4.7 0.9 0.0

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games = programming = other = no answer given =

. . , , . 7.3.5 (internet)?100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 010.6 10.0 18.2 10.2 8.7 0.0 8.1 6.7 0.0 0.0 16.9 10.6 5.8 0.0 6.1 1.7 0.00.0 0.0 30.0 21.2 67.3 61.6 62.7 78.0 100.0 90.0 89.8

48.1

45.5

44.1

28.3

net caf

, , . ( ). . ADSL .

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

139

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 06.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.0 41.5 37.7

17.9

net caf

, , . (. , .). ( ). . 17.9 % . ( ). . 7.3.680 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 00.0 12.5 11.9 10.2 6.7 0.0 11.1 32.2 26.9 28.3 27.3 40.0 60.0

;

37.3 32.7

17.2 10.6 6.8 10.6 7.1 5.8 1.7 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0

1

2

3

4

, , . .

140

Streaming media in education

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 041.5

27.4

12.3 6.6 8.5 0.9 0.0

1

2

3

4

40% . 7.3.7100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 028.3 22.2 10.0 1.7 2.9 0.0 52.9 41.3 80.0 67.8 90.0 90.0

;

76.3 69.5 70.7

74.6 70.0

71.7 62.5

25.0 20.0 15.3 5.8 4.0 6.1 5.8 0.0 10.6 0.0

1.7 0.0

e-m ails

chat

videoconference

info

songs

else

do not connect

no answ er

Mp3 ring-tones. . (e-mail, chat, messengers) , , . 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 05.7 13.2 18.9 10.4 2.8 0.0 35.8 41.5

e-m ails

chat

videoconference

info

songs

other

do not connect

no answ er

Mp3 ring-tones.

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

141

7.3.8 ;100100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

90

91.9

90.0

89.9

90.0

90.9

80

80.8 76.3

78.8 71.7 69.2 71.2

80.8 79.8 78.0 70.7 69.5 63.5

82.7

74.6

70

60

57.6 50.0 44.2

55.8

50

47.5 40.0 35.6 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0

40

41.3 38.4 30.8 28.3

30

31.7

30.8 24.2

30.3 23.7 20.3 13.5 21.2 13.6 12.1 13.5 7.1 5.1 0.0 8.7 5.1 3.4 0.0 6.7 1.0 0.0 7.1 6.7 1.7 0.0 9.6

20

18.6

10

9.1 6.8 0.0

10.2 5.1 5.1 0.0

0

0.0

screen = mouse = keyboard= OS = Word processing = Programs = Internet = Modem = power supply =

W or d

. , ( error-bars) . . , .

O pr .S oc es sin g pr og ra m s in ter ne m t po ode m w er su pp CD ly -D VD flo pp y ga m es pr in ter sc an n m icr er op ho he ne ad ph on es ha rd di sk jo ys ti no ck an sw er

sc re en m ou s ke e yb oa rd

CD- DVD floppy = games = printer = scanner = microphone = hard disk = joystick = no answer =

142100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 042.5 25.5 26.4 20.8 18.9 29.2 32.1 17.0 62.3 96.2 89.6

Streaming media in education

91.5

58.5

34.0 17.9 5.7 8.5 12.3 0.0

ke yb oa W rd or d pr oc es sin g

in ter ne t po w er su pp ly

m icr op ho ne

flo pp y

sc re en

pr in ter

ha rd

screen = mouse = keyboard= OS = Word processing = Programs = Internet = Modem = power supply =

CD- DVD floppy = games = printer = scanner = microphone = hard disk = joystick = no answer =

. 7.3.9 ; , , . . , . Again, if one does not try to read too much into in, some interesting patterns emerge. . , ( ). , , . . , . , . ( 7.3).

no

an sw er

di sk

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics100

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.100.0 100.0 100.0 93.2 91.9 91.5 100.0

143

90

88.1 83.8

86.4

90.0 87.9 82.8

89.8

91.5 90.9

91.5

8076.8 72.9 76.9 76.9 75.8 72.1 66.3

70

70.0

69.5 63.5

60

60.0

60.0 58.7

58.7 54.5

60.0 55.6

60.0 59.3

61.5

50

49.2

49.5 47.5

50.0

50.0

40

39.0

37.4 31.7 28.8 26.9 23.1 20.3 21.2 18.3 11.9 5.1 2.9 0.0 30.8

30

2013.6 15.2 10.0 8.7 4.8 4.0 0.0

10

7.7 2.0 0.0

10.1 10.0 8.5 4.8 4.0 0.0

9.6

screen = mouse = keyboard= OS = Word processing = Programs = Internet = Modem = power supply =

W or d

O pr .S oc es sin g pr og ra m s in te rn e m t od po w em er su p CD ply -D V D flo pp y ga m es pr in te sc r a m nne ic ro r p he hon ad e ph on ha es rd di sk jo no y an stic sw k er gi ve n

0

0.0

sc re en m ou ke se yb oa rd

CD- DVD floppy = games = printer = scanner = microphone = hard disk = joystick = no answer =

144

Streaming media in education

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

72.6 54.7 46.2 37.7 37.7 35.8 26.4 7.5 0.0 56.6 49.1

75.5

70.8 62.3

51.9

21.7

2.8

5.7

screen = mouse = keyboard= OS = Word processing = Programs = Internet = Modem = power supply =

W or d

, . , . 7.3.10 ; a) b) . c) , . d) Hardware e) Hardware f) Software g) Software h) internet web browser () provider ( ) i) internet web browser (), o (e-mails) provider ( ) j) internet web browser () o (e-mails)

O pr .S oc es sin pr g og ra m s in te rn e m t po ode w er m su p CD ply -D V D flo pp y ga m es pr in te sc r an m ne ic ro r p he hon ad e ph on ha es rd di sk no joy an stic sw k er gi ve n

0.0

sc re en m ou ke se yb oa rd

CD- DVD floppy = games = printer = scanner = microphone = hard disk = joystick = no answer =

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

145

k) Visual Basic, Pascal, C, Logo, Perl Java l) , m) 100 90 80 7064.4 66.1 80.0 79.7 70.2 71.2 63.5 60.0 53.8 56.7 50.0 39.4 47.5 41.3 33.7 28.3 20.2 16.9 13.5 10.0 20.0 11.9 4.0 0.0 33.9 53.5 56.6 47.1 73.7 70.0 61.6 54.2 93.2 90.0 86.4 100.0 90.0

67.7

60 50 40 30 20

16.3

10 0 a b

9.6

8.5 6.1 0.0

10.6

10.0 8.5

16.2 11.9 10.0

17.3

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

. . . , , . , , . ( ), (curriculum) , .

146

Streaming media in education

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 a b c d e f g h i j k l12.3 6.6 11.3 5.7 0.0 10.4 18.9 18.9 36.8 31.1 24.5

23.6

22.6

m

( ). . 7.3.11 ; - 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 18.2 42.4 37.5 61.5 57.6 81.8 70.0

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12.3 0.0 86.8

Ch.7.3 Pre test statistics

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

147

, . . . . : . , 111. . (curriculum) . 7.3.12 streaming media? (.. server internet)100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 105.1 40.4 58.7 98.3 100.0 94.9

0

1.7

0.0

0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0

yes

no

no answ er given

streaming media ( ). . .111

Millar R. & Osborne J, Beyond 2000: Science education for the future (1988) ISBN 1-871984-78-5

148

Streaming media in education

7.4 : Post test , , . video, . . video server . , video, , video, . . , (pre tests), 43 (post test). (post tests) : 58 ( 12 - 15 ) 9 ( 15 - 17 ) 43 , ( 10-11 ) 104 ( 16 - 20 ) . . , (pre test) (post test). . , . . . (error bars) () (standard deviation) , . . , 100. 7.4.1 ; pre test. ,

Ch. 7.4 Post-test results

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

149

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

100.0

100.0 90.29

9.71 0.0 0.0

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

81.4

18.6

have

do not have

have

do not have

, . pre test . 43 , post tests. pre post tests , . 7.4.2 ;100 90 8075.9 91.4 100.0 100.0 100.0

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

71.8

72.4

56.9 46.6

60.3 55.6 49.5

40.8 31.1 22.2

43.7

33.3 29.1 26.2 15.5 10.3 11.1

33.3

17.5 8.7 0.0 0.0

text

m ail

paint

info

encyclopaedias

gam es

program ing m

other

no answ er given

, .

150

Streaming media in education

. ( ), . , pre post test .100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 text m ail paint info encyclopaedias gam es program ing m other33.9 61.0 56.9 46.6 45.8 93.2 91.4

76.3

72.4

76.3

75.9

60.3

15.3 10.3 10.2

15.5

. pre-tests post tests. pre test post test . .100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 text m ail paint info encyclopaedias gam es program ing m13.5 40.8 31.1 23.1 42.3 43.7 36.5 29.1 27.9 35.6 26.2 17.5 8.7 2.9 10.6 49.5 71.8 68.3

other

no answ er given

. pre-tests post tests.

Ch. 7.4 Post-test results

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

151

o pre post test . .100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 text m ail0.0 22.2 33.3 20.0 11.1 60.0 50.0 40.0 33.3 20.0 60.0 55.6 80.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

paint

info

encyclopaedias

gam es

program ing m

other

. pre-tests post tests. . , post test pre test . .70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 text4.7 0.9 30.2 20.8 20.9 16.0 12.3 9.0 9.3 4.7 37.7 27.9 58.1 60.5

2.3 0.9

m ail

paint

info

encyclopaedias

gam es

program ing m

other

. pre-tests post tests. post test 43 .

152

Streaming media in education

7.4.3 ;100 90 80 70 60 5044.4 60.2 56.9 82.8 77.8

4036.2 34.5

37.9 33.3

30 20 10 0 interesting self action22.2 16.5 11.1 12.6

15.5 10.3 5.8 0.0 10.3 5.8 0.0

15.5 11.7

3.9

0.0

0.0

repetition cooperation

different

boring

could not understand

else

no answ er given

, . . . ( video) . . . . . , . .

Ch. 7.4 Post-test results60 50 40 30 20 10 0 interesting self action repetition cooperation different27.9 20.9 11.6 48.8 44.2

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

153

7.0 2.3

4.7 0.0

boring

could not understand

else

no answ er given

, , . , , ( video server ). . . ( ). , (video , ) . 7.4.4 - ;100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 033.3 18.4 10.7 5.2 0.0 9.7 5.2 0.0 11.1 5.2 0.0 3.4 1.9 11.7 0.0 52.4 79.3 66.7

15.5 5.8

equipm ents applications

technical did not w no difficulties som ork ething problem s OK else

no answ er given

, .

154

Streaming media in education

. . 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 011.6 4.7 7.0 9.3 0.0 25.6 55.8

equipm ents applications technical problem s

did not no som ething no answ er w OK difficulties ork else given

. 25,58% ( , , .) . , . 7.4.5 ; ( )100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 interesting different from curriculum49.5 51.7 35.0 37.9 22.2 7.8 12.1 0.0 9.7 3.4 0.0 2.9 0.0 10.7 0.0 77.8

boring

no understanding

too difficult

no answ er given

, . ( video ) . ( ) . .

Ch. 7.4 Post-test results

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

155

.60 50 40 30 20 10 0 interesting different from curriculum boring14.0 7.0 4.7 0.0 39.5 48.8

no too difficult understanding

no answ er given

, , . 7.4.6 ;80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 00.0 41.4 31.1 25.9 19.0 7.8 5.2 0.0 11.7 0.0 3.9 0.0 20.4 19.0 10.7 0.0 44.4 55.6

25.2

yes at school yes even from if teachers depends on hom e recom ends it the subject m

not sure

definitely not.

no answ er given

, . . . ( 50%) streaming media. , . , . , .

156

Streaming media in education

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes at school yes even from if teachers depends on hom e recom ends it the subject m not sure definitely not.20.9 18.6 16.3 11.6 14.0 0.0 44.2

no answ er given

. .60 50 40 30 20 10 0 G ood, I liked it Fast subtitles B oring Not easy M com ore puters No answ given er at school9.3 7.0 9.3 39.5 32.6 23.3

. . .

7.5 . . streaming media . , , , , . , , . streaming media , . . , , ( ). pre tests. ( ). .

Ch. 7.5 General research conclusions

Garyfallidou D.M. & Ioannidis G. S.

157

. . , . ( estream , ). . , ! . , (curriculum) . . ( ) . , ( ). ( /) , . streaming ; , medium, medium . . , . streaming . , , . 5, . streaming , . , ( ) . . , ( ) . . , , . () . streaming. media streaming servers. . , . , . : .

158

Streaming media in education

streaming media , .

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

159

8 streaming media , ...

: . (ICT), , , . , . , , . . , , , ( ) . ( streamed- ) , , , . , . , , streaming media ( ), . ( ), : .

8.1 : . internet () streaming. ( ). , . Grid. Grid , distributed computing ( ) , CERN, . (, CERN web,

160

Streaming media in education

!). To Grid , . Grid Global Grid Forum ( Grid) Open Grid Standards Architecture ( Grid). , Grids (.. seti@home) , Grids. Grid

8.2 Bandwidth ( ) bandwidth () . . streaming -- ( streaming ) . streaming () video on demand ( ) , near-video-on-demand ( ). xDSL . (.. ) . near-video-on-demand ( ) video on demand ( ). ( ) streaming . ( ) ( ). (. xDSL, WiFi, UMTS, Bluetooth, ..) - . , , .

8.3 . . MB , . ( ) TELCOs (.. ) (.. ). , bandwidth () .

8.4 ( ) ( ) ( ) . (GSM / GPRS / UMTS) , xDSL,

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

161

. . . . , . ( ) , , . ( ) . . . . . xDSL . , ( ) WiFi , -, . , . , (.. ) , , . , (4G) fourth generation ( ) ( ) . , . . streaming ( ) . WiFi, , tablets media players . , , .

8.5 web - (.. ) , (.. , ...), , () , web () . .

8.6 Streaming or downloading ( )? ( ) WAN so high a bandwidth ( ) , download () streaming (). , streaming download, .

162

Streaming media in education

8.7 . , (). , . , . internet () , ( ), (.. ). , , . ( ), , .

8.8 data bases ( ) streamable media, . / , . , . / , , , sites streaming. MPEG metadata , . Google-like ( Google) ( ) , real-time ( ) . , streaming - . .

8.9 whiteboards whiteboards , , , data-projector screen ( ), , , () , . virtual electronic whiteboards ( whiteboards) Microsoft NetMeeting . computer data-projector screens ( ), . , , , . whiteboard ( )

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

163

(.. ). , . whiteboards (blended learning). streaming media ( ) . , whiteboard. whiteboard stream vide, () streaming whiteboard . , , whiteboard . whiteboard ( data-projectors- ) ( ). whiteboards , . , ( ), , . front-projection boards ( ) , data-projectors- . , , (.. ). whiteboard, () whiteboard . whiteboards ( .. ...). (.. ) whiteboard . back-projector , whiteboards, . A. Touch sensitive surface: Resistive Membrane ( : ) whiteboards . , PDAs tablets. . ( ) white board. white boards , .

164

Streaming media in education

B. Hard surface and electro-magnetic movement detection ( ). . , , whiteboard, ( tablet ) . C. Hard surface and laser tracking of movement ( laser) whiteboards laser . laser . IR-reflective ring ( ) . whiteboards (.. 1000 ) , (.. ). (.. 200 ) . , , . , . , . whiteboards, tablets whiteboards , , . whiteboards , . , whiteboards , ( ); ( , , whtieboards) . , . , , () () . !

8.10 E-beams and other alternatives offering interactivity of a sort (ebeams ). , . , ( ) . data-projectors ( ),

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

165

, whiteboards, tablet PCs graphics tablets. . , . 8.10.1 Whiteboard conversion kits: e-streams and the like ( whiteboard: e-streams ) whiteboards copy-boards. e-beams ( ) (.. mimio) . transceiver () whiteboard . , . data-projector ( ) . (.. , ). , , , (.. ). , . - . 8.10.2 , ( ) data-projector ( ) . ( Bluetooth), 3-dimensional gyro mouse ( gyro ). , Coriolis force ( ) . ( , ), mouse pad . . . . . gyro . , , , , , (. ) .

166

Streaming media in education

8.10.3 Wireless graphics pads ( ) graphics pads , . . pad . ( ) 8.10.4 Tablet PCs tablet PC WiFi , data-projector ( ). . ( tablets) . , . , ( graphic pads tablets) . tablet ( ). whiteboard, () . , . , , (.. ). , tablet PCs , , . . tablet PCs whiteboards . tablet PCs PDAs , (ICT) .

8.11 Mobile computing, laptops notebooks etc. ( , laptotps, notebooks ...) () , , (). , . (LAN). , , . (... ) , . . 8.12 Tablet PCs 8.11 ( ) tablet PCs . , , ( ) (.. tablet PC ), . ,

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

167

, ( ). ( 2 , ). . 7-10 . .

8.13 media players media player PMP (LCD or OLED) media. flash memory, MP3 players. (.. MPEG, DivX, XviD), (.. MP3, WAV, Ogg-Vorbis), (.. BMP, JPEG, GIF ...). media players . , form-factor (.. ) . , , , media. , (.. 3G 4G). , .

8.14 Personal digital assistants PDAs, and Palm-top computers ( PDAs, Palm-top ) PDAs form-factor ( ), . , ( -LAN, internet). PDAs , .

8.15 , , ( ), PMPs, PDAs . , tablet PCs notebooks. , : , ( ) , . PDAs. (.. Ericsson 900 380) 6 . (

168

Streaming media in education

). , tablet PCs. communicators Nokia , 6 , QWERTY , ( ) flip-open . streaming () , ( HSCSD, 2 ) 2002, office . , , IrDA , WiFi and Bluetooth. mini-notebook, , . , , ( ) . , , . , ( 5-6 ). , () 4G . , , ( ) , , form factors , . . , , , ; . /PDAs/PMPs, , () . - . , () , , ( ) - ( ) . ( ) , . ( ), (.. ). , , . . , , , :

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

169

(.. ) . , , , () . , . Virtual reality classrooms ( ) streamed images ( ) , . , needto-know ( ) . , / . . , , ( ), (.. , , ...), . , , . education on-demand ( ). , streaming technology ( ) . , ( ) - , . , .

8.16 streaming (.. ) streaming , broadband range ( ). ( ) server ( ) ) bandwidth ( ), ( ) tablet PCs notebook PCs , streaming . . .

8.17 Streamed vector-based animations streamed vector-based animations (.. Flash, Expression, MS ...) , narrow-band ( ) . vector-based (vector) . vector animation ( ) frame. , , frames, . Vector animation pixel-based animation. vector-based graphics "cartoon" ( ). , , .

170

Streaming media in education

vector-based still graphics . animations ( ) . . , . animation ( ) ( ) . , (.. ). , . ( ) , , . bandwidth () . . streaming vector-based animation video-clip, , . 3D , dynamic, time dependant behaviour, ( - ) 3D . animation ( ) , 3D animation ( ) . , , . , vector-based animations () . , internet () ( streamed) , . , , animations ( ) .

8.18 Streamed three-dimensional video images (holographic video images): 3D-TV ( , 3D-TV)Video holography ( ), , ( ) . , , ( ) ( ) , holographic 3D-stereoscopic TV. , , , ( ), : .

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

171

three dimensional holographic video ( ) streamed TV . e-learning , streaming . , , , .

8.19 Virtual reality (VR) ( ) Virtual reality ( ) IT technology ( ) , , . , .. ), (.. , ...). , . , (.. , ) . ( ) 112, 113 , . , , , ( ) . Streaming Virtual Reality ( ) ( - ). bandwidth () . , . . , bandwidth () . . Virtual Reality classrooms . , . . , . edutainment ( ) , , Christodoulou S. P., Garyfallidou D. M., Ioannidis G. S., Stathi E. A. Use of specially designed Haptic Devices in a Virtual Reality environment for Educational Purposes: Requirements, Specifications, and hands-on experience derived from an IST project, 2nd International Conference Hands-on Science: Science in a changing Education University of Crete publications (2005) ISBN 960-88712-1-2 pp76-82 113 S. P. Christodoulou1, D. M. Garyfallidou2, M. N. Gavala2, G. S. Ioannidis2, T. S. Papatheodorou1, and E. A. Stathi1 Haptic devices in Virtual Reality used for Education: Designing and educational testing of an innovative system, International Conference ICL2005 Ambient and Mobile Learning, assel University Press (2005) ISBN 3-89958-136-9112

172

Streaming media in education

, ( ), . , , , , . , ( ) . PDA , , . , .

8.20 Blogs, Vlogs, media blogs and all that, using RSS weblog ( blog, web log) web-based ( ) . weblogs , sites browser-based "blogging". weblogs blog, . blogs. Swedish TelePedagogic Knowledge Centre 6.7. blogs , , . blog , , ( -, ), . : (1) , (2) blog (3) blog , . blog , , , . blog, , ( 3.6 3.8 ) blog . blogs . blogs . , , , . vlog, videoblog, weblog . Vlog , metadata . , vlog integrated streaming medium ( ) web (). , - , weblogs RSS ( format Atom XML) feed reader ( ) . feed reader aggregator RSS-enabled ( RSS) , , . site

Ch. 8 Emerging developments and their expected impact

. .

173

. RSS feeds web sites ( ) , sites. blog feed HTML JavaScript, XML-based , blog blog, "syndicated" () web (). Web syndication web feeds site (.. forum postings- ...). RSS . of XML file formats for web syndication ( XML ). Rich Site Summary, RDF Site Summary, and Really Simple Syndication ! , blogs , . ( ) bloging vloging .

8.21

Real time translation and real time subtitling (

, ) . , , . , , (. ) (.. ). , . server ( ). , ( ), . , , .

8.22 Extending the software categories that utilise streaming media educationally ( streaming media) streaming media ( ) 4.3. streaming medium. () streaming server, , : . () , , . , streamed medium ( ) , ( ), ... 4, , , , , .

174

Streaming media in education

9 M. & . , ...,

. . , (interactive videogames), streamed videos , . , . , . (special effects) , . streaming media , . Streaming media . . streaming media . . . . . , . , media . , . streaming . . , . . e-stream streaming media , . , 8. media, , , . , , (blended learning) streaming media .

Streaming media in education

175

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