BIO FILTRATION CONNECTION
Stage two of the Tamaki River Project. I have chosen to focus on issues relating to water quality.
1) To prevent further contamination.
2) To enhance water quality.
3) To educate the public regarding the issue.
4) To aim for overall increased sustainability/resilience throughout a selected area. Achieved in cooperation with the education through design theory.
Working with Megan Carbines, a marine sci-entist at Auckland Council has lead me to gain further knowl-edge about the marine life with-in the Tamaki Estuary and the huge ecological role they play.Research shows that New Zealand green shell mussels
are present in the waters in various areas throughout the river. Auckland Council use mussels to carry out a Con-taminant Monitoring Pro-gramme where they test for metal contaminants such as Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromi-um, Copper, Lead and Zinc.
tamaki rivercontamination E n h a n c i n g w a t e r q u a l i t y a n d p r e v e n t i n g f u r t h e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n b e i n g m y p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e , I i d e n t i f i e d k e y a r e a s o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n .
e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h d e s i g n
A concept which relies not entirely on the design itself, but the people who interact with it. By explaining the reasoning behind the design and what the positive effects are, people are more likely to have an appreciation towards it. In this case my aim is to educate the public
into why Tamaki Estuary is contaminated, how they can help prevent further contamination and what the positive effects my design will have. Placement of design is important for this concept to have effect.
seas i de parkoutset
Seaside Park, Located on the banks of Tamaki River is a four-year transformation of a contaminated landfill into a wildlife haven. The design included a man-made reef and protective rock barrier, wetland area, an emphasis on water quality within the estuary, wildlife refuge, newly planted flora, walking tracks, recreational playing fields and a new stormwater retention basin. The 17.6 ha park is a highly visible and well-used amenity area and
an important recreational facility. Combining the location of Seaside Park offering its excellent coastal location, amenity values, residential housing, sporting facilities and overall public friendly park space with the identified contaminated area sitting north of the park, where Otahuhu Creek and Tamaki Estuary meet. This offers the perfect opportunity for me to build on the Education through design concept.
pr i o r 1 840The Otahuhu portage, connecting the Waitemata and Manukau harbours, and the Waiuku portage, connecting the Manukau Harbour and Waikato River, enabled travel between Northland and the interior of the North Island. According to a plaque on the corner of Portage Road and Mt.
Wellington highway, this road is the shortest road in the world connecting two oceans (Pacific Ocean via Waitemata Harbour and Tasman Sea via Manukau Harbour). In ancient times, it was a track where Maori dragged their canoes between each harbour. Portage Road marks the narrowest part of
1 8 50 1900 19501945Fo
S i gn i f i cant popu l a t i on g rowth
I ncreased imperv i ous sur faces
H i gh l y u rban i sed
=Contam inated l and
Stormwater contam inants
+ the era of big infrastructure = over
we need new toolsnew approaches
Plans to clean up Brooklyns Red Hook and Gowanus Canal with the help of oysters - a natural water filter. Laying oyster ropes will promote their growth and clean millions of gallons of water per day. Estimated to have
clean water in the next 30 years from this design alone. This living reef is constructed from a field of piles and a woven web of fuzzy rope that supports oyster growth and builds a rich three-dimensional landscape mosaic
we need to link
+ k a t e o r f fFocuses on susta inab le deve lopment , b iod ivers ity , and community-based change
Laying oyster ropes will promote their growth and clean millions of gal-lons of water per day
e s t i m a t i o nThis particular setup incorporates 2 mussel rope struc-tures extending out 100 m each. A rough estimation can be made to distinguish the amount of water being filtered per day. A standard mussel rope setup of this length would contain 4000 m of dropper line more or less with an aver-
age water depth of 5 m. Assuming we have 4000 m of line with the standard 150 mussels per m. That allows each rope to hold 600,000 mussels. Multiply that with 18 columns and you get 10,800,000 mussels in total. With each mussel fil-tering 360 L of water per day the total amount adds up to
3 , 8 8 8 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 Lo f w a t e r f i l t e r e d p e r d a y
o p p o r t u n i t i e sThese mussel structures would require maintenance in terms of laying the ropes, monitoring and replenishing stocks as natural mortality diminish the population. There is a newly established mussel recycling plant set in Nelson, Marlbor-ough. This plant removes any contaminants and converts the
shells into organic feedstock and fertilizer, creating the po-tential for shells to be transported there. Some research is developing, which looks at the use of mussel shells to be used in stormwater pits to absorb contaminants from as a form of treatment. Potentially shells could be used for this also.
Water levelMussel ropes 0.2 m thick
1 m Sea floor
c o m p o n e n t s
n z s o u r c e d e q u i p m e n t
Bibliography Amputch, A. (2011, 09 10). Seaside Park.
ARC. (2007). Contaminant Monitoring in Shellfish. Auckland.
Auckland City Council. (2011). Tamaki Estuary Marine Report Card.
State of the Auckland Region .
Carbines, M. (2011, 09 13). Tamaki Estuary.
Department of Conservation. (2009 June). Tamaki Ecological
District. Retrieved 2011 27-10 from Auckland Protection
Department, F. a. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011 11-10 from
Fisheries, M. o. (n.d.). green shell mussels. From
Healtheries. (n.d.). Healtheries of New Zealand. Retrieved 2011
27-10 from http://www.saniprevent.de/hersteller.php?set=2
Lyprinol. (n.d.). Mussel Farming. From
MFA. (n.d.). Mussel Farming. Retrieved 2011 20-10 from
Marine Farming Association: http://www.nzmfa.co.nz/faq.asp
Orff, K. (2011 Jan). Reviving New York's rivers with oysters.
Scoop Parliment. (2011 27-Jan). From
seatone. (n.d.). Life cycle of a farmed Green-Lipped Mussel. From
The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (n.d.). Maori Tribal History.
Retrieved 10 02, 2011, from Hongi's Expeditions:
Utilizing Small Spaces
Currently East Tamkai consist of mixed land use of residential, dense commercial and light industry areas. The 4-lane road infrastructure (Ti Rakau)seems to have one of the strongest impacts on its surroundings due to its scale and heavy traffic. There are numerous conclusions that there is no sense of living within commercial/industrial ar-eas and I propose on developing an idea to overcome peoples perspective over commercial/industrial areas by pro-viding an urban based projects for a more enhanced living conditions. There are many problems to consider, how-ever the primary aim is to counteract the on-going pollution caused from stormwater run-offs caused from roads, buildings etc. I feel that, by introducing low impact environmental urban designs with stormwater treatments, the current on-going deterioration will remain manageable and ultimately peoples immediate perception over these areas will hopefully change them to utilize all proposed designs as an enjoyable environment.
Living up new spaces
Gray, unwelcoming, low vibrant, short of significant ecological beneficial vegetation and lack stormwater treatments are some of few that I en-countered throughout my site visit on East Tamaki, Pakuranga. As I mentioned earlier, the site lacks in what a successful environment would be able to provide and support the wants/needs of an individual. Rain gardens, swales, living walls (facade walls), retention ponds, business parks and many more implications can be introduced throughout the chosen site to ultimately accommodate both ecology and social aspects. Meas-urements, Site visits, GIS desktop research and further refinements are some of many primary tasks that I would need to consider. My site visits consist of capturing all possible opportunities that the site may offer for future implications and doing so, I could then make assumptions based on the information I gather during these site visits.
Site Visit Problem
Site Visit Potentials
All these images speak for themselves. These moderately narrow strips of open, flat yawns are ideal for development and it was unfortunate to find these patches of land underutilized with only standard, non-significant species of vegetation planted in low quantities.
Site Visit Potentials
Here are few snapshots of a potential business park where retention ponds, swales and other stormwater treatments can be used to implement an educational purpose on local members of business employees. I am hoping that within time, people are inspired and willing to take on a more environmental approach.
GIS Analysis Chosen site + Land use
Compiling GIS data and analysing their attribute/values can highly influential the overall outcome of a design project. A successful design requires full attention on various opposing constraints and limitations that may affect the design.
GIS AnalysisSurrounding vegetation + Open space
GIS AnalysisBuilding footprints + Road infrastructure+ Imprevious surfaces + 1meter contour lines
GIS AnalysisHydrology + Wastewater Flow+ Manholes + Elevations
As the first LEED Gold certified mixed-use industrial building, this 212,000 sq ft facility includes 18,000 sq ft of office space and common area, a 26,000 sq ft training center and a 135,000 sq ft warehouse with a 33,000 sq ft mezzanine.
Completed in October 2001, the project is based on energy efficient, sustainable design using recycled materials, non-toxic products and certified wood. This specific building consist low impacting environmental designs to address any on-site polluted run-offs as well as neighboring addresses. Honda has proven that a commercial building can be en-vironmentally friendly and energy-efficient while supporting normal business activities.
Stephen Epler Residence Hall is located at the southwestern corner of Portland State University. The building was designed with sustainable components focusing on inte-grating new technologies to get the greatest benefit from the sites wind, rain and stun characteristics. One of the design goals was to make stormwater management interesting and engaging for students and residents of the building. This is a very important factor to consider. By encouraging people to experience some of the process in which the storm-water treatment works, this will have a special influential effect on people, hopefully changing their perception over East Tamaki. The design consists of visible stormwater systems on an open courtyard. The rainwater is guttered through and directed to multi-ple planter boxes, this is where filtration processes initiates.
Case StudyPortland + Gresham
Landschaftspark is a public park located in Duisburg Nord, Germany. It was designed in 1991 by Peter Latz, with the intention that it work to heal and understand the industrial past, rather than trying to reject it. This case study is more of a reference of how and what can be achieved despite being in an old rusty industrial area. The vibrant atmosphere of on-going events, recreation and public activities keeps the park resistant. Given time, I am hoping that my site can take on this notion of approach.
Case StudyLandschaftspark in Duisburg Nord, Germany
Proposed plan design
Major proposed design 1Streetscape
Major proposed design 2Business park
Perspective Business park
STORMWATER TREATMENTOTARA CREEK RESTORATION
-Ji hoon Park-
In our research in part 1, We have noticed some serious ongoing pollution problems that have been identified through our research in Tamaki estuary. Untreated storm-water and expansion of development & earthwork was the major problems that was increasing the level of pollution and chemical concentration in the water around the Tamaki estuary. Due to on-going development and expansion of population, impervious space is increasing and is causing serious and various stormwater problems worldwide. This is a serious issue that will continue to grow and therefore, will need to be addressed immediately. Without a well-designed stormwater treatment solution, we will end lose majority of our usable waterways and ecology. The Otara creek is a great opportunity for development as it is surrounded by mostly the residential areas and is easy to access.
Through the site visits and research it was easily noticeable of how badly the site was being misused by the surrounding community which shows the level of awareness concerning basic environmental issues and their values of the local community.
By looking into series of GIS maps of the site and several case studies worldwide that are deal-ing similar problems, I will be able to find a solution that is suitable for the Otara creek.
Otara creek was predicted as a creek that is most likely to be seriously polluted around 2060 with many illegal sewage spillways and thereby high concentration of chemical levels. By providing adaptable solution for this site will bring more attention and awareness from the local community and will be able to expand the project further around the upper Tamaki estuary due to its outcome.
The image from one of the article concerned about the illegal dumping of wastes in the water.
GIS MAPSMap 1. Land use
Design question: How can I restore Otara creek and what design and system do i need to apply to maintain it for Otara creek?
Map 1. Land useThis map shows the use of lands in general.The black areas are the surrounding industrial / com-mercial area that could produce all the critical chemical wastes for the creek. The wastes and the chemicals that are produced from this area will be washed off with the rain and be released to the creek or river directly.
Residential areas are not as bad as industrial or com-mercial areas but it definitely does have fair impact on the creek. The rain will wash the chemicals from the roofs, paints and household wastes to the creek.
The roads are one of the main source of pollution. The tyres leave chemicals on the roads and roads act as a direct water runway.
Map 2. Impervious spacesMap 2. Impervious spaces
This map shows all the impervious spaces. Impervious spaces are major problem because they do not allow plants to grow or let the water soak in into the ground. These often result in flooding and untreated chemical flowing into the major waterways directly.
The more impervious there are the bigger the risk and pollution. As seen on left the surrounding impervious area around the creek is very large which leads to a con-clution that the Otara creek is quite invulnerable to pos-sible floods and untreated stormwater.
Map 3. Stormwater outlet & Geology
This map shows all the stormwater outlet and pipes as well as all the high points and lower points. As waters flow from high points to lower points stormwaters eventually are released to the creek or the sea to prevent flooding which is a big problem as they are just released directly without being filtered.By seeking filtering system for many different points of releasing point or by controlling the wa-terway I could possibly reduce the pollution.
Map 4. VegetationsMap 4. Vegetations
Compare to the size of the impervious areas the vegeta-tions around the creek is very limited. The buffers are not as thick for effective filtering.
The lighter green around the waters are mangroves. Mangroves are helpful as they hold up the pollutants from getting flushed into the sea and lower part of the estuary.
The darker greens are mostly the native vegetations. Native vegetations are great as they are more tolerent of the atmosphere.
SITE VISITSFollowing the creek
This image shows the concrete swale designed for faster flushing of water in prevention of flooding
Vast magrove fields next to the creek This image shows the stormwater outlet relesing stormwaters and the image below showing the foams from the pipe.
The roads were not even sealed which can potent- ially make stormwater worse.
Along the track around the creek, there was so much rubbish visible outside of the fences of the residential area that seemed to be there for quite some time.Although it did not create ordor it was making the experience very unpleasing. This proved how badly the site was being monitored / managed and how residents had little care for their ecology. The dumping of rubbish problem was quite serious as the wastes were also in the water as much on the ground.
Visiting the commertial areas around the Creek I have identified many places that would contribute alot to the pollution. Since the catchment was hugh, potentially all the stormwater produced from these industrial areas would eventually get in to the creek which was a big concern.
Gowanus Canal also known as Gowanus Creek Canal is a canal in New York City of Brooklyn. Once a busy cargo transportation hub, the canals history has paralleled the decline of domestic shipping via water. A legacy of serious environmental problems has beset the area from the time the canal arose from the local tidal wetlands and fresh water streams. In recent years, there has been a call once again for environ-mental cleanup. In addition, development pressures have brought speculation that the wetlands of the Gowanus should serve waterfront economic development needs which may not be compatible with environ-mental restoration.
At the moment the canal is severely contaminated with chemical pollutants and dumped wastes with illegal discharge and dumping.
Clean up (dredging) and planting is happening in some areas of the creek but leaking and dumping of the wastes/ wastes water is continuing by locals.
Newtown Creek, the most exten-sive of the East River estuaries, was designated a Superfund site in 2010. The toxic legacy and the limited exchange of oxygen and water in the upper reaches and tributaries of the Newtown Creek leave a stagnant winding channel that offers little hope of ecological restoration.The upper reaches of Newtown Creek, from the English Kills to Whale Creek, is best treated by a protocol of remediation and then filled and converted to green space. Below the filed area, in and around the Newtown Creek Water Pollution Control Plant, smaller wetland features can be devel-oped. This progression of upland green space to wetland to river would allow some preservation of the water feature (in closer proxim-ity to the tidal currents of the East River), would provide green space in a bleak post industrial landscape and would save environmental res-toration funds for more important and productive objectives.
-Looking for opportunities for de-velopment in different areas-Controlling contaminant levels through remediating and then fill-ing and converting to green space with effective vegetations
During the 1990s, the Christchurch City Council (CCC) com-menced a series of river enhancement projects throughout the city, reflecting a charge in attitude on managing urban streams. The original CDB dogma that drainage was everything has been drastically revised and a new focus placed on a streams ecological functions. Projects to improve the aesthet-ics and ecological values of streams are now commonplace in Christchurch.
An essential part of the restoration process has been to com-pare stream conditions before and after treatment. As part of this monitoring, selected short reaches (50-100m) of five streams were targeted for enhancement projects. Riparian planting was planning combination of channel naturalisation and riparian planting for Jacksons Creek.
-Continuous monitoring-Massive planting for restoration-Continuous cleanup
Result Improved water quality & ecology
DESIGNSThe case studies I have looked at with similar problems have been treating the pollution and stormwater in a similar way. Firstly, they dredged or cleaned the creek; then they installed treat-ment systems and planted vegetations that was suitable for these types of situations. After the installations they would continually monitor the site and check the quality of water to see the pro-gress and identify any additional problems they might have. All case studies focused on involving and building awareness to the local community to give the sense of responsibility and belonging through the project.
With my design I have decided to apply the same procedures that all the other projects have applied in their design with clean up and dredging as there are quite some amount of chemicals and wastes sitting in the creek and to install the stormwater treatment systems and vegetations, I have analysed the park by positions of stormwater outlets to identify where it is suitable for each stormwater retention pond, rain garden and spreaders to go.
After identifying as seen on on Opportunities page, I have installed retention ponds where the reasonable size of land was available and planted heavily where it was too narrow for any other types of treatment system to go in other than spreaders. As the Otara creek is also a reserve and a recreation area used by local or is supposed to be used, I also cared about its aesthetics as much as the treatment of water and its function.The walking tracks were kept as they were as I felt they were quite useful. Raingarden was in-stalled where the land size was not big enough for the retention ponds but was reasonably big.Rain gardens were ideal in those size lots as they could be very attractive along the walking tracks and could create great views.
As waters go through section A, the broaden stream will allow water to spread more and there-fore the Oioi planting can filter out the stormwater as they flow. Most of the stormwater pipes are diverted into the stormwater treatment facilities and will be filtered before they enter the stream.
This will hopefully bring back the ecology and provide great place for local people to visit and as people start to see the difference people will become more aware of the importance of ecology and dumping of wastes will hopefully be reduced.
--- Section A-A shows broaden waterway for shallow water flow and oioi plantings how they are going to be filtering out the water.
--- Section B-B shows the spreader and swale to control stormwater; The stormwater will get filtered as the water flows through the dense buffer of vegetation.
--- Detailed side sections of stormwater systems.
--- The section C-C is a long strip that cuts through themiddle of the reserve. It shows how retention ponds and rain gardens will look like and how deck/ sitting area will work on the site.
I have chosen the plants carefully considering their habits and where they might do well, referring to suggestive planting list for raingardens from ACC. I have reduced competition between the plants by limiting the species of plants used and I have arranged them so that people would experience different atmosphere as they enter different sections of the site.
Objective: Continuing from our first group project on the ecology of the Tamaki River, I wish to explore how improving ecologies urban as well as natural ecologies might provide employment in a poor area suit-able to housing intensification.
Otara In Brief:Situated at the head of the Tamaki River, Otara is 18 kilometres south east of Aucklands CBD. The landscape is of volcanic origin, being the outpouring of four volcanic cones in the area: Matanginui / Green Mountain Te Puke Otara/ Smales Mountain Styaks Swamp (no longer exists Pukewairiki
Tainui iwi are believed to have been the first to settle in the area, perhaps 800 years ago. The whole of the Tamaki Estuary became regarded as an important transport route for all Maori. With its fertile soil and ample fish and shellfish supply it also became a highly contested food basket. It is believed the area supported a relatively dense Maori population in the 18th and early 19th century (Charnz, September 11, 2011).
A Nga Pui chief described the area as a gently undulating area with ridges of fern and manuka interspersed by tongues of swamps and in and about the swamps was the toetoe reed (Charnz, September 11, 2011).
Warring and epidemics caused many villages in this area to be abandoned and during the latter half of the 19th century Europeans moved in and began using the land for farming and agriculture. However, growing traditional English crops (i.e. wheat) was not conducive to the climate and swamp lowlands. These crops were more susceptible to disease and insect infestations. Dairy became a popular land use.
During the 1950s Otaras population began to escalate. This growth was due to post war industrialization, increased ownership of the motor vehicle, the construction of Aucklands Southern motorway and the estab-lishment of major infrastructure works:-Mangere sewage treatment-Auckland International Airport-Otara Electricity Generation Facility- Hunua Water Supply allowing for large scale urban development.
At the same time, because of over-crowding in the insalubrious inner city, people there were encouraged to take up inexpensive housing loans and move to the outer city limits where affordable housing was being built by the State. Forty-five hundred houses were built, throughout Otara, by the (now) Housing New Zealand Cor-poration (HNZ) over a ten year period. This was expected to house 20,000 people. By the mid 1970s Otaras population soared from 4,500 to 26,000, or 32,000 if Charnz thesis is correct. He has sited non-residency status as the reason for the difference in numbers.
New industries, over-crowding, informal housing (garages and sheds) and temporary housing caused major
problems, not only to the health of the people but also to the detriment the Otara Creek.The area was and still is predominantly populated with Pacific Island people. Maori are the next largest ethnic group iving in Otara. All of these ethnic groups have traditionally been lumped together and governed under a European regime that they didnt necessarily comprehend, or agree with.
OTARA IN TECHNICOLOUR LOCATION: OTARA STREAM TANYA LARSON
Initially I began looking at the division East Tamaki Drive created between two suburbs. Of particular interest was the different feel I had when walking around the two very different areas. Both of the suburbs are predominantly state hous-ing, have green space, churches and stores (limited to dairies, dvd and liquor outlets.
The suburb north of East Tamaki Drive, on description, provides all the things one might prefer when choosing a place to live: it backs on to a park that pro-vides walkways along the Otara Creek, most of the houses have big yards, the land is reasonably flat, and the roads are wide and straight with plenty of room for parking. There is little traffic and pedestrian pavement is provided.
But the condition of the suburb is rundown and desolate. It feels unsafe. The houses are built facing into the street and the houses along the park edge are completely fenced off from the park. A walkway, in the park, circles around the chosen site but this walkway has no connection to other walkways leading to the town centre, and it is divided by the Otara Creek.
The flatness of the land and straightness of the streets reinforces the desolate-ness. Interestingly, the chosen site has a crescent shaped street that seems to close in on itself, forcing the houses to look inwards rather than out towards the park.
Conversely, the suburb south of East Tamaki Drive has curves in the streets and the topography undulates. Houses appear to be closer together. Unfortunately the Otara Creek has been either been lined with concrete channels or covered completely. There is little riparian planting.
Still this suburb gives the impression of being more close-knit, safe, homely and loved. It also has a (smaller) park between it and the town centre; this park ap-pears to help link the suburb to the town centre rather than dislocate it.
I began to consider: - the size of the park and its spatial layout,- how the road layout affects views,- the chasm caused by the Otara Creek.
My colleague, Ji Hoon, is working in the same area and managing the storm water running into the Otara Creek. He is planning the planting within the park.
My aim is to encourage people living within a newly intensified site to walk through the park to the town centre.
0 300 600150 Meters
0 275 550137.5 Meters
0 200 400100 Meters
Existing Green Space
This map shows a definite suburban form with room for intensification. This map shows the area is an undulating landscape with many flatish and easy walking areas.The steepest areas follow the riparian corridors.
This map accentuates the quantity of green space available. Otara Reserve and Park, the green space north of East Tamaki Drive has had some reve-vetation and maintenance.
68% of Otaras population is Pacific Island peoples.
Some 56 per cent of Tamakis housing is state housing, worth an estimated $850 million. The state housing in Tamaki is some of the most dilapidated in the country. The way the housing is designed and distributed is not meeting the communitys needs. Land is under-utilized, and social outcomes are being undermined. Decisions about the future of Tamakis state housing, and investments in it, are now urgent. It is not a question of if, but when?(Tamaki Transforma-tion, 2009).
Large amount of green space although much of it appears under-utilzed, particularly the Otara Reserve.
Identified site as dislocated from the town centre as well as the park.
Only two bus stops, one on East Tamaki Drive the other on Otara Road, both a considerable distance from from site.
High degree of people with tertiary qualifications.
Walkways on both sides of the Otara Creek but from the site there is no immediate bridge to get to the otherside.
Otara has a high rate of unemployment. However the largest portion of this pie shows those who are not in the work force. Presumably these people are on other benefits, i.e. student al-lowance, domestic purposes benefit.
The largest portion of Otaras population is under 20. Population over 65 years of age is the next largest portion.
According to documents and newspaper cuttings Otara had a rough edge highlighted by a highly publicised stabbing at Otaras infamous flea market (established 1976). However, strong commu-nity networks have been set up to instill a more positive overview of the district.
MIT opened in 1979, it and many churches helped to create community focus. The town centre was redeveloped in the late 1980s, significant land rights were sorted, Otara Creeks toxicity causes were identified and treated and Actioning on Health in Otara (1999) was established. This initiative was developed with input and co-ordination from Police, Ambassadors, Council and other com-munity leaders (Otara Health, n/d) to address the serious alcohol issues within Otara.
There are several schools, as well as The Village now houses a Kohanga Reo, a Maori language pre-school, a Koe Oaga Faka Niue - Fatamanu - pre-school, an alternative School for Boys and New Zealands first Secondary/Tertiary College - Vaka Moana, an integral part of the Manukau Institute of Technology (MIT) (Wikipedia, October, 2 2011). MIT has results that show significantly more students studying agricultural and environmental studies than any other learning institution in the Auckland Region. (2010 Regional Briefing Document). Aucklands mayor, Len Brown, was formally mayor of Manukau (the district Otara is part of). He claims this area to be dear to his heart. His promise when campaigning was to not forget Manukau, South Auckland as has happened in the past.
The Draft Spatial Plan for all of Auckland Super City has recently been released to the public. This Plan endeavours to map the path of redevelopment for next 30 years; it reads well for new devel-opment in Otara.
Otara has lodged a re-development plan for the town centre, which possibly includes a supermarket. The following extracts are from the Spatial Plan, which this project will endeavor to adhere to.
Principles (Four of the six)Work Together: Work collaboratively and as partners on the priorities identified in the Draft Auckland Plan. Recognise the interdependence of projects, programmes and initiatives.
Value te Ao Maori: Acknowledge the special place of Mana Whenua and enable their participation in decision making. Build lasting and reciprocal relationships with Aucklands Maori.
Be Sustainable: Take a long-term view and have the resilience and flexibility to adapt to changing conditions that affect our communities, our economy, our environment and our infrastructure.Check progress and adapt to improve: Monitor and evaluate every initiative to ensure we move in the right direction. Adapt accordingly and continually improve the way we are working to achieve Aucklands vision.
Stongly commit to environmental action and green growth: Auckland is not as healthy as we like to think it, particularly its water bodies. New ways of approaching how we grow and develop are necessary.
Drastic waste minimisation, becoming more energy efficient. e.g Not just by turning the light off, but by building housing that maximises solar benefits and are well insulated.
Greening the growth Path The Governments Green Growth Advisory Group in July 2011 said that economies will shift to more sustainable practices, driven by change in many sectors including consumer preferences, market demand, business strategy,government policy, global governance and the emergence of clean tech technologies (Spatial Plan).
New Zealand is already seen as an innovator in particular with some of its green industries.
Radically improve the quality of urban living.
Substantially raise living standards for all Aucklanders and focus on those most in need.
Acknowledge that nature and people are inseparable.
Keep rural Auckland productive, protected and environmentally sound.
Appropriately house all Aucklanders. (Spatial Plan, 2011)
Now owned by a hapu of Ngati Whatua, these people most notably sat on their own land for 18 months only to be forcibly evicted and told it was not theirs. Eventually, after court battles, The Orakei Act 1991 was passed returning Papakianga lands, their marae and urupa to the Tanga te whenua.
These lands have been re vegetated over the past 30 years,returning a large part of coast cliff and gully to native forest.
During this time the hapu have set up a range of business activities. Thesebusinesss range from non- profit to minimum profitability with a community focus and maximum profitability that is commercially based. The group equity has risen from $30 million in 1998 to $260 million in 2008. This equity has been raised primarily through Ngati Whatua O Orakei Corporate and Corporate Property Investments and certainly I do not wish to dismiss the possibility of these types of businesss being developed at the Otara site but two of Orakeis smaller, community based businesses are of more interest for this project.
Orakei Retirement Care and Health Clinic. In Otara the population is predominantly under 20 years of age and over 65. There could be potential for employment creation here providing a retirement home. The flatness of the topography, easy access to green space, walkways, and retail could make this site popular.
Western Springs Park
Situated between the Auckland Zoo (established in the 1920s as zoological gar-dens), a stadium and the museum of transport and technology (established in 1962), as well as the surrounding suburbs of Point Chevalier, Grey Lynn and Mount Albert. These suburbs have been intensified with infill housing.
Western Springs water body is feed by the over flows of Three Kings, Mt Albert and Mt Eden, It was a sanctuary fo the eel hence the parks maori name Waiorea However prior to the 1960s this park was an embarrassing dumping site. Its wilder-ness of bogs full of rubbish, rats and mosquitoes, it was not only unattractive but a potential health hazard. (Wikipedia, Sept 2011). The water body was choked with weeds. Over several decades this park has been carefully landscaped and man-aged to become a spectacular place for tourists and residents alike. It has become a sanctuary for many bird species, native and exotic.
Western Springs has large pond as its centre piece but it is broken up in to spaces large and small, some secluded and enclosed, some open to views over. Others are in the sun, while some spaces are in the shade. There is a balance of exotics and native plantings. Dotted throughout the park are points of interest, sculptures, a playground, barbeque areas, and picnic tables.
Western Springs hosts many large gatherings including Pacifika, a major annual event celebrating Aucklands Maori and Pacific Islands people. I use this park regularly. There are always other people utilizing it, often it is busy. People run, walk, sit, read, sleep,play, feed the birds. It truly is a credit to those who reclaimed it.
Pros for InfillReduced crime because of informal surveillance.
Improved local businesses and facilities.
More diversity in the range and style of housing.
Can enhance social equity and contribute towards a reduction in social prob lems.
Increased population densities (POPDEN) within urban boundaries reducesthe need for Green field development.
Enhances public transport.
Reduces negative environmental and social impacts.
Less new infrastructure needed.Quality and affordable housing.
Cons of InfillIncreased crime in higher density areas when economic conditions are poor
Reduces open space, trees and vegetation. Damaged amenity value.Sometimes not well integrated with existing housing. Privacy reduced, sunlight re-duced, increase of noise levels, damages the character of an area, and reduces
property value. Reduce back yards, trees, growing abilities (food).
M.U.D (Mixed Use Development)Efficient Use of Land Resources: efficiency means urban development is compact and uses only as much land as is necessary.
Full Utilization of Urban Services: use existing service capacity where available. Size new facilities to meet planned needs. This principle recognizes that we must make the most of our infrastructure investments. Smart commercial and mixeduse developments are attractive and enjoyable places to work, shop and live.
Mixed Use: Mixed Use Development brings compatible land uses closer together.
Transportation Options: options should include walking, cycling, and public transit where it is available or may be provided in the future.
Detailed, HumanScaled Design: smart design is attractive design that is pedestrianfriendly and appropriate to community character and history.
Urban form promotes the shape of public space.Less expensive to refurbish than to remove, lay new foundations and build again.Acknowledges that the world is changing to post-industrial economy and society.One aim is to lessen the need for regular private vehicle use, reducing time spent in a vehicle and allowing more time for exercise and social engagement.Injects new growth into already established areas, reducing urban sprawl.Promotes the restructuring of communities and governing bodies.
ConsWork around constraints, at times having to compromise original design.Land use zones may need to be changed.
0 200 400100 Meters
500m walking distances
700m walking distance
1000m walking distance
700m from Town Centre
0 300 600150 Meters
0 275 550137.5 Meters
This map identifies potential zone changes and areas for housing intensification. Otara town centre is in the centre of the black cicle. The black circle indicates 700m, the distance statistics show most people will walk to shop.
This map indicates walking distance potentials. Some people will walk further than the 700m if going to work or school.
This map identifies the chosen site, most of which is within easy walking distance of Otara town centre.
Zone Changes, Walking Distances and Location
The Chosen Site
The topography is slightly undulating, more so than the rest of the north suburb. It, unlike the rest of the suburb has a crescent shaped street linking it to Hills Rd. (This is the family name of an early European land owner).
The majority of the housing is state-owned and single-storied with a small cluster of two-storey units. Most of the sections sit on quater acre lots.
There are 2 long, univiting paths leading to the walkway around the out-skirts of suburb and out to the Tamaki estury. This walkway does not link to the walkways on the other side of the creek.
There is a dairy, a takeway and a liquor store.
No public transport supports this suburb. The closest bus stop is on East Tamaki Road on the far
side of the town centre.
All of the existing housing is fenced off from the Otara Reserve, much of the fencing is rough and in disrepair.
The area is like a knob jutting into nature yet turning its back on a beautiful outlook.
East Tamaki DriveH
ills RoadLovegrove C
The existing housing is poorly insulated, lacks unity and does not allow for future growth. Because it is state owned it may be an easier area to purchase and develop.
For this proposal I am suggesting a street design change that provides wide streets but that curve to prevent the desolate aspect, which exists now. The intention is to prevent long unappealing vistas and make the area inviting and a pleasant place to walk to the Otara Park.
There would need to be a re-evaluation of spatial zoning to proceed with this proposal. Having weighed up the pros and cons of infilling, retrofitting or mixed-use development (MUD) I think MUD might be the most appropriate form of development. It is suggested there be three zones of building heights, allowing the tallest to be five storeys.
A combination of commercial property, apartments, terrace housing and some concentrated single storey housing could benefit the health of the residents, create employment close to home and increase safety in the area. Research shows that intensification of housing can improve the surveillance of a neighbourhood.
To integrate this newly intensified area with the park, I suggest open-ended streets (with no vehicle exits) that end either over-looking the park or at a designed public space, which then leads to the park.
The positioning of new buildings that face and overlook the park will increase safety measures by improving surveillance and may increase the aesthetic appeal that could, in turn, lure the resi-dents to the park.
The new buildings will not function without new infrastructure and this infrastructure will need to be of the highest sustainable quality available to us today, i.e. the use of solar energy, pervious materials for the streets and walkways, and water storage units to collect rooftop runoff. It is proposed that rain gardens be installed down the medium of each street to help with stormwater management as well as breaking long views.
The site is presently segregated by Otara Creek from the main body of Otara Reserve and Otaras town centre. It does, however, have its own walkway. I propose to place a pedestrian bridge across this divide; a suitable position would be where the water pipe crosses the creek. The bridge design will incorporate the water pipe to be aesthetically pleasing, as opposed to now where the water pipe is blocked off to the public.
Murals have been used extensively in the Otara town centre; the motive for this was to prevent tagging. It has given the centre an identity that is lively and chaotic. This partially spurred the proposed planting scheme and thoughts of displaying art/sculpture in the designed public spaces and in the park.
The planting plan includes a path that reflects the shape of the Otara Creek. The path will be made with a pervious material, i.e. filterpave or compressed pea gravel, a less expensive alterna-tive. The bright, cheery hibiscus flower has been used to create a planting pattern. The red the planting scheme indicates taller plants, the orange indicates medium height plants, and the yellow represents ground cover and where seating may be placed.
East Tamaki Drive
East Tamaki Drive
CEast Tamaki Drive
Up to five stories
Up to three stories
Roads, new and existing
Bridge, new and existing
Plan 1Scale 1:2500 @ A3
B cross sectionA cross section
Up to five stories
Up to three stories
Sub tropical Planting
Up to 3 storey
Including new bridge
Planting SchemeScale 1:100 @ A3
Planting Plan Scale 1:100 @ A3
Planting ScheduleBotanical Name
Height X Width
Spacing PB size
1.Citrus x sinesis
Orange tree 6 6 x 4 m Refer to Plan
2. Citrus re-ticulata
8 6 x 4m Refer to Plan
3. Agave at-tenuata
Agave 35 1 x 1m Refer to Plan
Nikau 16 3 x 2m Refer to Plan
Red, orange and yellow flw hibiscus
15 2x 2.5 Refer to plan
5. Strelezia reginae
Bird of para-dise
9 1.5 x 3m Refer to Plan
6. Rheum palmatum
10 2.5 x 1.8m Refer to Plan
7. Gardenia paniculata
Gardenia 19 1 x .75m Refer to Plan
8.Canna Indian shot plant
10 1.5 x 2m Refer to Plan
Dateura 6 3 x 2m Refer to Plan
10. Clivia miniata
Clivia 70 - 10 clumps of 7
.45 x.30m .30 apart PB 8
11. Neoregelia concentrica blue
Bromelaid 56 9 clumps pf 6
.60 x .60m .50 apart PB 8
12. Neorege-lia concentrica Lavender Lady
Bromelaid 90 - 9 clumps of 10
.40 x .40m .30 apart PB 8
13.Neoregelia concentrica Fosperior Perfection
Bromelaid 90 - - 9 clumps of 10
.30 x .30m .20 apart PB 8
14. Gazania spp.
Gazania 28 - 7 clumps of 4
.20 x .25m .20 apart PB 5
15. Murraya paniculata
15 2 x 2m (does get taller)
Refer to Plan
Possible AchievementsMore housing provided: is needed to improve existing standards of liv-ing and to cater for predicted population growth rates for Auckland.
More commercial space: providing employment, encouraging less travelling by vehicles and more time for recreation.
A supermarket in the town centre: providing shift employment that may be suitable to many of the demographic make up of the area, i.e. students, mothers on domestic purpose benefits, retirees, and youth.
A short and more direct walking route from the suburb (to be renamed through a neighbourhood competition) to the town centre.
Assisted living apartments: these will cater for Otaras aging population (shown by statistics). This in turn creates employment.
The public spaces need to be managed and maintained therein creat-ing employment.
Ability to display art on the bridge and Art Projects throughout the park could encourage more users to the Otara Park/Reserve.
References and Works SitedCawood Hellmund, Paul and Somers Smith, DanierDesigning Greenways: Sustainable Landscape for Nature and People.Island Press, 2006
Bernhardt, Johann (ED)Bogunovich, DushkoExert from: A Deeper Shade of Green - Sustainable urban Development, Building and Architecture in New Zealand.Balasoglou Books, May 2008
Dunham-Jones, Ellen and Williamson, JuneRetrofitting (Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs).Wiley, 2009
Simons, B (Compiled by)A Brief History of Otara.Waste Management and Rural ServicesManukau City Council 1993
Thompson, George F. and Steiner, Fredrick R. (ED)Johnson, MarkExert from: Ecological Design and Planning - Ecology and the Urban Aesthetic.John Wiley and Sons, 1997
http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/AboutCouncil/PlansPoliciesPublications/theaucklandplan/DRAFTAUCKL (October 2, 2011)
http://charnz.co.nz/pdfs/otarathesis.pdf (September 11, 2011)
http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/good_neighbours_community.pdf (September, 23 2011)
http://www.manukau.govt.nz/EN/Yourcommunity/ParksWalksBeaches/FindAPark/Pages/OtaraCreekWalkway.aspx (September 11, 2011)
http://www.manukau.govt.nz/SiteCollectionDocuments/Census%20Profile%202006%20Otara.pdf (September 24, 2011)
http://www.manukau.govt.nz/tec/catchment/otara_pages/otara_pdf/otara_ccdc_web.pdf (September 24, 2011)
http://www.ngatiwhatuaorakei.com (September 11,2011)
http://www.wellington.govt.nz/projects/ongoing/pdfs/infill/infill-social.pdf (September, 24 2011)
http://docs.google.com/a/tamakitransformation.co.nz/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=dGFtYWtpdHJhbnNmb3JtYXRpb24 (September, 11 2011)
http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/SiteCollectionDocuments/aboutcouncil/planspoliciespublications/theaucklandplan/aucklandplansectionc.pdf (October 3, 2011)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otara (October 2, 2011)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Springs (October 2, 2011)
http://www.otarahealth.org.nz/index.php?page=reducing-alcohol-related-harm-project (October 2, 2011)
http://www.slideshare.net/wairere2/critical-community-praxis-otara-1249936 (October 14, 2011)
The Tamaki region is expected to grow substantually in the next 30 years, as prediceted it will need to house another 300,000 people. My question lies heavily around transport and how people are going to get to the main transport stops such as ferry, train and bus.
After the initial investigation of the Tamaki regions transport network, I had an interest in the cycling aspect and what developments would help the growing region. This led to an investigation of the Tamaki, focusing on waterfronts and I identified 20 initial sites from which 3 were selected for further investigation.
After evaluating the maps I spotted a missing link in the Rotary Walkway network between Wakaaranga Creek and Half-Moon Bay ferry terminal, and I choose to fill this gap with a shared cycle/walkway along the coast.
This brought up many problems from: unsuitable sloped areas, mangrove infested waters and stormwater issues.
The designing of the site was particularly hard due to the inaccessability of most of my designs path. This meaned a heavy reliance on GIS mapping and on-site investigation.
WAKAARANGA CREEK TO HALF MOON BAY EXTENSION
ANALYSISGIS ANALYSIS OF TAMAKI REGION
1- Green Space
3- Watersheds + Streams
4- Motorway + Bus + Train + Main Arterial Roads
6- 15 Deg Slope
1 2 3
4 5 6
ANALYSISGIS ANALYSIS OF TAMAKI REGION
2-Sand + Mangroves
3-Land Cover Database
6-Roads + Cycleways
1 2 3
4 5 6
Static_Constraint3 Conservation land Bush Streams
2 Heritage Cadastrals Views
1 Exotic Bush Eroded Areas
Dynamic_Opportunity 3 Paths Succession Parks
2 Stormwater Elevation Slope Public transport Accessability Tides/Sea Level Change Views
1 Exotic Bush Eroded Areas
-Large Open Space-Beautiful Views across the Tamaki-Already has a cyclyway/walkway though it is not quite new.-New lookout/ramp being built to help bring people to the beach.-Playground/carpark/fields-Bus route stop at southern end.-Connects to a larger network of parks along the western edge.
-Upgrade of cycleway with new design interventions/moments-Further the connection to other pathing systems on the estuary edge.-Possibly link in with other Students projects of designing Pt England.
-Connection to the Rotary Walk and Cycleway pathing network.-A wide range of scenic views-Further development already underway to extend the pathway around the edge and under Pakuranga Bridge nearly.-Good connection to the surrounding roads, with many pathways leading to roads.-Community has access to pathway via back fence having doors/steps/paths/grass.-Appropriate signage is covering the site at intersections and beginnings/endings
-Design implication along pathway somewhere.-Clean up stormwater outlets.-Connect to roads and properties when approtiate
-Start of the Rotary Walk/Cycleway.-Tons of open space between the creek and Pigeon Mountain.-Wide range of coastal edge conditions that make for an interesting site.-Surrounding neighbourhood has many elements, from schools, main roads, moutain, water activities, bus routes. -Many viewshafts along the creeks edge that add to the overall feeling of the site.
-Development of the northern edge along the cliff could be interesting.-Extension of Rotary Path/Cycleway to Half Moon Bay marina.-Very interesting site to investigate with many difficult edge conditions. -Encroachment onto the water instead of the rivers edge.
rnesvingen is the most spectacular viewpoint along the eagle road, a zig-zag road along the steep valley sides of Geiranger-fjord in Mre and Romsdal. Located at one
of its many bends the viewpoint gives tourists breathtaking views over the recently acknowledged UNESCO world heritage site, making it one of Norways major tourist attractions.
The project consists of three overlapping white concrete slabs overhanging the edge of a 600 meter vertical drop, enabling the observer to step out into the airspace. The river on site is guided over a glazed front, forming a waterfall on the very edge of the view-
point. Information boards in glass explain specific locations in the scenery
Designer: 3RW ArkitekterLocation: Geiranger, Norway
Size: 530m2 + footpathsCompleted: 2005
CASE STUDIESORNESVINGEN VIEWPOINT
Designer: IsthmusLocation: New Plymouth, NZ
Size: 4.3km Footpath + BridgeCompleted: 2010
CASE STUDIESNEW PLYMOUTH COASTAL WALKWAY
The Coastal Walkway is an award-winning, 10 kilometre (6.2 mile) long walkway lo-cated along the coast of New Plymouth, New Zealand. The length of the walkway stretches out from Hickford Park, in the centre of the city, to Bell Block, north-east of New Plymouth.
A design-led approach was followed for the extension, with care to make the coastal
walkway and cycleway accessible for all. This accessibility has been a key to the overall projects success and the high level of community buy-in and ownership for the project.
SITE ANALYSISWAKAARANGA CREEK
1- Green Space
2- 15 Deg Slope
3- Mangroves + Sand
SITE ANALYSISWAKAARANGA CREEK
1- Green Space + Cadastrals
2- Roads+Green Space
3- 2m Contours
SITE ANALYSISWAKAARANGA CREEK
1-Rivers + Stormwater
3-Land Cover Database
Boardwalk Concrete Path Reclamation
Stormwater Existing Path Lookout Concrete Path Sand Mangroves
Planting Plan Area
Note: The planted areas specified above are examined further in the planting plan.
H6 TIMBER POSTS140mm x 140mm @2500MM CENTERS
IN-SITU 450mmx350mmx450mmCONCRETE FOOTING
100MM X 100MM H3.2POST WITH SS BOLTS
90MM X 45MM H3.2JOISTS AT 450MMCENTERS
90MM X 40MM H3.2DECKING
2X 190MM X45MM H3.2BEARER WITHSS BOLTS
90MM X 45MM H3.2JOISTS AT 450MMCENTERS
100MM X 50MM H3.2DECKING
H6 TIMBER POSTS140mm x 140mm @2500MM CENTERS
2X 190MM X45MM H3.2BEARER WITHSS BOLTS
IN-SITU 450mmx350mmx450mmCONCRETE FOOTING
110 PVC PIPE WITH FREEDRAINING SCORIA
PRECAST 80MM X 80MM CONCRETEKICKER WITH SS BOLT @ 900MM CENTRES
200MM INSITU REINFORCEDCONCRETE SLAB
100MM REINFORCEDCONCRETE SLAB
17.5 MPA GROUT (INFILLWITH BLOCK CELLS)
CWSE - SCHECK WITH STRUCTURAL ENGINEER
The selection of plants above are only a sample of the variety of plants that I hwant to use. The below section gives a you a longer list of the tyes of plants that I wish to use, with many more that still can be chosen.Also for further reference, all plants are to be eco-sourced from tge appropriate areas.
North Scale 1:100 @A1
Half Moon Bay Marina is the only public water transport hub on the Tamaki River and as such it offers a unique opportunity here for housing intensification with integrated design elements which changes ecology and stormwater management.
As a new ferry terminal is planned for this area to address parking problems, population growth and other public transport links to this marina, it is important to find a solution without further compromising the quality of water in the Tamaki River and its existing ecological communities.
The best means to provide for ecological values here is to protect the systems already present and those with the greatest potential for restoration. This includes hydrological systems such as rain gardens and roof gardens to reduce the area of impervioussurfaces which currently dominates this landscape.
Te Karenga (Maori word for The Seaweed from which the shape and form of this building is inspired) is a continuous 15m high structure with an eco-roof, visually accessible from other houses, designed for maximum thermal and hydrological performance and minimum weight load.
The entire roof area of 61329 square metres is composed of lightweight layers of free-draining material which supports low-growing drought-resistant vegetation. It filters and slows down water runoff leading from the eco-roof through stormwater drains 15m apart along its 3132m perimeter.
TE KARENGAHalf Moon Bay
Auckland is a growing in population there for growth puts pressure on Open space areas and the ability to provide green space for the community whether it is public or private.
From creating a number of buffered maps in the last group project, we were able to spot certain gaps in the system that were surrounded by open space parks. Which ables us to develop further. Growth will occur whether we plan for it or not, however the challenge is to utilise the lost spaces for the increasing amount of visitors and people that come to live and work in the area (look at project one maps to find gaps). By collecting all the different park types such as playgrounds and sports fields, etc, the main focus can be looked towards a public realm (branch) of transport. As well as join open spaces with green pathways. Key words:
- School zones- Green Corridors- Transport (Walkways)- Plantings- Multi layers
I scaled down to a site between two schools; Bucklands Beach Intermediate and Macleans College on the E astern side of the estuary. Over the number of years residents of Richards Ave have been fed up with the amount of congestion and traffic that occurs outside their front door step. Bill Kettell, a Richards Ave resident says, The walking is not the problem its the dropping off and picking up of students and the fact that it takes 15minutes to get onto Macleans Road which is 100m up the road makes it ridiculous for everyday workers. People park on both sides of the road which makes it impossible to get out of your driveway and let alone drive down the Avenue making it a one-way.
This does not help the fact that Auckland population continues to going to meaning public school will expand and more and more parents will drive to school. Students of Macleans College also seem to be driving and parking around the streets of the school which is currently not against the rules and is not going well with the neighbours.
The intent of my design is to enhance the streetscape of Richards Ave. By doing this I propose to connect schools and open spaces together as a community/campus for foot traffic to occur. This potential design could create linkage connections with between utilization of transport, planting corridors, and public space. Looking to aim at targeting public school grounds for parkland improvements existing asphalt and concrete paving are replaced with new landscaping, trees, and fencing in addition to provide parking spaces for the growing number of students, away from the main roads. On top of this, Macleans College are interested in designing a innovative entrance/bus bay to front of the school.
HALFMOON BAY - RICHARDS AVE
The Campus Park Program addresses the shortage of parkland in Chicagos neighbour-hoods by targeting public school grounds for parkland improvements. Under a joint pro-gram funded by the City, Chicago Public Schools and the Chicago Park District, existing asphalt and concrete paving are replaced with new landscaping, play equipment, trees, fencing and lighting.
Priority is given to neighbourhoods identified as having insufficient parkland, Strategic Neighbourhood Action Program districts, Empowerment Zones, Enterprise Communi-ties and other special development districts.
Approximately 120 schools have been completed as of the start of 2010.
CASE STUDY ONECHICAGOS CAMPUS
Landscape Performance Benefits
- Created 4 acres of new park space for public events, recreation, and relaxation used by residents, workers, and visitors.
- Reduced storm water runoff by 37%, by replacing the 100% impervious Central Artery with park and civic space, 40% of which is pervious area.
- Reduced the urban heat island effect by incorporate ing shade trees and using light coloured pavement to increase the average albedo by 250%.
- Sequesters 8,000 lbs of carbon each year in the plants and trees on the site.
- Avoided producing 15,000 lbs of carbon by sourcing construction materials locally.
- Reduced ambient noise from roadway by 40-60%.
- Spurred economic development on adjacent blocks with over 200 new residential units being built,and neighboring buildings altering their entries to face the park.
CASE STUDY TWOWHARF DISTRICT PARK - BOSTON
STREETSCAPESITE - CONTEXT
The traffic has gotten worse over the last 12months with students driving to school - Bill Kettell, Resident of Richards Ave for 20years
It virtually takes 15minutes to get onto Macleans Road, which is 100m down the road - Cathy Kettell
STREETSCAPE STREETSCAPESITE - CONTENT
Walking is not the problem, its the picking up and dropping off of students. That comes down to Accessibility...
This is not of course an exact science, but the walking and driving times below translate approximately, subject to precise local conditions not evaluated within this Study, as:
20 minute walking time represents 1,500 metres distance
10-15 minute walking time represents 1,000 metres distance
15 minute drive time represents 5 km catchment distance
10 minute drive time represents 3 km catchment distance.
Walking is not the problem, its the picking up and dropping off of students. That comes down to Accessibility...
Existing material of the site
Main signage of Macleans College.
1/6 MAP: BASIC SITE 2/6 MAP: BUS STOPS3/6 MAP: ACCESSABILITY4/6 MAP: WALKING PATHS5/6 MAP: TRAFFIC LIGHTS/SHOPS6/6 MAP: TOTAL BUFFERS
STREETSCAPECONTENTS OF MAPS
! !!!!!! !
!! ! !
! STREETSCAPESITE CONTENT
SCALE: 1:6000 @ A4
TIN High: 78.5
General Site Content
This map displays the site in its content and in relation to the high and low points of Half moon Bay. My selected site is currently on relatively flat surface compared to the East Western area. As you can see most of the stormwater drainage systems are located on open space and in parks, possibly, swales, streams and runoffs. Schools are also located on site however my main focus is the one on the far right (Macleans College) and the one running parallel to it (Bucklands Beach Intermediate)
1 2STREETSCAPEBUS STOPS
SCALE: 1:6000 @ A4
400m trafficlight buffer
Bus stop/drop off points
The selected site currently has six bus stops on it including two school bus bays. The 400m buffer is a zone for how long people would walk to get to that bus stop. This will help create a collection of paths that lead to them.
SCALE: 1:6000 @ A4
You can see in this map that a bus route runs around my selected site making it a cam-pus like community that runs past the entrances of both schools. Walking tracks are link-ing from the Marina of Half moon Bay and split through the middle where my site is and then start joining back up again through Macleans Reserve and down to the Bucklands Beach. A possible re-connection of these paths could be considered.
SCALE: 1:6000 @ A4
200m Walking track buffer
Walking paths + buffer zones
By buffering the existing paths I can find areas where I could potentially have connecting paths and corridors of vegetation to create a more flowing system with vehicles, busses and pedestrians in it.
5STREETSCAPETRAFFIC LIGHTS/SHOPSTraffic lights and Public BuildingsThere are two areas of which there are dairies and takeaway shops, located within my propsed area. Two sets of traffic lights also run on opposite ends of both schools for pedestrain crossings. The 400m buffer zones overlap eachother and are a easy walking distance from eachother.
SCALE: 1:6000 @ A4
6STREETSCAPETOTAL BUFFERSTotal buffers from all mapsThis maps shows all the maps put together into one map, as you can see there are mini-mal gaps in my area i propose to develop. The surroundings have gaps near open space areas, shown in green. This map gives all the reason to say that there is no reason why students of Macleans College and Buckland Beach Intermediate to walk around or through Macleans road, Richards Ave, Buckland Beach road and Priestley drive.
SCALE: 1:6000 @ A4
SCALE: 1:5000 @ A4
Walking path availability
200m Walking track buffer
Possible walking routes
Walking Connection points
Pathway Linkages from existing pathways
From buffering the existing pathways in the Halfmoon bay area i have found a selected area that is missing an accessible route for walking. The Purple lines represent possible connections which overlay with the available area.
Proposed Concept Plan
A proposed concept plan showing an understanding of possible green links, path ways and street access points. Richards Ave happens to fall in the middle of Macleans Road and Bucklands Beach Road that links both schools. By following a number of design steps I propose to reduce roads down to 20% and increase Vegetation up to 20% to cre-ate a consistent environment for students that flood in and out the schools.
Proposed material of the site
SCALE: 1:5000 @ A4
STREETSCAPEMASTER PLAN ONE
SCALE: 1:12000 @ A3
1 Street Access
2 Bus Bay
3 Carpark/drop off
MASTER PLAN TWO + SECTION ASTREETSCAPE
1m 3.5m 0.5m 2m 0.5m
Concrete Path Asphalt Road Recycled Brick Paving SCALE: 1:50 @ A3
Richards Ave - Propsed idea of having a wider walking path through the middle of the street, dividing up the cars into a one way road on either side with no parking.
STREETSCAPESECTION B - PROPOSED CARPARK
Proposed drop off zone and student/staff parking lot off the street and away from the traffic
SCALE: 1:100 @ A3
Proposed drop off zone and student/staff parking lot off the street and away from the traffic
STREETSCAPEPERSPECTIVE - PROPOSED CARPARK
Accessible pathways leading to the front of schools....
Off Richards Ave is a propsed car park/drop off bay for students, staff and parents to use. This creates less conjestion as it is away from the road and creates a easy flowing pedestrian link to schools.
STREETSCAPESECTION C - MACLEANS BUS BAY
Enhanced street plantings and opened space bus bay for easy access
Concrete Bus Bay ZoneConcrete Path
Existing lawn Variegated NZ Flax Lemonwood Carex flagellifera
SCALE: 1:100 @ A3
STREETSCAPE PERSPECTIVE - MACLEANS COLLEGE
The propsed entrance of macleans college bus bay area and open space pathways, complete with native plant-ings on eithersides.
STREETSCAPEAREA ONE PLANTING PLAN
SCALE: 1:50 @ A3
Simple New Zealand natives that handle foot traffic within both schools
STREETSCAPEAREA TWO PLANTING PLAN
SCALE: 1:50 @ A3
The End of the Journey...
SPECIAL THANKS TO:
Penny CliffonMathew BradburySumeet PrasadCritics at Presentation day
FOR ALL THE ADVICE, HELP AND IDEAS GIVEN TO MAKE THIS PROJECT POSSIBLE
This project is intended to review the problems of Global Warming (Climate Change), rise of sea level, and the issues of water management problems to bring about awareness to the public. Individual changes made towards sustainability by each and every person can collectively achieve a healthier and more sustainable future.
Research dictates that these issues are the symptoms of our individual influence and unsustainable city planning managements. If the trajectory of our path does not change, the near future we are facing grows more fragile. The world population is ever rising and peoples values regarding the Earth are in decay.
Figure 1.1 : Bucklands Beach facing Rangitoto island 1961 (http://deniswilford.com/photo/grp2/at0033.html)
Figure 1.3 : Photo of Buckland Beach facing north (Rangitoto Island) photo taken Sep 2011
Figure 1.2: Photo of Buckland Beach facing north where exciting sea wall is located photo taken Sep 2011
BUCKLAND BEACH MARINE RESERVE
BUCKLANDS BEACHGLOBAL WARMING & SEA LEVEL RISE
With the significant Influence from the Europe city planning, New Zealand have developed towns and cities near the estuaries, because estuaries have been long useful to humans providing food, sewage system and protection. However within the population increase and industrialisation, the damage which we have caused towards the estuary has become more intensive and irrevocable to sustain the natural healthy ecosystems. It has been calculated that about 62 per cent of estuaries system in New Zealand are polluted to some degree (MarsdenI & JonesM, 2005).
1.1 The polluted water is drained to the river then eventually leaking the untreated water into the sea. This deteriorates the marine and ocean ecosystems from plants to microorganisms, which are vital to our food web.
1.2 The wetland is an essential environment that supports huge diversity of habitats, especially to New Zealand. Because 22 per cent of New Zealand native bird species and 30 per cent of native freshwater fish are habitat, with less than 2 per cent of wetland is currently remained (KnightS & van RoonM, 2004).
1.3 The sectioning and drawing a boundary line to the coastline, rivers, lakes, and forest have damaged the functions of ecological connection and the transition of the ecosystems.
1.4 Applying the theory of Sustainable development introduced on the book Ecological Context of Development, the environment must be strong enable to balance the economics and social needs.
Wetland support 22% of New Zealands native birds and 30% of Native freshwater fish.
Many native freshwater fish use wetland for at least part of their life cycle.
Only 2% of wetland area is currently left since the removal of wetlands from the colonisation.
Also some threatened species rely on them for their habitat.
Wetlands have several vegetation community types that forms critical corridor as part of ecosystem and life cycle of living organisms
The 78-90% of New Zealand was once inhibited with indigenous species of forest, but today 23% of forest is remaining which are primarily exotic
Landscape we live in do not have a high productive of indigenous species
New Zealand coast was once backed by lowland forest of podocarps, beech and various hardwoods, coring the cliffs
78- 90% Forest Coverage
53% Forest coverage
23% Forest Remaining
Place where the land, air, and sea meet has a high biological, physical and cultural value
Globally, the coastal zone accounts for only about 8% of the earth, yet produce as much as biological activities of sea or the rest of the land
New Zealand have full diverse of coastal types from exposed, steeply dipping or cliff rocky headlands, estuary, swampland
The diverse coastline populated with assorted species enrichment
[Above]Figure 2.2: Wetland coverage. (Ecological Context of Development: p55)
[Below] Figure 2.3: Forest coverage. (Ecological Context of Development: p57)
NEW ZEALAND ECOSYSTEM
[Above]Figure 2.1: Draining Kaitaia swamps in Waikato (www. envi-rohistorynz.wordpress.com)
BUCKLANDS BEACHGLOBAL & NEW ZEALAND ISSUES OF WATER
Human activities contribute to a decline in usable freshwater
Overuse of aquifers in coastal regions allows saltwater to creep in; fertilisers, pesticides, animal waste and heavy metals flow into the ground and surface waters
Ever-increasing impermeable surfaces, mainly in urban areas, are preventing rainwater from entering the soil
Instead of percolating through the soil, revitalising it and replenishing the groundwater level, the water is channelled as stormwater to streams and harbours, picking up toxic contaminants along the way
Traditionally the rainwater have been treated as a wastewater, designed to be disposed as quickly as possible
Average New Zealanders use 180-300 litres of water per person a day
25% of average freshwater used is by toilet flush. Turing clean water straight to wastewater
20% are used in maintaining garden, this is also a crucial freshwater loss, specially in New Zealand where drought is less common then other countries
Many freshwater use are unnecessary wastewater production and mostly can be managed
Bottled water are damaging the environments and most likely that tab water are more regulated
We are not paying the full price of the precious resource
Reference:David Bateman, (2009), New Zealand and the sea, Auckland, NZ: David Bateman LtdMinistry for the environment, (2001), Climate Change Impact Report on New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Published by Ministry for the environment.Navas, A., Garcia-Ruiz, J., Machin, J., Lasanta, T., & Valero, B. (1997). Soil erosion on dry farming land in two changing environments of the central Ebro Valley, Spain. UK: Department of Geography, university of Exeter Ex4 4RJ, UK.
[Above] Figure 2.7: Average household water use (Deeper Shade of Green: p98)Figure 2.6: Effect of the impermeable surface on rainwater distribution (Rain Garden: p34)
Water cycle This is a classic diagram of a water cycle in natural formation showing evaporation and precipitation. However, due to human influence on landscape of sealed surface the percentage of rainfall run-off is occurring higher compared to the percentage of water naturally evaporating or infiltrating in the soil. This rainfall will merge into rivers and out to the sea by gravity. But the problem lies in the process of the runoff where the water catches dirt from an urban surface and eventually sends pollinated water out to the ocean which will fall down from above as rainfall due to the precipitation cycle.
Another issue from high volume runoff is the lack of water infiltrating into the soil. This is shown by comparing the diagram A to D on the below image. The Natural ground (A) is able to disperse the rainfall through plants and into the soil and is left with a low volume of run-off but the High Density (D) ground has more than half of the rail fall not dispersed by the runoff and less likely to reach the soil which is very dangerous to the earth process because it dries the soil underneath the roads and building surface and potentially cause erosions and many other unfortunate natural formations.
This image shows an example of the water treatment and management program for residential (above) and commercial (below) areas. The treatments are followed by steps of collecting the water with series of catches intended to naturally disperse the water. This will reduce the amount of runoff and pollution into the ocean.
The availability of water absorbed by the soil will reduce the dry condition and reduce the probability of erosion occurrence.
Figure 2.4: The cycles of water system (Rain Garden: p33)
Figure 2.5: Effects of the planted area on water dispersment (Rain Garden: p47)
WATER DISBURSEMENT ISSUES
AD 2011 Tamaki River AD 2050 AD 2100 AD 2200
This section scopes on the awareness of sea level rise due to the global warming and in events of flood. The assessment investigates on the issues of coastal lifestyle and potential preparation mechanism for the properties by modelling the Bucklands Beach.
Global issues2.1 The Climate change is a complex system to measure and impacted by verity of sources such as solar radiation, volcanic activities in the past. These heat sources had a safe cycling system. However the vast quantity of Greenhouse gas emission produced in recent years are thickening the ozone layer and trapping the heat inside the globe.
2.2 The increase of carbon dioxide gas emission have lead rise of global temperature of average 3 degree Celsius. This change have resulted glacier melting and eventually lead on the rise of sea level. The impact Report written by New Zealand ministry for the environment has stated Global temperatures today are about 0.6 degrees Celsius higher than they were in the early 1900s.
2.3 The Global warming have reduced vast amount of fresh water availability which evoked social and economy issues. Draught of Victoria Lake in Africa, reduced economy of fishing and agriculture industry due to reduction of water level. The Northern latitude communities are in danger of water shortage due to the retreating of Glacier, where they rely on the melted ice as their main water supply.
SEA LEVEL RISE PREDICTION - UPPER TAMAKIGLOBAL & NEW ZEALAND ISSUES OF WATER
AD 2300 AD 2500 SLOSH ImpactAD 2400
2.4 Urbanisation has lead deforestation, disturbance of local environment/ecosystem/ natural communities, topsoil erosion, increase of impervious land.
2.5 Humidity in the air will rise in reaction from the temperature rise. In heated situations plants and animals respire more than adapted climate. This concludes plants will make less oxygen and slows the developing process.
2.6 The changes of temperature also have influence on peoples health. The increase of temperature will reduce winter illnesses. However the warmer climate will increase the spread and establishment of mosquitoes which are capable of transmitting diseases such as Ross River virus and Dengue fever.
2.7 The wormer temperature produces possibilities of heavy rainfall which will put pressure on drainage and storm water systems. In regards of heavy rainfall conditions such as draught is also a possible following outcome.
2.8 Unsustainable climate scenario from 1.7 could also lead disasters such as SLOSH(Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) impacts. Because the climate also have impacts on the wind which influence on the wave pressure.
Reference:Ministry for the environment, (2001), Climate Change Impact Report on New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Published by Ministry for the environment.David Bateman, (2009), New Zealand and the sea, Auckland, NZ: David Bateman Ltdvv
Bucklands BeachFigure 3.1 : Bucklands Beach community studies (Studio7226, Research project, 2011
Bucklands Beach Overview
3.1 There are many storm-water and wastewater sewer that lead directly to the open sea water without any treatment systems. The untreated water becomes an lethal source that cause the anthropogenic stress which bleach the coral reefs of the pacific sea.
3.2 The existing sea wall only covers small parts of the beach and it is looking fragile in high tides. The Hawick golf range area is surrounded with cliffs which have high possibility of erosion occurrence.
3.3 The housings in Bucklands Beach are high valued estate with number of significant schools near the town.
3.4 There are excess quantity of boats and vehicles in this area compare to the population in Bucklands Beach. Also regarding the use of fossil fuel through heating or cooling systems for housings is another contributor of carbon dioxide emission in the air.
BUCKLANDS BEACHBucklands Beach
Left: Figure 3.2. Shoreline progression following mangrove colonisation, Waterfront Bay, Australia (Birds & Resengren, 1985)
A, B, C, D: GIS map images showing the 1m rise.
DSection 2. Site AnalysisComprehensively the shoreline of Tamaki River is moderately protected from the rise of sea level, either by high cliffs and previous sea walls. But the significant protection feature is the coverage of the mangrove forest which is forming a salt march ground from collected sediments. These natural shoreline protections are much more reliable schemes compare to hard landscape works such as sea walls as the construction works provokes erosions, especially areas like Tamaki River where cliff and slopes are often formed.
The areas in bright red are considered as land covered by water at 1m from current sea level.
Area A. Glendowie: This area had the most significant quantity of land coverage by water, however this area is made with collection of sediments and salt marsh lands, which are habituated near the shoreline. The salt marsh and sediment collected environment harnesses the cliff from erosion and protects from strong wave. Also it is clear to define that the residential area is raised high compare to the water level, therefore this area is protected from the events of sea level rise.
Area B. Point England: This area is focused on the Point England reserve. The land covered by water does look fragile, however the coastal edge is raised at about 1 to 2m from current sea level on the north end, and the south area had recently installed sea wall.
Area C. Otara Creek: Otara creek is potential danger zone, because the inner streams could flood and importantly this area is considered to be highly contaminated. In events of sea water flood, the contaminated water may danger the residents living near the Otara creek.Despite this possible case, the heavy metal contamination created a highly habitable environment for the mangroves and salt marsh species protecting the dry land as demonstrated in the figure below.
Area D. Bucklands Beach: Bucklands Beach does not look much dangerous compare to areas of A B and C, also the north end of the beach is already protected by the sea wall. However the wall is moderately low and large coverage of residential area is settled on flattened land forming an adaptable site for floodplain.
As typical New Zealand Coastal residential area, the houses are built close to the shoreline. But this exposed area with heavy development had huge impact on the landscape, and it is looking vitally fragile within the conscious unpredictable climate change and rise of sea level in the future.
BUCKLANDS BEACHBucklands Beach
North end-Facing South North end-Facing West
Middle Point-Facing South Middle Point-Facing North
South End-Facing South (Halfmoonbay) South End-Facing North
Medium Tides 17:00 | 25.09.11
[Spring timetable-low 15:00 | high 21:00]zone.A
The contour of under the estuary routs the original river path. This map views the boundaries and limited areas of development where the depth of underground drops vigorously. This path also indicates the routes used by the boats, which is also an important mark.
Nearly half of the residents living in Buckland beach are living on the flattened area, creating a potential danger zone. Because the slopes on the East are pointing down towards the West, meaning in case of flood the runoff from high altitude will be pressured on flattened area where it is low land.
The slopes highlighted on this map measure 15 degree and higher and they indicates cliffs on the site. Mapping the slope measures the boundaries of potential danger zone where possible erosions could occur.
The significant slope in Bucklands Beach will be the cliff surrounding the Howick Golf Club course. Referring to the geological data from 4.1, this golf course is situated on the end of Tamaki River at high altitude, therefore the cliff will be tall and they are exposed to the sea waves.
The catchment is balanced on the west side of Bucklands Beach district
High volume of rainwater is captured mainly on the west of Bucklands beach due the contour
The catchment water are pressuring towards the Bucklands beach storm water pipes
BUCKLANDS BEACHLAND COVER
4.4 Land cover database
Buckland beach is focus on urban parks and open space
According to the GIS data, the coastal sand and gravel value is not present on Bucklands Beach
Within the quantity of small patches, the network of matrix is connected at some degrees
[Left] key diagram that indicates the habitats on whole of Tamaki estuary[Above] Seaweed species which can be found in Tamaki Estuary(both image are from the report of intertidal life of the Tamaki Estuary and its entrance Auckland) organised by the Auckland Regional council.
Mid to low density, high quality hosing
Number of high quality schools
The public transport is less populated, however there is ferry transport available in Halfmoon Bay
BUCKLANDS BEACHSTORMWATER SYSTEM
BUCKLANDS BEACHSTORMWATER FITTING
4.6 Storm water service and river lines
The outlets are focused on the Tamaki Estuary instead of leading directly to the harbour
There are no visible treatment system existing
The main pipe is focused on the upper Bucklands beach
BUCKLANDS BEACHCASE STUDY-FAILURE
Flood walls have broken the connection between the spaces due to its sturdy aesthetics.
Isolation has lead untreated space
Tall walls formed shades and blocked view points - decreasing the capacity of the atmosphere and creating an un welcoming zone
Section 5 Case Studies
The construction of the sea wall has huge risk on environmental damage
A Frankenstein material such as concrete is the most unsustainable material to be made, yet it is most commonly used in construction
The hard infrastructure evokes erosion, landslides and divided the environment and ecosystems
Figure 5.1: Hard engineered breakwater train track in Timaru collapsing due to erosion (New Zealand and the Sea, p:231)
Figure 5.2: [Left] Permeable paving made from recycled plastic mesh filled with state chippings [Right] Flood walls create dead, un-welcoming public spaces (Homes for A Changing Climate. p:66)
BUCKLANDS BEACHCASE STUDIES
PALISADE BAY - NY/NJ
Protection mechanism from sea level rise and especially from SLOSH impacts
Insulting soft infrastructures, therefore give less impact to the environment
Building a artificial hill as a sea wall also coring the coastal edge
Building artificial islands as part of breakwater system and collecting sediments to harness the islands at natural process
Natural sediment collection
Enriching the wild life by recovering the wetlands populating with marine species, fish and birds
Storm water treatment with the wetland
Reference: Nordenson G, (2010), On the water Palisade Bay, New York, USA, The Museum of modern Art)
Layers of islands to harness the coastal edge
Extending the length of water travelling out to the sea therefore the water is able to filter through the wetland naturally
Placing artificial islands based on the new diamond shaped grid. These islands is part of breakwater system including the seaweed wall also to collect sediments
Adding extra piers and wharfs also to be acted as a breakwater system
Development on the floodplain and forming a defence wall
Opening the original river frontage to public view and create a riverbank where flora can flourish
The canal is planned to naturally recover and used as a flood channel. A new green corridor is being created alongside the River Nene to recreate a forest floodplains.
Creating a compact mixed use environment for residential, business and transport
This space is also used as a sacrificial area of the new public square is to protect further inner land damage
The plan is based on the floodwater, excess of water flows
The apartments are part of floodwall an flood resilient home
This project promotes that development can be based on accommodation of river instead of river to accommodate household alone
Reference: KCA Architects, (2010), Albion Queyside, (http://184.108.40.206/render.aspx?siteID=1&navIDs=2,37,38)
ALBION QUAYSIDE - GUVESEND
Identify flood plain
Flood risk assessment
Match vulnerability of use to level of hazrad
- Accommodation over flood level
- Dry means of escape
- Create additional flood storage
- Drainage corridors attenuate runoff
Resilient building construction
Resistant utilities infrastructure
BUCKLANDS BEACHBUCKLANDS BEACHDESIGN SCHEME
From the study of previous planning and the new technology, natural landscape is highly recommended and it is more productive solution for managing the environment.
Natural water drainage is as good as the piping method or better, yet has more values that benefit the overall landscape amenity.
The natural treatment is cheaper and durable comparing to piping which needs to be replaced every 150 years
Figure 6.1: Coastal protection methods (Ecological Context of Development, p:103)
Figure 6.1: Comparison of piping and natural treatment (Ecological Context of Development, p:244)
INSTALLING BREAKWATER SYSTEM
WETLAND PARKENGAGING SOCIAL + ENVIRONMENT
CLEANING WATER + ENHANCING ECOLOGY
ELEVATE MARINE BIODIVERSITY
BUCKLANDS BEACH DEVELOPMENT SCHEME
Design Stage 1 (concept)
Identifying the developing area through the study of geological information database and visual assessments
Identifying the conceptual cycling routes and the depth of the river to estimate the construction range and defining the possible environmental impacts
Concept analysis: I have identified there are many risks on constructing hard landscape sea wall from the research. Therefore the design scheme of Bucklands beach will be structured with soft landscaping in example of Palisade Bay case study.
The concept one is ideally protecting the coastal edges, however due to the density and close distance of the residential and the edge, the artificial wall will raise issues of closer on the viewpoints which is vital to the coastal residents and estate
Considering the blockage of the harbour views the concept two is based on distancing the residents from the wall, therefore the wall is pushed further out to the sea providing more opportunities of opening views and preventing from discloser
Design stage 2
Strategies to insert water treatment system in Bucklands Beach because the catchment are sloped to disperse in Bucklands beach area
Strategies to reduce the construction damage and future harm to the environment. This design scheme is especially important to the concept of sustainable development
Strategies to save and enhance the beach quality of Bucklands beach. Saving the beach area will consist the identity of the Bucklands beach, also in favour of the residents who value the beach
Design development Ideally the cycle way is drawn over the contour line of -2m from the ground level. This plan will reduce the environmental impact
Guided by the contour plan, the cycle way is waved. Manipulating this natural plan we could plant an pier or extending the island outwards to create an barrier to collect sediments
BUCKLANDS BEACH DEVELOPMENT STAGES
Design Stage 3
Design strategy to develop wetlands and naturally spread, especially through the cliffs of Bucklands head
Dividing the wetlands into two sections will allow the water to filter in stages therefore there are more possibilities of water to be cleaned
The artificial island wall is designed to accommodate the landform to harness, also with collection of sediments and therefore helps to spread the wetland zone outside the wall
The extension of wetland is to bring more animal habitats (birds, fish, marine species)
Design Stage 4
Possible areas of sediment collection where the wetland habitats can spread to extend the wetlands zone, this will accommodate outer wall estuary species. Also harness the open cliffs of Bucklands head
Seawall cross section - concave wall to accommodate the wave action rather then hitting a solid wall
Concept Two, insulting deck path.
Friendly to the wave however it is not appropriate for protection against sea level rise
Concept One, insulting artificial land.
Environmentally friendlier then hard infrastructure also higher percentage against protection from the rise of sea level of SLOSH impacts.
However the height of the wall blocks the viewpoints
Reduce the power of wave action, allowing less impact when reached on land
BUCKLANDS BEACHBUCKLANDS BEACH
RESTORING WETLANDS + STORMWATER TREATMENT
COLLECTING SEDIMENTS TO RESTORE BEACH + HARNESS COASTAL EDGE
ENRICHING NATIVE SPECIES
BUCKLANDS BEACHDESIGN INTENTIONS
Accommodating the wildlife to repair the Depleted Biodiversity
Figures: please refer to the book Life in the Estuary
BUCKLANDS BEACHBotanical Name Common Name Height Spacing
PB size Notes
Apodasmia similis Jointed wire rush 150cm 20cm 20% PB 1 To be planted in groups of 10-20 and dispersed at emergent layer
Austrostipa stipoides Prikly spear grass 70-100cm 100cm 10% PB 3 To be planted in marginal layer where it is dry most of the seasons
Baumea articulata Jointed twig rush 200cm 20cm 5% PB 2 To be planted in set of 3-7 and dispersed widly Emergent to marginal layer
Carex secta Tussock sedge 300cm 50cm 10% PB 1 To be planted emergent to marginal layer where water is frequently submerged
Cyperus paparifera Paparus 100-300cm 100-300cm 3% PB 3To be planted in set of three on the corners near the division of wetland zones at floating-leaves aquatic layer
Ficinia nodosa Wiwi 100cm 20cm 5% PB 2 To be planted at hight density and dispersed
Plogiathus divaricatus Marsh Ribbonwood 300cm 5000cm 2% PB 3To be planted in between the emergent and margianl layer to function as an fence between the wetlands
Typha orientalis Raupo 200cm 30cm 10% PB 3 To be planted at hight density and dispersed within the water emergent layer
Zostera novazelica Sea grass 10cm 15cm 20% PB 1 To be planted in separate patch as Submerged aquatics layer
Planting Plan List
Wetland Zone A
Apodasmia similis Jointed wire rush 150cm 20cm 5% PB 1 To be planted in groups of 10-20 and dispersed at emergent layer
Baumea articulata Jointed twig rush 200cm 20cm 15% PB 2 To be planted in set of 3-7 and dispersed widly Emergent to marginal layer
Cyperus paparifera Paparus 100-300cm 100-300cm 5% PB 3 To be planted in set of three at clumps of an patch near the artificial island
Desmoschoenus spiralis golden sand sedge 50-70cm 100-150cm 10% PB3 To be planted at most sandy areas
Eleocharis sphacelata Bamboo Spike sedge 200cm 30cm 25% PB 3 To be planted in bundles at centred arrangement of a patch
Typha orientalis Raupo 200cm 30cm 5% PB 3 To be planted at hight density and dispersed within the water emergent layer
Zostera novazelica Sea grass 10cm 15cm 15% PB 1 To be planted in separate patch as Submerged aquatics layer
Wetland Zone B
Agonis flexuosa Willow tree 5-1000cm 5000cm 1.00% PB 30 to be planted along the edge of park and road
Austrostipa stipoides Prikly spear grass 70-100cm 100cm 20% PB 3 To be planted along the edge of wetland A
Desmoschoenus spiralis golden sand sedge 50-70cm 100-150cm 25% PB 3 To be planted at most sandy areas
Cordyline Australis Cabbage tree 500-800cm 1000cm 4% PB 25 to be planted at mixed of species along the wetlands
Muehlenbekis complexa Puhoehoe Excisting plant
Phomium 'Tanex' NZ Tanex 100-150cm 500-700cm 5% PB 15To be planted along the end of wetland zone (marginal layer) with mixture of other plants
Ripiration Zone and Public Park
Apodasmia similies Zostera novazelica Typha orientalis
Eleocharis sphacelata Baumea articulata
Cordyline australis Agonis flexuosa
Wetland Zone A
Wetland Zone B
PLANTING PLAN OF BUCKLAND BEACH WETLAND 1:3000
PLANTING PLAN + SECTION
BUCKLANDS BEACHBUCKLANDS BEACHSUSTAINABLE CITY DESIGN STRATEGIES
Mangrove attract sediments to create an salt marsh, providing a protection hill from sea level rise
The species diversity in mangrove communities will increase at higher latitudes
[Above] Gabion retaining structure
Gabion provides versatile solu tion to erosion control and land stabilization
Instead of using an hard core concrete for the base of the artificial wall, gabion retaining structure can be insulted
[Above] Planted surface
Reducing the impermeable surface and having less pressure on the storm water drains Weather horizontal or vertical planting can also be applied to improve the health, efficiency, and general appearance of urban environments. These surfaces improve air quality, cool city temperature and catch runoff, also provide habitat for a variety of birds, butterflies and other pollinators.
Bioretention uses a simple model that provides opportunity for run-off infiltration, filtration, storage, and for uptake by vegetation (Nigel Dunnett, Andy Clayden, p40).
Reduce the amount of excess run-off and managing the rainwater on site instead of draining to the sea
[Above] Porous pavement and grass pavers
Having a stable level surface suitable for pedestrian and/ or vehicular traffic yet allowing water to absorb into the soil
Geocontainment technology is a system for using an engineered textile tube to contain sand and soil
It can be used as breakwater, jetty or a sand dune as itself.
This method can be used to creating artificial islands for Bucklands Beach. The insulation of sediment allows water to channel giving less impact to the wave and land.
[Below] Retention pond
A basic plant diversity that graduates from aquatic to land plants
[Below] Bio Haven Floating Islands
Biohaven Floating Island are water filtration solution that behaves much like constructed wetlands but situated I both shallow and deep water and can be located anywhere.
It is made of recycled plastic and injected with foam for initial byoyancy
This can be used outside barrier of the artificial island near the cliff of the Bucklands Beach head as part of wetland expansion
Figure 7.1: Biohaven Floating Island(On the water Palisade Bay, part 7,online source)
Figure 7.4: Seedlings (On the water Palisade Bay, part 7,online source)
Figure 7.2: Example of Bioretention (Rain Garden: p6)
Figure 7.3: Progression of mangrove forest (Mangrove Forest,Climate Change,and Sea Level Rise: p14: p6)
Figure 7.5: Grotube (On the water Palisade Baypart 7,online source)
Figure 7.6: Porous pavement (On the water Palisade Bay, part 7,online source)
Figure 7.8: PGabion basket (On the water Palisade Bay, part 7,online source)
Figure 7.7: Example Retention pond (Rain Garden: p11)
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