The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III

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Centre for Bhutan Studies. The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III. The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011. Centre for Bhutan Studies. Part III: Increasing Happiness GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag Insufficiencies by region - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part IIIThe Centre for Bhutan Studies2011Centre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNHCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNHCentre for Bhutan Studies GNH Index: PurposeThe GNH Index is formulated to provide an incentive to Increase Happiness. Civil servants, business leaders, and citizens of Bhutan may ask, how can I help to increase GNH?The GNH Index can help them answer this question in practical ways. Centre for Bhutan StudiesIncreasing GNHOur nations Vision can only be fulfilled if the scope of our dreams and aspirations are matched by the reality of our commitment to nurturing our future citizens.HM Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, the 5th King of BhutanCentre for Bhutan StudiesIncreasing GNHTo Increase happiness, we need to ask a new set of questions. We have to identify people who are not yet happy.And we have to ask, where do they lack sufficiency? What must more be done?This analysis is of direct relevance for policy.National GNH Index: .743 using the happiness threshold of 66% Centre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan Studies59% of Bhutanese do not fulfil the threshold of being happy in 6 or more than 6 domains.According to the GNH Index, they are not-yet-happy. National headcount ratio: Centre for Bhutan StudiesOf course, happiness is deeply personal. Some of these people may regard themselves as fully flourishing. That is why we need to discuss GNH widely in Bhutan. Centre for Bhutan StudiesOf the Bhutanese who are unhappy, on average they have insufficiency in 43% of the domains (roughly equal to 4 domains)National Breadth (Lack of sufficiency): Centre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan Studies.Indicator: Consumption per capitaIndicator: Health, Education and Living StandardsIndicator: Psychological wellbeing, Health, Time use, Culture, Ecology, Community vitality, Good Governance and Living standards1,66,1241,46,9563,76,975 Centre for Bhutan StudiesFirst, a birds eye view of happy vs unhappy people. How do their achievements vary?When the blue bars are higher, it means that insufficiency is higher among unhappy people.For example, insufficiency in Life satisfaction is much higher among the unhappy. Centre for Bhutan StudiesAcross all indicators we see that there is no indicator in which orange bars are higher than blue none in which happy people have less sufficiency than unhappy.But some are relatively close; others very different. Lets look further. Centre for Bhutan StudiesLooking at psychological well-being, health, and time, we see that the unhappy always have higher insufficiency. The groups are closest in sleep. Psychological Health Time Use well-being Centre for Bhutan StudiesEducation Culture GovernanceIn education, culture, and governance, the groups are least different in of Value, Language, Driglam Namzha, and Political participation. Both have highest deprivations in education. Centre for Bhutan StudiesCommunity Ecology Living StandardIn community, ecology, and living standard, the strong differences are in wildlife damage and in living standard. Happy peoples insufficiencies in community and ecology are otherwise rather close and in urbanization, almost equal. Centre for Bhutan StudiesNext we analyse the blue bars the insufficiencies of unhappy people and ask, how can we reduce them? Centre for Bhutan StudiesEducation is the highest contributor to unhappinessHealth is the lowest contributor to unhappiness followed by community vitality Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of Education indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of Living standard indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of Time use indicators to unhappinessContribution of Good Governance indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency Centre for Bhutan StudiesCultural diversity and resilience indicators to unhappinessPsychological wellbeing indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency Centre for Bhutan StudiesCommunity vitality indicators to unhappinessEcological diversity and resilience indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of Health indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency Centre for Bhutan StudiesPsychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standards Centre for Bhutan StudiesPsychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standardsMore than 50% of the Bhutanese are insufficient in 3 of the 4 indicators of Education. Centre for Bhutan StudiesSchoolingCentre for Bhutan StudiesKnowledgeCentre for Bhutan StudiesKnowledge (contd.)Centre for Bhutan StudiesPsychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standardsMore than 40% of the Bhutanese are insufficient in 2 of the 4 indicators of Good Governance Centre for Bhutan StudiesServicesCentre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPolitical participationCentre for Bhutan StudiesFundamental rightsCentre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH Percentage of not-yet-happy people by districtHigher percentage of not-yet-happy peopleLower percentage of not-yet-happy peopleCentre for Bhutan Studies.Domain contribution to unhappiness.Psychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standardsPercentage of Bhutanese who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency in indicators.Centre for Bhutan StudiesWhere do the unhappy people live?Thimphu and Chukha are home to the highest number of unhappy people.Note Chukha and Thimphu also house the highest number of happy people! They are big dzongkhags. Average insufficiencies amongst the not-yet-happyHigher insufficienciesLower insufficienciesThose living in Samdrup Jongkhar, Lhuentse, Tashi Yangste, and Trongsa experience insufficiency in the most indicators at the same time. Centre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH.More unhappy people in rural areas!.In Rural areas, not-yet-happy peoples average shortfall is about the same as urban shortfall.This is good news. It suggests less disparity in unhappiness by region. ..Urban Areas have highest insufficiency in Governance, Time use, and Culture. .Rural Areas have highest insufficiency in Education and Living Standards. ...Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH..Centre for Bhutan Studies67% of women are unhappy. About 51% of men are unhappy. Centre for Bhutan StudiesNot-yet-happy peoples average shortfall (lack of sufficiency) is the almost same for men and women.Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of the domains to unhappiness by genderThe contribution to unhappiness in men and women by the respective domains is similarCentre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH.GNH is highest among those aged 21-25.Young people are better educated, healthier, and have relatively good living standards. Older people do better in culture, governance, community, and psychological well-being. Domain contribution to unhappiness by age groupCentre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPercentage of the not-yet-happy in Health indicatorsPercentage of unhappy increases with age Centre for Bhutan StudiesPercentage of the not-yet-happy in Community vitality indicatorsThe not-yet happy still have very high and stable achievements in family and safety except the very young. Community decreases with age. Centre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNHCentre for Bhutan StudiesNote: results are illustrative only Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of domains to unhappiness by marital statusCentre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of domains to unhappiness by marital statusThe contrast between married, divorced, separated, and widowed is not very big. Widowed and Divorced enjoy a little less culture.Never married to show a different profile of deprivationsCentre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNHCentre for Bhutan StudiesNote: The survey is not representative by occupational group, and some of the occupational categories are very small. So these results must be understood to be illustrative but not definitive. Further research would be required to verify their accuracy. .Centre for Bhutan StudiesCentre for Bhutan StudiesPercentage of the not-yet-happy in some of the Psychological wellbeing indicators- monk/anim have lowest insufficiencies. Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNHCentre for Bhutan StudiesWho can increase GNH? Centre for Bhutan StudiesIndividuals are linked out Centre for Bhutan StudiesCommunties affect others Centre for Bhutan StudiesAnd so does government Centre for Bhutan StudiesMeaningful work, services, productsMeaningful relationships, collective action, modelsSharing, relationships, authentic self-direction, shaping own happinessGNH is created when different groups work to do what they do best. Centre for Bhutan StudiesGNH Index highlights- EducationEducation is the highest contributor to unhappiness as per GNH IndexBhutanese have more than 50% insufficiency in 3 of the 4 indicatorsThe highest insufficiency being in the knowledge indicator. Bhutanese experience low levels of knowledge in cultural & historical aspects of the country & in health and politics.Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Education indicators Knowledge comprises of 4-sub indicators which are observed to be relatively low in the country irrespective of any demographic charactersKnowledge of local legends and folk storiesKnowledge of local tshechus Knowledge of traditional Bhutanese songs Knowledge of ConstitutionKnowledge of HIV/AIDSWeights: Schooling and literacy higher weights Centre for Bhutan StudiesEducation is the highest contributor to unhappinessProportion having insufficiency in Education indicators Literacy and schooling are conventional indicators for which policies are already in lined for its advancementWeights: Schooling and literacy higher weightsKnowledge of local legends and folk storiesKnowledge of local tshechus Knowledge of traditional Bhutanese songs Knowledge of ConstitutionKnowledge of HIV/AIDS Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Living standard indicators RoofingToiletOvercrowdingWeights: all equal Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators Weights: Higher on services & participation Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators Weights: Higher on services & participation Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators Weights: Higher on services & participation Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Cultural diversity and resilience indicators Weights: Higher on language and participation Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Community vitality indicators Weights: Higher on donations and safety Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Community vitality indicators Weights: Higher on donations and safety Centre for Bhutan StudiesProportion having insufficiency in Community vitality indicators Weights: Higher on donations and safety Centre for Bhutan StudiesSome Next Steps:Send GNH analyses of Dzongkhags and domains to Dzongkhag Administrations and MinistriesReview Dzongkhag policies to see if adjustments are useful to increase GNH. Review sectorial policies to see if adjustments are useful to increase GNH. Probe cross-cutting questions, such as: Why are farmers and housewives least happy? How can they be supported?Undertake holistic studies of key problem areas, drawing on existing analyses and new insights.Promote national citizen dialogue on what is GNH; share definitions, domains, and examples.Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNHCentre for Bhutan StudiesHow do we sustain what we already have? Centre for Bhutan StudiesSustaining GNH: key prioritiesThe GNH is constructed of 33 indicators covering the 9 elements of the GNH. Think of these as nine offering bowls. To be fully happy, six or more bowls should be full for every person. In future years, the indicators may shift slightly to improve the accuracy of the GNH Index in certain domains, but the nine bowls will be the same. Centre for Bhutan StudiesWhat does this mean for me?As a person, think of each of the nine domains in your life. Which bowls are full? Which are empty? How can you fill the empty bowls more?Think of your family, your friends: how can you help them to fill their offering bowls?Think of your responsibilities at work or at home or at school: how can you help fill all nine offering bowls for other people? Centre for Bhutan StudiesWhat does this mean for policy?All government projects and policies are to work together to maximize the GNH Index in Bhutan. For example, a school advances education. But it can also help children fill other bowls. It can teach values and so fill the community bowl, and teach skills so improve the income component of the living standards bowl in the future. For example, a hospital advances health. But it can also help patients to learn to meditate, and so help fill people with culture and enhance psychological well-being; it can have green trees and so fill ecology. A road will fill living standards. But maybe the community should also talk about how they will respond to the influences that the road will bring wisely, so that they can keep their bowls of community vitality and culture full. Business managers may consider how they can not only advance living standards but also how they can offer their employees family life, psychological well-being, care for ecology, and embody good governance.Centre for Bhutan StudiesSustaining GNH: key prioritiesIntentionally support existing GNH achievements that are valued from erosion due to cultural change. Incorporate GNH index questions into more regular surveys, to ensure timely detection of erosion.Prepare materials for different ages, region, and occupational groups of Bhutanese on how to increase GNH for oneself, with examplesThe 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part IIIThe Centre for Bhutan Studies2011Centre for Bhutan Studies

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