Slide 1The Modality and Redundancy Principles EdTech 513 - Multimedia Dr. Schroeder by Kris Mesler Slide 2 After viewing this multimedia presentation, students will be able to view pages and identify which examples correctly use the Modality and Redundancy Principles. Learning Objective: Slide 3 The Modality Principle Slide 4 Present words as audio narration rather than on- screen text Slide 5 What does that mean? Slide 6 When the graphic is the focus, use narration. Slide 7 The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above. Moon Armstrong, Cod Lunar Modulemstrong and Aldri Lunar Landing Slide 8 Slide 9 When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? Slide 10 When words are presented without any concurrent picture or other visual input Slide 11 It is okay to simply have on-screen text if you are reading what is on a slide and you do not have a graphic. Slide 12 When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? If the material is familiar to the learner Slide 13 Bananas are a great source of potassium! Slide 14 When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? If the learner has control over the pacing of the material Slide 15 Slide 16 When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? When words are presented without any concurrent picture or other visual input If the material is familiar to the learner If the learner has control over the pacing of the material Slide 17 Input Channels VisualAuditory Slide 18 Visual Slide 19 1. On-screen Text 2. Graphics Slide 20 Auditory Slide 21 Narration Slide 22 Input Channels Auditory Visual Phonetic Processing Visual Processing Slide 23 Input Channels On-screen Text Graphics Auditory Visual Phonetic Processing Visual Processing Slide 24 Input Channels On-screen Text Graphics = OVERLOAD Auditory Visual Phonetic Processing Visual Processing Slide 25 Input Channels Graphics Auditory Visual Narration Phonetic Processing Visual Processing Slide 26 Input Channels Graphics Auditory Visual Narration Phonetic Processing Visual Processing = BALANCED Slide 27 From Moreno and Mayer, 1999a. Graphics + Narration On-screen Text The Modality Effect Slide 28 The Redundancy Principle #1 Slide 29 Do not add on-screen text to narrated graphics Slide 30 Slide 31 The Borah High School boys soccer team defeated Timberline 3-2 on a last-second goal by Drew Smith over the outstretched hands of John Jones, Timberline’s goalie. Slide 32 Learning Styles Hypothesis “Instruction should support both auditory and visual learning styles” Slide 33 Which is better? Information Acquisition Theory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia VS More input is better! Keep input channels balanced! Slide 34 Which is better? Information Acquisition Theory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia VS Keep input channels balanced! YES! More input is better! Slide 35 From Moreno and Mayer, 1999a. Animation + Narration Animation + Narration + Redundant Text The Redundancy Effect Slide 36 The Redundancy Principle #2 Slide 37 Consider adding on- screen text to narration in special situations Slide 38 Add narration, if: There are no pictures Slide 39 This is an example of text without graphics. It is okay to narrate this text when giving a presentation. Slide 40 Add narration, if: The learner has ample time to process the pictures and words Slide 41 HappyAfraid Slide 42 Add narration, if: The learner is likely to have difficulty processing spoken words Slide 43 Der Hund Slide 44 “the dog” Slide 45 Add narration, if: There are no pictures The learner has ample time to process the pictures and words The learner is likely to have difficulty processing spoken words Slide 46 The following slides may or may not follow the Modality and Redundancy Principles. Decide whether each slide is a good example to follow or not and why. Slide 47 The hot dog is a meal staple at America’s favorite pastime-the baseball game. Along with peanuts and sodas, hot dogs are sold by vendors throughout the stands during a ball game. Example 1 Slide 48 Example 1 is not a good use of the Modality and Redundancy principles, because it has both on-screen text and audio narration along with a graphic. It would be improved by either removing the on-screen text or the audio narration. See the next slide for a revised version. Slide 49 Example 1- revised Slide 50 Example 2 Relay Handoff Slide 51 Example 2 is a good example of the Modality and Redundancy principles. The audio narration complements the graphic of the baton without overloading the visual input channel. Slide 52 Color Your World Example 3 Slide 53 Example 3 is a good representation of use of the Modality and Redundancy principles. On-screen text is limited to a title only, so the graphic, along with the audio narration, balances in the input channels. Slide 54 Example 4 Redundant- 1. Exceeding what is necessary or natural; superfluous.2. Needlessly wordy or repetitive in expression: a student paper filled with redundant phrases.3. Of or relating to linguistic redundancy.4. Chiefly British Dismissed or laid off from work, as for being no longer needed.5. Electronics Of or involving redundancy in electronic equipment.6. Of or involving redundancy in the transmission of messages. Slide 55 Example 4 demonstrates when the Modality and Redundancy principles do not apply. When learning a new term and having to remember the definition, it is okay to have on-screen text and narration to reinforce learning or for reference. Slide 56 Now that you have seen the Modality and Redundancy Principles, take time to review them before you prepare your next multimedia presentation! Slide 57 Thanks for watching! Slide 58 Image credits All images are from Microsoft Office 2008 online Clip-art Print Source Clark, Ruth Colvin, Mayer, Richard E. (2008). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer - An Imprint of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Slide 59 A 2009 Tggr Production

The Modality and Redundancy Principles EdTech 513 - Multimedia Dr. Schroeder by Kris Mesler.

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Slide 1The Modality and Redundancy Principles EdTech 513 - Multimedia Dr. Schroeder by Kris Mesler Slide 2 After viewing this multimedia presentation, students will be able…