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Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

Introduction

A text is a piece of writing, such as a letter, an e-mail, a set of instructions, a story, an article, an advert or even a note.

Every text has a purpose. Some texts try to persuade you, for example adverts. Other texts inform you, for example a letter from a doctors surgery about new opening times.

Recognising the purpose of a text helps you to understand the information.

This activity looks at different texts and their purpose.

You will learn: about the different purposes of texts how to recognise the purpose of a text.

You will need Resources 1, 2, 3 and 4. You will find them at the end of this activity.

Resource 1

In the dusky sunset, the dark empty house threw a lar

ge distorted shadow on the ground. From

the glassless window a tattered curtain swung backw

ards and forwards, making a whining

noise. The crumbling chimney bricks were scattered

across the roof, making it increasingly

more dangerous to go near the house, especially in h

igh winds.

It was windy as Punam walked carefully and deliberat

ely through the undergrowth to the house.

He turned suddenly as he heard a noise behind him.

After a moment of panic, he whispered

hoarsely, Whos there? But there was no answer.

Soon the crisp earth of the forest beneath Punams fe

et gave way to the quiet softness of long

grass that marked the beginning of the overgrown ga

rden. In places, the grass had grown so

tall that it dampened his clothes up to his chest.

Punam made his way towards the front door, wading

through the thick grass. The thought went

through his mind that any necessary quick escape wo

uld be impossible though this unkempt

garden.

He finally reached the large wooden front door. It was

in worse condition than the rest of the

house. As he softly pressed against it he thought for

a wonderful moment that it would refuse

to open. That moment passed all too soon. The crum

bling door opened as if it was on springs

rather than rusty hinges.

Punam stood blinking through the hole left by the op

en door. He had dropped his torch back

in the forest so he needed to give his eyes time to adj

ust to the darkness before he entered the

house. Just as he was preparing to step through the

door he caught a faint movement in the

distance. He froze with fear. Something was coming t

owards him!

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource 2

Additional materialsLiteracy Entry 3

On behalf of Mordsley council, I write to let you know about the changes to your local refuse

collection. Your rubbish will now be collected fortnightly. The household rubbish (grey bin) will

be collected on alternate weeks from green or garden waste. However, blue and black boxes

(plastic and cans) are to be put out with the grey bins as previously. This new system will start

on week one with the household rubbish.Assisted collections will be provided for people who are unable to put out their own bins at the

kerbside. This includes people who are disabled, ill or infirm. There is also a service for people

with large families (eight or more) who may have a large amount of rubbish to dispose of.Refuse will generally be collected on the same day on alternate weeks, except for during

specific holiday periods. For example, special arrangements will be made for the Christmas

period, New Year and Bank Holidays. Householders will be advised about holiday collection

dates through a calendar sent to all homes annually either in February or March. For personal recycling new collection points have been set up in the main town car park. This

includes banks for the following items: 1. Bottles

2. Plastic bags

3. Shoes

For more information about the new collection dates and times in your area, call the Refuse

Collection helpline on (01234) 567 890.

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource 3

Additional materials

Chapattis To fry

1 Remove packaging and sprinkle lightly

with water.

2 Place in a dry frying pan and turn once

.

3 Remove when chapatti starts to rise.

To grill

1 Remove packaging and sprinkle lightly

with water.

2 Place in the top of a pre-heated grill fo

r 1 minute, turning once.

May also be toasted on a medium heat f

or 7 minutes

Not suitable for microwaving

Keep refrigerated. Do not freeze.

Once opened, consume within 2 days

Suitable for vegetarians

Recyclable packaging

Have you tried the

Chicken wrap recipe?

Ingredients:

Cooking Method:

1 Place chicken strips into a lightly oile

d pan and stir-fry until lightly brown.

2 Add the peppers and mushrooms an

d continue to stir-fry until soft.

3 Add the sauce and simmer for a furt

her 15 minutes.

4 Meanwhile, heat the chapattis in the

grill.

5 When the chapattis are warmed thro

ugh, spoon some the mixture into the ce

ntre of

each and roll.

6 Serve with mixed salad if required.

If you are not satisfied with this product,

write to us at the address below.

Lehanil Food Ltd, Morris Industrial Estate

, Trenchly, Bucks, BH1 2JL

Small slices of chicken breast

1 sliced raw onion

1 red and 1 green pepper

Sweet and sour sauce

Mixed salad (optional)

6 chapattis

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource 4

Entry 3

Yes

START

Pick up the receiver

Is there a buzzing

tone?

Put the money in andwait for it to drop.

At the end of the callpress the end callbutton.

FINISH

Has it recorded the

correct amount of money?

Replace thereceiver firmly onthe hook andpress down.

No

Press the moneyreturn button andtake out themoney when itdrops into the tray.

No

Yes

Dial the number andwait for a reply

0.50

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Rt/E3.21 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

A text always has a purpose. Texts are also written and organised in different ways depending on their purpose.

Here are two examples:

Some texts tell you about something they want to inform you.

Texts that inform are usually written clearly and include facts. Look at example 1.

Example 1

Today will be windy with gusts reaching up to 30 miles per hour and occasional showers. The daytime temperature will be 16C, dropping to 8C this evening.

a. Match these texts to the examples on this page.

recipe weather report

b. Here are some more types of text. What do you think is the purpose of each text? Write either inform or instruct next to each one.l directions to a placel a newspaper article about the dangers of smokingl a train timetablel a leaflet telling you how to put together a piece of flat-pack furniturel a text telling you how to save a file on a computerl a hospital appointment letterl a telephone directory

Some texts tell you what to do or how to do something they instruct you.

Instructions usually:l begin with imperative verbs telling you what to do look at the highlighted imperative verbs

in example 2l use numbers or bullets to separate the points.

Example 2

1. Slice the onion into fine strips.

2. Fry in a little olive oil until soft.

3. Add the tomato puree.

Practice 1

Rt/E3.22 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

Some texts have a different main purpose other than to instruct or inform. Here are two more purposes:

Some texts try to persuade you to buy or do something. Adverts or fliers advertising a special offer are good examples of persuasive texts.

This might be by:l asking you questions to grab your attentionl using upper-case letters and exclamation marks.

Can you find these features in example 3 below?

You will need Resources 13 to answer the questions. To answer each question, choose one of the four purposes (to inform, to instruct, to persuade or to describe) outlined on this page and page 2.

a. Read paragraph 1 from Resource 1. What do you think is the purpose of paragraph 1? Highlight or underline the words and phrases that helped you to decide.

b. Read Resource 2. What is the purpose of this text? You should be able to decide by reading the first paragraph.

c. Look at Resource 3. What is the purpose of this text? How did you know?

Example 3

Do you deserve a break?

Weve got hundreds of great offers on short breaks all the year round. See our SPECIAL OFFERS starting from ONLY 139! Its an offer too good to miss. Plus, if you book a break before the 15tth December you can get another 20% off the total package price.

Holiday brochures and tourist guides will both contain descriptive text to describe countries, cities, towns, resorts and beaches.

Practice 2

Some texts describe people, places or things. They tell you more about something. Look at this description of a conference centre. The words in bold type describe the centre.

Example 4

Peak Park is a modern conference centre with a flexible range of facilities. It is an ideal location for all of your events. There is also a range of new meeting rooms which will hold between eight and 150 people.

Rt/E3.23 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

a. What do you think is the purpose of each letter?

b. Which one of these letters requires a response?

c. Match the types of letter to the examples above. circular letter official letter personal letter

Identifying the main purpose

Sometimes you need to read a text closely to identify its main purpose.

Texts such as e-mails, leaflets, newspaper articles and letters often look the same but can have different main purposes.

People might write you a letter to give you news or invite you somewhere (inform you), or to try to get you to do something or sell you something (persuade you). Leaflets can give you information (a leaflet on how to recycle) or try to persuade you (a leaflet on a new product).

Look at these examples from different letters.

1

Dear Kass

Sorry for the delay in sending you this letter. Ive been really busy lately at work and at home. Im going to Cyprus in June and Im really looking forward to a break.

2

Dear Mrs Liopeta

I enclose a savings account transfer form. Please note that we require your original passport and marriage certificate rather than copies to process your transfer. This is for legal reasons.

3

Dear Customer

Great news! Were opening a new megastore in a town near you! You are invited to our GRAND OPENING on 5 June where everything is half price!

Can you afford to miss out?

Practice 3

Rt/E3.2 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

Check your skills

1 What type of text usually includes numbered or bulleted steps each beginning with a verb?A. descriptive textB. instructive textC. informative textD. persuasive text

2 What is the purpose of this text?

Ever wished you could look younger for longer?

Well now YOU CAN with new Star Look foundation.

The special moisturisers help to decrease wrinkles by up to 30%, especially around the delicate eye area.

A. To inform you about a product.B. To instruct you on how to use a product.C. To persuade you to buy a product.D. To describe a product.

3 What is the purpose of this text?

The beautiful, empty beaches run for miles along the coastline of this glorious, tropical island. At night the sound of crickets and scented orange groves fill the night air. The people are warm and friendly.

A. to informB. to instructC. to persuadeD. to describe

4 What is the main purpose of the text in Resource 4?A. to informB. to instructC. to persuadeD. to entertain

Rt/E3.2 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

Answers

Practice 1

a. Example 1 is a weather report.

Example 2 is a recipe.

b. The answers are in brackets next to each type of text:l Directions to a place: to tell you how to get there (to instruct).l A newspaper article about the dangers of smoking (to inform).l A train timetable (to inform).l A leaflet telling you how to put together a piece of flat-pack furniture (to instruct).l A text telling you how to save a file on a computer (to instruct).l A hospital appointment letter (to inform).l A telephone directory (to inform).

Practice 2

a. The purpose of paragraph 1 in Resource 1 is to describe. The words and phrases that give you clues are in bold type below.

In the dusky sunset, the dark empty house threw a large distorted shadow on the ground. From the glassless window a tattered curtain swung backwards and forwards, making a whining noise. The crumbling chimney bricks were scattered across the roof, making it increasingly more dangerous to go near the house, especially in high winds.

b. The purpose of Resource 2 is to inform people of the changes to the councils refuse collection.

c. The purpose of Resource 3 is to tell you how to cook chapattis and include them in a recipe. It instructs. The clues are the numbered steps. Each step begins with a command or imperative verb.

Practice 3

a. The purpose of letter 1 is to inform (news/information from a friend).

The purpose of letter 2 is to inform (letter from a bank giving information about what is needed to transfer an account).

The purpose of letter 3 is to persuade.

b. Letter 2 requires a response. (The customer needs to send the documents required to transfer the account to the bank.)

Rt/E3.2 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Types of text

Answers

c. Letter 1 is a personal letter.

Letter 2 is an official letter. (An official letter is a formal letter from a government department, bank or building society for example.)

Letter 3 is a circular letter. (A circular letter is a letter sent to a lot of people, for example, all the people in a particular postcode.)

Check your skills

1 B

2 C

3 D

4 B

Rt/E3.27 Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

In the dusky sunset, the dark empty house threw a large distorted shadow on the ground. From the glassless window a tattered curtain swung backwards and forwards, making a whining noise. The crumbling chimney bricks were scattered across the roof, making it increasingly more dangerous to go near the house, especially in high winds.

It was windy as Punam walked carefully and deliberately through the undergrowth to the house. He turned suddenly as he heard a noise behind him. After a moment of panic, he whispered hoarsely, Whos there? But there was no answer.

Soon the crisp earth of the forest beneath Punams feet gave way to the quiet softness of long grass that marked the beginning of the overgrown garden. In places, the grass had grown so tall that it dampened his clothes up to his chest.

Punam made his way towards the front door, wading through the thick grass. The thought went through his mind that any necessary quick escape would be impossible though this unkempt garden.

He finally reached the large wooden front door. It was in worse condition than the rest of the house. As he softly pressed against it he thought for a wonderful moment that it would refuse to open. That moment passed all too soon. The crumbling door opened as if it was on springs rather than rusty hinges.

Punam stood blinking through the hole left by the open door. He had dropped his torch back in the forest so he needed to give his eyes time to adjust to the darkness before he entered the house. Just as he was preparing to step through the door he caught a faint movement in the distance. He froze with fear. Something was coming towards him!

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

On behalf of Mordsley council, I write to let you know about the changes to your local refuse collection. Your rubbish will now be collected fortnightly. The household rubbish (grey bin) will be collected on alternate weeks from green or garden waste. However, blue and black boxes (plastic and cans) are to be put out with the grey bins as previously. This new system will start on week one with the household rubbish.

Assisted collections will be provided for people who are unable to put out their own bins at the kerbside. This includes people who are disabled, ill or infirm. There is also a service for people with large families (eight or more) who may have a large amount of rubbish to dispose of.

Refuse will generally be collected on the same day on alternate weeks, except for during specific holiday periods. For example, special arrangements will be made for the Christmas period, New Year and Bank Holidays. Householders will be advised about holiday collection dates through a calendar sent to all homes annually either in February or March.

For personal recycling new collection points have been set up in the main town car park. This includes banks for the following items:

1. Bottles

2. Plastic bags

3. Shoes

For more information about the new collection dates and times in your area, call the Refuse Collection helpline on (01234) 567 890.

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Chapattis

To fry

1 Remove packaging and sprinkle lightly with water.

2 Place in a dry frying pan and turn once.

3 Remove when chapatti starts to rise.

To grill

1 Remove packaging and sprinkle lightly with water.

2 Place in the top of a pre-heated grill for 1 minute, turning once.

May also be toasted on a medium heat for 7 minutes

Not suitable for microwaving Keep refrigerated. Do not freeze.Once opened, consume within 2 daysSuitable for vegetariansRecyclable packaging

Have you tried the

Chicken wrap recipe?

Ingredients:

Cooking Method:

1 Place chicken strips into a lightly oiled pan and stir-fry until lightly brown.

2 Add the peppers and mushrooms and continue to stir-fry until soft.

3 Add the sauce and simmer for a further 15 minutes.

4 Meanwhile, heat the chapattis in the grill.

5 When the chapattis are warmed through, spoon some the mixture into the centre of each and roll.

6 Serve with mixed salad if required.

If you are not satisfied with this product, write to us at the address below.

Lehanil Food Ltd, Morris Industrial Estate, Trenchly, Bucks, BH1 2JL

l Small slices of chicken breastl 1 sliced raw onionl 1 red and 1 green pepper

l Sweet and sour saucel Mixed salad (optional)l 6 chapattis

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007

Resource

Additional materials Literacy Entry 3

Entry 3

Yes

START

Pick up the receiver

Is there a buzzing

tone?

Put the money in andwait for it to drop.

At the end of the callpress the end callbutton.

FINISH

Has it recorded the

correct amount of money?

Replace thereceiver firmly onthe hook andpress down.

No

Press the moneyreturn button andtake out themoney when itdrops into the tray.

No

Yes

Dial the number andwait for a reply

0.50

Copyright Tribal Education Limited 2007