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U.S. Bombs

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A Collection Of Weapons Systems Obtained From The Federation Of American Scientists' Military Analysis Network
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FAS Military Analysis Network U.S. Bombs Guided Bomb Unit-10 (GBU-10) Paveway II The Guided Bomb Unit-10 (GBU-10) utilizes the 2,000-pound general purpose or penetrating warhead. The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the target. The GBU-10 consists of an MK-84 2,000 pound bomb with an added laser guidance package. The GBU-1OI mates a BLU-109B weapon with a Paveway II laser guidance kit. This improved 2,000-pound bomb is used against targets requiring deeper penetration. The munition was used during Operation Desert Storm, and, according to the Air Force, hit 78 percent of its targets. In Operation Desert Storm, GBU-10/10Is were used extensively by F-15Es and F-111Fs mainly against bridges, Scuds, C3I (command, control, communications, intelligence) nodes, and bunkers. Of the 2,637 expended,'44 over one- third were dropped by F-111Fs, and the rest by F-117s, F-15Es, and Navy and Marine Corps aircraft. There are two generations of GBU-10 LGBs: Paveway I with fixed wings and Paveway II with folding wings. Paveway II models have the following improvements: detector optics and housing made of injec- tion-molded plastic to reduce weight and cost; increased detector sensitiv- ity; reduced thermal battery delay after release; increased maximum canard deflection; laser coding; folding wings for carriage, and increased detector field of view. (Paveway II's instantaneous field of view is thirty percent greater than that of the Paveway I's field of view). Specifications Class Mission Targets Service Program status First capability Guidance method Control Autopilot Weight (lbs.) 2000 lb. Paveway I & II Laser Guided Weapons Air interdiction Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard Air Force, Navy Operational 1976 Laser (man-in-the-loop) MAU-157 Series (Paveway l) MAU-169 Series (Paveway II) Bang-Bang Mode 2562 Length (in.) Diameter (in.) Warhead Explosive (NEW) Fuze Range 172 15/18 (Warhead) 28 (Airfoil Group) BLU-109 penetrator MK 84; Blast/Fragmentation 535 lbs. Tritonal [BLU-109] 945 lbs. Tritonal [MK 84] FMU-81 N/T 8 nautical miles Circular error probable 9 meters Quantity Air Force: 10,145 Navy: 1,184 Air Force officials state that they could not provide development cost for the munition because they do not have records covering the development period. Air Force: $240.436 million Navy: $30.902 million Not available Not available Air Force: $23,700 Navy: $26,100 A-7, A-10, B-52, F-111, F-117, F-15E, F- 16 , F/A-18 C/D, A-6, F-14 Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Platforms Guided Bomb Unit-12 (GBU-12) Paveway II The Guided Bomb Unit-12 (GBU-12) utilizes a 500-pound general purpose warhead. The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the target. The munition was used during Operation Desert Storm, and, according to the Air Force, hit 88 percent of its targets. During Desert Storm the GBU-12 was dropped by F-lllFs, F15Es, and A-6s, mostly against fixed armor. It was the F-111F tank-busting weapon of choice. Of the 4,493 GBU-12s employed, over half were dropped by the F-lllF. There are two generations of GBU-12 LGBs: Paveway I with fixed wings and Paveway II with folding wings. Paveway II models have the following improvements: detector optics and housing made of injec- tion-molded plastic to reduce weight and cost; increased detector sensitiv- ity; reduced thermal battery delay after release; increased maximum canard deflection; laser coding; folding wings for carriage, and increased detector field of view. (Paveway II's instantaneous field of view is thirty percent greater than that of the Paveway I's field of view). Specifications Class Mission Targets Service Contractor Program status First capability Guidance Control Autopilot Weight (lbs.) Length (in.) Diameter (in.) Warhead Explosive 500 lb. Paveway I & II Guided Weapon Air interdiction Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard Air Force, Navy Texas Instruments Operational 1976 Semi-Active Laser (man-in-the-loop) MAU-157 Series (Paveway l) MAU-169 Series (Paveway II) Bang-Bang Mode 800 129 11 (Warhead); 18 (Airfoil Group) MK-82 Blast/Fragmentation Tritonal, PBXN-109 (192 lbs.) Fuze Range FMU-81 Tail 8 nautical miles Circular error probable 9 meters Quantity Air Force: 29,654 Navy: 2,982 Air Force officials state that they could not provide development cost because they do not have records covering the development period. Air Force: $563.426 million; Navy: $56.807 million Not available Not available Air Force: $19,000; Navy: $19,050 A-7, A-10, B-52, F-111, F-117, F-15, F- 16, F/A-18 C/D, F-14, A-6 Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Platforms Guided Bomb Unit-16 (GBU-16) Paveway II The Guided Bomb Unit-12 (GBU-16) utilizes a 1000-pound general purpose warhead. The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the target. The GBU-16 consists of a MK-83 1,000pound bomb modified with a common Paveway II laser guidance kit. During Desert Storm virtually all 219 GBU-16s were dropped by Navy A-6Es, which had the capability to lase the target themselves (self-designation). FA/18 Hornet aircraft flying from USS Enterprise (CVN 65) dropped GBU-16 laser guided bombs during the waves of attacks against Iraq in support of Operation Desert Fox in December 1998. Specifications Mission Targets Service Program status First capability Guidance method Range Air interdiction Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard Air Force, Navy Operational 1976 Laser (man-in-the-loop) 8 nautical miles Circular error probable 9 meters Quantity Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost A-6 A-10 F-14 F-15 F-16 F/A-18 F-111 Not available Not available Air Force officials state that they could not provide development cost because they do not have records covering the development period. Platforms Guided Bomb Unit-24 (GBU-24) Paveway III The Guided Bomb Unit-24 (GBU-24) Low Level Laser Guided Bomb [LLLGB] consists of either a 2,000-pound MK-84 general purpose or BLU-109 penetrator bomb modified with a Paveway III low-level laser-guided bomb kit to add the proportional guidance in place of the bang-bang type used in the Paveway II. The LLLGB was developed in response to Sophisticated enemy air defenses, poor visibility, and to counter limitations in low ceilings. The weapon is designed for low altitude delivery and with a capability for improved standoff ranges to reduce exposure. The GBU-24 LLLGB/Paveway III has low-level, standoff capability of more than 10 nautical miles. Performance envelopes for all modes of delivery are improved because the larger wings of the GBU-24 increases maneuverability. Paveway III also has increased seeker sensitivity and a larger field of regard. The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the target. One way to deliver LGBs from low altitude is a loft attack. In this maneuver, the aircraft pulls up sharply at a predetermined point some miles from the target and the LGB is lofted upward and toward the target. However, if the LGB guidance system detects reflected laser energy from the target designator too soon after release, it tends to pull the LGW down below its required trajectory and the bomb will impact well short of the target. This bomb is not nearly as delivery parameter sensitive as is the Paveway II LGB, nor is it affected by early laser designation. After a proper low altitude delivery, the LLLGB will maintain level flight while looking for reflected laser energy. If it does not detect reflected laser energy, it will maintain level flight to continue beyond the designated target, overflying friendly positions, to impact long, rather than short of the target. Unlike the Paveway II LGB, the LLLGB can correct for relatively large deviations from planned release parameters in the primary delivery mode (low-altitude level delivery). It also has a larger delivery envelope for the dive, glide and loft modes than does the earlier LGB. The wide field of view and midcourse guidance modes programmed in the LLLGB allow for a "Point Shoot" delivery capability. This capability allows the pilot to attack the target by pointing the aircraft at the target and releasing the weapon after obtaining appropriate sight indications. The primary advantage of this capability is that accurate dive/tracking is not required to solve wind drift problems. In the Gulf War all of the 1,181 GBU-24s were released by F-111Fs. In 1996 the Navy conducted tests of the F-14A Tomcat with the GBU-24B/B Hard Target Penetrator Laser-Guided Bomb at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Md., as part of an air-to-ground development program to support clearance for use of the weapon in the fleet by F-14 Tomcats. Key accomplishments in 1996 included demonstration of controlled weapon penetration and detonation depth using the Hard-Target Smart Fuse [HTSF] and successful integration of the GBU- 24/ HTSF with F-15E and F/A- 18 aircraft. The Hard-Target Smart Fuse, developed at the Wright lab, features an accelerometer that can be programmed to detonate the bomb at a precisely specified depth significantly enhancing munition lethality. The Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) Counterproliferation Initiative (CPI) requires development, integration and certification of HTSF with GBU24 B/B (Navy BLU-109) and GBU-24 D/B (Navy BLU-116) under this effort. Under a separate effort, CPI will integrate the GBU-24 B/B and GBU-24 D/B configuration HTSFs into the CPI modified Conventional Air Launched Cruise Missile (CALCM) and Tactical Land Attack Missile (TLAM) weapons. The Multi-Segment Hard Target Penetrator (MSHTP) concept has been designed to use the penetration capability of a BLU-113 or BLU-109 linked to the void counting hard target smart fuse. This weapon detonates a copper cutter charge upon entering the target and cuts the rear portion of the bomb off, which then detonates. The rest of the weapon continues down to the next level. BLU-116 Advanced Unitary Penetrator [AUP] GBU-24 C/B (USAF) / GBU-24 D/B (Navy) Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate engineers have completed development of a new warhead known as the Advanced Unitary Penetrator, or AUP. The warhead was successfully transitioned to the Precision Strike System Program Office at Eglin AFB, Fla. for Engineering Manufacturing Development (EMD) and production. The AUP was developed in less than three years at a cost of less than $8M. AFRL's emphasis on operational suitability as part of AUP weapon design will allow the EMD program to be completed in less than half the time of a normal EMD program. The Advanced Unitary Penetrator [AUP] hard target penetrator features an elongated narrow diameter case made of a tough nickel-cobalt steel alloy called Air Force 1410. With the official designation of BLU-116, and designated the GBU-24 C/B (USAF) and GBU-24 D/B (Navy), is designed to provide at least twice the penetration capability of existing BLU-109 2000-pound bombs. The AUP is being demonstrated with Boeing as prime and Lockheed-Martin as subcontractor. Penetration capability is directly proportional to the warhead's sectional density--its weight divided by its cross section. The AUP maximizes sectional density by reducing the explosive payload and using heavy metals in the warhead case. Lower explosive payload will diminish dispersion of NBC agents to help reduce collateral effects. The AUP will retain the carriage and flight characteristics of the BLU-109, and it will be compatible with the GBU-24, GBU-27, and GBU-15/AGM-130 series of precision-guided bombs. Thus, the AUP will be capable of delivery from a wider inventory of aircraft, including stealth platforms, than the BLU113/GBU-28. A proposal to replace the current CALCM warhead with an AUP warhead provides 2.5 times BLU-109 penetration capability. The AUP development effort was conducted in support of the Counterproliferation Initiative (CPI) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD). The program objective was to develop and demonstrate a weapon that could be rapidly transitioned for Air Force and Navy use against hardened targets associated with the production, storage, and weaponization of chemical or biological agents. Normally, the introduction of a new weapon is a very long, expensive, and tedious process - as long as ten years or more. The associated cost may be tens of millions of dollars. The 1700-pound AUP warhead is tucked inside a lightweight aerodynamic shroud. This "outer skin" gives the AUP the exact physical and aerodynamic characteristics of the BLU-109. The shroud strips away from the internal penetrator when the weapon impacts the target. Compared to the BLU-109, the AUP has thicker case walls, a tougher case material, an improved nose shape, and a smaller explosive charge. The cross-sectional area of the AUP penetrator, however, is only half as great as the cross-sectional area of the BLU-109. A smaller explosive charge reduces collateral damage potential by reducing blast overpressure that could expel chemical or biological agents from the target. A long testing series demonstrated AUP's compatibility with the Munitions Directorate-developed Hard Target Smart Fuze (HTSF). The HTSF allows the AUP to be detonated at the optimal point within a target to inflict maximum damage. That ability compensates for the reduction in explosive charge. Because it's a "twin" to the BLU-109, the AUP can utilize a proven system of hardbacks, guidance units, and tail fin kits. The costs associated with developing new kits is eliminated. The operational users - pilots, weapon handlers and load crews - will gain the improved war fighting capabilities of the AUP without the costs associated with retraining support personnel or the acquisition of new delivery systems and support equipment. Battle commanders will also have increased ability to neutralize deeply buried hardened targets. GBU-24 E/B GBU-24E/B, an Enhanced Paveway Laser Guided Bomb, is a precision-guided hardened target penetrator used to destroy hardened aircraft hangers and underground bunkers. It integrates a Global Positioning System and a ring laser gyro inertial measuring unit (IMU) to the already fielded GBU-24B/B "Paveway III" with the existing laser guidance. A new guidance and control unit has been modified to incorporate GPS electronics, GPS antenna, IMU and software for precision GPS/INS guidance. Testing of this system began in late 1999. Specifications Mission Targets Service Program status First capability Guidance method Range Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Quantity Close air support, interdiction, offensive counter air, naval anti- surface warfare Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard Air Force, Navy Operational 1983 Laser (man-in-the-loop) Greater than 10 nautical miles Not available - Air Force officials stated that development cost was not available because they do not have records covering the development period. $729.138 million Not available Not available $55,600 13,114 A-6 A-10 F-14 F-15 F-16 F/A-18 F-111 Platforms Guided Bomb Unit-27 (GBU-27) The Guided Bomb Unit-27 (GBU-27) is a GBU-24 modified for delivery by the F-117 stealth fighter. The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the target. It uses a 2,000-pound penetrating warhead against hard targets. The GBU-27 was used in Operation Desert Storm. According to the Air Force, the GBU-27 hit 70 percent of its targets. The GBU-27 was designed specifically for use by the F-117's advanced target acquisition/designator system. The GBU-27 uses a BLU-109 improved performance 2,000 pound bomb developed in 1985 under the project name HAVE VOID. The BLU109 was designed for use against hardened structures and features a high-strength forged steel case and a new delayed-action tail fuze. It carries 550 pounds of high explosives and can penetrate more than six feet of reinforced concrete. The GBU-27 uses a modified Paveway II guidance control unit which provides "terminal trajectory shaping" for optimum impact angle against various target structures. For example, it will hit an aircraft shelter with a vertical impact, but make a horizontal approach to a bridge support. A Paveway II tail assembly with folding wings completes the bomb. The F-117 can carry two GBU-27s in two weapons bays and is reportedly capable of hitting a one square meter target from an altitude of 25,000 feet. Specifications Mission Targets Service Close air support, interdiction, offensive counter air, naval anti- surface warfare Mobile hard, fixed hard, fixed soft Air Force Program status First capability Guidance method Range Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Quantity Platform Operational 1987 Laser (man-in-the-loop) Greater than 10 nautical miles Not available - Air Force officials state that development cost was not available because they do not have records covering the development period. $176.715 million Not available Not available $55,000 3,213 F-117 Guided Bomb Unit-28 (GBU-28) BLU-113 Penetrator The Guided Bomb Unit-28 (GBU-28) is a special weapon developed for penetrating hardened Iraqi command centers located deep underground. The GBU-28 is a 5,000pound laser-guided conventional munition that uses a 4,400-pound penetrating warhead. The bombs are modified Army artillery tubes, weigh 4,637 pounds, and contain 630 pounds of high explosives. They are fitted with GBU-27 LGB kits, 14.5 inches in diameter and almost 19 feet long. The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the target. The GBU 28 "Bunker Buster" was put together in record time to support targeting of the Iraqi hardened command bunker by adapting existing materiel. The GBU-28 was not even in the early stages of research when Kuwait was invaded. The USAF asked industry for ideas in the week after combat operations started. Work on the bomb was conducted in research laboratories including the the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate located at Eglin AFB, Florida and the Watervliet Armory in New York. The bomb was fabricated starting on 1 February, using surplus 8-inch artillery tubes as bomb casings because of their strength and weight. The official go-ahead for the project was issued on 14 February, and explosives for the initial units were hand-loaded by laboratory personnel into a bomb body that was partially buried upright in the ground. The first two units were delivered to the USAF on 16 and 17 February, and the first flight to test the guidance software and fin configuration was conducted on 20 February. These tests were successful and the program proceeded with a contract let on 22 February. A sled test on 26 February proved that the bomb could penetrate over 20 feet of concrete, while an earlier flight test had demonstrated the bomb's ability to penetrate more than 100 feet of earth. The first two operational bombs were delivered to the theater on 27 February. The Air Force produced a limited quantity of the GBU-28 during Operation Desert Storm to attack multi-layered, hardened underground targets. Only two of these weapons were dropped in Desert Storm, both by F-111Fs. One weapon hit its precise aimpoint, and the onboard aircraft video recorder displayed an outpouring of smoke from an entrance way approximately 6 seconds after impact. After Operation Desert Storm, the Air Force incorporated some modifications, and further tested the munition. The Fy1997 budget request contained $18.4 million to procure 161 GBU-28 hard target penetrator bombs. For a visual depiction of how the GBU-28 works view the grapic produced by Bob Sherman and USA Today on-line. Specifications Mission Targets Class Service Contractor Offensive counter air, close air support, interdiction Fixed hard 4,000 lb. Penetrator, Blast/Fragmentation Air Force Lockheed (BLU-113/B), National Forge (BLU113A/B), Program status First capability Weight (lbs.) Length (in.) Diameter (in.) Explosive Fuze Stabilizer Guidance method Range Development cost Production cost Total cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Quantity Platforms Production 1991 4,414 153 14.5 6471bs. Tritonal FMU-143 Series Air Foil Group (Fins) Laser (man-in-the-loop) Greater than 5 nautical miles Development cost is not applicable to this munition. $18.2 million $18.2 million $145,600 $145,600 125 plus additional production F-15E, F-111F GBU-15 The GBU-15 bomb is an unpowered, glide weapon used to destroy high value enemy targets. It is designed to be used with F-15E and F-111F aircraft. The GBU-15 provides the capability for accurate (automatic or manual) guided delivery of a MK-84 bomb at increased ranges. The GBU-15's effective standoff range is greater than that of laserguided munitions, since the GBU-15 does not need to have acquired the target before it is released. The weapon is remotely controlled by a datalink system, and the weapon systems opera- tor locates the target area and the specific aimpoint by observing the video transmitted from the weapon. The weapon's midcourse flight path can be adjusted either automatically or manually. Weapon video is either electro-optical (TV camera) or infrared, and generated in the nose of the weapon. The weapon consists of consisting of various interchangeable guidance, fusing, and control systems designed to meet specific mission requirements, that are attached to either an MK-84 or BLU-109 penetrating warhead. Each weapon has five components -a forward guidance section, warhead adapter section, control module, airfoil components and a weapon data link. The guidance section is attached to the nose of the weapon and contains either a television guidance system for daytime or an imaging infrared system for night or limited, adverse weather operations. A data link in the tail section sends guidance updates to the control aircraft that enables the weapon systems operator to guide the bomb by remote control to its target. An external electrical conduit extends the length of the warhead which attaches the guidance adapter and control unit. The conduit carries electrical signals between the guidance and control sections. The umbilical receptacle passes guidance and control data between cockpit control systems of the launching aircraft and the weapon prior to launch. The rear control section consists of four wings are in an "X"-like arrangement with trailing edge flap control surfaces for flight maneuvering. The control module contains the autopilot, which collects steering data from the guidance section and converts the information into signals that move the wing control surfaces to change the weapon's flight path. The GBU-15 may be used in direct or indirect attack. In a direct attack, the pilot selects a target before launch, locks the weapon guidance system onto it and launches the weapon. The weapon automatically guides itself to the target, enabling the pilot to leave the area. In an indirect attack, the weapon is guided by remote control after launch. The pilot releases the weapon and, via remote control, searches for the target. Once the target is acquired, the weapon can be locked to the target or manually guided via the date-link system. This highly maneuverable weapon has a low-to-medium altitude delivery capability with high accuracy. It also has a standoff capability. During Desert Storm, all 71 GBU-15 modular glide bombs used were dropped from F111F aircraft. Most notably, GBU-15s were the munitions used for destroying the oil manifolds on the storage tanks to stop oil from spilling into the Gulf. These GBU-15s sealed flaming oil pipeline manifolds sabotaged by Saddam Hussein's troops. The Air Force Development Test Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., began developing the GBU-15 in 1974. It was a product improvement of the early guided bombs used during the Southeast Asia conflict. Flight testing of the weapon began in 1975. The GBU15 with television guidance, completed full-scale operational test and evaluation in November 1983. In February 1985, initial operational test and evaluation was completed on the imaging infrared guidance seeker. In December 1987, the program management responsibility for the GBU-15 weapon system transferred from the Air Force Systems Command to the Air Force Logistics Command. The commands merged to become the Air Force Materiel Command in 1992. The Inertial Terrain-Aided Guidance (ITAG) system is an adverse weather, precision guidance system for the GBU-15. It replaces the guidance system for this weapon. ITAG is an inertial navigator who uses updates from a radar altimeter correlated with terrain elevation maps. GPS is used to initialize the inertial navigator prior to weapon release. ITAG, being developed by Sandia National Laboratory, will give Joint Force Commanders the capability to accurately deliver weapons against NBC targets during a wide range of adverse weather conditions. The ITAG kit "straps on" to 2000-pound class conventional bombs to make a precision-guided weapon, and it will make it possible to plan attacks to take advantage of local weather conditions which may be favorable to minimizing the dispersal of released NBC agents. The ITAG uses GPS-initialized inertial navigation which is augmented by a terrain-reading, all-weather, high-altitude, precision radar altimeter. The real-time onboard navigation computer correlates radar altimeter data with previously acquired digitized, three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar terrain maps stored on board the weapon. Unlike current laser-guided bombs which can only be employed in clear air-mass conditions, the ITAG will be able to achieve 3-meter circular error probable (CEP) accuracy in adverse weather. On 23 April 1999, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force gave direction to provide the GBU15 air-to-surface weapon with Global Positioning System, or GPS, guidance giving it an all-weather capability. In early May 1999 contracts were signed with Applied Sciences Engineering International of Niceville FL and Raytheon Defense Systems of Tucson AZ. The two contractors’ concepts are different but proven and compatible with the F-15E. The total quick reaction program including these two contracts and all government costs total $7 million for the first phase of additional GPS guidance to the GBU-15. An unreleased quantity of the enhanced weapon were delivered to combat units by 01 July 1999. During the second phase, the best concepts of both contractors will be adopted. They will then work as a team to upgrade an additional 1,200 to 1,500 GBU-15s, which is expected to cost approximately $50 million. Specifications Primary Function: Mission Targets Service Contractor: Program status Variant First capability Air-to-surface guided glide bomb. Offensive counter air, close air support, interdiction, naval anti- surface warfare Mobile soft, fixed hard, fixed soft Air Force Rockwell International Corp. Operational GBU-15 (V)1/B 1983 Television Electro Optical TV via Mid-course guidance Beacon Data Link 3640 lbs GBU-15 {V}2/B 1985 Imaging Infrared Seeker via Mid-course guidance Beacon Data Link 3655 lbs Guidance System: Launch Weight: Length: Diameter: Wingspan: Range: Ceiling: Speed: Warheads: Explosive Fuze Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Quantity 12 feet, 10.5 inches (3.91 meters) 18 inches (0.45 meters) 4 feet, 11 inches (1.49 meters) Greater than 5 nautical miles 30,000-plus feet (9,091 meters) Classified Mk-84 general purpose or BLU-109 penetrating bombs 945 Lbs. Tritonal[Mk-84] 535 Lbs. Tritonal [BLU-109] FMU-124A/B $188.3 million $586.2 million $774.5 million $274,354 $195,000 2,823 $300,000 Platforms F-15E, F-111 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) GBU-29, GBU-30, GBU-31, GBU-32 The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) GBU-31 is a tailkit under development to meet both USAF and Navy needs, with the Air Force as the lead service. The program will produce a weapon with high accuracy, all-weather, autonomous, conventional bombing capability. JDAM will upgrade the existing inventory of general purpose and penetrator unitary bombs, and a product improvement may add a terminal seeker to improve accuracy. JDAM can be launched from approximately 15 miles from the target and each is independently targeted. JDAM is not intended to replace any existing weapon system; rather, it is to provide accurate delivery of general purpose bombs in adverse weather conditions. The JDAM will upgrade the existing inventory of Mk-83 1,000- and Mk-84 2,000-pound general purpose unitary bombs and the 2,000-pound hard target penetrator bomb by integrating a guidance kit consisting of an inertial navigation system/global positioning system guidance kit. The 1,000-pound variant of JDAM is designated the GBU-31, and the 2,000-pound version of the JDAM is designated the GBU-32. JDAM variants for the Mk80 250-pound and Mk-81 500-pound bombs are designated GBU-29 and GBU-30, respectively. Hard Target penetrators being changed into low-cost JDAMs included the 2,000 pound BLU-109 and 1,000 pound BLU-110. Mission plans are loaded to the host aircraft prior to take off and include release envelope, target coordinates and weapon terminal parameters. The weapon automatically begins its initialization process during captive carry when power is applied by the aircraft. The weapon performs bit, and aligns its INS with the host aircraft’s system. Targeting data is automatically down loaded to the weapon from the host aircraft. When the host aircraft reaches the release point within the Launch Acceptable Region (LAR), the weapon is released. Weapon maneuverability and range are enhanced by fixed aerodynamic surfaces (mid-body strakes) attached to the bomb body. Once released, the bomb's INS/GPS will take over and guide the bomb to its target regardless of weather. Guidance is accomplished via the tight coupling of an accurate Global Positioning System (GPS) with a 3-axis Inertial Navigation System (INS). The Guidance Control Unit (GCU) provides accurate guidance in both GPS-aided INS modes of operation (13 meter (m) Circular Error Probable (CEP)) and INS-only modes of operation (30 m CEP). INS only is defined as GPS quality hand-off from the aircraft with GPS unavailable to the weapon (e.g. GPS jammed). In the event JDAM is unable to receive GPS signals after launch for any reason, jamming or otherwise, the INS will provide rate and acceleration measurements which the weapon software will develop into a navigation solution. The Guidance Control Unit provides accurate guidance in both GPS-aided INS modes of operation and INS-only modes of operation. This inherent JDAM capability will counter the threat from near-term technological advances in GPS jamming. The weapon system allows launch from very low to very high altitude and can be launched in a dive, toss, loft or in straight and level flight with an on-axis or off-axis delivery. JDAM also allows multiple target engagements on a single pass delivery. JDAM provides the user with a variety of targeting schemes, such as preplanned and inflight captive carriage retargeting. JDAM is being developed by Lockheed Martin and Boeing [McDonald Douglas]. In October 1995, the Air Force awarded a contract for EMD and for the first 4,635 JDAM kits at an average unit cost of $18,000, less than half the original $40,000 estimate. As a result of JDAM's pilot program status, low-rate initial production was accelerated nine months, to the latter half of FY 1997. On April 30, 1997, the Air Force announced the decision to initiate low-rate initial production (LRIP) of JDAM, with the first production lot of 937 JDAM kits. The JDAM Integrated Product Team achieved a phenomenal 53 guided JDAM weapon releases in the six months prior to the LRIP decision. JDAM demonstrated high reliability and outstanding accuracy. Twenty-two of the weapon releases were accomplished during an early Air Force operational assessment. Over a four-week period operational crews put JDAM through an operationally representative evaluation, including targets shrouded by clouds and obscured by snow. All 22 weapons successfully performed up to their operational requirements including overall accuracy of 10.3 meters, significantly better than the 13 meter requirement. Early operational capability JDAMs have been delivered to Whiteman Air Force Base, Mo., and low-rate, initial production JDAM deliveries begin on 02 May 1998. McDonnell Douglas Corporation of Berkeley, MO, was awarded on 02 April 1999, a $50,521,788 face value increase to a firm-fixed-price contract to provide for low rate initial production of 2,527 Joint Direct Attack Munition kits. The work is expected to be completed by January 2001. On 28 April 2000 McDonnell Douglas Corp., Berkeley, Mo., was awarded a $5,648,796 modification to a firm-fixed-price contract to provide for incorporation of Pin-Lock Tail Actuator System technology into the production effort for 8,163 Joint Direct Attack Munition kits. The Pin-Lock Tail Actuator System provides a more durable and accurate method of maneuvering the tail fins of the JDAM than the existing Friction Brake technology. Expected contract completion date was 31 March 2001. The JDAM program is nearing the end of its development phase. More than 250 flight tests involved five Air Force and Navy aircraft. JDAM will be carried on virtually all Air Force fighters and bombers, including the B-1, B-2, B-52, F-15E, F-16, F-22, F-117, and F/A-18. JDAM was certified as operational capable on the B-2 in July 1997. Limited Initial Operational Capability was achieved on the B-52 in December 1998. The B-1B Lancer conventional mission upgrade program is configuring the B-1B to carry out its role as the primary Air Force long-range heavy bomber for conventional warfare. The 11 Feb 1998 drop from a B-1B was the 122nd guided JDAM launch. The depot at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center will install the modification kits in the initial block of bombers by January 1999, giving Air Combat Command seven JDAMcapable B-1B bombers 18 months ahead of the initial program schedule. Potential Upgrades The JDAM product improvement program may add a terminal seeker for precision guidance and other system improvements to existing JDAMs to provide the Air Force with 3-meter precision and improved anti-jamming capability. The Air Force is evaluating several alternatives and estimates that the seeker could be available for operations by 2004. The seeker kit could be used by both the 2,000-pound blast fragmentation and penetrator JDAMs. The Advanced Unitary Penetrator (AUP), a candidate to be integrated with a GBU-31 guidance kit, is a 2000 lb. class penetrator warhead intended as an upgrade/replacement for the BLU-109 warhead in applications requiring increased penetration. The AUP is designed to provide increased penetration capability over the BLU-109 warhead while maintaining the same overall weight, mass properties, dimensions, and physical interfaces associated with the BLU-109 warhead. This concept integrates the AUP warhead with the GBU-31, the JDAM tail kit for 2,000 lb class warheads. This concept uses the Hard Target Smart Fuze (HTSF), an accelerometer based electronic fuze which allows control of the detonation point by layer counting, distance or time. The accelerometer senses G loads on the bomb due to deceleration as it penetrates through to the target. The fuze can distinguish between earth, concrete, rock and air. The boosted penetrator concept is based on achieving maximum penetration without sacrificing operational flexibility. Total system weight will be less than 2,250 pounds so that it can be carried by all AF tactical aircraft and bombers as well as the Navy’s F/A-18. The goal is to achieve greater penetration than the GBU-28 with a near term, affordable design. A dense metal warhead will be used with a wraparound rocket motor to allow internal carriage in the F-117. Advanced explosives will be used to compensate for the reduced charge weight. This concept integrates the boosted penetrator warhead with a JDAM guidance kit with an adverse weather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The Ballasted Penetrator in GBU-32 concept is a 1000 pound dense or ballasted penetrator integrated with a GBU-32 guidance kit using compressed carriage for internal carriage in advanced fighters (F-22, JSF) or carriage in cruise missiles (JASSM, CALCM, ACM, ATACMS, Tomahawk.) The warhead would either be designed with a dense metal case or contain dense metal ballast for maximum penetration. The warhead will be filled with an advanced insensitive explosive to compensate for the reduced charge weight. The warhead will be integrated with the GBU-32, the JDAM tail kit for 1,000 lb class warheads. The Boosted Unitary Penetrator concept is based on achieving maximum penetration in a weapon that will fit internally in the F-22. Total system weight will be less than 1300 pounds. A dense metal warhead will be used with a wraparound rocket motor. Use of next generation compressed seekers and aero-control designs along with reaction jet control will allow the size to shrink sufficiently to fit inside F-22 and JSF. Advanced explosives will be used to compensate for the reduced charge weight. This concept integrates the boosted penetrator warhead with a JDAM guidance kit with an adverse weather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The JDAM/BLU-113 concept improves the GBU-28 by enhancing the nose design of the BLU-113 warhead for improved penetration. The warhead nose reshape will improve BLU-113 penetration by more than 25%. The penetration could potentially be further improved by replacing the traditional HE fill with a dense explosive. The design involves integrating the improved BLU-113 warhead with a JDAM tail kit. The Compressed Carriage GBU-32, J1K, enhanced fill concept is a JAST-1000 warhead with enhanced fill integrated with a GBU-32 guidance kit using compressed carriage for internal carriage in advanced fighters (F-22, JSF) or carriage in cruise missiles (JASSM, CALCM, ACM, ATACMS, Tomahawk.) The warhead is a combined penetrator and blast/fray warhead. The warhead shape is optimized for penetration and the enhanced fill and internal liner provide blast and controlled fragmentation capability. The warhead is shrouded to match the MK-83 mass properties and interfaces. The warhead will be integrated with the GBU-32, the JDAM tail kit for 1,000 lb class warheads. Use of aerocontrol designs along with reaction jet control will allow the size to shrink sufficiently to fit inside F-22 and JSF. This concept uses the Hard Target Smart Fuze (HTSF). The Direct Attack Munitions Affordable Seeker (DAMASK) Fleet Advanced Demonstration (FAD) accuracy enhancement kit is a seeker of the lowest possible cost that will improve JDAM accuracy to three-meter circular error probability (CEP). The threeyear FAD began in FY 98 and continued through FY 00. DAMASK includes a very low-cost sensor mounted to the front of a JDAM and an off-the-shelf signal processor mounted in the existing JDAM tail kit. It uses an uncooled imaging-infrared focal plane array (UIIFPA) sensor and low-cost optics, both developed for the consumer automobile market. An off-the-shelf, commercially available signal processor is the final component of the accuracy upgrade kit, estimated to cost less than $12.7 thousand per seeker in quantity. During the final stages of weapon flight, DAMASK's unique guidance system will image the target area, locate a mission-planned aimpoint and update the JDAM target location. The missionplanning image can come from satellite, uninhabited air vehicles or reconnaissance aircraft. A template is then automatically produced from the mission-planning image and loaded on board the aircraft with the baseline JDAM mission plan. Organic targeting is possible because the target area can be imaged with onboard synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensors, and the pilot can then select the desired impact point using a heads-down display. Specifications Mission Close air support, interdiction, offensive counterair, suppression of enemy air defense, naval anti-surface warfare, amphibious strike Mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard, fixed soft, maritime surface JDAM Air Force and Navy Development 1997 GPS/INS (autonomous) 2004 GPS/INS mid-course with a terminal seeker yet to be selected JDAM-PIP Air Force Targets Variant Service Program status First capability Guidance method Range Circular error probable Greater than 5 nautical miles, up to 15 miles 13 meters using integrated GPS/INS unit 3 meters 30 meters using INS only $683.9M FY 1995 estimate $399.3M FY 1999 estimate $4,154.4 million $4,650.6 million $62,846 $18,000 current estimate $42,200 initial estimate Navy: 12,000 Air Force: 62,000 B-52, B-1, B-2, F-22, F16, F-15E, F- 117, F-14 5,000--kits to be added to basic JDAM B-52, B-1, B-2, F-16, F15E, F-117 Air Force has programmed about $76.5 million for development through 2001 Development cost Production cost Total cost Acquisition unit cost Average unit cost (40,000 units) Quantity Platforms A/B/D, F/A-18C/D, F/A18E/F, AV-8B, P-3, S-3 20,000 Pound Direct Strike Hard Target Weapon This currently unfunded concept is a 20,000 lb. class precision guided, adverse weather, direct attack bomb employed on the B-52 and B-2 aircraft. It will make use of the GCU developed by the JDAM program which uses GPS aided INS for adverse weather guidance. Precision accuracy will be attained by using differential GPS (DGPS) technology demonstrated on programs such as Enhanced Differential GPS for Guidance Enhancement (EDGE) and Miniature Munition Technology Demonstration (MMTD). The weapon will make use of the JDAM interface under development for the B-52 and B-2 aircraft and would be carried internally using new suspension hardware within the bay. The warhead will be a 20,000 lb. penetrator with dense metal ballast. This concept uses the Hard Target Smart Fuze (HTSF), an accelerometer based electronic fuze which allows control of the detonation point by layer counting, distance or time. The accelerometer senses G loads on the bomb due to deceleration as it penetrates through to the target. The fuze can distinguish between earth, concrete, rock and air. Global Positioning System Aided Munition (GAM) [GBU-36/B & GBU-37/B]] The Global Positioning System Aided Munition (GAM) was developed by the Air Force and Northrop Grumman Corporation as an interim precision munition for the B-2. GAM is a tail kit that fits on the 2,000-pound Mk84 general purpose bomb [GBU-36/B], or the 4,500 lb BLU-113 penetrator [GBU-37/B]. GAM uses GPS guidance to more accurately guide to target locations. The munition is to be eventually replaced on the B-2 by the Joint Direct Attack Munition. The GBU-37 was added to the B-2 arsenal in late 1997. This weapon is currently the only all-weather, near-precision "bunker busting " capability available. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Aided Target System [GATS] is an all weather B2 targeting system which reduces Target Location Error (TLE) normally associated with target coordinates. By exploiting the synergistic effects of the B-2’s GPS navigation and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) capabilities, which combine the SAR’s excellent range and range rate capabilities with accurate GPS Position and velocity information, we provide the GAM highly accurate target location relative to current B-2 position. The GATS/GAM system was developed to meet a B-2 Block 20 precision weapon requirement left unfulfilled by the cancellation of another munition. All GAMs have been delivered to the 509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman AFB MO and are in operational use. Demonstrated accuracy by Air Combat Command aircrews has been under 20 feet. Specifications Mission Targets Service Program status First capability Guidance method Range Close air support, air interdiction, counterair, airborne strike, suppression of enemy air defense Mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard, fixed soft, maritime surface Air Force Operational 1996 GPS/INS Greater than 5 nautical miles Circular error probable 12-18 meters Quantity 128 Development cost Production cost Total acquisition cost Acquisition unit cost Production unit cost Platforms Munition development cost is included with development of the GPS Aided Targeting System $29.6 million $29.6 million $231,250 $231,250 B-2 Agent Defeat Warhead (ADW) Operation Desert Storm highlighted the need for pre-emptive strike capability to disable chemical and biological (CB) agent munition production facilities and stockpiles. Currently the United States must resort to conventional warheads as the only means of crippling the enemy CB agent capability. Use of explosives to destroy a CB agent production or storage bunker could result in the release of large quantities of lethal agents. Such agent releases can produce significant collateral casualities and destroy the local environment. In line with the latest national security directives (promoting nonlethal, disabling weapon technology development over current lethal nuclear and conventional weapon systems), new technologies must be investigated which can disable CB agent munition production facilities and stockpiles while minimizing collateral casualtites. The overall objective of the Agent Defeat Technology Program is to develop and demonstrate warhead technology capable of destroying, disabling or denying use of chemical and biological (CB) agent munition production facilities and stockpiles with minimal collateral damage (minimal agent dispersion.) The ADWD program objective is to develop and demonstrate a warhead with a payload specifically tailored for use against fixed ground targets associated with the development, production, and storage of chemical (C) agents, biological (B) agents, and CB weapons (CBW). The ADW shall, as a minimum, be effective against one of the following relevant target categories: hardened chemical targets, soft chemical targets, hardened biological targets, or soft biological targets. Effectiveness shall be understood to imply both the ability to achieve widespread physical damage within the target, and to limit collateral damage resulting from the unintended release of CB agents. Candidate kill mechanisms for achieving the desired results include, but are not limited to, thermal effects derived from high temperature incendiary (HTI) materials, low blast fragmenting warheads or submunitions, neutralizing chemicals, and other mechanisms which may be identified during the ADWD program. The ability of the ADW to deny the enemy access and/or use of the target and/or its contents is considered desirable, but only as a fallout capability occurring in conjunction with wide spread physical damage within the target structure. A hybrid warhead payload that employs a combination of the referenced kill mechanisms may be required to achieve program goals. Kill mechanisms that are not considered appropriate for the ADWD include those employing nuclear fizzle material or radioisotopes. The ADW shall, within acceptable tolerances, be designed to same external dimensions and closely approximate the mass properties as those for the 2000-lb class BLU-109 warhead. The ADW shall be designed for physical and functional compatibility with the following Air Force guidance kits: GBU-24, GBU-27, AGM-130, and GBU-31 (JDAM). The intent is to allow those weapon delivery systems, when equipped with the ADW, to hold a wide variety of CBW targets at risk, thereby minimizing the additional cost and operational burdens required to realize such a capability. Accordingly, the ADW shall also be compatible with existing Air Force ground handling, storage, and transportation equipment used to handle the 2000-lb class warhead common to those delivery systems. The Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Ordnance Division (AFRL/MNMI) did not receive an acceptable proposal for development of an Agent Defeat Warhead (ADW) Demonstration (ADWD). The closing date for proposals was 29 April 1999. The acquisition strategy for this program is under reevaluation. Munition Deployed BDA (MDBDA) Sensor \ This joint Industry-Air Force demonstration effort is designed to show the feasibility and usefulness of a munition deployed video sensor to view weapon impact and initial target destruction. The concept is to provide mission planners with the "CNN-like" video imagery of weapon impact for GPS guided munitions such as JDAM and JASSM. Northrop-Grumman Corporation introduced their "Bomb Damage Assessment Concept" in May 96. Support for the concept was given by the JDAM and JASSM SPO's as well as the Air Force Research Laboratory (formerly Wright Laboratory). The initial concept used a stable aero-vehicle to house a video sensor, transmitter, battery, and antenna. The vehicle consists of a tuncated conical nose to house the camera, a cylindrical body four inches in diameter, and a flared afterbody. Wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic simulations indicate the vehicle is stable for the entire flight regime. A simulation developed by Dr. Mark Costello of the US Military Academy, a visiting researcher to AFRL, indicates minimal impact on the GBU-10's performance. The BDA vehicle will be deployed from the munition immediately after release from the host aircraft. The tether that links the BDA vehicle to the munition is 1000 feet in length. Reel-out time for the vehicle is approximately 12 seconds while the drop time of the munition is 42 seconds. This leaves sufficient time for the BDA vehicle to stabilize. A 300 field of view on the video sensor insures that the weapon impact will be captured by the sensor. The video sensor for this system uses technology leveraged from existing AFRL programs. The sensor itself is a COTS CCD camera that has been electronically modified with an "autogating" feature. The sensor, since it is tethered to the munition, will be traveling close to Mach 1 when the munition impacts the target. Blurring due to this motion and blooming of the CCD chip due to intense light levels during detonation are serious concerns which affect the quality of the imagery. The autogating feature of this sensor will compensate for these factors allowing for excellent stop action imagery. The GBU-10 was selected as a test expedient platform to integrate the NorthropGrumman designed BDA sensor system. For test purposes, ground based receiving stations will be used to collect the video imagery. A captive carry flight test will insure weapon/BDA integrity as well as verify the video telemetry link. Up to two inert warhead drops will follow the captive carry test to insure proper deployment of the BDA vehicle and establishment of the video downlink. A final live warhead drop would take place to obtain the "golden video" of the munition impact and initial target destruction. Static detonation tests of a MK-84 warhead were conducted at Range C-74 on Eglin AFB. The event was observed by four BDA video sensors placed at 1000 feet behind the warhead. The captured imagery will help baseline sensor performance for the upcoming flight tests. Northrop-Grumman recently completed drop test of the BDA vehicle weapon attachment assembly from a balloon platform 1200 feet in the air. The results of this test gave valuable data on the tether payout dynamics. This data is being incorporated into simulations of the separation event. Northrop-Grumman also conducted a flight test of an operating BDA vehicle deployed from an aircraft. The BDA vehicle was reeled out from a wing pylon to 300 feet behind the aircraft. Excellent imagery of the aircraft were obtained even as the aircraft simulated a ballistic munition drop. Technical difficulties have prevented success of the MDBDA Sensor Program. The flight test of the MDBDA system in May 1998, over Eglin's Test Range, was not fully successful due to entanglement of the BDA sensor vehicle with the tether. Northrop determined that the unstable deployment of the BDA caused the tether entanglement and subsequent breakage. Northrop developed an improved braking mechanism designed to deploy the BDA sensor under greater control. Northrop conducted its own surrogate flight tests of the improved system, but experienced limited success. Although Northrop demonstrated a controlled deployment of the BDA vehicle, the tether continued to break when fully deployed. Northrop requested AAC approve a demonstration of a variant of the MDBDA concept. This alternative concept removes the tether from the system. The BDA camera in this new system will be ejected just prior to weapon impact. This scenario allows USAF Air Armament Center at Eglin AFB to assess the feasibility of an alternate weapon-borne BDA concept, as well as capture imagery representative of a tethered BDA sensor deployment. Demonstrations of the new system on an inert and live GBU-10 were originally scheduled for the Fall 1998; however, these tests were postponed due to adverse weather conditions on the scheduled days of the flight tests. A tactical system, which may retain the benefits of the tether, will be much different. Wind Corrected Munition Dispenser (WCMD) While low altitude, high speed laydown deliveries are consistent with tactics used against heavily defended target sets such as the robust Soviet/Warsaw Pact threat envisioned in Central Europe, low altitude tactics were not the preferred option during Desert Storm where the USAF used medium/high altitude weapons employment to provide fighter and bomber aircraft a sanctuary against short range surface to air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery fire. The inexpensive tail kit inertially steers the munition from a known release point to precise target coordinates while compensating for launch transients, winds aloft, surface winds and adverse weather. The Wind Compensated Munitions Dispenser [WCMD "Wick-Mid"] is intended to remedy this current shortfall in Tactical Munition Dispenser munitions, such as the CBU87 CEM [Combined Effects Munition], CBU-89 GATOR and CBU-97 SFW [Sensor Fuzed Weapon]. The weapon will use inertial guidance only (no GPS). The WCMD program develops a tail kit for these inventory dispenser weapons. These weapons will be capable of delivery from medium to high altitude delivery when equipped with a WCMD kit. The WCMD weapon will correct for wind effects and errors during the weapon's ballistic fall. The WCMD kit will turn these "dumb" bombs into accurate "smart" weapons. Currently, the dispenser is achieving an accuracy of within 30 feet. Both fighter and bomber aircraft will be able to employ WCMD from a wide range of altitudes, in adverse weather, using various tactics such as level, dive, and toss bombing, and bombing on coordinates. WCMD Limited Initial Operational Capability was achieved on the B-52 in November 1998. WCMD-equipped weapons are planned for employment on the B-1, B52, F-15E, F-16, and F-117 aircraft. The WCMD is seen as one solution to four deficiencies identified in the Strategic Attack/Air Interdiction Mission Area Plan (MAP): multiple kills per pass, adverse weather capability, Cluster Bomb accuracy (mid-course wind correction), and the ability to carry/dispense future submunitions and US Army mines. With the addition of a guidance kit and "smart" aircraft stores stations, aircrew members should be able to independently target weapons and strike multiple targets on a single release/pass. WCMD will be targetable by on-board aircraft systems and be capable of being targeted on a coordinate reference system. To minimize aircraft heading, velocity, and position errors, all aircraft will have Global Positioning System (GPS) quality heading, velocity, and altitude data. This will provide aircraft an adverse weather capability for targets with known positions. GPS is not required on the WCMD. The guidance kit will provide WCMD an adverse weather capability and negate a need for electro-optical guidance systems which are severely degraded by adverse weather or man-made or battlefield obscurants such as smoke or dust. The WCMD kit will reduce susceptibility to wind induced errors, not fully compensated for by aircraft avionics, by providing mid-course wind correction. Finally, the modular design of the SUU-64/65/66 Tactical Munition Dispensers (TMD) allows for future incorporation of wide area anti-armor mines, antihelicopter mines, and other future smart submunitions. The Air Force announced 27 January 1997 that Lockheed Martin had won the $21 million contract to complete development and begin production of the Wind-Corrected Munition Dispenser. The Air Force plans to modify 40,000 tactical munitions dispensers. Department of Defense officials originally predicted the dispenser tail kits would cost approximately $25,000 per unit. However, through the application of a no-nonsense acquisition strategy adopted by the Eglin WCMD team, the dispenser unit cost is $8,937. CBU-87/B Combined Effects Munitions (CEM) BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb (CEB) The CBU-87 is a 1,000-pound, Combined Effects Munition (CEM) for attacking soft target areas with detonating bomblets. The CBU-87 CEM, an all-purpose, air-delivered cluster weapons system, consists of a SW-65 Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD) with an optional FZU-39 proximity sensor. The BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb (CEB), effective against armor, personnel and material, contains a shaped charge, scored steel casing and zirconium ring for anti-armor, fragmentation and incendiary capability. The bomblet case is made of scored steel designed to break into approximately 300 preformed ingrain fragments for defeating light armor and personnel. A total of 202 of these bomblets are loaded in each dispenser enabling a single payload attack against a variety and wide area coverage. The footprint for the CBU-87 is approximatel 200 meters by 400 meters. The body of the submunition is cylindrical in shape, approximately 20 centimeters long, and has a 6 centimeter diameter. It is bright yellow when new. During Desert Storm the US Air Force dropped 10,035 CBU-87s. During Allied Force the US dropped about 1,100 cluster bombs, and most of these were CBU-87s. The dud rate for a standard cluster was approximately five percent. Specifications Contractor Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Aerojet General / Honeywell 950 pounds 92 inches 15.6 inches None Spin [6 selections] None Propulsion: Warhead: None 202 BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb (CEB) anti-personnel / anti-materiel shaped-charge fragmentation & incendiary Integral part of dispenser 12 time selections FZU-39/B proximity sensor 10 height-of-burst selections 6 F-4 F-15 4 F-16 8 F-111 4 A-7 4 A-10 30 B-52 $13,941 [$ FY90] Fuse: Aircraft Unit Cost List Price CBU-89 Gator Mine The CBU-89 Gator Mine, a 1,000-pound cluster munition containing antitank and antipersonnel mines, consists of a SUU-64 Tactical Munitions Dispenser with 72 antitank mines, 22 antipersonnel mines, and an optional FZU-39 proximity sensor. Mine arming begins when the dispenser opens. Mine detonation is initiated by target detection, mine disturbance, low battery voltage, and a self-destruct time-out. The antitank mine is a magnetic sensing submunition effective against tanks and armored vehicles. The antipersonnel mine has a fragmenting case warhead triggered by trip wires. The US Air Force employed 1,105 CBU-89s during the Gulf War. The Gator mine system provides a means to emplace minefields on the ground rapidly using high-speed tactical aircraft. The minefields are used for area denial, diversion of moving ground forces, or to immobilize targets to supplement other direct attack weapons. Gator consists of two companion systems. The Air Force CBU-89/B is a 1000-pound class cluster weapon using the SUU-64/B Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD). The TMD is the same general configuration used for the CBU-87/B Combined Effects Munition. This commonality allows for high-rate, low-cost production of the dispenser. The Navy CBU-78/B is a 500-pound class cluster weapon that uses the Mk7 Rockeye dispenser. Rockeye has been in high-rate production for many years; the Mk7 dispenser is also a low-cost item. Both systems contain a mix of BLU-91 /B antitank (AT) and BLU-92/B antipersonnel (AP) mines -- 72 AT and 22 AP for the CBU-89/B; 45 AT and 15 AP for the CBU-78/B. Commonality of mines for both systems also contributes to high-rate, low-cost production. The BLU-91 /B AT mine is the heart of the Gator system. Microelectronics in each mine detect targets, discriminate armored vehicles, and detonate the mine when the target reaches the most vulnerable approach point. A Misznay-Schardin explosive charge defeats the belly armor of most vehicles. The BLU-92/B AP mine serves to discourage minefield clearing. Upon activation, the AP mine explosion sends highvelocity fragments in a horizontal plane over a wide area. Both mines have a programmable self-destruct feature which permits the battlefield commander to control the timing of a counterattack or defensive maneuver. The selfdestruct time is set just prior to aircraft takeoff using a simple selector switch on the dispenser. This feature permits a high degree of tactical flexibility during combat operations. The size of the Gator minefield is determined by the opening height of the dispenser. After dispenser opening, the mines are self-dispersed using aerodynamic forces. The mine pattern on the ground is directly proportional to opening altitude, which is controlled by either the dispenser electromechanical faze or an optional proximity sensor. Aerojet Ordnance Company (AOC) is the system integration prime contractor for Gator. All elements of the system are either procured by Aerojet or furnished by the US Government. The company is responsible for total system performance, including live testing. Each month three Gator systems are randomly selected from the production line and flight tested. Aerojet Ordnance Company warrants system performance for five years, assuring Gator reliability. Specifications Contractor Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aerojet General / Honeywell 710 pounds 92 inches 16 inches None none None None 72 BLU-91/B anti-tank 22 BLU-92/B anti-personnel Integral part of dispenser FZU-39/B proximity sensor F-15 4 F-16 F/A-18 4 A-10 30 B-52 B-1B B-2 200 feet to 40,000 feet 200 knots to 700 knots airspeed Aircraft Limitations Delivery Envelope Unit Cost List Price $39,963 [$ FY90] GATOR GENERAL Longer range than any other available FASCAM system Emplaced anywhere a tactical aircraft can reach Delivery Systems: *Air Force: A-10, F-15E, F-16, B52, B-1B, B-2 *Navy: F-18, AV-8B Systems: *Air Force: CBU 89/B: 94 mines (72 AT, 22 AP) *Navy: CBU 78/B: 60 mines (45AT, 15AP) Average area covered is 200 x 650 meters Three selectable SD times: 4 hrs; 48 hrs; 15 days Not an on-call system, must nominate 72 hrs prior to get on ATO EMPLOYMENT Primarily used at long range with intent to disrupt, fix, and block GATOR is the light force commander’s long range anti-armor weapon Placement is not precise Good for placing on a specific concentration of forces Employed in conjuction with CAS and other deep indirect fired attacks Limitations: *Coordination for and acquiring aircraft *Units in column are poor targets *Communications (Joint Army-Air Force Operations) Reference FM 20-32, pages 6-11 to 6-13 EMPLACEMENT CORPS ASSET (BECAUSE OF AIRCRAFT) MISSION MUST BE REQUESTED 72 HOURS IN ADVANCE THROUGH NOMINATION AT DIVISION TARGETING BOARD MAY BE ALLOCATED DOWN TO BATTALION LEVEL EXTENSIVE COORDINATION BETWEEN G3/S3, ENGINEER, ALO MINEFIELD ORIENTATION IS CHANGED TO ACHIEVE DESIRED AFFECT 275m SAFETY ZONE AROUND MINEFIELD MINEFIELD NOT MARKED Reference FM 20-32, pg 6 - 11 to 6 - 13 Scatterable Mine Employment of a Gator Minefield CBU-97/CBU-105 Sensor Fuzed Weapon BLU-108/B Submunition The CBU-97 is a 1,000-pound class weapon containing sensor-fused submunitions for attacking armor. The SFW is the centerpiece of the Air Force concept of operations for engaging an adversary's main armored force in the "halt" or "hold" phase of a Major Regional Contingency, in which the USAF would disrupt and stop an attack, providing time for other combatant forces to reinforce to the theater. The primary components of this 1,000 pound class weapon are the SUU-66/B Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD), 10 BLU-108/B submunitions, and 40 "hockey puck" shaped skeet infrared sensing projectiles. The weapon is designed to be employed from US Air Force tactical aircraft from altitudes between 200 feet Above Ground Level (AGL) to 20,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL) at speeds between 250 to 650 knots. Each CBU-97/B can cover an area of about 500 feet by 1,200 feet. Test results indicate that CBU-97 submunitions have a propensity to cluster and that impact patterns are unevenly distributed. This is contrary to the uniform distribution assumption employed in the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual (JMEM). Because of the clustering effect, it appears that JMEM overestimates damage and more weapons may be required to destroy the target then predicted. The Sensor Fuzed Weapon [SFW] is an unpowered, top attack, wide area, cluster munition, designed to achieve multiple kills per aircraft pass against enemy armor and support vehicles. After release, the TMD opens and dispenses the ten submunitions which are parachute stabilized. Each of the 10 BLU-108/B submunitions contains four armorpenetrating projectiles with infrared sensors to detect armored targets. At a preset altitude sensed by a radar altimeter, a rocket motor fires to spin the submunition and initiate an ascent. The submunition then releases its four projectiles, which are lofted over the target area. The projectile's sensor detects a vehicle's infrared signature, and an explosively formed penetrator fires at the heat source. If no target is detected after a period of time, the projectiles automatically after a preset time interval, causing damage to material and personnel. A Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) Program will take the existing design and make modifications to the projectile sensor, incorporating a dual mode (active/passive IR) for better target detection; modify the warhead to enhance soft target lethality; and increase the system footprint for better target coverage. Projectiles would be dispensed at a greater altitude expanding the area covered to about 600 feet by 1,800 feet. In addition, an insensitive explosive fill will replace the Octol used in the current warhead to satisfy Navy requirements for the BLU-108/B submunition used in one variant of the Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW). CBU-105 The SFW is operationally effective when employed at low altitude using level or shallow angle dive deliveries. The weapon is most effective when employed at low altitude from level flight attitudes in a non-countermeasured environment. Due to TMD performance limitations, the current SFW weapon configuration provides the user a limited range of tactical employment options. Weapon effectiveness decreases as release altitude, dive angle, and/or time of flight increases because of adverse effects of wind conditions, weapon dispersion, and aim point uncertainties on delivery accuracy. This performance degradation is an inherent characteristic of all inventory TMD weapons. Due to these TMD accuracy limitations, the USAF Air Combat Command plans to outfit SFW with Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD) tail kit. The SFW's delivery envelope will be expanded to include strategic aircraft and higher altitudes through incorporation of the WCMD. The SFW with WCMD is designated CBU-105. Specifications Contractor Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 927 pounds 92 inches 16 inches None none None None SUU-66/B tactical munitions dispenser 10 BLU-108/B submunitions [@ 4 projectiles] Integral part of dispenser FZU-39/B proximity sensor 12 F-15E 4 F-16 10 A-10 30 B-1 34 B-2 16 B-52 Limitations Delivery Envelope Unit Cost 200 feet20,000 feet (above ground level) 250 knots650 knots $360,000 - baseline $260,000 - PEP $39,963 [$ FY90] 500 in USAF inventory as of 01/01/1998 Current USAF objective is 5,000 [17,000 originally planned ] Inventory Small Smart Bomb Miniature Munition Capability Miniaturized Munitions Technology Demonstration (MMTD) Swing Wing Adapter Kit (SWAK) As of 07 January 1998 ACC approved a new acquisition strategy for the Small Bomb System (SBS) program. This strategy involves integrating the SBS on the F-22, F-22X and JSF and also includes combining the SBS and the Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS) efforts into a single program. This new program has been designated Miniature Munition Capability and has a planned start date for FY03. Implementation details of the new strategy are still being developed. The Small Smart Bomb is a 250 pound weapon that has the same penetration capabilities as a 2000lb BLU-109, but with only 50 pounds of explosive. With the INS/GPS guidance in conjunction with differential GPS (using all 12 channel receivers, instead of only 5) corrections provided by GPS SPO Accuracy Improvement Initiative (AII) and improved Target Location Error (TLE), it can achieve a 5-8m CEP. The submunition, with a smart fuze, has been extensively tested against multi-layered targets by Wright Laboratory under the Hard Target Ordnance Program and Miniature Munitions Technology Program. The length to diameter ratio and nose shape are designed to optimize penetration for a 50lb charge. This weapon is also a potential payload for standoff carrier vehicles such as Tomahawk, JSOW, JASSM, Conventional ICBM, etc. The goal of the predecessor Miniaturized Munitions Technology Demonstration (MMTD) effort was to produce a 250-pound class munition effective against a majority of hardened targets previously vulnerable only to 2,000-pound class munitions. Using personnel and experience gained from the GBU-28 "Bunker Buster" program and the Exploitation of Differential Global Positioning System for Guidance Enhancement (EDGE) programs, the MMTD test team completed development testing in 18 months. McDonnell Douglas was awarded a $6 million contract to assist in the design and development of the MMTD concept. After completing successful warhead (Jan 96) and system (Mar 96) CDRs, the warhead already demonstrated the objective of penetrating 6 feet of reinforced concrete. The second phase which integrates terminal seeker and anti-jam GPS technology into the Phase I baseline weapon is planned for FY99-02 under the Miniature Munition Capability effort. Because of the short flight times (about one minute) the GPS receiver must have fast acquisition capability. The guidance law will be designed to penetrate the target with an obliquity angle of zero degrees. There is however an obliquity angle tolerance of approximately 20 degrees; anything greater will not ensure case survivability. The angle of attack at impact is constrained to be zero degrees with a tolerance of one degree. This nulling of the angle of attack must be achieved at least one missile time constant prior to impact. In addition, the munition is required to penetrate with an impact velocity of at least 1100 ft/sec. Consequently, the guidance law will be designed to optimize terminal velocity subject to the aforementioned constraints. In order to maximize terminal velocity, the vehicle will fly in a coordinated bank-to-turn mode (as opposed to skid-to-turn). While this does increase the complexity of the flight control system, the advantage of increased speed and maneuverability outweigh the increased complexity. The control variables for the guidance law are angle of attack (or normal acceleration) and bank angle. The autopilot architecture will be designed to be robust to disturbances and plant uncertainties. In addition, the autopilot is required to track the angle of attack and bank angle commands from the guidance law while stabilizing the vehicle. This will require a robust autopilot methodology. Many modern design techniques, such as LQR/LQG, LQG/LTR, Musynthesis, can provide controllers which achieve the specified design requirements. Implicit in this is the need to gain schedule the designs with altitude, Mach Number, angle of attack or a combination thereof. Analysis of the stability and performance robustness will be performed to ensure meeting the guidance, navigation and control requirements. Flight testing demonstration for multiple Small Smart Bomb ejection external carriage from an F-16 is scheduled for 3Q00, and an internal carriage combined test event with the Royal Australian Air Force in 1Q01. The Swing Wing Adapter Kit (SWAK) is added to give the SSB standoff of greater than 25 nm from high altitude release. The wing kit is jettisoned at a midcourse way point if penetration is required so that velocity can be increased after wing release. For soft targets the wing kit continues to extend the glide range until small arms threat altitude is reached. At this point the wings are released. With INS/GPS guidance, coupled with AII, a 6-8 m CEP can be achieved. This wing kit allows the SSB to be directly attached to the aircraft at any 300 lb store station or packaged in the High Leverage Munitions (HLM) for higher density carriage. The second generation SSB has an advanced warhead which is designed to maximize penetration capability without sacrificing blast/fragmentation potential. This is achieved by use of liners to control fragmentation and enhanced energetic explosives such as HMX or CL-20. Light Attack Bomb is a follow-on demonstration for the Small Smart Bomb to expand the SSB target set by demonstrating maneuver capability against ground mobile targets using an existing seeker for guidance. The High Leverage Munitions (HLM) concepts are a class of next generation weapons designed to efficiently package small, highly lethal mini missiles of the future. They employ direct dispense technology being developed under WL/MN Low Cost Dispensing (LODIS) program as a means of high density loadouts for both internal and external carriage. This low observable/low drag container is capable of incremental or salvo dispensing and has virtual interface capability. Air bags are used to eject the mini missiles. The dispenser serves as a shipping/stores container. Electrical interface to the mini missiles is made via a single 1553 bus. Specifications Diameter Length Weight Warhead Guidance Accuracy Penetration Six inches Six feet 250-lb steel case for penetration 50 lbs of high explosive Differential GPS/INS , Autonomous, all weather three meters circular error probable (CEP) for surveyed target six feet of reinforced concrete Mk 81 The MK 80 series Low Drag General Purpose (LDGP) bombs are used in the majority of bombing operations where maximum blast and explosive effects are desired. LDGP bombs are designed to be aerodynamically streamlined. Their cases are relatively light and approximately 45 percent of their complete weight is explosive. General purpose bombs may use both nose and tail fuzes and conical or retarded tail fins. Snakeye was fielded in 1964 and used extensively since; the retarder tail (Mk 14 fins for Mk 81 250pound) allowed low-level, high-precision attack while avoiding bomb-fragment damage to delivery aircraft and retaining a low-drag delivery option. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: 118 kg 1.88 m 228 mm None None None None Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft Mk82 General Purpose Bomb The MK-82 is a free-fall, nonguided general purpose [GP] 500-pound bomb. The bomb is usually equipped with the mechanical M904 (nose) and M905 (tail) fuzes or the radarproximity FMU-113 air-burst fuze. The MK 80 series Low Drag General Purpose (LDGP) bombs are used in the majority of bombing operations where maximum blast and explosive effects are desired. LDGP bombs are designed to be aerodynamically streamlined. Their cases are relatively light and approximately 45 percent of their complete weight is explosive. General purpose bombs may use both nose and tail fuzes and conical or retarded tail fins. The MK82 AIR is a 500 pound bomb modified with a BSU-49/B high drag tail assembly. The "ballute" air bag which deploys from the tail provides a high speed, low altitude delivery capability by quickly slowing the bomb and allowing the aircraft to escape the blast pattern. The tail assembly consists of a low-drag canister unit containing a ballute (combination balloon and parachute), and a release lanyard assembly that opens the canister releasing the ballute. The ballute assembly is made from high strength low porosity nylon fabric. When the bomb is released from the aircraft a lanyard unlatches the back cover which opens, releasing part of the nylon bag/retarder. Air turbulence at the rear of the bomb acts on that portion of the retarder, pulling the remainder out of the housing. Ram air inflation is accomplished through four air inlet ports toward the aft end of the ballute. The weapon can be delivered in the low-drag mode (canister remains closed after release) or in the high drag mode. The pilot may select either a high drag or low drag configuration depending on mission requirements. The MK-80 series was developed in the 1950s in response to the need for bombs producing less aerodynamic drag. All MK-80 series bombs are similar in construction. MK-80 series bombs are cylindrical in shape and are equipped with conical fins or retarders for external high-speed carriage. They are fitted for both nose and tail fuzes to ensure reliability and produce effects of blast, cratering, or fragmentation. During Desert Storm the MK-80 series of bombs were dropped from literally every fixed-wing aircraft that supported the ground offensive. The bombs were used against a wide variety of targets, including artillery, trucks, bunkers, Scuds, surface-to-air missile sites, antiaircraft artillery sites, early warning radars, and supply points. Some bombs are thermally protected for use on aircraft carriers. The thermally protected MK 80 series bomb was developed to increase the cookoff time and decrease the reaction of bombs when engulfed in a fuel fire. The MK 82 and MK 83 series LDGP bombs underwent a Product Improvement Initiative (PII) which entailed filling the bomb cases with a less sensitive explosive. When so filled the MK 82 and MK 83 bombs are redesignated BLU-111/B and BLU-110/B, respectively. Specifications Class Guidance 500 lb. General Purpose Bomb, Blast/Fragmentation Ballistic Autopilot: Propulsion: Weight Length Diameter Warhead Explosive Fuze Stabilizer Contractor Unit Cost None None 241 kg / 500 lbs. 2.21 m / 66.15 in. 10.75 in. 500 lbs. 89 kg / 192 lbs Tritonal, Minol II, or H-6 Variety for nose and tail. MAU-93/B, BSU49/B AIR, MK-15 Snakeye Nad Crane $268.50 A-10A B-1B B-2 B-52 F-4G F-15A-E F-16A-D F-111D-F F-117A Aircraft Mk83 General Purpose Bomb The MK-83 is a free-fall, nonguided general purpose [GP] 1,000 pound bomb. The bomb can be fitted either with mechanial nose and tail fuzes or with a proximity fuze. During Desert Storm, this bomb was dropped mainly by Marine aircraft conducting close air support/battlefield air interdiction (CAS/BAl) missions. The MK 80 series Low Drag General Purpose (LDGP) bombs are used in the majority of bombing operations where maximum blast and explosive effects are desired. LDGP bombs are designed to be aerodynamically streamlined. Their cases are relatively light and approximately 45 percent of their complete weight is explosive. General purpose bombs may use both nose and tail fuzes and conical or retarded tail fins. The MK83 AIR is a 1,000 pound bomb modified with a BSU-85/B high drag tail assembly. The "ballute" air bag which deploys from the tail provides a high speed, low altitude delivery capability by quickly slowing the bomb and allowing the aircraft to escape the blast pattern. The tail assembly consists of a low-drag canister unit containing a ballute (combination balloon and parachute), and a release lanyard assembly that opens the canister releasing the ballute. The ballute assembly is made from high strength low porosity nylon fabric. When the bomb is released from the aircraft a lanyard unlatches the back cover which opens, releasing part of the nylon bag/retarder. Air turbulence at the rear of the bomb acts on that portion of the retarder, pulling the remainder out of the housing. Ram air inflation is accomplished through four air inlet ports toward the aft end of the ballute. The weapon can be delivered in the low-drag mode (canister remains closed after release) or in the high drag mode. The pilot may select either a high drag or low drag configuration depending on mission requirements. The MK-80 series was developed in the 1950s in response to the need for bombs producing less aerodynamic drag. All MK-80 series bombs are similar in construction. MK-80 series bombs are cylindrical in shape and are equipped with conical fins or retarders for external high-speed carriage. They are fitted for both nose and tail fuzes to ensure reliability and produce effects of blast, cratering, or fragmentation. Some bombs are thermally protected for use on aircraft carriers. The thermally protected MK 80 series bomb was developed to increase the cookoff time and decrease the reaction of bombs when engulfed in a fuel fire. The MK 82 and MK 83 series LDGP bombs underwent a Product Improvement Initiative (PII) which entailed filling the bomb cases with a less sensitive explosive. When so filled the MK 82 and MK 83 bombs are redesignated BLU-111/B and BLU-110/B, respectively. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: 447 kg / 1014 pounds 3.0 m / 119.49 inches 14.06 inches None Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Explosive Fuse: Aircraft None None None 1000 lbs 202 kg / 385 lbs Tritonal, Minol II, or H-6 F-14 F-18 MK84 The MK-84 is a free-fall, nonguided GP 2,000-pound bomb. The MK 80 series Low Drag General Purpose (LDGP) bombs are used in the majority of bombing operations where maximum blast and explosive effects are desired. LDGP bombs are designed to be aerodynamically streamlined. Their cases are relatively light and approximately 45 percent of their complete weight is explosive. General purpose bombs may use both nose and tail fuzes and conical or retarded tail fins. Normal fuzes are the mechanical M904 (nose) and the M905 (tail). Most of the over 12,000 MK-84s expended during Desert Storm were dropped by Air Force F-15Es, F-16s and F-111Fs; less than 1,000 of the total were dropped by Marine Corps tactical aircraft. The MK84 AIR is a 2,000 pound bomb modified with a BSU-50/B high drag tail assembly. The "ballute" air bag which deploys from the tail provides a high speed, low altitude delivery capability by quickly slowing the bomb and allowing the aircraft to escape the blast pattern. The tail assembly consists of a low-drag canister unit containing a ballute (combination balloon and parachute), and a release lanyard assembly that opens the canister releasing the ballute. The ballute assembly is made from high strength low porosity nylon fabric. When the bomb is released from the aircraft a lanyard unlatches the back cover which opens, releasing part of the nylon bag/retarder. Air turbulence at the rear of the bomb acts on that portion of the retarder, pulling the remainder out of the housing. Ram air inflation is accomplished through four air inlet ports toward the aft end of the ballute. The weapon can be delivered in the low-drag mode (canister remains closed after release) or in the high drag mode. The pilot may select either a high drag or low drag configuration depending on mission requirements. The MK-80 series was developed in the 1950s in response to the need for bombs producing less aerodynamic drag. All MK-80 series bombs are similar in construction. MK-80 series bombs are cylindrical in shape and are equipped with conical fins or retarders for external high-speed carriage. They are fitted for both nose and tail fuzes to ensure reliability and produce effects of blast, cratering, or fragmentation. During Desert Storm the MK-80 series of bombs were dropped from literally every fixed-wing aircraft that supported the ground offensive. The bombs were used against a wide variety of targets, including artillery, trucks, bunkers, Scuds, surface-to-air missile sites, antiaircraft artillery sites, early warning radars, and supply points. Specifications Class Guidance Control: Autopilot: 2,000 lb. General Purpose Bomb/Fragmentation Ballistic None None Propulsion: Weight Length Diameter Explosive Fuze Stabilizer Contractor/Manufacturer Unit Cost None 2039 lbs. 129 in. 18 in. 945 lbs. H-6 or Tritonal Variety of mechanical or electrical BSU-50 AIR MK-84 Conical Fin $3,100 A-10A B-1B B-52H F-4G F-15A-E F-16A-D F-111D-F F-117A Aircraft M117 General Purpose Bomb The M117 is a free-fall, unguided, general purpose [GP] 750-pound bomb. Its usual fuzes are the mechanical M904 (nose) and M905 (tail), or the mechanical FMU-54 (tail). The M117 is employed in several configurations. The basic M117 dates from the Korean War and uses a low-drag tail fin for medium and high-altitude deliveries. The M117R (Retarded) uses a special fin assembly providing either high-drag or lowdrag release options. For low altitude deliveries, the tail assembly opens four large drag plates which rapidly slow the bomb and allow the aircraft to escape its blast. The M117D (Destructor) is similar to the M117R but uses a magnetic influence fuze which enables the bomb to function as a mine. The M117D is released in a high-drag configuration for ground implant or shallow water mining. It detonates when an object passing near the bomb triggers the fuze. The M117 series was used extensively during the Vietnam War, and B-52G aircraft dropped thousands of tons of M117 and M117R bombs during Operation Desert Storm. The B-52s dropped virtually all of the M117 bombs during Desert Storm. Mk118 3000lb Demolition Bomb BLU-82B The BLU-82B/C-130 weapon system, nicknamed Commando Vault in Vietnam and Daisy Cutter in Afghanistan, is a high altitude delivery of 15,000 pound conventional bomb, delivered from an MC-130 since it is far too heavy for the bomb racks on any bomber or attack aircraft. Originally designed to create an instant clearing in the jungle, it has been used in Afghanistan as an anti-personnel weapon and as an intimidation weapon because of its very large lethal radius (variously reported as 300-900 feet) combined with flash and sound visible at long distances. It is the largest conventional bomb in existence but is less than one thousandth the power of the Hiroshima nuclear bomb. Frequent press reports to the contrary, the Daisy Cutter is not a fuel-air explosive (FAE). It is a conventional explosive incorporating both agent and oxidizer. In contrast, an FAE consists only of agent and a dispersing mechanism, and takes its oxidizer from the oxygen in the air. FAEs generally run between 500 and 2000 pounds; it would be difficult to make an FAE the size of Daisy Cutter because the correct uniform mixture of agent with ambient air would be difficult to maintain if the agent were so widely dispersed. Thus, the conventional explosive technique of Daisy Cutter is more reliable than that of an FAE, particularly if there is significant wind or thermal gradient. This system depends upon the accurate positioning of the aircraft by either a fixed ground radar or onboard navigation equipment. The ground radar controller, or aircrew navigator as applicable, is responsible for positioning the aircraft prior to final countdown and release. Primary aircrew considerations include accurate ballistic and wind computations provided by the navigator, and precision instrument flying with strict adherence to controller instructions. The minimum altitude for release due to blast effects of the weapon is 6,000 feet AGL. The BLU-82 was originally designed to clear helicopter landing zones and artillery emplacements in Vietnam. The warhead contains 12,600 pounds of low-cost GSX slurry (ammonium nitrate, aluminum powder, and polystyrene) and is detonated just above ground level by a 38-inch fuze extender, optimized for destruction and ground level without digging a crater. The weapon produces an overpressure of 1000 psi [pounds per square inch] near ground zero, tapering off as distance increases. Eleven BLU-82s were dropped during Desert Storm, all from Special Operations C-130s. The initial drops were intended to test the ability of the bomb to clear mines; no reliable bomb damage assessment exists on mine clearing effectiveness. Later, bombs were dropped as much for their psychological effect as for their antipersonnel effects. The Air Force dropped several BLU-82s during the campaign to destory the Taliban and al-Qaeda terror networks in Afganistan to attack and demoralize personnel and to destroy underground- and cave-complexes. Specifications Class Guidance Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Weight (lb.) Length (in) Diameter (in) Warhead (lbs.) None None 15,000 141.6 54 15,000 15,000 lb. Blast Ballistic Explosive Fuze Unit Cost Aircraft Aluminum Powder (12,600 lbs.) M904 (Nose); M905 (Tail) $27,318 MC-130 BLU-107 Durandal The Durandal anti-runway bomb was developed by the French company MATRA, designed solely for the purpose of destroying runways. Once the parachute-retarded lowlevel drop bomb attains a nose-down attitude, it fires a rocket booster that penetrates the runway surface, and a delayed explosion buckles a portion of the runway. It can penetrate up to 40 centimeters of concrete, creating a 200 square meter crater causing damage more difficult to repair than the crater of a general-purpose bomb. An evaluation of the unique Durandal "runway-buster" motor was performed at the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory beginning in 1982. The 20th Fighter Wing first tested the Durandal runway-buster bombs during Exercise Red Flag in January and February 1988. During the 1991 Gulf War the 20th Fighter Wing, flew F-111Es from Turkey, initially in low level night attacks on airfields, using the Durandal anti-runway weapon. 20th Wing flight commander Captain George Kelman said "there is nothing better at destroying a runway than a Durandal." Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: 450 pounds 8 ft 2 in inches None Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft None None rocket booster to penetrate runway surface 330 lb high-explosive BLU-109 The BLU series bomb bodies use PBNX-109 as explosive filler. The BLU-109A/B used with the GBU-24 and GBU-31(V)4/B is a special purpose bomb comprised of steel alloy used for hardened targets. The BLU-109/B (I-2000) is an improved 2,000-pound-class bomb designed as a penetrator without a forward fuze well. Its configuration is relatively slim, and its skin is much harder than that of the standard MK-84 bomb. The skin is a single-piece, forged warhead casing of one-inch, high-grade steel. Its usual tail fuze is a mechanical-electrical FMU- 143. The 1,925-pound bomb has a 550-pound tritonal highexplosive blast warhead. The BLU-109/B was always mated with a laser guidance kit to form a laser-guided bomb in Desert Storm. Specifications Class Guidance Control Autopilot: Propulsion: Weight (lbs.) Length (in.) Diameter (in.) Explosive Fuze Stabilizer Contractor Unit Cost Aircraft 2,000 lb. Penetrator, Blast/Fragmentation Ballistic Low Drag Fins/Air Foil Groups None None 1950 98.54 14.5 535 lbs. Tritonal FMU-143 Series Fins and Airfoil Groups (Laser Guided Bombs) Lockheed Missiles & Space $2,126 (Warhead Only) F-117 F-15E F-16A-D F-111D-F BLU-110 Hard Target penetrators being changed into low-cost Joint Direct Attack Munition [JDAM] include the 2,000 pound BLU-109 and 1,000 pound BLU-110 forged steel casing warheads, which are more accurately toleranced than the Mk.80 series. JDAM consists of a tail kit that can be attached to ‘dumb’ free-fall gravity bombs that have been in the Air Force and Navy inventories for decades, turning them into accurate guided ‘smart’ bombs. The heart of the tail kit is an Inertial Navigation System/Global Position System, or INS/GPS, guidance system that gives JDAM an all-weather capability and high accuracy. Some are thermally protected for use on aircraft carriers. The thermally protected MK 80 series bomb was developed to increase the cookoff time and decrease the reaction of bombs when engulfed in a fuel fire. The BLU-110A/B and BLU-111A/B thermally protected bombs are identical to the MK 83 and MK 84 thermally protected bombs, respectively, with the exception of the explosive filler. The BLU series bomb bodies use PBNX-109 as explosive filler. The MK 82 and MK 83 series LDGP bombs underwent a Product Improvement Initiative (PII) which entailed filling the bomb cases with a less sensitive explosive. When so filled the MK 82 and MK 83 bombs are redesignated BLU111/B and BLU-110/B, respectively. BLU-111/B The BLU-111/B penetrator is forged steel casing warheads, which is a more accurately toleranced variant of the MK-82, 500-pound general purpose bomb. The Joint Standoff Weapon AGM-154C (Unitary Variant) will use a combination of an Imaging Infrared (IIR) terminal seeker and a two-way data link to achieve point target accuracy through aimpoint refinement and man-in-the-loop guidance. The AGM-154C will carry the BLU111/B equipped with the FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze (JPF) and is designed to attack point targets. Some bombs are thermally protected for use on aircraft carriers. The thermally protected MK 80 series bomb was developed to increase the cookoff time and decrease the reaction of bombs when engulfed in a fuel fire. The BLU-110A/B and BLU-111A/B thermally protected bombs are identical to the MK 83 and MK 84 thermally protected bombs, respectively, with the exception of the explosive filler. The BLU series bomb bodies use PBNX-109 as explosive filler. The MK 82 and MK 83 series LDGP bombs underwent a Product Improvement Initiative (PII) which entailed filling the bomb cases with a less sensitive explosive. When so filled the MK 82 and MK 83 bombs are redesignated BLU111/B and BLU-110/B, respectively. CBU-24/B Cluster Bomb Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 800 lbs. 93 inches 16 inches None None None None 650 MK339 BLU26B Anti-material/Anti-personnel bomblets A7(8), F4, (4-8), F11(8), B52 (8) CBU-52 The CBU-52, loaded with 220 antimaterial, antipersonnel bomblets, weighs 785 pounds and can be used with a variety of proximity fuzes or the mechanical MK-339 timed fuze. The submunition is a 3.5-inch spherical bomblet weighing 2.7 pounds with a 0.65-pound high-explosive warhead. The CBU-52, -58 and -71 all use SUU-30 dispensers, a metal cylinder divided longitudinally. One-half contains a strong back section that provides for forced ejection and sway-bracing. The two halves lock together. Four cast aluminum fins are attached at a 9~degree angle to the aft end of the dispenser and are canted 1.25 degrees to impart spin-stabilized flight. When released from the aircraft, the arming wire/lanyard initiates the fuze arming and delay cycle. At fuze function, the fuze booster ignites and unlocks the forward end of the dispenser. Ram air action on the dispenser forces the two halves apart, instantaneously dispensing the payload and allowing the bomblets to spin-arm and self-dispense. A total of 17,831 were expended during the Gulf War. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: 766 pounds 93 inches 16 inches None None None None 220 BLU-61A/B anti-materiel / anti- personnel submunitions Fuse: M339, FMU-56, FMU-11, FMU-26, M907 8 A-7 4-8 F-4 4 F-16 8 F-111 B-52, A-37, A-10, F-5 $1,542 (FY90$) Aircraft Unit Cost: CBU-58 The CBU-58 is loaded with 650 bomblets. These bomblets contain 5-gram titanium pellets, making them incendiary and useful against flammable targets. The CBU-52, -58 and -71 all use SUU-30 dispensers, a metal cylinder divided longitudinally. One-half contains a strong back section that provides for forced ejection and sway-bracing. The two halves lock together. Four cast aluminum fins are attached at a 9~degree angle to the aft end of the dispenser and are canted 1.25 degrees to impart spin-stabilized flight. When released from the aircraft, the arming wire/lanyard initiates the fuze arming and delay cycle. At fuze function, the fuze booster ignites and unlocks the forward end of the dispenser. Ram air action on the dispenser forces the two halves apart, instantaneously dispensing the payload and allowing the bomblets to spin-arm and self-dispense. A total of 17,831 were expended during the Gulf War. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Maximum Velocity: Warhead: 800 pounds 93 inches 16 inches None None None None 625 KIAS 650 BLU-63A/B anti-materiel / anti- personnel bomblet submunitions Fuse: M339, FMU-56, FMU-11, FMU-26, M907 8 A-7 4-8 F-4 4 F-16 8 F-111 B-52, A-37, A-10, F-5 $2,893 (FY90$) Aircraft Unit Cost: CBU-59 APAM The CBU-59 APAM an antipersonnel, antimaterial weapon developed in the 1970s as a successor to Rockeye. It uses the same Rockeye dispenser, but has 717 smaller BLU-77 bomblets fitted into the case. In addition to its armor-piercing effect, it also has antipersonnel fragmentation and incendiary features. One hundred and eight-six were delivered during the Gulf war. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: 750 pounds 92 inches 13.2 inches None None None None 717 BLU-71/B anti-materiel / antipersonnel Submunition: Mark 1 Mod 0 Contact Dispenser: Mark 339 Mod 0 Time Fuse 4-8 F-4 8 F-15 4 F-16 6 A-7 6 A-10 8 F-111 Maximum Carriage: Mach 1.3 / 700K KCAS Minimum Release Altitude: 500 Feet AGL or 400 Feet AGL with 4G Escape Aircraft Limitations: CBU-71 BLU-68/B The CBU-71 is loaded with 650 BLU-68/B incendiary submunitions which use titanium pellets as the incendiary agent. The bomblet has two separate kill mechanisms, one fragmentation, the other incendiary. Both incorporate a time delay fuze, which detonates at random times after impact. The CBU-52, -58 and -71 all use SUU-30 dispensers, a metal cylinder divided longitudinally. One-half contains a strong back section that provides for forced ejection and sway-bracing. The two halves lock together. Four cast aluminum fins are attached at a 9~degree angle to the aft end of the dispenser and are canted 1.25 degrees to impart spin-stabilized flight. When released from the aircraft, the arming wire/lanyard initiates the fuze arming and delay cycle. At fuze function, the fuze booster ignites and unlocks the forward end of the dispenser. Ram air action on the dispenser forces the two halves apart, instantaneously dispensing the payload and allowing the bomblets to spin-arm and self-dispense. A total of 17,831 were expended during the Gulf War. CBU-75 Sadeye BLU-26 The CBU-75 Sadeye is a cluster bomb unit filled with 1,800 one- pound bomblets such as the BLU-26. This submunition is a cast steel shell with aerodynamic vanes and 0.7 pound of TNT in which 600 razor-sharp steel shards are imbedded. The BLU-26 can be equipped with fuses to explode upon impact, several yards above ground, or some time after landing. It is lethal up to about 40 feet. The CBU-75 has a total lethal area more than double that of a standard 2,000-pound bomb, the equivalent of 157 football fields. CBU-78 Gator The CBU-78 Gator is a tri-Service weapon featuring anti-vehicle and antipersonnel land mines used adjacent to enemy forces to disrupt or deny use of selected areas. The 500 pound CBU-78 contains 45 antitank and 15 antipersonnel mines. These mines can be detonated by target sensors (magnetic field for antitank and trip line for antipersonnel) or by a disturbance- antidisturbance device. They also have a backup self-destruct time set before aircraft launch. During Desert Storm the Navy and the Marine Corps dropped 209 CBU-78s. The Gator mine system provides a means to emplace minefields on the ground rapidly using high-speed tactical aircraft. The minefields are used for area denial, diversion of moving ground forces, or to immobilize targets to supplement other direct attack weapons. Gator consists of two companion systems. The Air Force CBU-89/B is a 1000-pound class cluster weapon using the SUU-64/B Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD). The TMD is the same general configuration used for the CBU-87/B Combined Effects Munition. This commonality allows for high-rate, low-cost production of the dispenser. The Navy CBU-78/B is a 500-pound class cluster weapon that uses the Mk7 Rockeye dispenser. Rockeye has been in high-rate production for many years; the Mk7 dispenser is also a low-cost item. Both systems contain a mix of BLU-91 /B antitank (AT) and BLU-92/B antipersonnel (AP) mines -- 72 AT and 22 AP for the CBU-89/B; 45 AT and 15 AP for the CBU-78/B. Commonality of mines for both systems also contributes to high-rate, low-cost production. The BLU-91 /B AT mine is the heart of the Gator system. Microelectronics in each mine detect targets, discriminate armored vehicles, and detonate the mine when the target reaches the most vulnerable approach point. A Misznay-Schardin explosive charge defeats the belly armor of most vehicles. The BLU-92/B AP mine serves to discourage minefield clearing. Upon activation, the AP mine explosion sends highvelocity fragments in a horizontal plane over a wide area. Both mines have a programmable self-destruct feature which permits the battlefield commander to control the timing of a counterattack or defensive maneuver. The selfdestruct time is set just prior to aircraft takeoff using a simple selector switch on the dispenser. This feature permits a high degree of tactical flexibility during combat operations. The size of the Gator minefield is determined by the opening height of the dispenser. After dispenser opening, the mines are self-dispersed using aerodynamic forces. The mine pattern on the ground is directly proportional to opening altitude, which is controlled by either the dispenser electromechanical faze or an optional proximity sensor. Aerojet Ordnance Company (AOC) is the system integration prime contractor for Gator. All elements of the system are either procured by Aerojet or furnished by the US Government. The company is responsible for total system performance, including live testing. Each month three Gator systems are randomly selected from the production line and flight tested. Aerojet Ordnance Company warrants system performance for five years, assuring Gator reliability. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 490 pounds 85 inches 13 inches None None None None 45 BLU-91 + 15 BLU-92 CBU-94 "Blackout Bomb" BLU-114/B "Soft-Bomb" The BLU-114/B is a special-purpose munition for attacking electrical power infrastructure. Although very little is known about this highly classified weapon, reportedly it functions by dispensing a number of submunitions which in turn disperse large numbers of chemically treated carbon graphite filaments which short-circuit electrical power distribution equipment such as transformers and switching stations. The weapon is sometimes referred to as a "soft bomb" since its effects are largely confined to the targetted electrical power facility, with minimal risk of collateral damage. This previously undisclosed weapon, carried by the F-117A Nighthawk stealth fighter, was used for the first time on 02 May 1999 as part of Operation ALLIED FORCE strikes against Serbia. Following these attacks lights went out over 70 per cent of the country. The munition was subsequently used on the night of 07 May 1999 to counter Serbian efforts to restore damage caused by the initial attack. Similar in concept to the "Kit-2" Tomahawk sea-launched cruise missile warhead used in the opening days of Operation DESERT STORM, few details of either weapons can be established on an unclassified basis. The missiles, packed with bomblets filled with small spools of carbon-fiber wire, deprived Iraq of 85% of its generating capacity. During the Gulf War Iraq responded to the use of this type of munition by disconnecting electrical power grid circuit breakers. Attacks on Iraqi power facilities shut down their effective operation and eventually collapsed the national power grid. Coalition planners in the theater initially directed that the switching system be targeted, rather than the generator halls. For the first three days, the ATO explicitly contained specific aimpoints for strikes against electrical production facilities. Subsequently the specific aimpoints were only sporadically included. When wing-level planners lacked specific guidance on which aimpoints to hit at electrical power plants, they sometimes chose to target generator halls, which are among the aimpoints listed in standard targeting manuals. The BLU-114/B detonates over its target and disperses huge numbers of fine carbon filaments, each far smaller than the crude wire spools used in the gulf war. The filaments are only a few hundredths of an inch thick and can float in the air like a dense cloud. When the carbon fiber filaments dispensed from the BLU-114/B submunition contact transformers and other high voltage equipment, a short circuit occurs and an arc is often created when the current flows through the fiber, which is vaporized. The graphite, which is a conductor of electric current, is probably coated with other materials to enhance these effects. At the spot where the electric field is strongest, a discharge is initiated, and electrons rapidly form an ionized channel that conducts electricity. At this stage current can flow and an arc forms. This causes instantaneous local melting of a certain amount of the material at the surface of the two conductors. If the current involved is strong enough, these arcs can cause injury or start a fire. Fires can also be started by overheated equipment or by conductors that carry too much current. Extremely high-energy arcs can cause an explosion that sends fragmented metal flying in all directions. Although specific details remain classified, and the Pentagon has explicitly declined to provide any information on this munition, it is probably the case the unit cost of the munition is comparable to that of the Joint Standoff Attack Weapon or the CBU-97/CBU-105 Sensor Fuzed Weapon -- in the range of several hundred thousand dollars. The relative simplicity of the concept and the potential to utilize components from other munitions probably allowed relatively low development costs. The BLU-114/B designation refers to the special purpose submunition, rather than the entire weapon system. It is certainly the case that this submunition is carried to the target area by some dispenser system, of the sort that typically delivers other such submunitions. The first use of the BLU-114/B submunition was during Operation Allied Force, when it was used to attack Serbian power grid transformer and switching yards. Dropped by the F-117, the munition was dispensed using the SUU-66/B Tactical Munitions Dispenser normally associated with the delivery of the terminally guided BLU-108/B submunitions carried on the CBU-97/CBU-105 Sensor Fuzed Weapon. The unguided used in these systems is typically delivered with a circular error probable of a few hundred feet. Other more precise weapon delivery systems such as the Joint Direct Attack Munition do not appear readily adaptable to existing submunition dispenser systems, though such an application would not constitute an overly challenging engineering problem. The AGM-154A Joint Standoff Weapon [JSOW] is intended to provide a low cost, standoff air-to-surface glide weapon with a modular design which allows several different submunitions, unitary warheads, or non-lethal payloads to be carried. The JSOW is a launch and leave weapon that employs a tightly coupled Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS), and is capable of day/night and adverse weather operations. The JSOW will be employed on a variety or aircraft, including: F/A18A/B, C/D, and E/F; AV-8B; F-14A/B and /D; F-16C/D; F-15E; F-117; B-1B; and B52. JSOW initial introduction to the operational commands was on the Navy/Marine Corps F/A-18 in mid-1998. Certification for carriage on the B-2 was achieved in early 1999, and scheduled for the B-52 in 2000. Block E upgrades to the B-1B to integrates the Joint Standoff Weapon for standoff capability are scheduled to by completed in FY2002. The AGM-154C (Unitary Variant) carries the unitary BLU-111/B 500-pound penetrator warhead. The warhead of the AGM-154A (Baseline JSOW) consists of 145 BLU-97/B submunitions. The warhead for the AGM-154B (Anti-Armor) is six BLU-108/B submunitions from the Air Force's Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW) program. It is possible that another more precise BLU-114/B delivery system, either currently or in the future, would consist of a previously undisclosed AGM-154D variant of the JSOW. Electrical Distribution System Overview Modern power grids are extremely complex and widespread. Surges in power lines can cause massive network failures and permanent damage to multimillion-dollar equipment in power generation plants. After electricity is produced at power plants it has to get to the customers that use the electricity. As generators spin, they produce electricity with a voltage of about 25,000 volts [a volt is a measurement of electromotive force in electricity, the electric force that pushes electrons around a circuit]. The transmission and distribution system delivers electricity from the generating site (electric power plant) to residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. The electricity first goes to a transformer at the power plant that boosts the voltage up to 400,000 volts for distribution through extra-high voltage (EHV) transmission lines. When electricity travels long distances it is better to have it at higher voltages since the electricity can be transferred more efficiently at high voltages. High voltage transmission lines carry electricity long distances to a substation. At transmission substations a reduction in voltage occurs for distribution to other points in the system through high voltage (HV) transmission lines. Further voltage reductions for commercial and residential customers take place at distribution substations, which connect to the primary distribution network. Utility transmission and distribution systems [T&D] systems link electric generators with end users through a network of power lines and associated components. In the United States typically the transmission portion of the system is designated as operating at 69 kilovolts (kV) and above, while the distribution portion operates between 110 volts and 35 kV. A further distinction is often made between primary distribution (voltages between 2.4 and 35 kV) and secondary distribution (110 to 600 volt) systems. Industrial and commercial customers with large power demands often receive service directly from the primary distribution system. Transformers are a crucial link in the electric power distribution system. Utility transformers are high-voltage distribution transformers typically used by utilities to step down the voltage of electricity going into their customers' buildings. Distribution transformers are one of the most widely used elements in the electric distribution system. They convert electricity from the high voltage levels in utility transmission systems to voltages that can safely be used in businesses and homes. Distribution transformers are either mounted on an overhead pole or on a concrete pad. Most commercial and industrial buildings require several low-voltage transformers to decrease the voltage of electricity received from the utility to the levels used to power lights, computers, and other electricoperated equipment. Transformers consist of two primary components: a core made of magnetically permeable material; and a conductor, or winding, typically made of a low resistance material such as copper or aluminum. The conductors are wound around a magnetic core to transform current from one voltage to another. Liquid insulation material or air surrounds the transformer core and conductors to cool and electrically insulate the transformer. Many different distribution transformer designs are available to utilities, depending on the loading patterns and needs of the end-user. Transformer engineers modify transformer design and vary material depending upon the needs of a particular utility (cost of energy, capacity, etc.). A blackout is a condition where a major portion or all of an electrical network is deenergized with much of the system tied together through closed breakers. Any area whose tie-lines to the high voltage grid cannot support reasonable contingencies is a candidate for a blackout. System separations are possible at all loading levels and all times in the year. Changing generation patterns, scheduled transmission outages, and rapid weather changes among other reasons can all lead to blackouts. Separations due to dynamic instability are typically initiated by multiple contingencies such as loss of corridors, several transmission circuits, several generating units, or delayed fault clearing. The system just prior to a blackout may not be dynamically unstable but in an overloaded condition. At such loadings, the collapse may come about due to damage to thermally overloaded facilities, or circuits contacting underlying facilities or vegetation. When an overloaded facility trips, other facilities will increase their loadings and may approach their thermal capabilities or relay trip settings. Voltage collapse is the process by which voltage instability leads to the loss of voltage in a significant part of the system. This condition results from reactive losses significantly exceeding the reactive resources available to supply them. Circuits loaded above surge impedance loadings and reduced output of shunt capacitors as voltages decline can lead to accelerating voltage drops. Voltage collapse can look like both a steady-state problem with time to react and a problem where no effective operator intervention is possible. It is very hard to predict the area that will be affected or electrically isolated from the grid. Voltage collapse is an event that occurs when an electric system does not have adequate reactive support to maintain voltage stability in which the sustained voltage level is controllable and within predetermined limits. Voltage Collapse may result in outage of system elements and may include interruption in service to customers. Apparent Power, the product of the volts and amperes, comprises both real and reactive power, usually expressed in kilovoltamperes (kVA) or megavoltamperes (MVA). Real Power is the rate of producing, transferring, or using electrical energy, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW). Reactive power is the portion of electricity that establishes and sustains the electric and magnetic fields of alternating-current equipment. Reactive power must be supplied to most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors and transformers. It also must supply the reactive losses on transmission facilities. Reactive power is provided by generators, synchronous condensers, or electrostatic equipment such as capacitors and directly influences electric system voltage. It is usually expressed in kilovars (kvar) or megavars (Mvar). The system restoration sequence and timing will be directly impacted by the various sizes, types, and state of operation of the system generating units prior to the blackout. After a system has blacked out, the system operators perform a survey of the system status. Circuit breaker positions will not provide a reliable indication of faulted versus non-faulted equipment. Breakers can be found in the closed position, but the associated transmission facility is faulted. If the system blackout is storm-initiated, this condition is quite possible. The storm can continue to damage equipment after the system is deenergized. Also, equipment with neutral connections, such as reactors, transformers, and capacitors, may be locked out from the neutral overcurrent conditions during system shutdown. These facilities may be in perfectly serviceable condition. Most relay systems will remain reliable and secure during restoration, provided there is adequate fault current available to activate the relaying. The most questionable relay reliability issues come from reclosing relays. A power generating unit separated from the may have islanded and continue to generate power for its station auxiliary load. With no system load on the generators, the station auxiliary demand will be quite small, and the steam generators output may be difficult to control. Immediate load addition may be required to keep the steam generator from tripping or having the steam turbine trip out on overspeed. Other units may be able to operate indefinitely on their auxiliary load. An electrical utility which experiences an operating capacity emergency seeks to balance its generation to its load to avoid prolonged outages of service. The emergency reserve inherent in frequency deviation may be used as a temporary source of emergency energy. A utility unable to balance its generation to its load removes sufficient load to permit correction of the outage. In the event of a capacity deficiency, generation and transmission facilities are used to the fullest extent practicable to promptly restore normal system frequency and voltage. If all other steps prove inadequate to relieve the capacity emergency, the system may take immediate action which includes but is not limited to manual load shedding. Unilateral adjustment of generation to return frequency to normal may jeopardize overloaded transmission facilities. Voltage reduction for load relief is made on the distribution system. Voltage reduction on the subtransmission or transmission system may effective in reducing load; however, voltage reduction would not be made on the transmission system unless the system has been isolated from other interconnected systems. If the overload on a transmission facility or abnormal voltage/reactive condition persists and equipment is endangered, the affected system or pool may disconnect the affected facility. shutdown. If abnormal levels of frequency or voltage resulting from an area disturbance make it unsafe to operate the generators or their support equipment in parallel with the system, their separation or shutdown would be accomplished in a manner to minimize the time required to re-parallel and restore the system to normal. After a system collapse restoration begins when it can proceed in an orderly and secure manner. Restoration priority is normally given to the station supply of power plants and the transmission system. Even though restoration is intended to be expeditious, system operators seek to avoid premature action to prevent a re-collapse of the system. Customer load is normally restored as generation and transmission equipment becomes available, since load and generation must remain in balance at normal frequency as the system is restored. When voltage, frequency and phase angle permit, the system operator may resynchronize the isolated area with the surrounding area. In order to systematically restore loads without overloading the remaining system, opening circuit breakers may isolate loads in blacked-out areas. Reenergizing oil-filled pipe-type cables must be given special consideration, especially if loss of oil pumps could cause gas pockets to form in pipes or potheads. After determining the extent of the blackout and assessing the status of system equipment, the switching operations necessary for system reintegration represent a significant portion of the restoration process. Depending on the specific utility's requirements, there are two general switching strategies which may be used to sectionalize the transmission system for restoration. The first is the "all open" approach where all circuit breakers at affected (blacked out) substations are opened. The second strategy is the "controlled operation" where only those breakers necessary to allow system restoration to proceed are opened. MK-20 Rockeye The MK-20 Rockeye is a free-fall, unguided cluster weapon designed to kill tanks and armored vehicles. The system consists of a clamshell dispenser, a mechanical MK-339 timed fuze, and 247 dual-purpose armor-piercing shaped-charge bomblets. The bomblet weighs 1.32 pounds and has a 0.4-pound shaped-charge warhead of high explosives, which produces up to 250,000 psi at the point of impact, allowing penetration of approximately 7.5 inches of armor. Rockeye is most efficiently used against area targets requiring penetration to kill. Fielded in 1968, the Rockeye dispenser is also used in the Gator air-delivered mine system. During Desert Storm US Marines used the weapon extensively, dropping 15,828 of the 27,987 total Rockeyes against armor, artillery, and antipersonnel targets. The remainder were dropped by Air Force (5,345) and Navy (6,814) aircraft. DAACM As of 1991 the Air Force planned to use the I-2000 penetrating bomb for attacking runways rather than develop the new DAACM weapon. With the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, there were few reinforced runways on the US target list, and the existing Durandals were regarded as adequate for standard thickness runways, while the I-2000 can penetrate any conceivable runway. Moreover, it is already in the inventory and needs no development program. BLU-95 / BLU-96 Fuel/Air Explosive (FAE) Fuel/Air Explosive [FAE II] is an antimaterial/antimine weapon. The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake developed the 500-pound (BLU-95) and 2,000-pound (BLU-96) FAE IIs during the 1970s and 1980s as part of its family of FAE weapons (FAE I, SLUFAE, MAD-FAE, CATFAE). The Surface-Launched Unit, Fuel-Air Explosive (SLUFAE) was developed for the Marine Corps as a mine- and obstacle-breaching system; development of the Catapult-Launched FAE (CATFAE) system followed the termination of the SLU-FAE program. Unfortunately the overpressures generated were not high enough to reliably detonate mines and had little effect on wire obstacles. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft None None None None 500 pounds BLU-42/B The BLU-42/B is a scatterable antipersonnel fragmentation mine produced by the United States. This munition is a scatterable mine delivered by the United States Air Force. This mine was used extensively in the Vietnam War and has since been exploited and copied by the former Soviet Union. The mine has six spring-loaded tripwires that are expelled from the mine after it makes contact with the ground. The mine also has an antidisturbance feature and a self-destruct feature. The mine is filled with 71 grams of Composition B explosive. The Russian version of this mine is the POM-1S antipersonnel fragmentation Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Main Explosive Weight: Fuse: Aircraft 0.071 kg HMX Integral 60 mm 0.499 kg BLU-43/B The BLU-43/B is a scatterable blast antipersonnel mine produced by the United States and delivered by the Air Force. This mine was used in the Vietnam War and has since been exploited and copied by the former Soviet Union. The mine is nicknamed the DRAGONTOOTH. The system uses a liquid explosive and a hydrostatic fuze. The Russian version is the PFM-1 and PFM-1S (Butterfly mines). Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft pounds 13 mm 45 mm None None None None 0.090 kg BLU-61/B The BLU-61/B is a spherical, grenade-like anti-personnel fragmentation bomblet about the size of a tennis ball. The CBU-49 carries 217 submunitions, while the CBU-52 carries 254. CBU-72 / BLU-73/B Fuel/Air Explosive (FAE) The the 550-pound CBU-72 cluster bomb contains three submunitions known as fuel/air explosive (FAE). The submunitions weigh approximately 100 pounds and contain 75 pounds of ethylene oxide with air-burst fuzing set for 30 feet. An aerosol cloud approximately 60 feet in diameter and 8 feet thick is created and ignited by an embedded detonator to produce an explosion. This cluster munition is effective against minefields, armored vehicles, aircraft parked in the open, and bunkers. During Desert Storm the Marine Corps dropped all 254 CBU-72s, primarily from A-6Es, against mine fields and personnel in trenches. Some secondary explosions were noted when it was used as a mine clearer; however, FAE was primarily useful as a psychological weapon. Second-generation FAE weapons were developed from the FAE I type devices (CBU-55/72) used in Vietnam. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 500 pounds 85.6 inches 14 inches None None None None 3 BLU-73/B Fuel Mark 339 Mod 0 Mechanical BLU-80/B Bigeye Bigeye was a tri-service, safe-to-handle binary chemical weapon. When employed, Bigeye was designed to delay and disrupt airfields, troops and logistical lifelines by forcing an enemy into a chemical protective posture. The Bigeye metal parts contract was awarded in June 1988 for the procurement of production-representative operational test units, trainers and Safe Separation Test Vehicles. Specifications Prime Contractor: Weight: Length: Diameter: Wing Span: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft The Marquardt Company 595 pounds 7 feet, 6 inches 13.25 inches 1 foot, 5.25 inches None None None None VX Agent Weight: 180 pounds MC-1 750-lb GB MK77 750lb Napalm MK78 500lb Napalm MK79 1000lb Napalm A fire bomb is a thin skinned container of fuel gel designed for use against dug-in troops, supply installations, wooden structures, and land convoys. The MK 77 500-pound fire bomb is the only fire bomb now in service. Fire bombs rupture on impact and spread burning fuel gel on surrounding objects. MK 13 Mod 0 igniters are used to ignite the fuel gel mixture upon impact. The MK-77 is a napalm canister munition. The MK77 familiy is an evolution of the incendiary bombs M-47 and M-74, used during the conflict in Korea and the war in Vietnam. Napalm is an incendiary mixture of benzene, gasoline and polystyrene. The Marine Corps dropped all of the approximately 500 MK-77s used in the Gulf War. They were delivered primarily by the AV-8 Harriers from relatively low altitudes. MK-77s were used to ignite the Iraqis oil-filled fire trenches, which were part of barriers constructed in southern Kuwait. The containers of napalm bomber are very light and fabricated of aluminum, with a capacity for about 75 gallons of combustible gel. They lack stabilizing fins, and consequently acquire a tumbling motion on being dropped that contributes to the scattering of the combustible gel over a wide area. While the MK-77 is the only incendiary munition currently in active inventory, a variety of other incendiary devices were produced, including the M-47 Napalm bomb, the M-74 incendiary bomb, and white phosphorous and munitions manufacturing. Production of these devices continued during the Korean conflict, though various demilitarization and decontamination programs were initiated in the late 1950s. Munitions destroyed included M-47 Napalm-filled bombs and incendiary cluster bombs. Napalm is a mixture of benzene (21%), gasoline (33%), and polystyrene (46%). Benzene is a normal component of gasoline (about 2%). The gasoline used in napalm is the same leaded or unleaded gas that is used in automobiles. Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons, which burn in an engine. It is a clear liquid, made from crude oil that burns and explodes easily. It naturally contains some benzene (which makes gas smell the way it does). Gasoline is lighter than, and floats on, water, but it will not mix with water. It dissolves grease and oil but will not dissolve polystyrene by itself, more benzene must be added to it. If gasoline is inhaled or swallowed, it can be dangerous or fatal. Breathing it results in an intense burning sensation in the throat and lungs, resulting in bronchitis and, eventually, pneumonia and possibly death. Swallowing gasoline results in inebriation (drunkenness), vomiting, dizziness, fever, drowsiness, confusion, and cyanosis (blue color). Benzene is a light, colorless, aromatic liquid made from a variety of raw materials, mostly crude oil and coal. In many ways it is similar to gasoline, of which it is a part. The major uses of benzene are in making plastics and other chemicals, not fuel, although it could be used as one. If benzene is breathed or swallowed, it causes throat irritation, rest lessens, excitement, depression, and, finally, convulsions, which can lead to death. A long exposure to benzene vapors (months or years) leads to bone marrow depression and in rare cases, leukemia. Polystyrene is the white, tough plastic that is used to make cups, plates, and other tableware and food containers. In the pure state it is slightly heavier than water. It dissolves easily in acetone and benzene, but not in gasoline. It is not poisonous; if swallowed it passes unchanged through the digestive tract. But it is possible to choke on it. Heated polystyrene softens at about 185 F. At higher temperatures it turns back into styrene, the chemical from which it was made. Styrene has been tested as toxic to rats. In air, polystyrene melts and burns with a yellow, sooty flame. Styrene itself has a sharp, unpleasant smell that is easy to recognize. Beginning in 1973 the Department of the Navy (DoN) began placing Vietnam era napalm canisters in storage at the Weapons Support Facility, Fallbrook Detachment. The Detachment is located approximately 60 miles north of San Diego, CA. By 1978 all such canisters had been consolidated and placed at the Detachment for storage and maintenance. The stockpile consists of approximately 34,123 individually crated napalm canisters. The canisters are not fused nor do they contain ignition devices. Over time, some of the aluminum canisters have degraded which has resulted in leaks. On-going maintenance of the stockpile includes the identification and repair of leaking canisters, grounds maintenance, and air monitoring. The Department of the Navy (DoN) is undertaking a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to remove and dispose of the napalm stockpile at the Fallbrook Detachment. The removal action is being taken to remove the potential for release of harmful levels of pollutants to the air which may result as the aluminum napalm canisters continue to degrade over time. Removal and disposal activities began in the Spring of 1998 and will take approximately two years to complete. The removal process involves On-site Demilitarization & Separation: napalm canisters will be decrated, punched, drained and shredded to result in three waste streams, wood, napalm, and aluminum; Containerization and Manifesting: napalm will be containerized in 6000 gallon tankers, aluminum in 55 gallon drums, and wood in 40 cubic yard steel boxes. All applicable state and federal manifesting procedures will be followed; Transportation: will be conducted in accordance with US Dept of Transportation regulations and will occur by truck from the Fallbrook Detachment to a Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton railhead and then by rail to treatment facilities, and finally; Treatment and Disposal: treatment of the napalm and aluminum wastes will occur at GNI, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C permitted facility located in Deer Park, Texas. GNI will blend the napalm into alternative fuel for use as a substitute fuel at various cement manufacturing facilities. Treatment of the aluminum will occur by solvent cleaning. The clean aluminum will then be sent to a commercial smelter for recycling. Disposal of the wood will occur at a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle D permitted co-generation facility located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, where it will be burned to produce electricity and steam. MK53 325-lb Depth Bomb MK-25 Mine Mine Mk 25 is an aircraft-laid bottom mine which was designed and used extensively during the course of World War II. Employing a magnetic induction influence firing mechanism, the Mk 25 is a 2000-pound mine containing an explosive charge of 1200 pounds of HBX-1. Although newly designed flight gear for use with high-speed aircraft has updated the planting capability of Mk 25 mines, they will gradually be phased out of the system and replaced by more modern mines. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 1935-2000 pounds 87-7/32-93 inches 22-7/16 inches None None None None MK 36 DST Destructor Mine Destructor Mines are general purpose low-drag bombs converted to mines. They can be deployed by air, either at sea as bottom mines or on land as land mines. With the MK 75 Modification Kit installed, a MK 82 bomb (500 pounds) becomes a MK 36 DST. The conflict in Southeast Asia saw the introduction of a different kind of mine called a Destructor (DST). Destructors Mk 36, Mk 40, and Mk 41 are aircraft-laid bottom mines which use General Purpose (GP) Low-Drag Bombs Mk 82, Mk 83, and Mk 84, respectively as the mine case and explosive charge. The bombs are converted to mines with the installation of a kit of modular components that comprise a mine-type arming, detector, and firing system. The kit contains an arming device, an explosive booster, a magnetic-influence firing mechanism and associated hardware. The arming device and booster install in the bomb's nose cavity and the firing-mechanism (with battery) installs in the bomb¹s tail cavity. The same kit of components and method of assembly are used for each one of the destructors, but the kits are available in a number of configurations, each with a different circuitry to meet a variety of operational requirements. It should be noted, however, that since the bomb cases are small, medium, and large, they require different flight gear. DST¹s became the first mines to be used on both land and sea. When dropped on land, they bury themselves in the ground on impact, ready to be actuated by military equipment, motor vehicles and personnel. When dropped in rivers, canals, channels, and harbors, they lie on the bottom ready to be actuated by a variety of vessels including war ships, freighters, coastal ships, and small craft. MK 40 DST Destructor Mine Destructor Mines are general purpose low-drag bombs converted to mines. They can be deployed by air, either at sea as bottom mines or on land as land mines. With the MK 75 Modification Kit installed, a MK 83 bomb (1,000 pounds) becomes a MK 40 DST. The MK-40 is a destructor-type modified bomb, similar to the MK-64. However, the MK-40 is capable of being used as both a land and sea-type mine. Variations include the MK-36 and MK-41. The conflict in Southeast Asia saw the introduction of a different kind of mine called a Destructor (DST). Destructors Mk 36, Mk 40, and Mk 41 are aircraft-laid bottom mines which use General Purpose (GP) Low-Drag Bombs Mk 82, Mk 83, and Mk 84, respectively as the mine case and explosive charge. The bombs are converted to mines with the installation of a kit of modular components that comprise a mine-type arming, detector, and firing system. The kit contains an arming device, an explosive booster, a magnetic-influence firing mechanism and associated hardware. The arming device and booster install in the bomb's nose cavity and the firing-mechanism (with battery) installs in the bomb¹s tail cavity. The same kit of components and method of assembly are used for each one of the destructors, but the kits are available in a number of configurations, each with a different circuitry to meet a variety of operational requirements. It should be noted, however, that since the bomb cases are small, medium, and large, they require different flight gear. DST¹s became the first mines to be used on both land and sea. When dropped on land, they bury themselves in the ground on impact, ready to be actuated by military equipment, motor vehicles and personnel. When dropped in rivers, canals, channels, and harbors, they lie on the bottom ready to be actuated by a variety of vessels including war ships, freighters, coastal ships, and small craft. MK 41 DST Destructor Mine Destructor Mines are general purpose low-drag bombs converted to mines. They can be deployed by air, either at sea as bottom mines or on land as land mines. With the MK 75 Modification Kit installed, a MK 84 bomb (2,000 pounds) becomes a MK 41 DST. The conflict in Southeast Asia saw the introduction of a different kind of mine called a Destructor (DST). Destructors Mk 36, Mk 40, and Mk 41 are aircraft-laid bottom mines which use General Purpose (GP) Low-Drag Bombs Mk 82, Mk 83, and Mk 84, respectively as the mine case and explosive charge. The bombs are converted to mines with the installation of a kit of modular components that comprise a mine-type arming, detector, and firing system. The kit contains an arming device, an explosive booster, a magnetic-influence firing mechanism and associated hardware. The arming device and booster install in the bomb's nose cavity and the firing-mechanism (with battery) installs in the bomb¹s tail cavity. The same kit of components and method of assembly are used for each one of the destructors, but the kits are available in a number of configurations, each with a different circuitry to meet a variety of operational requirements. It should be noted, however, that since the bomb cases are small, medium, and large, they require different flight gear. DST¹s became the first mines to be used on both land and sea. When dropped on land, they bury themselves in the ground on impact, ready to be actuated by military equipment, motor vehicles and personnel. When dropped in rivers, canals, channels, and harbors, they lie on the bottom ready to be actuated by a variety of vessels including war ships, freighters, coastal ships, and small craft. MK 52 The Mine Mk 50 series includes the MK 52, a 1000-pound aircraft-laid bottom mine containing an explosive charge of 625 pounds of HBX-1. The MK 52 is an influence mine specifically designed to actuate on submarine signatures, although it is also equally effective against most surface ship signatures. In addition to using identical mine cases, all mods of the Mk 52 have removable instrument racks, a feature which makes it possible to assemble wire, test, and store "ready" firing-component assemblies remote from the explosive-loaded mine case and from other explosives. Moreover, cables are color-coded and molded, and firing components are color-coded and modular. This not only makes assembly virtually foolproof but, through such ready interchangeability, it also means that each Mk 52 mine can be assembled to any of several mods, providing any desired combination of influence type actuation. These modular components are the same ones that are used in the Mk 55 mines. Mod 1 employs an acoustic firing mechanism. Mod 2 employs a magnetic firing mechanism, efficient over a wide range of planting depths. Mod 3 employs a combination of pressure and magnetic firing mechanisms. Mod 4 (not used). Mod 5 employs acoustic and magnetic firing mechanisms. Mod 6 combines all three influence type firing mechanisms: acoustic, pressure, and magnetic, making it difficult to sweep. Mod 11 employs either magnetic or magnetic-seismic firing mechanism. Mod 12 employs magnetic firing mechanism. Mod 13 employs pressure, magnetic firing mechanism. MK 55 The Mine Mk 50 series includes the MK 55, a 2000-pound aircraft-laid bottom mine containing an explosive charge of 1290 pounds of HBX-1. The MK 55 is an influence mine specifically designed to actuate on submarine signatures, although it is also equally effective against most surface ship signatures. The MK 55 is almost identical to the MK 52, with difference being its weight (2,000 pounds), its larger explosive charge, the case is larger and the flight gear is different. Otherwise there are no variations: instrument racks, color-coded molded cables, and color-coded modular components are all identical and interchangeable with the MK 52's. Mod 1 employs an acoustic firing mechanism. Mod 2 employs a magnetic firing mechanism, efficient over a wide range of planting depths. Mod 3 employs a combination of pressure and magnetic firing mechanisms. Mod 4 (not used). Mod 5 employs acoustic and magnetic firing mechanisms. Mod 6 combines all three influence type firing mechanisms: acoustic, pressure, and magnetic, making it difficult to sweep. Mod 7 The Mod 7, which is unique to the Mk 55 Mine, is similar to the Mod 2 except that it uses an improved dual channel magnetic firing mechanism, making it more difficult to sweep. Specifications (Mod1) (Mod2) (Mod3) (Mod5) Weight: (Mod6) (Mod7) 2178 pounds 2259 pounds 2268 pounds 2264 pounds 2273 pounds 2259 pounds (Mod11) 2016 pounds (Mod12) 2264 pounds (Mod13) 2273 pounds Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 89-7/8 inches 23-3/8 inches None None None None MK 56 / MK 57 The MK56 ASW mine (the oldest still in use) was developed in 1966. The Mine Mk 50 series includes the Mine MK 56, a 2000-pound aircraft-laid moored mine containing an explosive charge of 360 lbs. of HBX-3, designed specifically for effectiveness against high-speed and deep-operating submarines. The MK 57 is similar to the MK 56 in its mission, however, it is a submarine laid moored mine. The Mk 56 has a magnetic firing mechanism that uses a total-field magnetometer as its detector. Total-field magnetometers are three dimensional target sensors that respond to changes in the earth's magnetic field as caused by the presence of a ship. Consisting of a nonmagnetic stainless-steel case and a cast-steel anchor, the Mk 56 is equipped with flight gear for launching from aircraft. When laid, the mine sinks to the bottom where case and anchor separation take place. Should the mine become embedded in bottom sediment before case/anchor separation and mooring take place, a slow burning propellant in the anchor is ignited which frees the mine from any mud it may be buried in. As the case rises, a hydrostat, which clamps to an 18-foot loose bight in the mooring cable, senses the preset mooring depth and falls free to release the loose bight, thus permitting the tension on the cable to relax and cause a pawling mechanism in the anchor to lock and stop further cable payout. Should the mooring mechanism allow the mine to rise to a depth which is too shallow, the case will scuttle. This feature reduces the possibility of compromise and eliminates a navigational hazard. Scuttling will also occur on sterilization or if the mooring cable breaks. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Depth Range 2000 pounds (909 kilograms) MK56 114.3 inches (290 centimeters) MK57 121.1 inches (307 centimeters) MK56 22.4 inches (57 centimeters ) MK57: 21 inches (53 centimeters) None None None None Up to 1000 feet (305 meters) MK56: 360 pounds (164 kilograms) HBX-3 MK57: 340 pounds (155 kilograms) HBX-3 Warhead: Fuse: Detection System: Delivery Date Deployed Total field magnetic exploder MK56 Aircraft laid MK57 Submarine laid 1966 MK 60 Encapsulated Torpedo (CAPTOR) The Mk 60 CAPTOR is the US Navy's only deep water mine. The MK-60 CAPTOR, one of the Navy's primary anti submarine weapons, is actually a deepwater moored torpedo launcher. Mine Mk 60 is a sophisticated anti-submarine warfare (ASW) moored mine which is designed to detect and classify submarines and release a modified Torpedo Mk 46 to acquire and attack submerged targets only. This deep water mine is designed to be laid by aircraft or submarine, and is anchored to the ocean floor. The mine utilizes an influence firing device and is able to classify passing submarines. Its acoustic detection system is designed to seek hostile submarines, ignoring surface craft and friendly submarine acoustic signatures. The weapon lies dormant until a target is detected, at which time the torpedo swims out of its capsule to attack and destroy its target. As in other mines, the Mk 60 incorporates an arming-delay. The MK-60 can be deployed by air, submarine, or surface ship. This weapon was developed by the Mine Division of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, which is now located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, Florida. Because it can be converted to have some operational capability in littoral waters, a modification to CAPTOR is being considered as one of the options for the Littoral Sea Mine (LSM) program. Specifications Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo Alliant Techsystems Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II) fueled 102.36 in. tube launch configuration (from ship) 145 inches (368 centimeters) - Aircraft / Ship laid 132 inches (335 centimeters) Submarine laid 12.75 inches 21 inches (53 centimeters) Aircraft / Ship laid 21 inches (53 centimeters) Submarine laid 517.65 lbs (warshot configuration) 2370 pounds (1077 kilograms) Air / Ship laid 2056 pounds (935 kilograms) Submarine laid 8,000 yards Greater than 1,200 ft (365.76 meters) Officially: "Up to 3000 feet (914 meters)" Greater than 28 knots (32.2 mph, 51.52 kph) Length Diameter Weight Range Depth Speed Detection System Guidance System Warhead Date Deployed Reliable acoustic path (RAP) sound propagation Homing mode - Active or passive/active acoustic homing Launch/search mode - Snake or circle search 98 lbs. of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge) 1979 Mk-62 Quick Strike Mine Featuring a fast response-to-readiness capability, the Mk 62 mine is one of a new generation of weapons closely related to the DESTRUCTOR family of mines. Using the same variable influence-type target-detector systems, the Mk 62 is aircraft-laid bottom mines for use against submarines and surface targets. The Mk 62 is a conversions of General Purpose Bomb Bodies Mk 82, which is a 500 pound weapon. All mines have the capability of making arming-delay, sterilization, self-destruct, and other operational settings. The newest QUICKSTRIKE mines are programmable and modular, allowing them to be updated to keep abreast of emerging threat targets. Ongoing QUICKSTRIKE work includes the development of new Target Detecting Devices (TDDs) and target processing algorithms. TDDs control the actuation of explosives in underwater mines. Design expertise centers around the three major areas of TDD development: (1) target influence sensors, (2) sensor signal processing and target logic, and (3) timing and control logic. These major areas include those functions necessary to control the weapon, such as trajectory, arming, and end-of-life functions. A representative sample of state-of-the-art target influence sensor technologies currently under development includes: (1) advanced signal processing techniques applied to sensor outputs to determine if a valid target is present, or if the detected influence signal(s) is being generated by a countermeasure device; and (2) state-of-the-art, low power, microprocessor and gate array technologies employed for timing and control functions. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: 576 pounds 89 inches 15.1 inches None None Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft None None Mk-63 Quick Strike Mine Featuring a fast response-to-readiness capability, the Mk 63 mine is one of a new generation of weapons closely related to the DESTRUCTOR family of mines. Using the same variable influence-type target-detector systems, the Mk 63 is aircraft-laid bottom mines for use against submarines and surface targets. The Mk 63 is a conversions of General Purpose Bomb Bodies Mk 83, which is a 1,000 pound weapon. All mines have the capability of making arming-delay, sterilization, self-destruct, and other operational settings. The newest QUICKSTRIKE mines are programmable and modular, allowing them to be updated to keep abreast of emerging threat targets. Ongoing QUICKSTRIKE work includes the development of new Target Detecting Devices (TDDs) and target processing algorithms. TDDs control the actuation of explosives in underwater mines. Design expertise centers around the three major areas of TDD development: (1) target influence sensors, (2) sensor signal processing and target logic, and (3) timing and control logic. These major areas include those functions necessary to control the weapon, such as trajectory, arming, and end-of-life functions. A representative sample of state-of-the-art target influence sensor technologies currently under development includes: (1) advanced signal processing techniques applied to sensor outputs to determine if a valid target is present, or if the detected influence signal(s) is being generated by a countermeasure device; and (2) state-of-the-art, low power, microprocessor and gate array technologies employed for timing and control functions. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: 1061 pounds 113 inches 22.9 inches None None Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft None None MK-64 Destructor Mine The MK-64 is a 2,000-pound modified bomb, known as a "destructor" and invented during the Vietnam War. Aircraft-laid and utilizing various influence-type firing mechanisms, the MK-64 is a bottom mine for use against submarines and surface targets. Length: 11'3". Width: 2' 1". Variations include the MK-62, MK-63 and MK-65. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Warhead: Fuse: Aircraft 2000 pounds 145 inches 25.3 inches None None None None Mk-65 Quick Strike Mine Featuring a fast response-to-readiness capability, the Mk 65 mine is one of a new generation of weapons closely related to the DESTRUCTOR family of mines. Using the same variable influence-type target-detector systems, the Mk 65 is aircraft-laid bottom mines for use against submarines and surface targets. Mk 65 is a 2000-pound weapon, employing a destinctively different, new concept, thin-walled, mine-type case, as opposed to the thick-walled bomb-type case of the Mk 64. Older Quickstrike versions (MK62, MK63, and MK64) were converted streamlined bombs of the 500 lb, 1000 lb, and 2000 lb sizes. Other differences in the Mk 65 include a special arming device, a nose fairing, and a tail section adaptable to parachute option. All mines have the capability of making arming-delay, sterilization, self-destruct, and other operational settings. The newest QUICKSTRIKE mines are programmable and modular, allowing them to be updated to keep abreast of emerging threat targets. Ongoing QUICKSTRIKE work includes the development of new Target Detecting Devices (TDDs) and target processing algorithms. TDDs control the actuation of explosives in underwater mines. Design expertise centers around the three major areas of TDD development: (1) target influence sensors, (2) sensor signal processing and target logic, and (3) timing and control logic. These major areas include those functions necessary to control the weapon, such as trajectory, arming, and end-of-life functions. A representative sample of state-of-the-art target influence sensor technologies currently under development includes: (1) advanced signal processing techniques applied to sensor outputs to determine if a valid target is present, or if the detected influence signal(s) is being generated by a countermeasure device; and (2) state-of-the-art, low power, microprocessor and gate array technologies employed for timing and control functions. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Guidance: Control: Autopilot: Propulsion: Depth Range Warhead: Fuse: Detection System: Delivery Date Deployed Magnetic/seismic/pressure target detection devices (TDDs) are used on various models Aircraft 1983 2390 pounds (1086 kilograms) 128 inches (325 centimeters) 29 inches (across the fins) (74 centimeters) None None None None Up to 600 feet (183 meters) Various loads LUU-1 Flare Air-deployed LUU-1 flares are used to illuminate targets, providing a target area ground reference. The LUU-1 flare burns for 30 minutes on the ground providing a colored flame. The LUU-1 flare enhances a pilot's ability to see targets while using Night Vision Goggles. With the introduction of A-10 Warthog Night Vision capability, such flares are not used as frequently as in the past as they provide too much light for the very sensitive goggles. Flares burn at uneven rates and therefore fluctuate in brightness. LUU-2 Flare Air-deployed LUU-2 high-intensity illumination flare are used to illuminate targets. The LUU-2B Flare has a light output rating of 1.8 x 10(6) candlepower and at 1,000 feet altitude illuminates a circle on the ground of 500 meters at 5 lux. The LUU-2 is housed in a pod or canister and is deployed by ejection. The mechanism has a timer on it that deploys the parachute and ignites the flare candle. The flare candle burns magnesium which burns at high temperature emitting an intense bright white light. The consumption of the aluminum cylinder that contains the flare "candle" may add some orange to the light. The LUU-2 flare enhances a pilot's ability to see targets while using Night Vision Goggles. With the introduction of A-10 Warthog Night Vision capability, such flares are not used as frequently as in the past as they provide too much light for the very sensitive goggles. Flares burn at uneven rates and therefore fluctuate in brightness. The LUU-2 has a burn time of approximately 5 minutes while suspended from a parachute. The pyrotechnic candle consumes the flare housing, reducing flare weight which in turn slows the rate of fall during the last 2 minutes of burn time. At candle burnout an explosive bolt is fired, releasing one parachute support cable which causes the parachute to collapse. While unburned flares falling from high altitude could be dangerous, burned flares are much less dangerous since they are designed to burn up during the fall (even the aluminum casing is burned). The LUU-2B/B flare is the latest in a series of illuminating flares introduced by Thiokol for nighttime target illumination and rescue missions. Designated as a multi service flare by United States military forces, the LUU-2B/B incorporates improvements and modifications that further enhance its performance and reliability. The LUU-2B/B has been selected by over 30 foreign countries for aircraft-deployed illumination. The LUU-2B/B flare is compatible with all standard flare launching systems used on helicopter, cargo, and fighter aircraft. It can be deployed from LAU-74 cargo aircraft launchers, aircraft wing-mounted racks, and the SUU-25, 42, and 44 series launchers. It can also be hand launched from aircraft. Developed to meet stringent U.S. military requirements for operational safety and reliability, the LUU-2B/B uses advanced design and materials concepts derived from aerospace technology. The LUU-2B/B is accepted by the Navy for use on carrier-based aircraft. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Light Output: Burn Time: 30 lb (13.6 kg) 36 in. (91.4 cm) 4.87 in. (12.4 cm) 1,800,000 candlepower, 1,600,000 candlepower 240 sec/300 sec Descent Rate: User: 8.3 ft/sec (2.5 m/sec) U.S. Navy/Air Force/International Ground Illumination Pattern 5 lux 0.46 foot-candle 2 lux 0.186 foot-candle 1 lux 0.093 foot-candle LUU-4/B flare The LUU-4/B flare, in use by the US armed forces, is an aircraft-deployed search and rescue flare. The flare is simple to deploy and meets stringent operational safety and reliability requirements. The flare can be deployed from any type of aircraft or helicopter. A static line initiates parachute deployment and parachute deployment causes flare ignition. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Light Output: Burn Time: Descent Rate: User: 20 lb (9.1 kg) 25.5 in. (64.8 cm) 4.87 in. (12.4 cm) 1,600,000 candlepower 180 sec 10 ft/sec (3 m/sec) U.S. Air Force/International LUU-19 Flare The LUU-19 is the IR-spectrum variant of the LUU-2 paraflare currently deployed by F14’s from ITER’s. The LUU-19 has the same physical dimensions as LUU-2, and provides IR illumination of the target area for NVG-capable attack aircraft. The LUU-19 flare is the latest in a series of infrared flares introduced by Thiokol for covert target illumination and rescue missions. Designated as a multi service flare by United States military forces, the LUU-19 incorporates improvements and modifications that further enhance its performance and reliability. The LUU-19 flare is compatible with all standard flare launching systems used on helicopter, cargo, and fighter aircraft. It can be deployed from LAU-74 cargo aircraft launchers, aircraft wing-mounted racks, and the SUU-25, 42, and 44 series launchers. It can also be hand launched from aircraft. A key feature of the LUU-19 is the wavelength of illumination. The LUU-19 has been developed to illuminate in the near infrared region of the spectrum. This enhances dramatically the capability of the military's night vision devices used for covert night operations while eliminating the bright illumination that radiates from other flares. Specifications Weight: Length: Diameter: Infrared Output: Burn Time: Descent Rate: User: 33lb (14.9 kg) 25.5 in. (64.8 cm) 4.87 in. (12.4 cm) 1200 watts/Steradian 420 sec/7 min 9ft/sec (2.74 m/sec) U.S. Air Force/International Ground Illumination Pattern Near Infrared Illumination of LUU-19 at 5,000 Feet AGL Illumination Initial Flare Diameter of Energy Intensity Ground (Watts/sq. (Watts/Steradian) Illumination meter) (Meter) 2.33x10 (4) 1200 2554.8 BDU-33 Practice ordnance includes 25-pound BDU-33 bombs having a spotting charge that releases a cloud of smoke on impact. The BDU-33 is used to simulate the MK 82 in low drag configuration. The munitions to be loaded onto aircraft are brought to the flightline on a trailer. The BDU-33 bombs are lifted out of a metal cage on a trailer and are locked in place underneath the aircraft. The BDU-33 bombs are lifted out of a cage on the trailer and carried to the aircraft 20 feet away. BDU-33 munitions are loaded onto TERs (Triple Ejector Racks) and SUUs (Suspension Units). The BDU-33 is pushed against a spring loaded catch and locked into place. The unloading of the BDU-33 from the aircraft involves loosening the bolts and releasing the spring. The BDU-33 is carried back to the trailer. BDU-38 Practice Bomb [nuclear] BDU-45 Practice Bomb The BDU-45 is a 500 lb. Navy practice bomb. On 26 November 1996 Intercontinental Manufacturing Co., Garland, Texas, was awarded a $14,627,530 firm fixed price contract for 8,387 BDU-45 and 13,318 BDU-50 500-pound bomb bodies. Work was completed by 31 December 1997. On 30 September 1997 Intercontinental Mfg. Co. was awarded a $14,559,980 modification to a $29,187,511 firm-fixed-price contract for the purchase of BDU-45 and BDU-50 bomb bodies. Work was completed by 31 December 1998. On 27 September 27 1999 DATRON Inc., Intercontinental Manufacturing Division, Garland, Texas, was awarded a $15,746,748 modification to firm-fixed-price contract DAAA0998-C-0026, for the purchase of 3,300 bomb bodies (MK84-6), 1,575 bomb bodies (MK84-4), and 3,125 bomb bodies (BDU-56), a portion of which were for the country of Canada. Work was expected to be completed by June 30, 2001. On the same day, Intercontinental Manufacturing Division was also awarded a $19,189,995 modification to firm-fixed-price contract DAAA09-98-C-0074, for 513 bomb bodies (MK82), 8,425 bomb bodies (MK83), and 7,640 bomb bodies (BDU-45), a portion of which are for the country of France. Work was expected to be completed by Feb. 28, 2002. The US Army Armament, Munitions & Chemical Command, Rock Island, Ill., is the contracting activity. BDU-48 Practice ordnance includes 10-pound BDU 48 High Drag light practice bombs having a spotting charge that releases a cloud of smoke on impact. BDU-50 Practice ordnance includes the BDU-50, a 500 lb. Air Force practice bomb. The BDU-50 bombs have a spotting charge that releases a cloud of smoke on impact. The Mk82/BDU-50 500-pound and the BDU-56 [the inert version of the MK-84 2,000-pound bomb] are also used on some targets. These inert “heavyweight” bombs are dropped either with a parachute for “High Drag”, or “Slick”, which has no drag device. In either case, their weight creates enough “splash” or dirt spray, to be easily spotted without using an explosive charge. A new technique for the demilitarization and recycling of BDU-50 inert practice bombs involves using a contractor owned and operated plasma saw, eliminating the need for explosive venting. Delivery of a BDU-50 High Drag Bomb from a low altitude, low dive angle results in the bomb impacting at or near the target and has very little or no ricochet, due to the aerodynamic effect of the high drag retard device. However, when the high drag system fails to deploy, the weapon takes on the characteristics of a low drag weapon and has a significantly increased slant range to impact (up to 4000 ft longer under certain conditions). This can be thought of as a range error (the aircraft was in the wrong place in the sky) for the delivery of a low drag weapon. Not only does it impact long of the target, but also it now has a lower impact angle and a higher impact velocity, which can result in a significant down range ricochet impact. On 13 January 1999 Intercontinental Manufacturing Co., Garland, Texas, was awarded a $6,581,967 modification to a firm-fixed-price contract for 23,299 BDU-50 500-pound bomb bodies. Work will be performed in Garland, Texas, and was expected to be completed by Nov. 30, 2000. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This is a sole source contract initiated on Nov. 13, 1998. The contracting activity is the U.S. Army Armament, Munitions & Chemical Command, Rock Island, Ill. (DAAA09-98-C-0074). The munitions to be loaded onto aircraft are brought to the flightline on a trailer. A jammer raises the BDU-50 bomb and it is locked into place by tightening some bolts. The BDU-50 is unloaded by loosening the bolts and using a missile loading device referenced as the MJ-1 or "jammer" to lift the bomb away from the aircraft. During the loading of one trailer holding 42 bombs, bombs are removed from the bunkers on seven bomb pallets (42 bombs) by forklift truck. The metal tie-down straps are cut and removed. The top pallet is removed. Plastic nose plugs are removed. Three bombs at a time are picked up by the forklift truck and are placed on the end of the 40-foot trailer. The bombs are manually rolled on wooden rails to the front of the trailer. Bombs weigh 465 pounds (lb) without fins. It takes seven pounds of force to roll a bomb on the rail. Fins are manually unloaded from fin boxes, attached to the back end of each bomb, and tightened in place using a pneumatic impact gun. Fins weigh 56 lb each. Metal nose plugs are attached and tightened using a wrench. The bombs are "locked down" using chains. The bomb building crew size is five. The employees informally rotate tasks. BDU-56 The Mk-82/BDU-50 500-pound and the BDU-56 [the inert version of the MK-84 2,000pound bomb] are also used on some targets. These inert “heavyweight” bombs are dropped either with a parachute for “High Drag”, or “Slick”, which has no drag device. In either case, their weight creates enough “splash” or dirt spray, to be easily spotted without using an explosive charge. On 26 November 1996 Intercontinental Manufacturing Co., Garland, Texas, was awarded a $14,627,530 firm fixed price contract for 8,387 BDU-45 and 13,318 BDU-50 500pound bomb bodies. Work was completed by 31 December 1997. On 30 September 1997 Intercontinental Mfg. Co. was awarded a $14,559,980 modification to a $29,187,511 firm-fixed-price contract for the purchase of BDU-45 and BDU-50 bomb bodies. Work was completed by 31 December 1998. On 27 September 27 1999 DATRON Inc., Intercontinental Manufacturing Division, Garland, Texas, was awarded a $15,746,748 modification to firm-fixed-price contract DAAA09-98-C-0026, for the purchase of 3,300 bomb bodies (MK84-6), 1,575 bomb bodies (MK84-4), and 3,125 bomb bodies (BDU56), a portion of which were for the country of Canada. Work was expected to be completed by June 30, 2001. On the same day, Intercontinental Manufacturing Division was also awarded a $19,189,995 modification to firm-fixed-price contract DAAA09-98C-0074, for 513 bomb bodies (MK82), 8,425 bomb bodies (MK83), and 7,640 bomb bodies (BDU-45), a portion of which are for the country of France. Work was expected to be completed by Feb. 28, 2002. The US Army Armament, Munitions & Chemical Command, Rock Island, Ill., is the contracting activity. Laser Guided Training Round (LGTR) The Laser Guided Training Round (LGTR) provides a low cost training device permitting aircrews to realistically practice the employment of Paveway II Guided Bomb Units. The LGTR duplicates the release envelope, terminal guidance, and closely matches the time of flight characteristics of the GBU-16/B (MK 83 Paveway LGB). The LGTR is comprised of two sections (Guidance Control Section and Payload Section). The Guidance Control Section consists of the seeker, the signal processor, control system, and power supply. The Payload Section consists of the ring airfoil at the trailing edge which also houses the signal cartridges (MK 4 Mods or CXU-3A/B2) and the ejector assembly. The LGTR II is identical to the LGTR, except that it duplicates the release envelope, terminal guidance, and closely matches the time of flight characteristics of the GBU24B/B. Mk 76 Practice Bomb The Mk 76 is a 11.3 kilogram practice bomb used for training purposes as a low-cost low-risk alternative to live munitions. Mk 106 Practice Bomb The Mk 106 is a 2.27 kilogram practice bomb used for training purposes as a low-cost low-risk alternative to live munitions. The MK-106 is used to simulate the MK 82 in high drag configuration.
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