Literacy Across The Curriculum "Train The Trainer" Workshop
VocabularyPresenters:Shirley Cain, Eustacia Lowry-Jones, Marilyn Locklear, Kay Pittman, Linda Price, and Mary Kathryn Stone
Vocabulary Facts"Vocabulary is the most important influence on reading comprehension." "It takes 17 exposures to a word to learn it." "The average child enters school knowing 5,000 6,000 words. Children learn 2,500 3,000 new words per year."
4 Types of VocabularyListening Words we understand when others talk to us.Speaking Words we use when we talk to others.Reading Words we know when we see them in print (sight words and words we can decode).Writing Words we use when we write.
Research on VocabularyVocabulary knowledge is one of the best indicators of verbal ability, reading achievement and success in school.Teaching vocabulary of a selection can improve students comprehension of that selection.Vocabulary difficulty strongly influences the readability of text.The use of lexile ranges will ensure that vocabulary is appropriate.(Beck, et al. 1992).
Lexile Measureswww.lexile.comReminders:Lexile measuresmay be foundon the EOG score sheet.This tool should be used as a guide to establish a baseline for each student's reading level.To increase effectiveness, include ranges that are a little above and a little below the class instructional level.
Individually - Read the selection.
With a partner - Use the strategy of your choice to define each of the underlined vocabulary words.Match thewords with the definitionsfrom the envelope. Activity Time
Answers to the exercise1. l 4. j 7. a 10. e 2. k 5. i 8. d 11. c 3. g 6. h 9. b 12. f
With your group - Discuss the strategies you used and record on chart paper.Activity Time
Matthew EffectThe development of strong reading skills is the most effective word learning strategy available. However, those students who are in greatest need of vocabulary acquisition interventions tend to be the same students who read poorly and fail to engage in the amount of reading necessary to learn large numbers of words.(Beck, et al. 2002).
WebsitesRHL.comSuperteacher.comDiscoveryCricketSpider - avgNational GeographicClick
Research on VocabularyStudies estimate that of 100 unfamiliar words met in reading, only 5-15 words are learned in context.
Becoming interested and aware of words is not a likely outcome from the way instruction is typically handled, which is to have students look up definitions in a dictionary. (Scott et al., 1998)
Research on VocabularySome students learn an average of 8 words per day. Others learn as little as one or two.
Words can be known at different levels of understanding.
Directly teaching word meanings does not adequately reduce the gap between students with poor versus rich vocabularies. It is crucial for students to learn strategies for learning word meanings independently.(Miller, 1978).
Research on VocabularyOne study found that out of 4,469 minutes of reading instruction, only 19 minutes were devoted to direct vocabulary instruction.Another study found that 3rd, 4th and 5th grade teachers spent an average of 1.67 minutes on vocabulary per reading lesson and that many teachers spent no time.
What Can We Do?Make effective vocabulary instruction a high priority in the educational system.
Make vocabulary instruction robust, vigorous, strong and powerful to be effective.
Provide multiple ways to process new words.
Two Types of AcquisitionImplicit vocabulary acquisitionWhen students engage in rich extensive oral interactions When students are read toWhen students read and discuss what theyve read
Explicit vocabulary acquisitionVocabulary activities specifically designed to teach new words
SWAT (Vocabulary Review)
Vocabulary is displayed on chart paper or projected for all to view.
Students are divided into 2 teams.
The teacher calls out a definition or clue. Students swat the correct response.Activity Time!
SWAT TalismanGingerly PedantSauntered Aesthetic Virile Emulate Resplendent Chaff Haberdashery Scintillation Articulate
Provide Multiple Ways to Process New WordsAssociate new words with known words.Match definitions to new words.Use new words in different contexts.Use new words in a sentence.At your table, create a sentence using one of the words from Thoothee. Also, give a synonym.
When Teaching Vocabulary, DOIntroduce new subject matter vocabulary BEFORE students initial reading of the new material.Explain words in terms of relationships word families, structural analysis, roots and affixes.Constantly direct students attention to the power of words and hints of meaning.
When Teaching Vocabulary, DOHelp the class foster a respect for the well-chosen word and the well-turned phrase.
Teach your students definite forms or patterns for succinctly stating definitions.
When Teaching Vocabulary, DO NOTRely solely on incidental approaches; but avoid drill.Teach roots, affixes in isolation.Make definitions more difficult than the words to be defined.Forget the different ways of approaching definitions analogies, synonyms, antonyms, etc.
When Teaching Vocabulary, DO NOTDo not give students lists of words to look up in a dictionary under the guise of vocabulary instruction. This is only dictionary work, not vocabulary instruction.
Dictionary UseScott and Nagy (1997) report the results of many research studies that show that students cannot use conventional definitions to learn words.Example from dictionary: redress set right, remedy. King Arthur tried to redress wrongs in his kingdomStudent writes: The redress for getting well when youre sick is to stay in bed.
Activity Time!The Same or Different
Flash Cards with the synonyms or antonyms on one side and S or D on the other.
Lesson Planning: Preparing Content Area Activities
Activity Time!Group PresentationsCollaborate with your group to demonstrate a vocabulary strategy (that has not previously been mentioned). Be prepared to present in a whole group setting.
"Websites to Add to Your Favorites"
14 Most Powerful Words for the EOG TestsInferAnalyzeSignifyTraceEvaluateFormulateSummarizeExplainContrastComparePredictSupportConcludeDescribe
CommentsRemember to train your faculty.
PPT at: PSRC Website, Depts., Literacy (Scroll down on left side.)Literacy WebsiteNext Training April 7
Do you speak my language?You should know Language Terms! 300300300200400200100500500500500100
Row 1, Col 1 SelectionWhat is another name for a reading passage?
Who is the person that writes the selection?
1,3Reference What is to refer to something else like another person or book?
1,4PhraseWhat is a group of words that show a particular thought?
2,1Paragraph What is a group of sentences that have a common topic?
2,2Quotation What are the exact words said by a person?
2,3DefinitionWhat is the meaning of a word?
What is a plan for completing a task?
3,1SkimWhat is reading through a selection quickly to find a thought or idea?
3,2ScanWhat is looking through a selection to find a single word?
3,3Sentence What is a group of words that are grammatically correct and make a statement or ask a question?
3,4Adjective What are words that describe a noun?
4,1 Synonyms What is words that have the same meaning?
4,2AntonymsWhat are words that have opposite meanings?
4,3HomophonesWhat are words that sound the same when you say them?
4,4TopicWhat is the overall subject or a paragraph?
5,1VocabularyWhat is a list or words?
5,2Pronunciation Key What the information that helps to pronounce a word?
5,3Topic Sentence What is the sentence that gives the overall idea of a paragraph?
5,4SummaryWhat is information written to give you the most important information in a selection?
*Linda*Linda**Mary KathrynAssociate new words with known words. Give students clue words that connect with new vocabulary words and ask them to identify how these words are related. (word families, roots & affixes)Use new words in a sentence. Help students use new vocabulary in sentences. Help them connect new words to personal experience or prior knowledge. Constantly direct pupils attention to words and their power.Match definitions to new words. Incorporate game-like activities; student written definitions can be fun. Vocabulary lessons should be short, but meaningful.Use new words in different contexts. Students who take words they learn in one context and transfer them to another setting are demonstrating the depth of their understanding Provide students with multiple exposures to new words. Students need to see,hear, read and write new words repeatedly and in different context to learn the words completely. Teachers who model how vocabulary can be used across different subjects help students understand the usefulness and practicality of learning new words. Students should be immersed in words for both incidental and intentional learning.
*Mary Kathryn, Shirley*Eustacia*Kay*Marilyn
*Eustacia, Shirley*Marilyn, Linda, Mary Kathryn, Eustacia