Wisconsin Engineer Magazine April 2011

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APRIL 2011VOLUME 115,NUMBER 3Photo Contest Check out our contest winners on p.11Also insideDiamondsp. 4 Union p. 14 Genesp. 26EngineeringEXPO.wisc.edu1 APRIL 2011Published by the students of the University of Wisconsin-Madison VOLUME 115,NUMBER 3 APRIL 2011FeatureCommentaryGeneralDiamonds: A researchers best friendDiscovering the applications these gems have on a nanoscale.By Melly Meyer48 Greenhouse: living under one roofe GreenHouse learning community provides students a unique opportunity to experience a greener and more sustainable living, all from their very own dorm room.By Rachel FeilEarth, wind and waterOshore wind energy may be the next wave of U.S. sustainable energy technology.By Melissa Dettmann16Anatomy of a wind turbineBy Scott Hateld1710 Editorial: News, meet scienceBy Marcus Hawkins28 Just one more: An engineers equation for success.By WE StaCover photo by Ivan Diaz11 The Wisconsin Engineers 4th annual photo contest6 Art and engineering no longer black & whitee elds of art and engineering come together invirtual reality, and they are helping solve the problems of both yesterday and tomorrow.By Kelsey Coleman14 Cutting the ribbone Badger dream house has become a reality.By Alex BeleticHighlights from UW Union historyBy Michelle Trunk20Professor prole: John MurphyFrom researching to teaching: basic engineering to nuclear reactor operation.By Elly Underwood22Running the showLeaders of several engineering student organizations on campus oer a glimpse into their busy lives.By Christina Wallhausser24Not your average pair of genesAt UW-Madison, the exciting eld of biotechnology oers a viable option for manufacturing biofuels.By Andrew Golden262 APRIL 2011The Wisconsin Engineer magazine, a member of the Associated Collegiate Press, is published by students at UW-Madison. Philosophies and opinions expressed in this magazine do not necessarily reect those of the College of Engineering and its management. All interested students have an equal opportunity to contribute to this publication.Faculty Advisor: Steven Zwickel Publisher: American Printing Company, Madison, WI Web address: http://www.wisconsinengineer.comCorrespondence: Wisconsin Engineer Magazine; 1550 Engineering Drive; Madison, WI 53706 Phone: (608) 262-3494 E-Mail: wiscengr@cae.wisc.edu The Wisconsin Engineer is published four times yearly in September, November, February and April by the Wisconsin Engineering Journal Association.Subscription is $12 for one year. All material in this publication is copyrighted.www.wisconsinengineer.comwiscengr@cae.wisc.edu (608)262-3494 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706is year we received more than double the en-tries for our annual photo contest (see page 11) than ever before. e rst thing I wanted to do in this issue is thank everyone who participated forhelpingusmaketheeventsuchasuccess! Becauseofthephotocontestexcitement,the Aprilissuewasalotoffuntoworkon.Inap-preciation of our stas eager eorts to develop an excellent nal product, we decided to print it in full color to showcase their hard work. NotonlyisthisAprilexcitingforourmaga-zine,butfortheentiresouthwestendofcam-pus. With the grand opening of the new Union SouthonApril15(seepage14)andthebi-annualEngineeringExpothesameweekend, there is more hustle and bustle around the en-gineering campus than usual.Thelargeamountofresourcesputintothe developmentofthenewunionappearsto ref lectanefforttobringmorevisitorsand campuscommunitymemberstothewest endofcampus.Whatusedtobethatdoom-ing block of Dayton Street with a coal plant, scarytwo-storyapartmentcomplex,run-down computer science buildings and void of absolutelyanygreenspaceisnowhometoa multi-million dollar research facility, an un-deniably beautiful and state of the art enter-tainment center for students and a Subway. I must say, its about time the Engineering and computer sciences campus gets the attention and cuisine it deserves.In general, UW-Madison has had a reputation acrossthenationforitspoliticalatmosphere andliberalartsdisciplines.Withthemost commonmajoroncampusbeingCommuni-cationArts,itsnosecretthatthereisamajor dierenceintheamountofstudentsthatare inEngineeringHallversustheHumanities buildingatanysinglepointintime.ereis probably a good amount of students that dont even know that there is a nuclear reactor in the Mechanical Engineering building (see page 22).If there is anything I have become more aware of in my three years with the magazine, it is the amazingamountofground-breakingresearch on this campus. It is refreshing to see the people who run UW-Madison take actions to encour-age visitors and students of all disciplines that tend to gravitate towards State Street to instead, move west near the homely block of Engineer-ing Drive. By Melody PiersonLetter from the editors3 APRIL 2011WISCONSIN ENGINEER STAFFEditors-in-Chief:Melody PiersonVictoria YakovlevaBusiness Head:Danielle ShepardCirculation: Wani Juzaimi Joe PowellCopy Editor:Elzbieta BeckFinance:Raul GarayYang LiRyan SyllaGraphic Design Editors:Alex MarconnetTom BernathPhotography Editors:Brian MogenWeb Heads:Joe KohlmannEric HarrisWriting Editors:Marcus HawkinsLauren KernAdvertising:Mary MatoneRoxanne WienkesPhotography:Dani DewittAdam DirczDanny HwongSara KarrakerRobin KraidichSean MetcalfBrian MogenMark TraderTravis ZehrenPublic Relations:Trevor BoothGraphic Design:Jessica BraunLinc HanElizabeth JurgensChandresh SinghMarita ThouWeb:Elise GarmsWriting:Alex BeleticKelsey ColemanMelissa DettmannRachel FeilAndrew GoldenScott HateldMelly MeyerMichelle TrunkElly UnderwoodChristina WallhausserPhoto by Brian Mogen4 APRIL 2011Theconceptofbirthstonestwelveluxuriousjewelsas-signedtoeachmonthof theyeardatesbackthousandsof years.Olderyet,isthediamond, denotedasthebirthstoneofApril andamongthemostdesirable gemstones.eirname,originat-ingfromtheGreekwordadamas, meansinvincible.Diamondsare thehardestandmostwear-resis-tantmaterialknowntoman.ey areauniqueformofcarbonin which its atoms arrange themselves inanabnormallyconnedcrystal structure.Atstandardpressure,a diamondwillconverttocommon graphiteaerafewbillionyears. is eternality of the dazzling gems alludestotheirextensiveusein thejewelryindustryandvalidates thestatementdiamondsarefor-ever.However,thisastounding jewel has also caught the eye of re-searchers.Withastrikingarrayof properties, including high thermal conductivity,electricalresistivity, chemicalinertness,biocompatibil-ity and a low coecient of friction, diamonds are no longer only t for ones ring nger!Along with these astounding prop-ertiescomesonemajordrawback: rarity.Atleastuntilrecently,that is. In the 1980s, Japanese scientists developedaprocessofcreatinga diamond-likecarbon(DLC)us-ingatechniquecalledchemical vapordeposition.isprocess entails a chamber heating a hydro-carbonprecursorandanexcess amountofhydrogengasusinga hotlament.Asthemoleculesof thesesubstancesbreakapart,car-bonatomsdepositthemselvesas thin lms of graphite and diamond onthebottomofthechamber. Hydrogenplasmaisalsocreated, which etches away the graphite and leavesbehindalayerofDLConly afew-hundrednanometersthick. Interestingly,theJapaneseinitially usedsakeasthesourceofhydro-carbonsandlaterGeneralElectric reproducedthisfeatusingJack Danielswhiskey.Suddenly,ama-terialalmostidenticaltodiamond in structure and properties was be-ing produced with relative ease and costeciency,revolutionizingthis materialinthesamemannerthat materials such as steel and plastics have been in the past. is discov-erysparkedworld-wideinterest amongresearchersandcompelled themtoinvestigatethepotential applications DLC might have. Oneoftheresearchersquickto investigatetheusesofthismate-rial was Kumar Sridharan, a distin-guished research professor of engi-neeringphysicsatUW-Madison. Intheearly1990s,Sridharanwas partofaresearchteamthatdevel-opedamethodofapplyingacoat-ingofDLCtothree-dimensional surfacesusingaplasma-based process developed by John Conrad, retireddistinguishedprofessorof engineeringphysicsatUW-Mad-ison.isapplicationtechnique allowed[them]totakeathree-dimensionalobject,likeasphere, andcoatallsidesofituniformly, rather than only coating what is in theline-of-sight,Sridharansays. HeassertsthisUWresearchteam wasthersttopairthismethod withdiamond-likecarbonmate-rial:Wehavealwaysdeposited thinlmsonmaterials,butnever hadthisnon-line-of-sightmethod been used to deposit DLC coatings on objects.is advance is notable becauseSridharanandcollabora-tors are now able to use this method on nanoscale technology. Recently,Sridharancollaborated withresearchersfromtheUni-versityofPennsylvaniaandIBM tofurtherinvestigatetheusesof DLC.eresults?Notonlydid theydiscoveranotherapplication for this incredibly strong material, buttheresearchersalsoforged asimpleandecientprocessof manufacturingnanoscaletools made entirely of diamond-like car-bon.IBMresearchersrstetched miniscule, pyramid-shaped molds onsiliconmicrocantilevers.Srid-haranthenaccuratelylledthese nanometerscalepitswithsilicon-dopeddiamond-likecarbon, castingnanoscaletipsthathave advantageousapplicationsinthe areasofatomic-forcemicroscopy, nanolithography, data storage, and nanomanufacturing. Sridharanandhiscollaborators wereespeciallyinterestedinhow thisnewmaterialwearsincom-parison to the current standard for nanomanufacturing,silicon.By performing a series of tests on these tips, they were able to observe fric-DiamondsPhoto courtesy of: Dr. SridharanA Researchers Best FriendPhotographof acetylene plasma used as precursor of deposition of diamond-like carbon lms.5 APRIL 2011tionatafundamentallevel.One oen does not see the very elemen-tarymechanismofweare cracksanddefectsthatcontribute to the wear process is what one nor-mally sees. One never understands thewearprocessonaveryfunda-mentalscale,becauseoftheinher-entdefectsinmaterials.Onceyou create a tip like thiswhich almost reaches a width of a few atoms at the tipthen wear can actually be ob-served,atombyatom.Sridharan and his collaborators found the sil-icon-containingdiamond-likecar-bontipstobeapproximatelythree thousandtimesmorewear-resis-tant than the silicon tips, which he says is very eective in compari-son to the current standard. Nevertheless,researchersatUW-Madisonarestillstrivingtohone thecuttingedgeofthisnewap-plicationmethod.Howprecisely diamond-likecarboncoatingis depositedtoasurfaceisverycriti-califweusethewrongparam-eters, graphite might develop or the lm may not adhere to the surface, Sridharansays.AlongsideSrid-haran, Frank Pfeerkorn, associate professorofmechanicalengineer-ing, is investigating this concern for depositionofnanocrystallinedia-mondcoatings.ebottomline revolvesaroundhowweprepare thesurfacethatwewanttogrow thediamondon,Pfeerkornsays. Currently,mostcuttingtoolsare made of tungsten carbide, of which thereisalwayscobaltatthegrain boundaries.Cobaltreactschemi-cally with diamond and fosters the formationofgraphite.Tradition-ally, an acid is used to etch away this cobalt layer. However, such minute tools are severely weakened by this acid. And this is where [Sridharan] comesin.Heusesamethodof bombardingthetungstencarbide surfacewithcarbonionsusingthe same process he uses for depositing DLClms,Pfeerkornsays.is methodhasbeensuccessfulinim-provingtheadhesionofnanocrys-tallinediamondtothetungsten carbidesurface,thoughtherea-soningbehindwhyisnotyetfully understood. e researchers specu-latethatthecarbonionseitherre-act with cobalt to make carbide, or pushitbelowthesurface.Weare not perfect at doing this, but we are improving. It is certainly a work in progress, Pfeerkorn says.Moreover,researchersarending anarrayofappealingusesforthis syntheticdiamond.Forinstance, it is now being used to improve mi-cro-cutting tools.ese tools have thepotentialtoonedaycreatethe constantlyshrinkingmachinery usedinallmanufacturingindus-tries.Becausewereputtingdown materialatombyatombyatom, Sridharansays,DLCcoatingsare very amenable to coating very small devicessuchasmicro-electrome-chanical machines.Beyondcoatingsformachinetools, Sridharan sees potential for synthet-icdiamondcoatingsinmedicalap-plications. He explains that diamond asabiomaterialexhibitshighbio-compatibilityandpositivebioactiv-ity, giving it the potential to be used asacoatingfornon-biocompatible implants and surgery tools.Furthermore,diamondisthebest conductor of heat in existence. is propertyisbeingexploitedinsyn-theticdiamondcomputerchips, whichrapidlyshedtheheatthey producewhileoperating,allowing the chips to be arranged closer and more eciently. Synthetic diamond computerchipscouldonedaybe foundineverydaydeviceslike phones, cars and appliances.Clearly, researchers have unleashed the endless potential of diamond to be a revolutionary gem in areas such as industrial technology, nanoman-ufacturing,andbioengineering.A potentialthatleavesonethingis certainAprilsbirthstoneisno longer simply a girls best friend or an ornament for her nger. Article by: Melly MeyerDesign by: Elizabeth JurgensHigh magnication image of a monolithic Si-DLC tip with potential uses nanofabrication.Photo courtesy of: Dr. SridharanCredit Courses at a DistanceTake on-campus engineering courses via the Internet, in areas including: ; Biomedical engineering; Chemical and biological engineering ; Electrical and computer engineering; Mechanical engineering (controls and polymers); Technical Chinese; Technical JapaneseVisit epd.engr.wisc.edu/ccd to learn more.Masters Degrees at a Distance; Master of Engineering in Technical Japanese; Master of Engineering in Polymer Engineering and Science; Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Master of Science in Mechanical EngineeringVisit distancedegrees.engr.wisc.edu to learn more.Contact us today to learn more:800-462-0876 or 608-262-5516 or custserv@epd.engr.wisc.eduDepartment of Engineering Professional Development6 APRIL 2011e Lost Leonardo - ItalyFivehundredyearsago, LeonardoDaVincipainted abeautifullyviolentscene depictingtheclashoftheMilan andFlorencearmies-eBattle of Anghiari, a priceless work of art whichiswidelybelievedtohave been destroyed just y years later, whenGiorgioVasariremodeled thePalazzoVecchio.Maurizio Seracini,adiagnosticianofItal-ianart,doesnotagree.Hedoes notthinkthelostLeonardoislost atall,hebelievesthepaintingre-mainsunharmedbehindthewall paintingofVasari.Seracinihas beenworkingforoverthirtyyears toproveeBattleofAnghiari stillexists.KevinPonto,aPhD candidateatUW-Madison,had the opportunity to take part in the searchwhileearninghisMasters degree at UC-San Diego in art and engineering,anexclusivedegree thatwasoeredforaverylimited time.e obstacle is that the Vasari painting is painted on a brick wall. We needed a technology powerful enough to look through a painting and a brick wall, but not too power-fulastobypassapaintingbehind the brick wall, Ponto says.Seracinihascompiledalarge amountofevidencethatmakesa personwonderwhetherthelost Leonardo is lost at all.Giorgio Va-sari had a history of preserving the works of other artists.And Vasari had good reason to fear the paint-ingwouldbeotherwisedestroyed because the ruler in Florence at the time had expressed his disapprov-al of the Da Vinci painting since it honoredtheformergovernment. Vasarimayhaveevenleatrail behindtoleadfutureartiststo the painting.On one of the ags inthepaintingthewordsCerca Trova are written which translates toSeekandyeshallnd,says Ponto.Pontoalsosayshisteam discoveredtechniquesintheVa-saripaintingontheoppositewall whichseemedtomimicthoseof Da Vinci.It was as if Vasari was lookingoverhisshoulderatthe Da Vinci while he painted his rst piece.epiecedepictsweapons thatwouldnothavebeenusedin this time period, Ponto says.rough the use radar equipment, microwaves were shot at the walls. eradardetectedaone-inchair gap behind the Vasari painting on the East wall, although there were noairgapsdetectedbehindany other walls in the Palazzo Vecchio. Seracinibelievestheairgapwas le by Vasari with the intention of preservingtheDaVincipainting. is mysterious gap is hard to ex-plain but does not prove there is a pricelesspieceofartlyingbehind the wall.ey now have the abil-ity to move the brick wall without harming the Da Vinci or the Vasa-Art and Engineering no longerblack&whiteArt and engineering, initially the two words seem like paradoxes.Art is most often associated with creative thinking and freedom of expression, whereas engineering conjures images of bridges and concrete, analytical thinking.Yet the unique combination of the two disciplines has started to become more common than one might think.In Italy, at the Palazzo Vecchio, a group of engineers are using technology to uncover a Da Vinci painting thought to have been lost forever.In Madison, a group of art majors and computer science majors have enrolled in the rst virtual real-ity course to be oered at UW-Madison.The course is allowing the students to gain exposure to creating and interacting virtual realities.Virtual reality technology has already started to become a valuable resource to the eld of research and has enormous potential to improve many elds of research.At UW-Madison, a ight simulation lab already employs the use of virtual reality to improve pilot training.The elds of art and engineer-ing are no longer as conicting as black and white, instead they have blended and merged two elds that most consider polar opposites. PhD. candidate Chris Johnson uses real-time weather data to improve the quality of ight simulators to increase pilot adaptability while decreasing training costs.7 APRIL 2011ripainting,Pontosays,butthis processwouldcostanunbeliev-ableamountofmoney.Forthis reason, they need to be certain the Da Vinci is there before they move anywalls.Provingwhatliesbe-hind a brick wall without the abil-itytoseethroughbrickwallscan become a frustrating task.In fact, Pontotellsastoryofamanwho became so frustrated with the task that he decided to cut a hole right through the Vasari painting.Un-fortunately,themanwaslargely misinformedashecutaholein the West wall rather than the East wall.Sincethenthepaintinghas beenrepairedbutPontosayshe couldstillseewherethepainting had been amended.Pontobelievesthelatestplanto provethelostDaVinciliesbe-hindthewallmaynallyprovide substantial evidence.Seracini has developedatoolthatcandetect neutronsthatbouncebackaer havingcollidedwithhydrogen atoms.ItisknownthatDaVinci used unique materials such as lin-seedoilandresin,bothofwhich areorganicmaterialsandcontain anabundanceofhydrogen.Sera-ciniplanstosendabeamofneu-trons through the Vasari painting, hopingitwillindicatethepres-ence of hydrogen behind the wall. At present the search is at a stand-still.Frequent changes in govern-ment have caused a lot of problems for Seracini and his team.ough, Pontoclaried,noneofthefund-ingfortheprojecthascomefrom thegovernment.Allofthefund-ing has come from private donors hopingSeraciniwilleventually solve a ve hundred year mystery. eyareallhopingthatcutting-edgeengineeringtechnologyis theanswertonallyrecovering thenestpieceofartworkfrom the Renaissance period.e Flight SimulatorI wouldnt call this virtual re-ality.e issues I am work-ingwithareverymuch real.I would call it more of a virtual experience,saysChrisJohnson,a PhDcandidate,whoworksinthe ightsimulationlabatUW-Madi-son, where he is working to improve ight simulation techniques.Origi-nally, ight simulators were used to determine the most ecient design of cockpit displays, and until recent-ly,theresearchfocushasbeenon thetechnologybehindthesimula-tors.eresearchprojectJohnson isworkingonliesoutsideofprevi-ous scopes.He is looking at how pi-lots react to changing weather con-ditions.Johnsonbelievesweather isanimportantfactorthatalotof peopleoverlookwhensimulating ight. When pilots are working to-ward their license they are not read-ily exposed to potentially dangerous weatherconditions.Ifvisibilityis less than ideal students are not taken out to y. Atpresent,mostsimulatorsare designedsotheweathercondi-tionsthepilotexperiencesduring thesimulationarecontrolledby theinstructorandaresomewhat ofanaerthought.Infact,the weatherradiointhesesimulators hasnorealfunction.eight instructor must wait until they see thepilottunetothecorrectradio station and then recite the ctional forecastintoamicrophoneinthe backoftheroom.Notonlydoes thisdistracttheinstructorfrom observingthepilot,italsotakes away from the reality of the simu-lation.ethingaboutvirtual reality is that it isnt real, Johnson says,andthepilotsthatcomein hereknowthat,theyknowthey cant actually get hurt.It is my job tosuspendthatdisbelief.John-son uses historical weather data to generaterealisticandunpredict-ableweatherpatterns.eradio inhissimulatorisprogrammed toprovideaccurateweatherfore-casts and uses an automated radio voice.enaturalweatherpat-terns help to make the experience morerealisticforthepilot,along withthemotionofthesimulator which shakes you around as if you may actually crash.Johnsonhashadnearlyallofthe pilotsinahundredmileradius come to use his simulator and has, forthemostpart,seentheresults he expected.Most pilots panicked and made errors when the weather changed.Johnson,apilothim-self, admits most pilots are alpha-males,meaningtheywalkinto thelaboverlycondenttheycan handleanything.Yet,Johnson saystherehavebeenseveralcases where pilots have not been able to landtheplaneandwereforcedto quit.And the best part is he cap-tures all of their panicked motions andfrightenedexpressionsona webcammountedonthefrontof the simulator.Overall,simulationhasimproved pilotperformance,decreasingthe numberofaccidentswhileatthe samereducingthecostsoftrain-ing.Pilots in training are no longer takingtheirrstightbehindthe controls of a real plane; using simu-lation takes away the risk of crash-ingarealplane.Johnsonwillbe atUW-Madisonforanotheryear andahalf,duringwhichhehopes to do more research to continue to improve ight simulation.He also mentionedtheprospectofapart-nershipwiththemedicalsimula-tion lab at UW-Hospitals.e idea isthattogethertheycansimulate helicopteremergencymedicalser-viceswhichrequireuniqueteam-workbetweentheightteamand the medical team.Article: Kelsey ColemanDesign: Linc HanPhotography: Sean Metcalfe thing about virtual reality is that it isnt real... It is my job to suspend that disbelief.- Chris JohnsonJohnson walks a user through the ight simulators life-life interface.8 APRIL 2011MoveoverAmericans NextTopModel, somestudentson campusarehittingtherunway withwrinkle-creasedsweat-shirts,dicedjeans,andused baggyT-shirtscutingeometric patterns.Doesyourresidence hallmaketripstothelocal Dig&Savetobuytenpounds apieceofrecycledclothesfor fashionshows?Ifyouhavent walked down a runway wearing jeanswithsewn-onclothf lora, youprobablydontliveinUW-Madisons newest learning com-munity, the GreenHouse. Weve allheardaboutthelearning communitieslikeChadbourne orBradley,butifyouhavent pickedupahousingpacketin a while, you might be surprised tofindouttheGreenHouseis basedonlivingsustainablyand going green. Locatedonthefirstf loor ofColeResidenceHall,the GreenHousecommunitylooks likeanyotherf loorinadorm. It opened for the first time this yeartoallagesofresidents offeringanenvironmentally friendlycommunity.Residents haveheldhands-onactivities suchasfashionshowsfromre-cycledoroldclothing,weekly craftnights,compostingin their own rooms, bonfires, and canoe trips on Lake Mendota. eGreenHouseoersone creditenvironmentalseminars onglobalmeals,environmen-taljusticeandengineering.e globalmealseminar,according toresidentDaynaHashemi,has made her think about eating the rightfood.Itinvolvesknowing whereyourfoodcomesfrom, andtakingtimetomakeyour ownfood.Lastsemester,one oftheGreenHouseclassesput upasolarpanelontheroofofa gardeningshed.GiriVenkata-ramanan,aprofessorinelectri-calandcomputerengineering, partneredwiththeGreenHouse thisyear.Girisaysthatgarden-ersatnightcouldntworkin the shed and people clamored to return tools because of the lack of lighting. Taking the initiative, GreenHouse students rose to the challenge.Byresearchingmate-rials,constructingadesignand spending many hours in the ma-chine shop, a solar panel was cre-ated. Looking back on the expe-rience, Giri says the GreenHouse studentsreceivedahandson experience on construction: cut-tinggoingshoppingforhard-ware,orrunningelectricity. Students made an impact on the gardeningcommunityinEagle HeightsandGirisaysthatthe new solar panel is a resource of the community and will be there for decades.Back to the GreenHouse in Cole itself,eventhecouchesinthe denwerepickedoutwithsus-tainabilityinmind.Oneofthe residentsthere,MaraTaft,says the couches are made from sev-enty percent recycled materials. Mara,whoisanupperclass-menlivingintheGreenHouse, thinks that Its a good environ-mentforresidentstoencourage eachothertobeenvironmen-tally friendly. Whatstandsoutmostinthe GreenHousearethecommit-ted, driven individuals who live behind every door. Lucas Boyle, whoservesasRAinthecom-munity,saysthathisresidents areallreallymotivatedstu-dentsthataregranderscheme environmentalists.Forex-GreenHouseLiving green under one roof9 APRIL 2011ample,lastsemesteroneofthe residentsnoticedalotofwaste atfootballgames.Thatresident broughtittoLucasattention. Soon after, fifteen GreenHous-ers,(Lucasnicknameforhis residents) started to help restore CampRandallafterfootball games.Alsoalongtheselines, everthinkofsharingthattwo footfridgeinyourdormwith someone other than your room-mate? Some residents have come up with the idea to share fridges between rooms to save energy. Tokeepbusythissemester,the GreenHouserswillfinishpaint-ingamuralintheirGreenRe-source Room. Michael Babcock, aresidentwhohasusedthe room,saystheGreenResource roomalreadyservesasahang-outspotwhereresidentscan relax,meetwiththeirGreen-Houseleaders,orfindsome booksandresourcesabout environmentalsubjects.While the mural project is indoors, the GreenHouse is already planning outdoorprojectstotakeadvan-tageofthespringweather.One of the seminars will even involve workingoncreatingacom-postabletoilet.Itdoesntstop there. GreenHouse students will make changes to a wind turbine inMadisonsWestAgricultural fieldstation.OneofthePBC blades,whichkeeptheturbine running,brokeoff.Nowitsup to a few of the GreenHouse stu-dents, working side by side with otherengineeringstudents,to fix them. Students will be work-ingonredesigningtheblades to make them light and strong, says Giri. Nodoubt,residentsinthe GreenHousehaveaunique communityoverf lowingwith opportunities. The seventy resi-dentswhomakeupthistight-knitcommunitysupporteach otherinmakingenvironmental decisions.Withtheirfirstyear comingtoaclose,wecanonly awaitwhatnewprojectsthe GreenHouseresidentswilltake onnextandwhatinf luenceliv-ing there for a year will have on their futures.Article by:Rachel FeilDesign by: Jessica BraunPhotography by: Danielle DewittReusingplasticbottlesisjustanotherprojectforthe GreenHouserswhoarealsoworkingonawindturbine,keepingCampRandall clean, and compostable toilets.Take10% Off Any OrderOver $20At Silver Mine Subs,We engineer great subs328 W.Gorham St. (608) 286-1000* Does not include tax or delivery fees. May not be combined with any other offers. Expires 6/31/11.10 APRIL 2011Withpublicinterestbouncingbackandforthbetween unrestintheMiddleEastandunrestintheMidwest, early March had enough news stories to overwhelm just abouteverybody.WhereareWisconsins14senatedemocrats?Is Sarah Palin running for President?ese two stories alone could consume hours upon hours and pages upon pages of news stories. Fingers crossed nothing else would happen before the media could get to the bottom of them.March 11th, however, brought the kind of news story that immediately takes center stage, the BAD kind. A record earthquake and 30wall of water rocked Japans east-ern coast.An unprecedented natural disaster caused catastrophic damage and claimed thousands of lives.eFukashimaDai-ichiNuclearPowerPlantalsofellvictim tothedisasterwhenkeybackupsafetysystemswerewipedout, providingenoughbadnewstooutlastthestoryofthousandsof missing Japanese citizens.Despite the fact that the reactors were immediatelyshutdownoncethelargeseismicactivityhadbeen detected, the need to remove decay heat (equivalent to six percent of total power) was still present.Unfortunately, the backup power systems required to remove the heat were inoperable and impro-visation would be needed to keep the reactors cool.As the workers at the plant began taking action to remove the heat andstopanymeltingthatmaybehappeningwithinthecores, something else fell victim to the disaster, the news coverage. Withaknackfordeliveringdoom,newsorganizationsbrought thebadnewswithoutcontextandoccasionallywithoutfacts. BannersreadNuclearExplosionatJapanesePlantdespitethe fact that nuclear chain reactions had been successfully halted days prior.Hosts qualied the reports by stating that they werent sure if the explosions happened within the reactor containment build-ingsornot,causingthemindsofviewerstorunwild.Experts could provide a simple explanation for the explosions, which were actually caused by hydrogen gas, as well as their actual locations (not reactor containment), but the damage had already been done. Radiationlevelswererepeatedwithoutmentionoftheirconse-quences, if any.One mile out to sea, levels of radioactive iodine were over 3,000 times their limit.Terrible, right? Wrong.Radio-active Iodine becomes harmless in a few weeks and the only way it would be causing harm is if the there were herds of shermen within sight of the troubled power plant catching sh and rushing home for dinner.at last part didnt make the news, however. Historically anti-nuclear organization spokespeople were invited onto news shows to explain why nuclear power was just too dan-gers and why they didnt trust the reports that were coming out of Japan, speculating that the situation was actually much worse. Newstodayisanexplosionwithoutdetailsandradiationlevels withoutcontext,notexcessivehydrogenbuildupandlimited healthimpacts.Badnewsgetstheratingsandsellspapers,and news organizations know this.Inanindustryso heavilyinuenced bypublicpercep-tion,comments likethesecanbe trulydevastating. Nothingexempli-esthatfactbetter thantheactions takeninresponse tothenewsstories thatbrokeasthe disastercontinued to unfold.Publicoverreactiontookowithinminutesandcouldbeseen happening all over the world.In the U.S., there was a laughable spike in Geiger counter sales and the shelves of pharmacies were wipedoftheirsupplyofIodinetablets.InGermany,sevenre-actorswereshutdownforreview,costingenergycompaniesan estimated$800million.iswasespeciallytellingconsidering therevivalofGermanysnuclearindustrywassetintomotion just two years earlier by the very same Chancellor, Angela Merkel, who would bring it screeching to a halt.Ofcoursetheworldshouldlearnasmuchasitcanfromthis terribletragedyandtakeallopportunitiestoimproveuponthe nuclearindustrysalreadystellarsafetyrecord.Forexample,a potential improvement on the use of spent fuel pools is currently under review in the U.S.Common sense improvements that take into account actual (not perceived) risks should be considered and implemented if deemed necessary to ensure public safety.Overreaction needs to be avoided.We cannot abandon the nu-clear renaissance or add unnecessary costs that do not actually improvesafety.Expansionofnuclearpowerisstillseenasthe only reasonable way to reduce carbon emissions without increas-ingthecostsofelectricitytounacceptablelevels.Iflicensere-newals for nuclear plants in California and New York are denied, we will be forgoing the extremely cheap and clean electricity that these plants can provide for an additional 20 years.Meanwhile, the U.S. continues to operate decades-old coal plants that provide uswithenoughpollutiontocause24,000prematuredeathsper year.Ifnewsorganizationswouldhavetreatedthissubjectwiththe amountofcautionandsensitivitythatthemembersofitsin-dustryutilizeonadailybasis,amuchmorelogicalapproachto our energy challenges would be possible.Until it becomes com-monplace for news organizations to take their time before doling out another helping of doom, an entire industry will be le at the whims of irrational fears.Editorial by: Marcus HawkinsNews, Meet Science.11 APRIL 2011Oaxaca, MexicoIvan DiazAccording to locals, this airplane was shot down by the Mexican army because it was carrying drugs. It was just left there and is becoming buried little by little.RachelKat CameronMy little cousin and I were never really good friends until she discovered that I liked to take pictures and I discovered that she liked to have her picture taken. Grand Prize - Runner upGrand Prize - WinnerThe Wisconsin Engineers4th Annual Photo ContestThai PavilionAndrew FindoraThis shot of the Thai Pavilion in Olbrich Botanical Gardens actually required a composite of two exposures to balance the brightness of the building and reection. The pool of water is usually quite still, but a child happened to fall in while I was taking the bracketed exposures for this shot, causing the distorted reection in the water. Image taken with a Pentax K-20D, composited and processed in Adobe Photoshop CS5.Abe LincolnVasishta GantiMost of us UW students see him everyday. But how many of us feel for poor Lincoln sitting in Madison without a winter jacket? Actually, he enjoys it a lot. That is the reason he doesnt budge from his place. A dierent perspective of our very own Abraham Lincoln on Bascom Hill during a snow storm.MiscellaneousStill lifeOne Last StandThai NguyenI was on a bus ride from Da Nang to Hue which is where my family is from. The bus stopped for a break and to refuel. As the bus was stopped, this boy who was probably no older than 5 years old came riding up to us on a water bualo. In Vietnam, everyone will do everything possible to make a little money for their family because this region is quite poor. This ranges from selling lottery tickets, packs of gum, or simply begging. This courageous kid decided to ride on his water bualo to wow us instead.Miner cemeteryIvan DiazThis picture was taken in the high plains of Bolivia. The miner cemetery on the way tothe base camp of Huyana Potosi (19,974 ft), the mountain in the background.PortraitLandScape14 APRIL 2011Mark your calendar. e hour is nigh. On April 15th, 2011, UW-Madisons new Union South opens its doors. In2006,asaresultofUWstudentvotes,the Union Building Project was instated. e idea wastorestoreMemorialUnionandkeepties to past and tradition, as well as completely de-molish and redo Union South in order to push towardsthefuture.enewUnionSouthis modern and chic. Every detail has been consid-ered in devising the optimal student hang-out. Last year, a campus-wide competition was held tocomeupwithanameforthenewunionon the south end of campus. Over 500 names were submitted,includingBadgerBurrow,Union ShmunionandVarsityUnion.InMarch,the Associated Students of Madison, UWs student governmentorganization,narrowedthelist down to four potential names. e Union South won, aer a campus wide vote. Notably, Randall Union came in second place with 6,427 votes.ebuildingislocatedon1308WDayton. 1308isthenameoftheartmuseumthatis cleverlyplacednearwindowstoshowothe art pieces to outside pedestrians along with in-side observers. Senior civil engineer Brian Meister accom-panied me on a pre-opening tour around the building. We are so lucky that the new union is right next door to engineering campus. I wish it had opened sooner, but the place looks great. All its missing is a lake! says Meister. Maybe this area wont be notori-ously referred to as Nerd-Land any longer.estudentloungeareahasbeennamedTHE SETT.ASettisaBadgersdenandtheinspira-tion to the multileveled, spacious and tunnel-like union. e three story fun zone has a rock climb-ing wall, eight bowling lanes, pool tables, a mas-sivestageand,ofcourse,foodandbeer!Partof the old Kohl Center oor is appended to the wall: a strong reminder of the distinguished UW ath-letic programs and, more so, the proud campus.e Venetian maroon, dark blue and burnt ochre colored walls provide an up-class, yet homey, feel totherstoor.Alongwithanelegantcoee houseandwinebar,therearethreeUnion-run restaurantsonthisoor,apizzeria,PanAsian, and a sandwich shop. Huge windows let in glori-ousamountsofnaturallight:whichwillbeap-preciated during those limited daylight hours in the winter. ere are three replaces, one of which is twelve feet long! Moreover, there is outdoor and indoor seating. e patio is named e Roost because oftheroostingpigeonstatuemountedonthe second oor outside seating. Hopefully, Badgers wont try and eat it. UnionSouthwasdesignedtobesustainable, aswellaseconomicallyandenvironmentally friendly.LEED(LeadershipinEnergyandEn-vironmentalDesign)isacerticationprogram that helped mediate the design and creation of a Green Union South. LEED has dierent levels of sustainability and Union South, as it is now, has been designated as LEED Gold. In order to obtain this level the building was designed to use about 40% less water and 37% less energy use than the average building of its size. A few of the sustain-able features include: natural ventilation, natural stormwaterreservoirs,highperformanceglass andoptimizedwallandroofinsulation.During the design process, there was an emphasis on us-ing local materials to reduce transportation cost, aswellaskeepingthemoneylocal.Mostofthe wooden oors are recycled wood from old Wis-consinbarns,muchofthefurnitureisrecycled from around campus and the beige stone on the central, dominant replace comes from Mosinee, Wisconsin (less than two and a half hours away).Thereisonlyoneotherstudentunionthat reachestheLEEDGoldlevel:theUniversity of Vermonts. e building is designed to aid student life. A Do-ITHelpDeskandlounge,onthesecondoor, willhaveatroubleshootingdeskandanareato do homework. ere are seventeen meetingroomsthataredesignedforstudent organizations,alongwithamovietheaterlled with Badger-red seats. New Union South: A Badgers dream houseCutting the RibbonThe Union South is home to these restaurants.The new Union South.15 APRIL 2011An11,000sqbanquetroomandhotelare also present, but hidden. ey will remain fairly unknownandaremostlydesignedforvisiting guests and large events. TaralindaGunshuegaveusanindepthtour. roughher,thehardworkandamountof thoughtputintomakingUnionSouthwasevi-dent.Sheexplaineddesigntouchesthatillus-tratedtheamountofthoughtineverydetail, such as the laborious placement of 20,000 screws in the grand staircase, and the meticulous time-consuming work in placing the wallpaper in the badgermarket.isplacewasnoteasilymade, butthankstothededicateddesigners,workers and students, it has become a reality. And, now, ITS OPENED! So Ready, Sett, Go!One of the three replaces located directly in front of the coeehouse and wine bar. The dining and dancing area of the Sett, located on the ground level.Article by: Alex BeleticDesign by:Marita ThouPhotography by: Travis Zehren16 APRIL 2011TheGreatLakespossessanumberof uniqueecologicalfeatures.Collective-ly,theGreatLakescontainthelargest surfaceareaoffreshwaterintheworld.e worldslargestfreshwaterdunesborderLake Michigan, and the Great Lakes provide the last remaining habitat for certain species, such as the white catspaw pearly mussel. However, the GreatLakeshavenotalwaysprosperedfrom interactionswithitshumanneighbors.Sev-eralinvasivespecies,suchaszebramussels, arrived in via cargo boats, which have caused anestimatedvebilliondollarsindamage. Likewise,someenvironmentalgroupshave expressedconcernsaboutthenextman-fa-cilitatedvisitortoLakeErie,whosepresence will set another milestone in the Great Lakes. Around2012,LakeEriewillbecomethesite oftherstfreshwateroshorewindturbines in the world.eproposedprojectinLakeErie,acollabo-rationbetweenGeneralElectric(GE)and LakeErieEnergyDevelopmentCompany (LEEDCo),consistsofvedirect-drivewind turbinesbasedonatechnologythatGEac-quiredfromaNorwegiancompanynamed ScanWind.Situatedsixmilesnorthofthe ClevelandBrownsStadium,the250foottall turbineswillsupplyenoughpowerfor6,000 homes with an estimated construction cost of $80-100million.LEEDCohopestoincrease the generating capacity from 20 megawatts in 2012to1000megawattsby2020.eproject will help lead other sites of U.S. oshore wind energyprojectedtooperatewithinthenext fewyears.Oneofthelargestprojects,Cape Wind,willgenerate486megawattswith130 turbineslocatedinNantucketSound,Mas-sachusetts.Variousotherpropositionsalong theEasternCoastoftheU.S.andtheGulfof Mexico remain in preliminary stages. Despite these future prospects, the U.S. trails therestoftheworldinoshorewindenergy. e U.S. currently has no operational oshore wind turbines, in contrast to a large presence ofthistechnologyinEurope.In2009,the U.K.generated1.3gigawattsfromoshore wind turbines, more than the rest of the world combined. Other top contributors to oshore windenergygenerationincludeDenmarkat 854megawattsandtheNetherlandsat249 megawatts.Withmorecountriessuchasthe UnitedStatesandChinajoiningEuropeto adopt oshore wind energy, worldwide capac-ity is expected to grow from 3.16 gigawatts in 2010 to 75 gigawatts in 2020.eslowresponseoftheU.S.inimplement-ingoshorewindenergycanbeprimarily attributedtoweakergovernmentincentives. SeveralEuropeangovernmentssuchasBel-gium,France,andtheNetherlandsinvested moneytoguaranteehighbuybackpricesfor electricityproducedbyoshorewindenergy, withxedpricesuptotenyears.Incontrast, theU.S.currentlylacksanationalbuyback schemeforoshorewindenergy.Statewide incentiveshaveencounteredresistanceand variability,suchasaproposed0.244dollars per kilowatt-hour tari deemed too expensive bythePublicUtilityCommissionofRhode Island. e absence of a stable incentive struc-ture has discouraged companies from making the long-term investment in oshore wind en-ergy in the U.S. OshorewindturbinesintheU.S.,suchas the Cape Wind project proposed in 2001, have also drawn public opposition. e Cape Wind project has encountered lengthy resistance be-causeofpotentialscenicobstructions,before gaining federal approval in 2010. Most recent-ly,NativeAmericangroupshaveexpressed theiroppositiononthegroundsthatCape Windwouldobscuretheirviewofthesun duringreligiousceremoniesdespitesimula-tionresultsthatpredictthattheCapeWind turbines would protrude from the horizon no more than 0.5 in when viewed from the near-est beach in Cape Cod. eproblemsofimplementingoshorewind energyintheU.S.standincontrasttothe sharpincreaseinU.S.onshorewindenergy. 17 APRIL 2011eU.S.hadaninstrumentalroleinthede-velopmentofwindturbines,withAmerican CharlesF.Buschamongthepioneersofthe technology.In2010,theU.S.generatedmore onshorewindenergythananyothercountry at36,300megawatts,withChinacomingin closesecondat33,800megawatts.Advocates ofonshorewindenergypraiseitszeroemis-sionsandwidespreadapplicationsfrombusi-nesstopersonaluse.Withamaximumtheo-reticaleciencyof59.3percentandtypical capacity factors of 30-40 percent, wind energy surpassesthecapacityofothertypesofsus-tainableenergy,suchassolarpanels,which haveacommercialeciencyofonlyaround 24.5percent.Mostofthesedesirabletraits also apply to oshore wind energy.Inadditiontothesepositivecharacteristics, oshorewindenergymayalsoaddresssome of the shortcomings of its onshore equivalent. Wind turbines require a certain range of wind speeds for eective operation, and many parts of the U.S., such as Wisconsin, lack a favorable meteorologicalclimatethatconsistentlygen-erateswindswithsucientvelocity.Forthis reason, wind energy tends to be concentrated instatessuchasTexasandCalifornia,whose annual outputs of 9403 and 2798 megawatts in 2009, respectively, dwarfed the 449 megawatts produced by Wisconsin over the same period. However,windspeedtendstoincreasewith elevation due to the atmosphere and with dis-tance from the shore due to the decreased sur-face roughness of water, presenting an attrac-tivealternativetostateswithbleakprospects foronshorewindenergy.Inadditiontogen-erating more power from higher wind speeds andtallerturbines,oshorerelocationoen alleviatestheaestheticandnoisecomplaints associatedwithonshorewindturbines.To addresssimilarconcernsinWisconsin,Gov-ernorScottWalkerhasrecentlyproposeda lawthatwouldincreaseminimumdistance ofwindturbinesfrompropertylinesfrom 450to 1800 . e nearly four-fold increase wouldeectivelydismantleallnewonshore windenergyprojectsinWisconsin,which wouldrelocatetomorewelcomingenviron-mentsinotherstatesaccordingtoindustry experts.Oshorewindenergymayrepresent onewayforWisconsintocatchuptoneigh-boringMidwesternstatessuchasMinnesota and Illinois, who have higher outputs of 1810 and 1547 megawatts respectively.Beforethewidespreadadoptionofoshore windenergyintheU.S.,furtherresearchis needed.ComparedtoEurope,somepotential sites on the U.S. western coast reside in deeper waters, which require more expensive technol-ogy. While shallow waters use a steel structure called a monopile to attach the wind turbine to theseabed,deeperwatersrequireanalterna-tive support system because the steel structure becomesexorbitantlyexpensive,complicated, andunstable.Deepwatercomponents,espe-cially those for oating oshore wind turbines, remainatarelativelyearlystageofdevelop-ment.oughbenettingfromthegenerally moreshallowwaterscomparedtothewestern coast,oshorewindturbinesontheeastern coast of the U.S. must contend with an annual hurricaneseasonandvariousshippingchan-nels.eGreatLakesalsopresentadistinct setofproblems:freshwatericehasacrushing strength three times greater than saltwater ice, and most of the shallow water except for Lake Eerieresideswithin15milesofshorewhere the sight of oshore wind turbines may irritate localresidents.eanswerstotheseproblems and others will determine the future of oshore wind energy in the U.S.Article by:Melissa DettmannDesign by:Akhilesh DakinediPhotography by:Mark TraderHyWind being towed from myorden to Karmy; a oating windmill at sea in deep water.Photo courtesy of www.siemens.com18 APRIL 2011Anatomy of an oshore wind turbinee Bladese blades are the parts of the wind tur-bine that transfer the winds momentum to mechanical rotation.Modern oshore windturbineshavethreebladesthat measure between 30 and 40 meters long. As wind passes over the blades, they crate lilikeairplanewings.Unlikeplanes however, in wind turbines, this li is di-rected to cause the blades to rotate.e three blades together constitute the rotor.e Nacellee nacelle is the portion of the wind turbine where the rota-tionoftheblades,causedbythewindsenergy,isconvert-edintoelectricity.enacellehousesseveralcomponents thatworkintandemtoproduceelectricity.First,agear-boxtransferstherelativelyslowrotationofthebladesinto high-speed rotation required for the generator.e genera-tortransformstherotationalenergyfromthegearboxinto electricity.e nacelle also houses sensors and drive motors required to orient the wind turbine so that the blades face the oncoming wind.e Toweretowerislittlemorethanalargetube that supports the nacelle and rotor.Typical oshorewindturbineshavetowerheights between 60 and 80 meters.e tower also actsasaconduitforcablesthatcarrythe electricityfromthegenerator.Last,the towerallowsmaintenanceworkerstoac-cess the nacelle and rotor. e Foundation Alargesteelpiledrivenintothesea bottom supports most oshore wind turbines;thissupportstructureis called a monopole.e monopole is driven between 10 and 20 meters into theseabed,dependingonthedepth ofthewaterandthegeologicnature of the seabed.Citations:http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/guide/wind/index.cfmhttp://offshorewind.net/Other_Pages/Turbine-Diagram.html#19 APRIL 201120 APRIL 20111900191019201930194019501960 Highlights from UW Union historyJune 5th, 1904Former University of Wisconsin President, Charles Van Hise, gives his inaugural address where he calls for the development of a Union building.1925, Armistice DayIt wasnt until 1925 on Armistice Day that the rst shovel of dirt was dug where Memorial Union now stands.October 5th, 1928MemorialUnionopenshowever,womenareexcludedfrom socializing in the Rathskeller.1933Memorial Union becomes the rst public university union tosell3.2%alcoholbeeraerbeinggrantedapprovalby the Board of Regents.1942In 1937 women are allowed in the Rathskeller from 2pm on, however, it wasnt until 1942 that women are granted full access, at any time to the Rathskeller.21 APRIL 2011197019801990200020101971Fewer Walls, More Bridges is the theme of Union Souths opening celebration.2006University of Wisconsin students vote to renovate Memorial Union and rebuild Union South.April 15th, 2011e grand opening of the newly rebuilt Union South. 22 APRIL 2011Whenaskedhisfavorite partofworkingatthe UniversityofWiscon-sinMadison,JohnMurphyof the nuclear engineering and engi-neeringphysicsdepartmenttook lessthanonesecondtorespond, the students.Initiallygraduatingwithade-greeinmathematics,Murphy later went on to receive his mas-tersinmechanicalengineering and then in nuclear engineering. JohnisoriginallyfromFonddu Lac, Wisconsin, and achieved all of his degrees as a Badger here at UWMadison. Aer receiving his masters in me-chanical engineering, John spent a few years of his life working in in-dustry. Having more than one job oerupongraduation,Murphy chosetoworkwithanaerospace companynamedRocketdynein Los Angeles. I was 24 and wanted an adventure, so I took the job in Los Angeles, Murphy says.WhileinCalifornia,Mr.Murphy workedonStrategicDefenseIni-tiative(SDI)experimentsinvolv-ing kinetic kill vehicles. It sounds very sinister, but it is actually just interceptinganincomingmissile with an outgoing missile. It was a veryinterestingjob.Iwasableto workinadvancedprogramsand performmanydierenttypesof calculationsinvolvingengineer-ing functions, John says.Mechanicalengineeringisthe broadesttypeofengineering. Anystudentwhoisunsureas farasengineeringdepartments, Irecommendmechanical.You can do anything with a mechan-icalengineeringdegree,Mur-phy says. AfterexperiencingtheWest coast,Murphydecidedtomove back to Wisconsin. He had a job asanenergymanagementengi-neerwiththeWisconsinPower andLightCompanylinedupas wellasgoalsofstartingafam-ilywithhiswife.Stillhappily married,Johnssonisanowa highschoolstudentinthepro-cessoflookingatcolleges,and hisdaughterisasophomore civil engineering student here at UWMadison. While experiencing the mechani-cal engineering industry, however, Murphyalwayshadthoughtsof nuclear engineering in the back of his mind. He decided to come back to UWMadison for another mas-tersdegree,thistimeinnuclear engineering.Ilovenuclearand Ilovewhatwedoinourdepart-ment, Murphy says. Mechanical engineeringstudentsandnuclear engineeringstudentsaretrained in an extremely similar way. Both backgrounds are very strong. Soonafterreceivinghismas-tersinnuclearengineeringin 1992,Johnstartedworkingfor UWMadison.Hehascertainly made many large and important contributionstotheUniversity since then. Duringthefirsttenyearsofhis careerwithUWMadison,John spent the majority of his time on research projects with professors inthenuclearengineeringand engineering physics department. Murphys main area of study was reactorsafety,tryingtomini-mizeaccidents,Murphysays. I was involved in modeled fuel-coolantinteractions(FCIs)and theeffectofhotmoltenmetallic materialfallingintowaterand potentiallydrivingasteamex-plosion. We want to avoid this in From researching to teaching;nuclear reactor operation to basic engineeringProf.JohnMurphysIntoto Engineeringstudentslearnall aspectsofthedesignprocess, fromsafetyandethicsto fabrication and testing.John Murphy:23 APRIL 2011caseanuclearreactorhasapar-tial fuel melt.Nowfocusedprimarilyonteach-ing,Murphyscurrentroleon campushasallowedhimtoin-teractmorecloselywithhisfa-voriteaspectofUWMadison, thestudents.Johnspendsmost ofhistimeco-coordinatingIntro toEngineering160withpre-en-gineeringadvisor,EmanZaki.In addition,Johnisstartingtoteach powerplanttechnology(NE565), frequentlyhelpswithprinciples andpracticeofnuclearreactor operations (NE234), and instructs seniordesigninthenuclearengi-neeringdepartmentwithProfes-sor Michael Corradini.Nuclearengineering234isafour creditcoursewhichessentially teachesstudentseverythingone mustknowinordertooperate anuclearreactor.Murphyhelps outwithNE234byinstructing theengineeringstudentshowthe operatingconsoleofthenuclear reactorworks.Attheendofthis course,studentsdecidewhether totaketheNuclearRegulatory Commission(NRC)administered licensingexam.Uponpassing thisexam,thestudentsbecome licensed reactor operators and can potentiallyworkatUWMadi-sons reactor. Giving students the chance to op-eratethereactorisaverybene-cialandinstructiveopportunity. UWMadisonsnuclearreactoris about 1/3,000 the size of the aver-agecommercialreactor.Unlike most nuclear reactors it is not used to generate power. Our nuclear re-actorsprimarypurposesinclude education,researchandoutreach for the public education. Despitehisloveforthenuclear engineeringdepartment,John ndshimselfthoroughlyenjoy-ingteachingaclassnotasclosely connectedtohisdepartment,In-trotoEngineering160.Whether itsdesigningrecyclingsolutions, a strawberry picker, re truck rust buster, or a childrens walker, some of the newest engineering students oncampusarealreadybusysolv-ing complex problems in their in-troductory engineering courses. Takenbyabout550freshman engineeringstudentseachyear, greatamountsofplanningand organizing are required to make thiscoursefunctional.Along withProfessorRichardStraub ofbiologicalsystemsengineer-ing and Jennifer Binzley of gen-eralengineeringstudentsup-portandadvising,Johnspends abouthalfhistimeworkingon this design course. John and the other coordinators of 160 choose which projects the cli-ent-centeredstudentteamswill be working on with the help of an onlinedatabaseofprojects.We like to help non- prots or groups ofpeoplewhowouldntnormally have access to these types of tech-nicaldesignsolutions,Murphy says. roughout the semester, the freshmanstudentsreceivegreat amountsofengineeringexperi-ence by working in teams, survey-ingtheengineeringdisciplines and learning to use dierent com-puter tools and lab techniques. efreshmanstudentsJohnin-structs never fail to impress him. UWMadisonstudentsareeven betterthantheyweretenyears ago.Iseethehighqualityofour studentsrightawayinIntroto Engineering 160. e way 90 per-centofthesefreshmenstudents thinkaboutthecomplexprob-lemstheyareassignedisamaz-ing,youwouldthinktheyare24 years old! I love working with the freshmen,Murphysays.e studentsarewhatdrivetheUni-versity and we have top ight stu-dents at UWMadison.Article by:Elly Underwood Design by:Flora (Jing) QuPhotography by: Adam Dircze students are what drive the University and we have top ight students at UW Madison.- John Murphy InterEGR160studentsworkindesignteamstosolveclient-centered engineering problems.,GHDVZDQWHG>VYRMVY[OLJVTWHU`[OH[W\[ZPKLHZYZ[4VYLPKLHZ)L[[LYZVS\[PVUZ^^^TZHWZJVT24 APRIL 2011Greatleadersinhistory havemadetheirmark mostlyduetothesup-porttheyhavereceivedfromthe peopletheyareleading.Whether itwasAbrahamLincolnorMi-chaelJordan,theyallgainedsup-port from the people around them, andultimatelyhelpedtheentire groupachievetheirgoal.Hereat UW-Madison there are many great leaders,maybewithnotaspro-foundofanimpactasAbraham Lincoln,butstillenoughtoshape thepeopleofthegroupstheyare leading and impact the campus. In the College of Engineering, almost allofthestudentorganizations haveanappointedleader.e challengeisachievingthatposi-tionandlivinguptotheexpecta-tions.Studentorganizationssuch astheConcreteCanoeTeam,the AmericanSocietyofMechanical EngineersandtheInstituteofIn-dustrialEngineershavemembers inleadershipthataresoenthusi-asticabouttheorganization,they cant help but succeed.However,leadershipisadicult thingtodevelopincollege,and especiallyinengineering.Most companiesexpectyoutogradu-ateknowingeverythingabout howtobealeaderandyetthere areveryfewactualcoursesthat canteachthishighlydesirable skill.Somewillarguethatlead-ershipissomethingapersonis simplybornwith,whileothers claimthatgreatleadersarede-velopedovertime.Eitherway,it seems that people who are driven andwholovethegrouptheyre leadingcanrisetotheoccasion andbecomeextremelyinuen-tial and productive leaders.Nogroupcanfunctionwithout itsleaders,andthevariousstu-dentgroupsandorganizations here on campus are no exception. Student organizations are a great wayforstudentstogetinvolved oncampusandagreatwayfor peopletodeveloptheirleader-ship skills.In fact, there are over ystudentorganizationsjust withintheCollegeofEngineer-ing,andallofthemhavemul-tiplepositionsofleadership.Be-ingatthetopofanorganization meansthatthereareveryhigh expectations to keep that student organizationperformingatthe level it has previously performed at.Nottosaythesepositionsare impossible, but the students who achieve them are denitely dedi-catedtotheorganizationand possestheleadershipskillsnec-essarytokeeptheirrespective organizations running smoothly.Mostofthestudentorganiza-tions have either one president or afewchairsthatsharethemain leadershipduties.NickEdwards, ahyearseniorinmechanical engineering,isthechairofthe AmericanSocietyofMechanical Engineers(ASME).Aschair,he isexpectedtokeeptrackofall theotherocersandmakesure theyaredoingwhattheyneedto do,Edwardssays.Mybiggest responsibilityisknowingwhat the other positions have to do and stayingontopofwhatshouldbe going on, he says. CamBarnesisagraduatingse-niorinmaterialsscienceanden-gineeringandisoneofthethree co-chairs for the Concrete Canoe Team.edutiesamongtheco-chairs are divided up based on the chairsstrengthsorareaofstudy. Barnesisprimarilyresponsible for the concrete mix for the canoe becauseheisamaterialsscience major,butasoneofthechairs he also keeps up with, fundrais-ing,sendingoutemails,contact-ingsponsors,andcoordinating smallermeetingswithdierent membersoftheteam,Barnes Leaders of several engineering student organizations on campus oer a glimpse into their busy lives.Running the Show25 APRIL 2011says.Makingsureeverythingis goingassmoothlyaswecanget it, is a big focus for Barnes as well as,tryingtomotivatetherestof theteammatestohelpus,thats the most dicult thing, he says. epresidentoftheInstituteof IndustrialEngineers(IIE)isSara Blake, a h year senior in indus-trialengineering.Aspresidentof IIE,Ioverseetheentireorganiza-tion,Blakesays.Ihelptheo-cer board with anything they need andIplansectionmeetings,kick os, and ocer meetings.Being in a leadership position is a bigcommitment,butwithcare-ful planning and dedication these leadershavefoundthatitcanbe funandrewardingtoo.ebe-ginningofeachsemesterisreally busy, Edwards says. I usually put inabout15to20hoursperweek when its busy, and about 10 on an averageweek.espringsemes-ter is busy for the Canoe team be-cause they are preparing for com-petitionandBarnesputsinabout 30to40hoursaweekinthe shop.Blake puts in about 15 hours per week for her position. Some leaders aspire to be in these positionsinadvanceandareable toanticipatethetimecommit-ment a lot better. I knew I wanted this role early on so I tried to set up my semester with the least amount of worry, Barnes says. I set up my schedulesoIamdonewithclass by2everydaysoIcanspenda couple hours in the canoe lab and stillhavetimetoworkonhome-work or other things at night.Whethertheyhavealightclass scheduleornot,theirtimeisstill verylimitedandmoststudent leadershavetorelyontheirtime management skills as well as their fellowmembersoftheorganiza-tionifthingsgetabittoohectic. I have two planners and a Google calendarwithlittlereminders poppingupeveryveminutes, Blakesayslaughing.Ivenever used a planner before but I started anditsreallyhelpful,Edwards says.Inotherpositionsyouhave one big project youre in charge of, but the thing about being the chair isthatyouhaveamillionlittle thingsyouhavetokeeptrackof andbeingorganizedreallyhelps withthat,hesays.Reachingout toothermembersisanexcellent waytodevelopleadershipaswell. IdenitelyrelyonmyVPand theentireocerboardforevery-thing,Blakesays,whenIam overloaded I just reach out to peo-ple. I am not afraid to ask for help. Dedicating a lot of ones time and eortstotheorganizationispart ofbeingaleader,butisnotmean todeteranyonefromtakingon thesepositionsanditiscertainly rewarding when everything is said anddone.Iwouldsayifyoure interestedinbeingastudentorg leader,denitelygoforit,Ed-wards says, it really is kinda cool beingabletosayyouretheleader ofthisorganization.Plusitsa greatwaytogettoknowpeople, theorganizationitselfandother student orgs.Itsdenitelyapparentthatdedi-cation is the word to best describe therelationshipbetweenstudent leaders and their organizations. If it werent for these people who tru-lylovethegroupstheyareapart of,thoseorganizationswouldnot be as successful as they are.ese leaderswanttobettertheorgani-zationsaswellastheirmembers. eyareconstantlyencouraging others to get involved and run for aleadershipposition.Moreover, thesestudentsgenuinelylikebe-ingleaders.eylikehelping others,reachingtheirgoalsand encouragingtheirteammates. Whethertheywerebornwithit, orjustdevelopeditthroughout life, these leaders are proving that if you really enjoy something, you willexcelatit.Justhavefunand becondent,Blakesays,you cantbeahighupleaderifyou dont enjoy it!Article by: Christina WallhausserDesign by: Tom BernathPhotography by: Julia McAdamsRobin Kradich26 APRIL 2011Instead of just tweaking things thatalreadyexistinanorgan-ism, were designing novel func-tions.This entails introducing thesegenesintoadifferentor-ganism in order to carry out dif-ferent functions such as fighting adisease,likeinmedicines,or creatingbiofuelstoreplacefos-sil fuels.Pf legersresearchfocusesspe-cificallyoncreatingbiodiesel. Such a fuel would be more envi-ronmentally friendly than regu-lar diesel.Wereusingmicroorganisms toproduceprecursorstodiesel fuelshydrocarbons,Pf leger says.They wouldnt be any dif-ferentfromtheonesthatgoin your engine today.Thesourcesforthisbiodiesel comes from bacteria, sugars and environmentalsources.One ofthemainthingslimitingthe advancementofthisresearch istryingtofigureoutwhich genestousetodevelopthede-siredproduct.Anotherlimita-tion is that often researchers are notsureifdifferentgeneswill interactwitheachotherinthe desired way.AsfortheUWsresearchas wholeitisoneoftheleadersin the eld of biotechnology.As the headoftheGreatLakesBioen-ergy Center a nationwide orga-nizationcoordinatingresearch insustainabilityamonguniver-sitiesandprivatelaboratories UWreceivesmillionsofdollars eachyearinfundingtoresearch Anexcitingfieldoncam-pus and across the coun-tryisontheforefrontof developing tomorrows technolo-gies, from biofuels to new medi-cinestonewcomputers.This expansive field is biotechnology.Duetoitsratherbroadnature, thereisnostrictdefinitionfor what biotechnology is, though it canroughlybedescribedasus-ingpartsofbiologicalsystems and living organisms to develop newproductsandtechnology, eitherorganicorsynthetic.It isawide-rangingtermthatap-plies to a wide variety of scienc-es,includingsyntheticbiology, organic chemistry, systems biol-ogyandmore.Thefindingsof thisresearchhaveanincredibly widerangeofapplicationsfrom antimalarialmedicinestothe development of biofuels. Biotechnologyisnotinitself anewscientificdevelopment. The field began roughly 40 years agorightalongsidethebirthof genetic engineering.With these advancements in genetics, scien-tists were able to splice out gene sequencesfromcertainorgan-ismsanduseitstraitsforother purposes, such as in medicines.Since then, the field has explod-ed,especiallyinrecentyears. Syntheticbiologycompanies havesproutedupacrossthena-tionanduniversitieshavedras-ticallyincreasedtheirresearch in the area.HereatUW-Madison,research inbiotechnologyisthriving, especiallyinsyntheticbiology. Asprofessorofchemicaland biologicalengineeringBrian Pf leger says of synthetic biology, Not your average pair of genese wide eld of biotechnology oers many exciting possibilities that just might oer a viable option for creating biofuels.Students in Dr. Pegers chemical engineering lab are researching methods of usingcyanobacteria to create sustainable biofuels. Justafewofthemanycyanobacteriaculturesbeingheatedin Professor Pegers lab27 APRIL 2011biofuels,bioenergy,biosynthesis and other related topics.Muchoftheuniversitysre-search,asamemberofthe GreatLakesBionergyCenter, focusesonthequestionofsus-tainabilityhowtoweanour-selvesfromfossilfuelsinfavor ofrenewablesources,howto stempollution,andcountless other problems.Biochemists at the university work with a team thatcomesfromawiderange offields,includinggeneticists, mathematicians,mechanical engineers and others.Thereisalsoprevalentresearch in biotechnology among the pri-vate sector, according to Pf leger. Thesebiochemicallaboratories are centered mainly in two clus-ters in the country in Califor-niasSiliconValleyandinand around Boston.The companies intheseregions,Pf legersays, are the ones doing more cutting edgeresearch.Largercompa-nieslikeDuPontandMonsanto havealsoshowninterestinthe area,suchasforagricultural purposes, like genetically modi-fied foods.Asfarasthefutureofbiotech-nologyandsyntheticbiology,it isuncertain.Pf legersaysfur-therdevelopmentsinexisting areasofstudysuchasbiofuels and medicines will result in bet-ter products.However, the field issoexpansiveitcouldgojust aboutanywhere.Somenovel, andnotyetrealized,ideasin-cludesynthesizingbacteriathat exclusivelytargetcancercells, super-efficientbiofuelsand thoughthisismuchfurtheroff creatingartificialintelligence frombiologicalmaterials.The possibilitiesseemendlessfor this progressive technology.Article by: Andrew GoldenDesign by: Chandresh SinghPhotography by: Sara KarrakerProfessor Peger inspects the cyanobacteria cultures in his research labWere using microorganisms to produce precursors to diesel fuels hydrocarbons. ey wouldnt be any dierent from the ones that go in your engine today. - Professor Brian Peger The cyanobacteria from Pegers labmayalsohavefutureuses intheeldsofmedicineand generating articial intelligence.28 APRIL 2011COMMENTARYJust one moreThe fnest in eclectic humorAn engineers equation for successsuccess = Win-Moutt+Pgain + h*qidtW = workM=moneyt=timep=powerh=happiness factorwhere h R and|q| < 1W i s c o n s i n E n g i n e e r m a g a z i n eR o o m M 1 0 6 6E n g i n e e r i n g C e n t e r s B u i l d i n g1 5 5 0 E n g i n e e r i n g D r i v eM a d i s o n , W I 5 3 7 0 6P r e s o r t S t a n d a r dU . S . P o s t a g eP A I DM a d i s o n , W IP e r m i t N o . 6 5 8Visit us at EXPO. April 14th 16thEngineeringEXPO.wisc.edu