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June - 2012June - 2012Political Problems, and Future ProspectsPolitical Problems, and Future ProspectsWith a Few Policy Initiatives for Literacy Expansion in IndiaVIF MONOGRAPHVIF MONOGRAPHCourtesy:PaulaBronsteinVivekanandaInternationalFoundation3,SanMartinMarg,ChanakyapuriNewDelhi110021,Indiawww.vifindia.orgAqil ZahirpourZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012Copyright2012VivekanandaInternationalFoundationIndia.All rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system ortransmittedformonlyfornoncommercialpurposes.ItspublicationelsewhererequirespriorpermissionfromtheauthorandtheVIFIndia.Views,andopinionsexpressedhereinarehowever,thoseoftheauthor,anddonotnecessarilyrepresenttheviewsofVIF. Vivekananda International Foundation India 2Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012TableofContentsABOUTHTHEAUTHOR..................................................................................................5ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................................6LISTOFACRONYMS.......................................................................................................7PREFACE.......................................................................................................................10PURPOSE......................................................................................................................12CHAPTERI....................................................................................................................14EducationinAfghanistan:HistoricalPerspective..............................................................14FormalEducationinthe20thCentury.....................................................................15EducationPolicyof1930s........................................................................................15PolicyoftheFirstRepublic197078.........................................................................16PolicyoftheDemocraticRepublic197892..............................................................16TheIslamicState199296........................................................................................17TheTalibanEmirate19962001..............................................................................18Conclusion........................................................................................................................18CHAPTERII...................................................................................................................20Afghanistaninthe21stCentury:EducationBackground.................................................20CurrentStatus..................................................................................................................21Girls'Education........................................................................................................22PrivateandCrossBorderSchools.............................................................................22InclusiveEducation.................................................................................................22DistanceEducation..................................................................................................24LevelsofPublicEducation...............................................................................................24Basics, Intermediate, Secondary, and Technical...............................................................24CategoriesofEducation....................................................................................................24GeneralEducation(GE)...........................................................................................25Teachers'TrainingCentre/College(TTC).................................................................27IslamicEducation(IE)...........................................................................................29TechnicalandVocationalEducationTraining(TVET).............................................30Nonformal/CommunitybasedEducation(CBE).....................................................31Conclusion........................................................................................................................33 Vivekananda International Foundation India 3Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERIII..................................................................................................................34ProblemsandtheChallenges:Background.......................................................................34PoliticalLeadership,andInstability..........................................................................35Corruption................................................................................................................36InstitutionalWeakness..............................................................................................36VolatileSecurityCondition.......................................................................................37The Most Recent Threats..................................................................................................38LittleCoordinationbetweenAidAgenciesandtheMoE..........................................38Transit of Textbooks Pending in Pakistan........................................................................39IllequippedEducationalBuildings...........................................................................39RapidIncreaseinDemandforEducation.................................................................40DisorderandViolenceinSchools.............................................................................40Conclusion........................................................................................................................41CHAPTERIV..................................................................................................................42FutureProspects,andtheWayforward:Background.......................................................42Prospects...........................................................................................................................42TheWayForward..............................................................................................................43India'sPolicyInitiatives:Background&Assessment.........................................................45MidDayMealScheme:LunchatSchools.................................................................46FinancingEducationthroughVouchers....................................................................47LaadliScheme:ScholarshipsforBabyGirls..............................................................48How does the Money go to the Child?.............................................................................49GalliGalliSimSim:UsingMediaforEducation.......................................................49MeenaRadio:EducatingKidsthroughRadio...........................................................50SMC:InvolvingCommunityinSchoolManagement...............................................51PerformancelinkedPay(PLP):ForTeachers'QualityofPerformance......................52ActivityBasedLearning(ABL):JoyfulTeaching......................................................53RemedialEducation:ProvidingSupportClasses......................................................54Mobile&ImmersiveLearningforLiteracyinEmergingEconomies,(Millie)...........56Assessment........................................................................................................................56Conclusion........................................................................................................................58APPENDIXI...................................................................................................................59BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................82VIFINDIA......................................................................................................................86 Vivekananda International Foundation India 4Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ABOUTHTHEAUTHORBorn,andraisedinAfghanistan,AqilZahirpourhasstudiedPoliticalScience (Universityof Delhi),BusinessAdministration(SikkimManipalUniversity),UnitedNationsandInternationalUnderstanding (New Delhi Institute of UN Studies), and Good Governance AfghanistanProgramme (University of Erfurt). He has previously worked with several NGOs and hasofferedspeeches in manypublic events. Hehas extensivelywrittenacademic papers, andunsolicitedarticlesonAfghanistan.Heiscurrently,aDAADScholarpursuingMPP1programmeattheWillyBrandtSchoolofPublicPolicyinGermany.Thismonographhasbeenwritten,andcompiledduringhisresearchinternshipinNewDelhi,India.1 Master of Public Policy Vivekananda International Foundation India 5Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe Author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the Vivekananda InternationalFoundationIndia(VIFI),particularlyHon'bleAjitK.Doval,theVIFDirectorandBrigVinodAnand,SeniorFellowandResearchCoordinator,forhelpingandadvisinghiminpublicationof thiswork.TheauthorisalsothankfultotheCentreforCivilSociety,especially,Mr.ParthJ. Shah, the CCS President and Mr. Shantanu Gupta, the Senior Advocacy Coordinator, forprovidingthesourcesdealingwiththeeducationalpolicyinitiativesinIndia.EquallyindeedistheauthorthankfultotheWillyBrandtSchoolofPublicPolicy(WBSPP),andtheDeutscherAkademischerAustauschDienst(DAAD)forapprovinghisinternshipvisit toIndia, andat a nonsummerseasonwhich is otherwiseanunusual periodfor scholars toembarkontheirpracticaltraining.TheauthoralsoexpresseshisgratitudetoMs.NupurBehloftheUniversityofDelhiforherreviewandeditorialcontribution.However,noworkofthiskindcouldhavebeenaccomplishedwithoutthemoralsupport,andtheencouragementoftheauthor'sparents,andparticularlyofhisbrother,AdilZaaherpourwhohasnotonlybeenanArchitectbyprofession, butalso, anarchitect byshaping, anddesigningtheauthor'severyvisionandambitionforlife. Vivekananda International Foundation India 6Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012LISTOFACRONYMSABL ActivityBasedLearningACE AcademicCouncilonEducationAGEI AfghanistanGirls'EducationInitiativeAIE AlternativeandInnovativeEducationAKF AgaKhanFoundationAMDG AfghanMillenniumDevelopmentGoalsANDS AfghanNationalDevelopmentStrategyAP AndhraPradeshASER AssessmentSurveyEvaluationResearchCARE Child&AdolescentResources&EducationCBE CommunityBasedEducationCBS CommunityBasedSchoolCCS CentreforCivilSocietyCPI CorruptionPerceptionIndexCRS CatholicReliefServicesCSS CentrallySponsoredSchemeCTD CompilationandTranslationDepartmentDAAD DeutscherAkademischerAustauschDienstEBB EducationallyBackwardBlocEFA EducationForAllEGS EducationGuaranteeSchemeEL EducationLawELA EnhancementofLiteracyinAfghanistanEMDG EducationMillenniumDevelopmentGoalEMIS EducationManagementInformationSystemERTV EducationRadioandTelevisionFDI DepartmentforInternationalDevelopmentFTI FastTrackInitiativeGE GeneralEducationGER GrossEnrolmentRateGGSS GalliGalliSimSimICT InformationCommunicationTechnologyIE IslamicEducation Vivekananda International Foundation India 7Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012IECWG InclusiveEducationCoordinationWorkingGroupIIEP InternationalInstituteofEducationalPlanningINGO InternationalNonGovernmentalOrganizationIP InterimPlanIRC InternationalRescueCommitteeLANDA LiteracyandNonformalEducationDevelopmentinAfghanistanLIFE LiteracyInitiativeforEmpowermentMAIL MinistryofAgriculture,IrrigationandLivestockMCI MinistryofCommerceandIndustriesMCN MinistryofCounterNarcoticsMillie MobileandImmersiveLearningforLiteracyinEmergingEconomiesMLSAMD MinistryofLabourandSocialAffairsandMartyrsandDisabledMoE MinistryofEducationMoF MinistryofFinanceMOHE MinistryofHigherEducationMoPH MinistryofPublicHealthMOWA MinistryofWomen'sAffairsMP MemberofParliamentMRRD MinistryofRuralRehabilitationandDevelopmentNCT NationalCapitalTerritoryNA NorthernAllianceNDSA NationalDisabilitySurveyinAfghanistanNEIP NationalEducationInterimPlanNER NetEnrolmentRateNESP NationalEducationStrategicPlanNGO NonGovernmentalOrganizationNPNSPE NationalProgrammeofNutritionalSupporttoPrimaryEducationNRVA NationalRiskVulnerabilityAssessmentNSP NationalSolidarityProgrammeNTEA NationalTeacherEducationAcademyOLPC OneLaptopPerChildPACEA PartnershipAdvancingCommunitybasedEducationinAfghanistanPED ProvincialEducationDepartmentPERE PublicExpenditureReviewofEducationPLP PerformanceLinkedPay Vivekananda International Foundation India 8Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012PRT ProvincialReconstructionTeamPSE PreSchoolEducationPTA ParentTeachersAssociationPTSD PostTraumaticStressDisorderSMC SchoolManagementCommitteeSS SecurityShurasSSA SarvaShikshaAbhiyanTI TransparencyInternationalITCPI TransparencyInternationalCorruptionPerceptionIndexTTC TeacherTrainingCentre/CollegeTVET Technical,andVocationalEducationTrainingUNESCO UnitedNationsEducational,ScientificandCulturalOrganisationUNICEF UnitedNationsInternationalChildren'sEmergencyFundUNO UnitedNationsOrganizationUP UtterPradeshUSAID UnitedStatesAgencyforInternationalDevelopmentUSSR UnionofSovietSocialistRepublicsVIF VivekanandaInternationalFoundationWB WorldBankWBSPP WillyBrandtSchoolofPublicPolicyWFP WorldFoodProgramme Vivekananda International Foundation India 9Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012PREFACEManysuccessiveregimesandgovernmentsinKabulhavehistorically,lefttheAfghaneducationsector in pandemonium, andprone to misuse. However, upon the collapseof the Talibanextremistregime,thenewgovernmentcommitteditselftoabroaderpolicytofillinthegaps andaddressthechallengesinflictedbythepast,particularly,theinternecineconflict,andthereignoftheTaliban.Girls,whohadsufferedthemost,resumedtheireducation,andmanyothernecessarymeasures, suchasadoptionof anewEducationLaw,anddevelopmentofvariousstrategiesforrectificationofthehardshipsweretaken.Overaperiodoftime,thenumberofeducationalinstitutions,literacyrate,andlevelofhumancapitalanddevelopmentas everything else, changed. The extent and the quality of change however, moved inaccordancewiththelevelofthesecurityconditionsprevailingforoveradecadeorso. Withlessthanamillionstudentsin2001,theschoolshavenowbeenswarmingwithoveraneightfoldincreaseacrossthecountry.Inaspanoftenyears,over9,000newschoolshavebeenestablishedincreasingthenumberfrom3664in2002to14,465in2011.2However,thisfactdemonstrates merely the quantitative aspect of the development. The qualitative one, intandem with further description of the former, will be examined in this paper. It isnevertheless,worthnotingthatinspiteoftherapidexponentialchange,around4.2millionschoolagechildrenareoutofreachofeducation.3Eventhose,whoareinthereacharesaidtosuffer either from inadequate learning resources, or unqualified teachers, insecureenvironment,andfromtheproblemsofschools'remotelocations.Moreso,thefemalestudentsconstitutethemostvulnerablesectionintheserespects.Consideringtheexorbitantamountofmoneyspentonthepubliceducationsector,particularlyon the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, it would be useful to study this nationaldimensionmeticulously.TheGovernmentofAfghanistan(GoA),alongwiththeinternationalaidagencieshavespentmillionsonschools,andothereducationalinstitutions,andconfiningourfocusonthisverysector,wouldtherefore,beworthwhile.WiththenewEducationLawin2008,Afghanistanaddedmoretoitsatmosphereofprovidingeducation freely and inclusively. But, despite such rigorous efforts towards development,2. Mohamed Salim Hayran, A Study of Afghanistan ICT in Education Regional Conference on Promotion of Good Practices in ICT for Education in Central and Western Asia Region (Ministry of Education, 2011), [accessed 20 May 2012].3. Ibid., online. Vivekananda International Foundation India 10http://english.moe.gov.af/attachments/084_Afghanistan%20ICT%20Study%20Report.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012politicalandsocialproblemshavepersistedandhavesincebeenplayinganobstructiveroleinmovingtowardsafullydemocratizededucationalenvironment.Beginningfrom2006,thesecuritysituation,inmajorareasofSouthandSoutheasternpartsofthecountrydeteriorated.Theunprecedenteddeteriorationinsecuritysituationimpactedtheeducationsectoradversely.Threatswereissuedtoparentstostopsendingtheirchildrentoschool.Manystudentsandteacherslosttheirlives,andmanyeducationalinstitutionswereshut,mostlybetween2006and2009,andsome,inrecenttimes(seeChapterIIIfordetails).Howandwhy,thesecuritysituationdeterioratedafterasuccessfulinstallationofacommittedgovernment,remainsaquestionthatimpingesoneveryconcernedindividualspsyche.Hence,thereisaneedtoanalysetheproblembasedonAfghanistanspoliticalsituation.Meanwhile,forthepurposeofencouragingthegovernmentalinstitutions,aidagencies,donorcountries,more importantly, the entrepreneurs, and the citizens of Afghanistan themselves forinvolvementineducationdevelopment,afeweducationalpolicyinitiativeshavebeenpickedfromIndiawhichcouldbeofuseforimprovingAfghaneducationsector.Thediscussedpolicyinitiativesaresamplestudies,andareexpectedtocreateasenseofmotivationforcreativity andinnovationforthereadersconcernedwhenitcomestodealingwiththeenhancementofliteracyinawarwearycountrysuchasAfghanistan.June2012AqilZahirpour,DAADScholarWillyBrandtSchoolofPublicPolicyUniversityofErfurtGermany Vivekananda International Foundation India 11Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012PURPOSEAfghanistan'sEducationMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(EMDG)haveenvisioneda50percentliteracyrateby2015,and100percentby2020.TheEMDGdocumentenvisionsallAfghanchildren,boysandgirlstobeabletocompleteafullcourseofprimaryschoolingby2020.To reachthisgoal,theMoEhasaimedatanetenrolmentrateofatleast,75percentforboysand60percentforgirlsby2014.TheNationalEducationalStrategicPlanI(NESPI20062010)followedby(NESPII,20102014)wasastartingpointtoaimatthestrategicdevelopmentofthesectorleadingtosettingmoregoalsasabove.Withanoverallaimtoupliftthecapacityoftheadministrativestaffaswellasthescopeandthequalityofeducation,hundredsofeducationalinstitutionsrangingfromprimarytotertiarylevelsweregiventhespacetofunction.Newmethodsofimpartingeducationsuchusexerciseswithworkbooks,andconductinguniqueclassseminarswereborninmindandputinpracticethathelpedbearsomefruitfulresults.However,furthernecessarystepsareneededasthereismuchmoretobedone.ThemainobjectiveistoseeAfghanistanasanyotherprospectivecountry,prosperwithinclusiveliteracy.Thiscannotbeachievedovernight. Neithercan it beenjoyedbysettingmeregoals, andkeeping oneself aside. It can instead, be obtained through a long term process that tooaccompaniedwithanundeterred,andconsistenteffort.Moreover,itisrareandchallengingtomeetthetargetwithoutsupportfromthepublic.Participationofeverystakeholderincludingordinarycitizensisthereforeneededforaprosperousandsoundexistenceofasociety.Thus, thevisionofEMDGPtoensure50percentliteracyrateby2015,or100percentby2020wouldremainadistantpossibilityifthepublicitselfdoesnotcontribute.However,thegovernmenthastheresponsibilitytolaythegroundworkforthesocietytohelpsocialentrepreneursandencouragecivilsocietyforumstofunctioninconjunctionwiththegovernment,andtheotherorgansconcerned,tobeabletosuccessfullyachievethetargets/goalssetoutintheNESPs.Thispaperiswritteninlightoftheaboveobservation,withapurposetoconsidereducationas oneof themost importantpillarsof thesociety. It considerstheinvolvementof all stakeholders,particularlyofthecitizensthemselvesasimperativetohelpachievethesetgoals.It therefore,drawsacleardescriptionofthehistory,politicalproblems,andthecurrentstatusof theeducationsectorinAfghanistan,andgivesthesocialentrepreneursthehandtotracktheverycurrentpositionofthesectorforfutureprecautions.Thepaperhowever, excludesits focusfromthetertiaryorabovebachelor'slevelofeducation.Itconfinesitselftothestudiesof Vivekananda International Foundation India 12Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012schoolingincludinggrade14of technical andteachers' trainingonlybecause, these levelsconstitutethebaseforasocietytogoforwardwithaneffectivehigherlevelofstudies.Thisworkthus,aimsatlookingattheexistingeducationalscenarioatmentionedlevelsfromclosequarters,andoffersahistoricalaccountofthesameinAfghanistan.Itconsistsoffourchaptersthatconstitutetwodifferent,yetverymuchinterrelatedparts.Thefirstpartentails theinitialthreechaptersthataimatdrawingasmentionedearlier,apictureofAfghanistan's history of education, its political problems, present status, the achievements, and thechallenges, while the second part which only covers chapter four, will put forth somesuggestions,andthewayforwardforAfghanistan.BydrawingsomesamplepolicyinitiativesfromIndia,wewillencouragetheentrepreneurs,andtheadherentsofeducationsectortotakepartinasoundliteracycampaignandeducationalpolicydevelopment.Itisworthnotingthat,thesamplepolicyinitiativeslaidhereinarenotconsideredasfixedand fitcasesforeverysituation,yettheirpresentationmaybeofgreathelpforgeneratingnewideas.Inotherwords,someofthepolicies,orinitiativespractisedinIndiamayhavealreadyin someform,beeninplaceinAfghanistanorelsewhere,ormaynotevenbeappropriateintheAfghanenvironmentasmanysocialandculturalcontextsinthesetwocountriesdiffer.Butbasedonthenotionthatideasbegetbetterideas,thedescriptionofeachinitiativewillplayits respectiverole,andimportance.WiththeduehelpofthesourcesinIndia,thesituationof someeducationalpolicyinitiativeshavebeencarefullyreadandherewithincluded. Vivekananda International Foundation India 13Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERIEducationinAfghanistan:HistoricalPerspectiveAfghanistanhasbeenacrossroadofcivilizations,andanabodeofpeopleofdifferentorigins, whereart,sciences,andliteraturehaveflourished.Writtenlanguagesexistedforthousandsofyears,andpoetrystoodasthecountry'sspiritualassetencapsulatingwithinit,notionsoflove,aspirations,andwisdom.Likewise,IslamcametoAfghanistanduringtheseventhcenturyandever since it has provided the spiritual, philosophical andcultural context for theAfghanpeople. Islamic tradition permeated every aspect of the Afghan society and way of life. Religiousleadershavesincebeenabletoinfluencethepolitical, social,cultural lifeofthecommunity.Thus,educationaldevelopmentduringmuchofthetwentiethcenturyreflectedthereligious and traditional nature of the society. The nature and formof education and its expansionhavealsobeeninfluencedbythechangingpoliticalcontextinthecountryandbythesocialandeconomicpoliciesofsuccessiveregimesandgovernments,aswellasbyparents' aspirationsfortheeducationoftheirchildren.4Beingacradleofancientcivilizations,thecountryhasthuswitnessedgreatandflourishingeras of learning and enlightenment. Its inhabitants have contributed immensely to theenrichmentofthecultureoftheirregion.Manycentresoflearningwereestablishedincities suchasBalkh,Herat,andGhaznithatproducedgreatscholars,philosophers,andscientistswhoservedtheregion,andtheworld.Forinstance,themedicaltreatisewrittenbyIbnSinaBalkhi (Vicenna) in10thcentury wasadoptedas part of theacademic curriculumof theEuropeanUniversitiesuntiltheendof19thcentury.5Afghanistan has also enjoyed a plethora of eminent poets and philosophers such as AbuRayhanBiruni (10th century), HakimSanai (11th century), KhwajaAbdullah Ansari, andMaulanaJalaludinBalkhi/Roumi(13thcentury),andmanyotherswhoseworksarebelievedtohaveenrichedhumanthoughtandcivilization.SaidJamaludinAfghani,aneruditepoliticalphilosopher of the nineteenth century was a paladin of knowledge. Having a number ofdisciples,hetravelledinAsia,Africa,andEuropeandexpoundedthenexusbetweenIslam,ScienceandDevelopment.64 Saif R. Samadi, Education and Afghan Society in the Twentieth Century, (UNESCO, Paris 2001)5 Ibid.6 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 14Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012FormalEducationinthe20thCenturyHistorically, twosystemsof educationaresaidtohaveoutlinedtheacademicstructure inAfghanistan;thetraditionalandthemodernone.Theformerwasthesetofreligiouseducationtaughtinthemosquesandathome.ThisrevolvedaroundvariegateddisciplinesofreadingtheHoly Quran, learning philosophy, ethics, and writing arithmetic. The latter however wasintroduced in thebeginning of 1900swith the aimof developing global expediency. Thisjuxtapositionofthetraditionalistmodeofinstructionwiththemoremodernwayoflearningwasconsideredbeneficialforthegrowthoftheethicalandsecularprudenceofanindividual.TheestablishmentofthefirstsecondaryschoolnamedHabibiainKabulin1903markedthebeginningofmoderneducationinthecountry.ABoardofEducationtoapprovetheschoolcurriculumandtextbooks,andtosuperviseeducationwassetup,andupontheindependenceofAfghanistanin1919,KingAmanullah(19191929)gavehighprioritytothedevelopmentofthesector.AMinisterofEducationwasappointedforthefirsttimein1922,andinthecourseoftime,anumberofprimaryandsecondaryschoolsincludingthefirsthighschoolforgirls,and an adult education centre for women, and many other vocational institutions inagriculture,art,andcrafts, andpublicadministrationwerecreated.Culturalrelationswithforeigncountries,suchasGermany,France,andTurkeywereestablished,andscholarshipsforAfghanstudentsweremadeavailable.7Educationinthaterawasformallyplacedasaliteracycampaignandfreeofchargeforall. Children,adultsbothmenandwomenwereurgedtotakepart.Additionally,KingAmanullahinitiatedmanyothermodernsocialreformssuchasadoptingsolarcalendar,approvingwesternsartorial,discouragingtheveilingandseclusionofwomen,introducingseculareducationetc.Hisnotionofmodernitywashowever,consideredheretic,unwelcomelargelybyruralareascausingthecollapseofhisreign.Thefemaleeducationwasthus,abatedforawhile,andtheconceptofburkaveilingreemerged.EducationPolicyof1930sFollowingthecollapseoftheKingAmanullah'srule,trendsineducationhadbecometortuousandunpredictable,particularlyforwomenastheyhadfacedchallengesforseekingformaleducation.Nevertheless,in1930s,theeducationsystemrevivedtoappropriatecertainnewproductivenorms.Inadditiontothefirstmoderninstitutionofhighereducation,facultyofMedicine (1932) in Kabul, a number of other secondary schools, coupled with more7 Saif. R. Samadi (Paris, 2001). Vivekananda International Foundation India 15Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012educationalinstitutionsincludingKabulUniversity(1946)wereestablished,andtraditionalreligiouscentreswereincorporatedintoformalstructures8In1931,aconstitutionwaspromulgated,Articles20and22ofwhichmadeprimaryeducationcompulsoryforallAfghanchildren,andheldthegovernmentresponsibleforthesupervisionof educational institutions. Later in 1948, a new Constitution made primary educationcompulsoryforeveryboyandgirl,andthestatereservedtherightfortheadministrationofall educational institutions fromprimary to university level. In 1964, democratic reformwasadoptedbyappointinganelectedHouseandSenate,executiveandjudicialbranchesinthecontextofconstitutionalmonarchy.Article35ofthenewconstitutiondeclarededucationastherightofeveryAfghanindividual.Theconstitutiondeclaredtheprimaryeducationtobefreeasitwas,itissuedanedictforelementsofpatriotism,loyaltytothecrown,andequality ofeducationtoproffer.Italsopermittedforeigninstitutionstoestablishtheirschoolsinthecountry9PolicyoftheFirstRepublic197078TheMonarchyofKingZahirwasoverthrownbyhiscousin,MohammadDaoudin1973,andfollowingtheestablishmentoftheRepublicofAfghanistan,anewconstitutionwaschartedin1976,thefundamentalobjectiveofwhichwastodevelopfreegeneralsecondary,vocationaland higher education, which was inspired by the education law of 1964 but the earlierdoctrineexpostulatingloyaltytothecrownineducationcurriculawasbanned.10PolicyoftheDemocraticRepublic197892InApril1978,MarxistzealotsexecutedMohammadDaoud,(thefirstpresidentofAfghanistan)alongwithhisfamily,andestablishedtheDemocraticRepublicofAfghanistan.ThenewregimeaimedattransformingtheAfghansocietyintoamodernizedone.Conversely,thepeopleofAfghanistan, particularly in rural areas, favoured adherence to the traditional norms andconsidereditathreattoIslam.Theyconsequently,didnotstandaloofandledarevolt.Whentherevoltfollowedthecommunistcoup,USSRinvadedthecountryinthefollowingyearandinstalledastrongerpuppetregime.Thenewregimeadoptededucationalreformsthatwereinfluencedbythe ideasof communism.11 Thegovernment formulatedaneducationpolicy,8 Saif R. Samadi, (Paris, 2001)9 Ibid.10 Ibid.11 Pia Karlson, and Amir Mansory, Islamic and Modern Education in Afghanistan - Conflictual or Complementary? (Stockhulm Univeristy, no date). Vivekananda International Foundation India 16Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012whichadaptedtotheeducationsystemtotheSovietmodel,andinstitutednationalliteracycampaignthroughoutthecountry.Italsoinstitutedthemediumofinstructioninthemothertongueoftheminoritiesbesides,mandatingDariandPashtowithsomeinfluenceofRussianandEnglish.Sometextbookswerechangedtoincludetheoccupationalneedsandagerelatedinterestsofparticipantsintheliteracycampaign.Literacycoursesforbothyouthandadults, maleandfemale,wereestablishedinthecapitalandintheprovinces. Everyyear, 18,000personsweresaidtohavelearnedhowtoreadandwrite12butwitharangeofcriticismfromthepublicforpractisingSovietideology.The teaching and learning were however, limited to the urban areas as the period wasaccompaniedwithsevereconflictthatcausedmorethan870,000Afghansdeath,threemillionmaimedandwounded, 1.2millions disabled, a million internallydisplaced, andover fivemillionforcedto fleethecountry.Morethanhalf of thecountry's irrigationsystemsweredestroyed,andagriculturalproductionjustfell.13Thiswasthemostcrucialdamageinflictedupontheeducationsectorthatputtheliteracydevelopmentalefforts,ifnottotallyobliterated,atleastinabeyance.TheIslamicState199296The struggle against Russian presence in Afghanistan persisted until the Soviet troopswithdrewin1989.Nevertheless,thefightcontinueduntilNajibullah'sgovernmentcollapsed(19861992).TheIslamicStatewasestablishedin1992,butcoincidedwiththedisunityasthecivilwar(19921996)amongtheverysameMujahedingroupswhofoughtRussiansbrokeout.Theeducationsystemwasconsequentlyinshambles;theeducationsituationgotcompoundedwiththepersistenceoftheinternecineconflict.ThegovernmentoftheIslamicStatedidnothaveanationaleducationpolicy.Itwas,however,clear that the cultural aspects of educational programmes would be developed, and anymaterialreflectingthecommunistideologywouldberemoved.TheIslamicstateemphasizedontheeradicationofilliteracy,andprovidingtrainingofmanpowerforreconstructionofthecountry.Itisnevertheless,noteworthythatthelastmomentsofthecommunistregimehadbrought the education curriculum a bit closer to adapt to the culture and tradition of Afghanistan.1412 Torpekai Sultani, The Current Situation of Basic Education in Afghanistan (Japan, no date).13 Oxfam International, The Cost of War: Afghan Experiences of Conflict, 1978 2009 (Afghanistan, 2009).14 Saif R. Samadi, (Paris 2001) Vivekananda International Foundation India 17Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012TheTalibanEmirate19962001TheTaliban,whountiltheirfall(late2001)rulednearly90percentofAfghanistan,imposedthedarkesterafortheeducationsectorofthecountry.TheyenforcedastrictruledebarringwomenfromeducationandconfiningthephenomenonformenwithintherealmsoftheirownversionofIslam.This,primarilymarkedtheireducationalagenda,andtheirregimeprovedto bethemostdisastrousperiodever,particularlyforwomen.Theimpactonwomen,especiallyinurbanareas, wassevere:81%ofwomensurveyed inKabul reportedadecline intheirmentalcondition,42%mettheconditionsforposttraumaticstressdisorder(PTSD),and21%saidthatthey'quiteoften'or'veryoften'hadsuicidalthoughts.15Therewasnoexpectationwhatsoeveroftheireducationaldevelopmentatall.AlthougheducationforgirlsinAfghanistan,hasremainedasensitivepoliticalandreligiousissueformanyyearsasmanyreligiousandtriballeadersconsidereditunnecessary,andaculturalthreattothemselvesandtheirsociety,yetthetreatmentofwomenandtheirregressatthehandsoftheTaliban(19962001)wasdraconian,somethingwhichwasneverwitnessedbefore.TheTalibanreignhowever,didnotlastbeyond2001.ItcollapsedwiththelaunchoftheU.S. ledOperationEnduringFreedom,intandemwithits internationalallies,andtheNorthernAlliance(NA),themostcapableAfghanenemyoftheTaliban.ConclusionAfghanistan is one of the manydeveloping countries; that ranks the poorest in terms ofmoderneducationenrolmentandadultliteracy.Retrospectively,theintellectualdevelopmentof thecountry was ina static conditionfor a while andbecause of political changes thedevelopment of education sector had been badly hampered. Historically, the country'seducationalcurriculahavebeenvulnerabletochangesbasedonthechangingregimes,andtheiridiosyncrasies.In1930sand1940sforexample[]themainpoliticalconcernofthetextbookswasdevelopingreverencefortheroyalfamily,andanumberofnationalheroes.16ThefirstPresident,MohammadDauod(19731978)forinstance,adoptedasysteminwhichhe initiated instructing the children the geographic boundaries of Pashtunistan.Characteristicallyinthe1970s,Pashtunistanwasdescribedasifitwasadejure state;thelanguage of [its] people was described as the same as that of Afghans.17 Likewise, thecommunistregime(19781992)impartedstudentsacommunistjargonvizavierevolution,15 Oxfam International, (Afghanistan, 2009).16 Dr. Antonio Giustozzi, Nation Building Is Not for All, The Politics of Education in Afghanistan (AAN 2010).17 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 18Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012people'sdemocracy,andrightsoftheworkers,andsomeissuesthatcontradictedtheIslamicnotions.WhenAfghanistanhadbecomeafrontlinestateinthecoldwar,thepoliticalgroupshadbuilt their own schools inside and outside the country, mostly in refugee camps through theinternational aid and assistance. They nurtured and catered to the political/economicprinciples which interested their agenda.18 School books were prepared by Mujahidin inconjunctionwiththeUniversityofNebraska,withtheUSAIDfundsthatcontainedmilitarizedand ideological languages. Inarithmetic exercises forexample, theundertonesof violenceagainstRussianswereevidentandcouldbeverymuchsensed.Itwouldforexamplego,'if thereareeightSovietsoldiersandyoukill two,howmanyareleft?Thesematerialswerehoweversoontakenoutfromthebooksafter theUNOandotherNGOs lobbied19 butthereligiousandothermilitaryinvolvementintheacademics,neverthelessremainedthesame.ReflectingonthehistoricalsituationofeducationinAfghanistanduringthetwentiethcentury,theperiod1956and1973wasmarkedas agoldenchance for not onlya better literacyenhancement,andqualityeducation,butalso,anoveralldevelopment,asthecountryfairlyenjoyedapeacefulpoliticalcondition.Comparedwiththesituation,andthecontributionoftheUNO'sagenciestoeducation,thepaceofdevelopmentinthissectorwasslow.Inanutshell however,theAfghanistanoftwentiethcenturywitnessedatortuoustrendofschoolingandlearning,yetitwasabletosurvivepitfalls,andcontinuetoexistandexpand.18 Jeaniene Spink, Education, Reconstruction, and Statebuilding in Afghanistan (Journal, no date), [accessed 20 May 2012].19 Niloufar Pourzand, Education in Afghanistan, A Gendered Ideological Terrain (Journal, 2004) [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 19http://www.wluml.org/sites/wluml.org/files/import/english/pubs/pdf/wsf/03.pdfhttp://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/EducationSupplement/09.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERIIAfghanistaninthe21stCentury:EducationBackgroundTheadventofthe21stcenturymarkedauniqueeraforAfghanistan.Presumably,anendwasput tothewearisomeconflict in late2001,andanewchapter full ofunprecedentedandcomplicatedpages was opened. Surviving every hardship in the last moments of the 20 thcentury,theeducationsectorofthecountry,liketheothersectors,becamethefocalpointof the international communities andaid agencies. In other words, following the immediateinstallationofthenewgovernmentin2002,highprioritywasgiventotheeducationsector.Flow of funding and strategic planning was initiated all over the system. However, thecountry'spastlegacyofviolencehadleftnearlyanindelibleimpact,makingextantscenarios incredulous,astheinfrastructurewastornapart.Seventypercentofschoolswerereportedtohaveundergonesevereorpartialdamage,therewasfragmentationinthesociety,disruptionincommerce,andfragilityinsocialfabric,povertyandlackofbasiccareinhealthandsocialsector;thesewereamongthemanyotherpressingproblems.Inaddition,millionsofAfghanswerekilled,millionsdisplaced,andmillionsmoredeprivedof literacy.Eventoday,thelivingstandardischallenging.[]Nearlyhalfofthepopulationlivesbelowthepovertyline,morethanaquarterofamillionindividualsremaindisplacedinside thecountry,andnearlythreemillionremaininPakistanandIran.20Moreover,theagriculturalproductionislow,theadministrativeinfrastructurehasalmostbrokendown,corruptioninthesystemisasrampantasitsounds,andsecurityinmanyruralareas,hasremainedvolatiletodate.Despite these facts, the education sector has witnessed some positive change. The MoEaccompaniedwith other NGOsandaid agencies, started a mission to bring the sector tonormalcy,andtocarryitforwardtowardsthepathofdevelopment.UNICEF,andtheMoE,with the support of other related agencies for example, implemented 'Back to School' campaignin2002.Gradually,schoolsstartedswarmingwiththousandsofstudents.UNICEFdeliveredmorethan7,000tonsoflearningmaterialssuchastextbooks,notebooks,pencils, blackboards,chalks,schoolbags,tents,andotherteachingandlearningmaterials.AccordingtotheUSStateDepartmentInternationalProgrammesSection,fourmilliontextbookswereparcelled across Afghanistan.21 Inaddition to these materials, the World FoodProgramme20 Oxfam International, (Afghanistan, 2009).21 Torpekai Sultani, The Current Situation of Basic Education in Afghanistan (No date), [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 20http://www.criced.tsukuba.ac.jp/pdf/04_Afghanistan_Sultani.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012(WFP)distributedfoodstufftosomeofthestudentswiththeobjectiveofencouragingtheacademicparticipationofeveryfamily,andchild.Consequently,therewasadrasticchangein thenumberofchildrengoingtoschool.Thischange,however, leviedmoreburdenontheinvolvedagenciesthatengenderedtheneedformoreseriousinitiativestoensuresuccessinthecompletionofthevariousprojectspertainingtothesector.Layingdownafreshacademic curriculumbecame inevitable. The MoE, along with UNICEF, and UNESCObecame moreinvolvedonthecurriculumdevelopment.Thecurriculumwasplanned,andtheCompilation&Translation Department (CTD) of the MoE, was given the onus of dealing with thesemodifications. Inearly 2003, theAcademicCouncil onEducation(ACE)was entrusted toreviseandfinalizeit.ThedocumentcameintoeffectinJunethesameyear,butwassaidtohavecontainedobjectivesofaneweducationpolicy,ratherthananoutlineofcurriculum.22Itwasneverthelessconsideredagoodstartfortheyearstocome.CurrentStatusThe first comprehensive school survey was carried out by the Educational ManagementInformationSystem(EMIS)in2007,andwasfurtherupdatedin2008.TheenactmentofanewEducationLaw(EL)forAfghanistancoincidedwiththesurveyupdate,andwasinspiredbytheprovisionsofarticles17,43,44,45,and47oftheConstitutionoftheIslamicRepublic ofAfghanistan.23 TheEducationLawwasadoptedin2008,whichhas11chaptersand52articles(seeappendixI).StudyingtheperiodundertheTalibanrule,anincomparablechangehasnowbeenactuatedin theeducationsector.Startingfrom2002,thecountryenjoyedagradualincreaseinstudents ratio.In2005,nearlyfivemillionstudentswereenrolledingrade1to12,whichwasmore thantwicethenumberofchildrenin2002.Fromlessthanamillionin2001,thestudentsnumberedtoover7.3millionin2010/11.Morethan9,000newschoolshavebeenestablishedto facilitate access to education.24 Enrolment in technical and vocational education hasincreasedfromnearly9,000(2006)to16,000in2008.Similarly,othercategoriesofeducationmetwithremarkablechange.25However,despitethisprogress,Afghanistanstillhas4.5millionchildrenoutofthereachofschool.26AccordingtotheMoESecurityDepartment,481schools22 Yumiko Ono, et al., Supporting Teachers to Educate Marginalized Children: Teachers and Teacher Education in Afghanistan (2007)23 Ministry of Education, The Development of Education, (National Report 2008), [accessed 20 May 2012].24 MoE Afghanistan, Education for All Global Monitoring Report ( Kabul, 2011).25 MoE (National Report, 2008).26 MoE, EFA Global Monitoring Report of (2011). Vivekananda International Foundation India 21http://www.ibe.unesco.org/National_Reports/ICE_2008/afghanistan_NR08.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012wereeitherclosedorburnedbytheinsurgentsin2009,andconsequently300,000childrenhavelostaccesstoeducation.27Girls'EducationTakingcuefromthecatastrophichistoryofwomen,particularlyduringtheTalibanreignasdiscussed,theMoEseemstohavegivenparamountimportancetotheeducationforgirls. Publicawarenessactivitieshavebeenconductedthroughseminars,posters,andthemediatoencourage girls education. A communication strategy on girls education is also beingdeveloped as part of the Afghanistan Girls Education Initiative (AGEI). According to theMinistry statistics,thenumberofgirlsenrolledhasincreasedfrom674,000in1381/2002toaround2.2millionin2008[asshowninthefigureI]but60%ofgirlsarestilloutofschool. Thegenderparityindexvariesfromprovincetoprovince.Thestatusofgirlseducationisbetter intheprovincesofBadakhshanandHerat(8girlsto10boys).ItistheworstintheprovincesofZabul,UruzganandHelmand(1girlto10 boys). []girls' educationsuffers the most ininsecureprovinces.28Fig.I.Courtesy:MoEStatistics(2008)29PrivateandCrossBorderSchoolsRegulationsonprivateschoolshavebeendevelopedandratified.Sofar,159privateschoolshavebeenestablishedand37,180studentsareenrolled.Aprivateandcrossborderschoolsunithasbeenestablishedtofacilitatetheprocess.Inaddition,153crossborderschoolsinIranand 338 schools in Pakistan have been registered with the Ministry [of Education] and131,240studentsinthoseschoolsareusingtheMinistryscurriculum.30InclusiveEducationIt was estimated in the 2006National Disability Survey in Afghanistan(NDSA) that 37.5percentofchildrenfromage7to13wereexcludedfromformalschoolingforreasonssuchas27 MoE (National Report 2008).28 Ministry of Education, National Education Strategic Plan, NESP II (Kabul 2010 - 2014).29 The dates in fig. 1 demonstrate solar system, 1387 of which is equivalent to 2008. 30 Ministry of Education, NESP II (Kabul 2010 2014). Vivekananda International Foundation India 22Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012disability,vulnerabilityoftheparents,orfamilyeconomicbarriers.Thereportalsoshowedthatonly32percent of thechildrenwithdisabilitiesagedbetween7and13wereenrolledin formalschools.Followingthe48thsessionoftheInternationalConferenceonEducation(ICE)inNovember2008,theMoEcommittedtosupportinclusiveandchildfriendlyenvironmentsforallchildren.TheMinistryofEducationhas[thus]developedaRoadMaptowardsInclusioninAfghanistanin collaboration with members of the Inclusive Education Coordination Working Group(IECWG).31Moreover,attemptshavebeenmadetorehabilitatethephysicallyandemotionallydisplacedcitizens to a formalized system of learning. Clearly, the pernicious effects of the war inAfghanistanarereminiscenttodayintheformsofpovertyandunemployment.Thesefactorshave been the compelling causes for the subjection of the Afghanyouth to hopelessness,narcotics,andmanyotherphysicalandmentalaberrations.Hence,TheInclusiveEducationprogrammeoftheMoEismakingeffortstoencourageparticipationoftheseaffectedgroupsincludingeventhosechildrenbelongingtoparentswhohadtakenpoliticalsidesduringthecivil war. Theprogrammeensures their right to educationunderthechamberof thenewconstitution,andeducationlaw.Rightnow,thereisonlyoneschoolinAfghanistan(inKabul)forthestudentswithvisualimpairments.TheschoolisadministeredbytheMinistryofEducationthataccommodates150students.Therearefourschoolsforstudentswithhearingimpairments(twoinHerat,oneinKabulandoneinJalalabad)accommodating900studentsintotal.TheMinistryofEducation,withsupportfromtheUNagenciesandinternationalorganizations,isrunning29pilotgeneral schools in Kabul for inclusive education (where children with disabilities and withoutdisabilities are learningtogether). More than2,600childrenwithdisabilities(mostlywithhearingandvisualimpairments)arelearningininclusiveeducationpilotschoolsthroughoutthecountry.32Thesestepshavehowever,beenparedtoanextentbecauseoftheshortageofresources.Therehas been a shortage of trained pedagogues in the inclusive education and a shortage oflearning sources, and materials for students with special educational needs. These areconsideredastheserioushindrancesinthedevelopmentofinclusivesectioninthecountry.31 Ministry of Education, NESP II (Kabul 2010 2014).32 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 23Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012DistanceEducationTheMinistryofEducationalsodisseminateseducationalprogrammesforteachers,children,and adult learners through its Education Radio and Television (ERTV) section. Theprogrammes include domestic affairs, School Time, Learn and Teach, and Voice ofEducation.TheEducationTVisbroadcastforsixhoursdailyinKabul,whiletheeducationalradiohasroundtheclockprogrammes.TheMoEhasplannedtoexpanditsprogrammestoall provinces.Ithasalsodecidedtoincreasethetimeoftheprogrammeto18hours,andcoverTechnicalEducation,andVocationalTraining(TEVT),IslamicEducation,preschoolingetc.by2014.33LevelsofPublicEducationBasics,Intermediate,Secondary,andTechnicalTherearefourlevelsofeducationforschooling,whichserveastheverykerneloftheentireeducationaloperationinAfghanistan.Although,thesehaveexistedinthecountrypriortothenewlydesigneddevelopmentalschemes,yettheirexaminationhereinisimportantforafairunderstanding of the education system in Afghanistan. These levels of school educationcompriseofPrePrimary,Primary,JuniorSecondary,andUpperSecondary.Theprimarystartsafterkindergarten,fromgradefirsttogradesixth.Thejuniorsecondarystartsfromgradeseventhandendsatninth,andlikewise,theuppersecondarystartsfromgradetenthandendsintwelfth.ThewholesystemhowevercanbesummarizedasdoneinEducationLaw,intotwomajorlevelsintermediateorbasiclevel(fromgradeonetonine),andsecondarylevel(fromgradeninetotwelve).Fromgradetwelvetofourteenitcomestodealwiththecategoryofteachers' training, andor technical studies. However, the improvisation inthepreprimaryeducation level had been opaque, and so, this level of education had been confined tolearningatmosques;further alimitednumberofpreschoolshadexistedsincelong.Onlyrecently,hastheGovernmentofAfghanistan(GoA)expandeditspreschoolingprogrammestobestructuredwithintheformalsystem.CategoriesofEducationPublicEductioninAfghanistanisdividedintofivecategories:GeneralEducation(GE),IslamicEducation (IE), Teachers' Training (TT), and Technical and Vocational Education Training(TVET).Inaddition,Communitybased(CBE),andPrivateEducation,arealsopartsofthe33 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 24Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012Afghanistan Education Sector that may literally include systems from the aforementionedschools.34The MinistryofEducation(MoE)providesformalGeneralEducation,IslamicEducation,aswellasTechnicalandVocationalTraining,andCommunityLiteracyProgrammesthroughits34ProvincialEducationDepartments.TheMinistryofLabourandSocialAffairsandMartyrsandDisabled(MLSAMD)isresponsibleforskill development,labour,kindergartens,orphanage,andwelfareofthedisabledandthefamiliesofmartyrs.35 TheMinistryofWomen'sAffairs(MOWA)alsoprimarilyplaysacoordinatingroleacrossgovernmenttopromoteparity,equity andequalityatalllevelsofeducationforfemales.TheMinistryofHigherEducation(MoHE)is responsiblefortertiarylevelofstudieswhichisnotanissueoffocusinthispaper.AccordingtotheEMISsummaryreportof2009/10,therearearound6,693,966studentsinall categories of schools, of which 4,240,415 are males and 2,453,551 are female students. Amongallcategories,theGeneraleducationhasthelargestnumberofstudentscovering97%of the total number. There are over 12081schools, of which 94 percent are for GeneralEducation(GE)and4 percent for the Islamic Education(IE). Of over 12081schools, 82percentbelongtotheruralareas,and17percenttotheUrbanareas.TheGeneralEducationand the Islamic Education schools have thicker concentration in the rural areas with 83percent,and67percentrespectively.Conversely,theTeacherTrainingCentres/Colleges(TTCs)andTechnical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) schools (71percent) are mostlyconcentrated in urban areas. The problems of dilapidated infrastructure are neverthelessrampant,asoutof1208136schools,68percentdonothavesurroundingwalls,and15percentareinneedofsevererehabilitation.GeneralEducation(GE)The General Education as mentioned constitutes the largest category in the county. Thiscategorycoversthegradesfromonetotwelve,andsometimesuntilgradetenasstudentsmayhappentooptfortechnicalorteachers'trainingwhichcanoftenadmitstudentsfromgrade10.Accordingtoalatestreport,therearenow14,465schoolsforgeneraleducation. 37AccordingtotheEMISreportof2009,of12081schools,94percentareforGeneralEducation,with45 34 EMIS Afghanistan, 2009/10 Summary Report of Education Situation, (Kabul 2010).35 Ministry of Education, Afghanistan 2011 - 2013 National Education Interim Plan (Kabul 2011).36 Based on Education Regional Conference on Promotion of Good Practices in ICT for Education in Central and Western Asia Region (Ministry of Education, 2011), the number increased to 14,465 by 2011.37 Mohamed Salim Hayran, (Ministry of Education, 2011), Vivekananda International Foundation India 25Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012percentforthePrimary,32percentfortheLowerSecondary,and24percentfortheUpperSecondary.Intheseschools,thereareintotal,6,504,715students,ofwhich62.75percentare maleand37.25percentarefemalestudents. 75percent inthePrimary,19percent intheLowerSecondary,and6percentareintheHigherSecondarylevel.38Also,thenumberofstudentsenrolledingeneraleducationhasincreasedfrom2.3millionin2002to6.5millionin2009,outofwhich4.1millionconstitutedgirls,and2.4millionboys. Thefigureiiisalthoughanupdatefrom2009,itwillyethelpusinthearticulationofthepaceofchangethattookplaceinthelastyears.Fig.II.TotalNumberofStudents13811388(20022009)Courtesy:MoEEMISDirectorate,1388(2009)39Thenetenrolmentrates(NER)inbasiceducationaccount68percentforboys,and44percentforgirls,whilegrossenrolment(GER)ratesforthesamewereestimatedat82percentfor boys,and52percentforgirlsin2009.38 EMIS Afghanistan, Summary Report of Education Situation (2009/10).39 MoE Afghanistan, National Education Interim Plan 2011-2013 (Quoted, 2011). Vivekananda International Foundation India 26Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ThefigureIII,showsthenumberofstudentsdecliningaftergrade5.Courtesy:MoE,EMISDirectorate2009TheMinistryofEducationhasenvisionedtoincreasethenumberofschoolsupto16,500,toget50percentofthegeneralschoolsequippedwithscienceandmathematicskits,and30percentwithcomputerlabsby2014.40Teachers'TrainingCentre/College(TTC)TheTeachers'traininglevelofeducationstartsfromgradetenthandendsingradefourteenth.TheTTCscanusuallyadmitsecondaryschoolgraduatesfortwoyearsaftercompletionofthetwelfthgrade.Thereare42TeacherTrainingCentres71percentofwhicharelocatedinurbanand17percentinruralareas.Of34,020students59.65percentaremaleand40.35percentarefemalestudents.11percentoftheirteachershavecompletedgradetwelve,6percentgradefourteen,3percentareundergraduates,andfewhavedoctoratedegrees.41 Nonetheless,theteachers are said to receive low level of salaries which is knownas a hindrance to thedevelopmentofhumanresourceintherealmofteaching.Theirteachingcapacityandquality aresometimessusceptibletocensure.Although,theNationalTeacherEducationAcademy(NTEA)wasestablishedin2007totrainteacherseducatorsinordertoupliftthequalityofteaching,yettheAcademydoesnot,carrywell developed curriculumand is currently dependent on foreign educators. NESP II has40 Ministry of Education, NESP II (2010 2014), p-94.41 Ibid., p-94 Vivekananda International Foundation India 27Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012decidedtotrain50,000grade12graduates(45%ofwhomwillbewomenfromthedistricts whereneedforprofessionalteachersaresensedmorebytheendof2014.Itenvisionsatleast80percentoftheteacherstohavepassedthenationalcompetencytest.42ThefigureIV,showsanincreaseinthenumberofteachers.Ithasdoubledtoabout165000with31%offemales.Fig.IVNumberofTeachersfrom2002to2009Courtesy:EMISDirectorate2009However, the percentage of female teachers varies from province to province. Femaleinstructorsconstituteonly3percentofteachers inPaktika,Uruzgan,andZabulprovinces, whereasinKabulandBalkhProvincestheyconstitute60percent,and49percentrespectively. Thoughthenumberofteachershasincreased,yetsomeobjectivessetintheNESPI(2006to2010)havebeenreportedunachieved.4342 Ministry of Education, NESPII.43 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 28Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012FigureV.showsthevarianceinthenumberoffemaleteachersinprovinces.Fig.vNumberofFemaleTeachersbyProvinceCourtesy:MoEStatistics2008TheMoEhasaimedtoequip30percentofTTCswithcomputerlabsby2014.44IslamicEducation(IE) The Islamic formal education starts from grade ten to the end of grade fourteen. InDarulhefazes45, it howeverstartsfromgradeonetotheendof gradetwelve.Afghanistan'smadrassas haveservedmultiplepurposessuchasimpartingbasiceducation,andadvancedlearninginIslamicstudies,andproducingmanyofAfghanistan'spoliticalleaders.46Thereare518IslamicEducationschoolsinAfghanistan.26percentofthemaresituatedinurban,and67%areinruralareas.Theyentail136,935students,ofwhich89.93%aremaleand 10.07% are female students. Of the 518 schools, 89 percent have school buildinginformationthatinformsabout58percenttohavetheirownbuildingand39percentwithout theirownbuildings.4744 Ibid. p. 94.45 Darulhefazes, and madrasas refer to Islamic Studies Centres.46 Ministry of Education, Education Sector for Afghanistan National Strategic Development (Kabul, 2007).47 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 29Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012TheMadrassasprefertoadmitstudentsforIslamiceducationfromgrade7onward.Inplaceswheregeneraleducationschoolsdonotfunction,maddrassasmaytakestudentsfromgrade1especiallywheregeneralstudiesareimplementeduntilgrade6.TheMoEhasplannedtoincreasethenumberofstudentsinIslamicschoolsandDarulUlumsto200,000witha40percentoffemalestudents.Ithasalsoplannedtoexpandthenumberof schoolsto1,000,andequip50percentofschoolswithscienceandmathematicskitsby2014.48TechnicalandVocationalEducationTraining(TVET)TheTechnicaleducationstartsfromgradetenandendsingradefourteen.ShorttermcoursesinthisareaarealsoprovidedbytheMoE.InawartorncountrylikeAfghanistan,TVETissaid tobebadlyneededasithelpsinpovertyalleviation.Thereisaseveredemandfortechnical labourinthemarket.Thegovernmentisthusrequiredtofocus,furtheronthissubsectorof education.Exponentialchangeshavebeentangible.In2001therewereonly1,500malestudentsinTVETschools.Nowthereare98schoolsin32provinceswithanapproximatenumberof26,000students,ofwhich16percentarefemalestudents.49 29percentofteachershavecompletedgradefourteen,25percentgradetwelve,37percentareundergraduates,and6percentholdmaster'sdegree.50NESPIIaimsatexpandingTVETregionalinstitutesfrom16to32,provincialschoolsfrom38to102,andincreaseenrolmentfrom19,500(2009)to150,000,thirtypercent ofwhichwouldbefemalestudentsby2014.Italsoenvisionstoestablish364TVETdistrict schools,andincreaseenrolmentofchildrenwithdisabilitiesto1,000students.ConsideringtheTechnicalandVocationalEducationasimportantsection,theTechnicalandVocationalEducationDepartmentisnowheadedbyadistinctDeputyMinister.TheMinistryhasplannedtoworkincooperationwiththeMinistryofLabourandSocialAffairstoconductastudyofthelabourmarkettomakesurethattheTVETfieldsofstudyarebasedontheneedsofthemarket. TheMinistrywillalsosupporttheestablishmentofprivateTVETcentresandinclosecollaborationwithchambersofcommercewillencouragemajorindustriesincludingbusiness,mining,construction,manufacturingtosetuptrainingunitswithintheindustrieswheregrade9graduatescanenrolandobtainvocationaltraining.Theprivatesectorhasfor 48 Ministry of Education NESP II (Kabul 2010-2014).49 MoE Afghanistan, EFA Global Monitoring Report of (2011).50 EMIS Afghanistan, Summary Report of Education Situation (2009/10). Vivekananda International Foundation India 30Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012thefirsttimebecomeinvolvedintheprovisionoftechnicalandvocationaleducation.SevenprivateTVETinstitutesarenowoperationalintheprovincesofKabulandBalkh.51Nonformal/CommunitybasedEducation(CBE)Inadditiontotheformaleducationandnonformalbasicprogrammesthatarebeingprovidedeither by the government or private institutions, there are various forms of nonformalprogrammes.NonformaleducationhasalonghistoryinAfghanistan.DehatiSchools(villageschools)emergedin1949,andwereanalternativetotheofficialprimaryschoolsinplaceswherethepeopleweredeprivedofeducation.Thelevelofeducationofferedbythesevillagebasedschoolswashowever,cursory.Theseschoolsofferededucationonlyuptograde3withthepurposeofpreparingthechildrenforentryintothecentralprimaryschools.The'dehati' schoolshavecontinuedtouplifttheirlevelofeducation,andfunctioninalleras,evenintheperiodsoftheMujahideenandproRussiangovernmentconflict(19781992),andtheTalibanreignof19962001.52DuringtheTalibanregime,smallhomebasedschoolswereoperationalforboysandgirlsthatofferedliteracyaptitude.Theseweresupportedbythepeopleofthecommunitywhovaluededucationfortheirchildren.AccordingtotheMinistryofEducation(MoE2008),currently,therearearound20,000communitybasedclassesinAfghanistan,and3percentofallstudentshavebeenestimatedtohaveattendedsomeformofCommunitybasedSchools(CBS).ThePartnershipforAdvancingCommunityEducationinAfghanistan(PACEA)wascreatedtofurther expandquality learning for themarginalizedcommunities and their children. ThePACEA consists of four International NonGovernmental Organizations (INGOs) includingCommunityChild&AdolescentResources,andEducation(CARE),theInternationalRescueCommittee(IRC),CatholicReliefServices(CRS),andtheAgaKhanFoundation(AKF).UnderPACEA,thecommunitiesareresponsibleforprovidingandmaintainingaclassroomspace,ensuring sustained attendance, selecting and compensating a teacher, and the dailymanagementoftheschool.PACEAprovidestrainingandongoingsupporttotheteachersandelectedSchoolManagementCommittees(SMC),suppliestheteachingandlearning.53WhenCBEpolicyguidelinesoftheMoEcalledforanumberofstrategicchanges,thePACEAdesigneditssecondyearofimplementationwhichincludedthatallCBSsshouldbe:atleast351 NESP II (Kabul, 2010 2014).52 Saif R. Samady (Paris, 2001).53 Ministry of Education NESP II (Kabul 2010-2014). Vivekananda International Foundation India 31Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012kilo meters away from the nearest MoE school, ensuring that teachers are regularlycompensatedbythecommunity,havingonePACEApartnerratherthanmanyassignedinoneprovincetooverseetheimplementationofCBE,providingalltextbooksfreeofchargebytheMoE,andthattheCBEteacherswouldbeincludedintheMoEpayroll.AccordingtoNESPII,currently,thereareover900CBEteacherswhonowreceivesalariesfromtheMoE.AnumberofeffortsseemtohavebeenmadeforliteracyenhancementinAfghanistan.TheLiteracy and NonFormal Education Development in Afghanistan (LAND) also, aims atdevelopingnationalliteracyandnonformaleducationresources.TheLANDAfghanprojectwasdesignedtosupporttheAfghanGovernmentachieveEducationforAll(EFA)goalssetduringtheDakarWorldEducationForum,andtheprojectsmainfocus[]hasbeenbuildingup a nationwide network of literacy teachers, trained in modern nonformal educationmethods.Itwillalsotrainpeopleinthedevelopmentandproductionofteachingmaterialsandprovide thenecessary equipment for this, includingprintingfacilities.54 TheUNESCOledLiteracyInitiativeforEmpowerment(LIFE)involvedallstakeholderstopromoteliteracyinamore effective manner. The MoE's joint programmes for Enhancement of Literacy inAfghanistan(ELA20082013)whichis nowconsideredoneof theAfghanistan's biggestliteracycampaigns,aretheinitiativesfocusingonliteracyexpansion.The Community based training also include programmes such as: 1) Life Skills Trainingincluding health and hygiene, literacy and numeracy, peace and tolerance, and childdevelopment,2)ProductiveSkillssuchasvocational,technicalandlivelihoodstrainingslikecarpentry,plumbing,agriculture,animalhusbandry,handicrafts,andtailoring,and3)LocalGovernanceandCivicEducation.TheseprogrammesareofferedthroughanumberofNGOssupported by the respective ministries including Ministries of Agriculture, Irrigation, andLivestock(MAIL),CommerceandIndustries(MCI),CounterNarcotics(MCN),PublicHealth(MOPH),RuralRehabilitationandDevelopment(MRRD),Education,etc.55TheEFAhasenvisioneda50%increaseinliteracyby2015.Toachievethisgoal,theMoE,hasplannedtoprovideliteracyeducationfor3.6millionoutofanestimated9.5millionilliteratesacrossthecountrythroughanestimated140,000literacycoursesatleastby2014.5654 UNESCO Website [accessed 20 May 2012].55 Lisa Deyo, Afghanistan Non-formal Education, Global Monitoring Report 2008, Education for All by 2015: Will We Make it? (UNESCO, 2007).56 Ministry of Education, NESP II (Kabul, 2010 2014). Vivekananda International Foundation India 32http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=9031&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlhttp://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=9031&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ConclusionThegovernment of Afghanistan's strategic goals andplanshavesometimesbeenprone tocriticism.Itisoftensaidthatthecountryfindsitdifficulttoachievelargegoalsinshortnotice. Likewise,thereisagrowingspeculationonwhethertheeducationalobjectivesandgoalssetbyNESPIIwillbefulfilledby2014.TheNESPIIhasplannedtoprovideliteracyeducationfor3.6millionoutofanestimated9.5millionilliteratesacrossthecountrythroughanestimated140,000literacycoursesby2014.Ithasalsoaimedat:training50,000of12gradegraduates with45percentofwomenasprofessionalteachers,having80percentoftheteacherstopassnationalcompetencytest,equipping30percentofTTCswithcomputerlabs,increasingthenumberofIslamicstudentsto200,000witha40percentoffemales,equipping50percentofschoolswithscienceandmathematicskits,expandingthenumberofTVETregionalinstitutes from16to32,anditsprovincialschoolsfrom38to102,anditsstudents'ratiofrom19,500(2009)to150,000witha30percentoffemales,andincreasingenrolmentofchildrenwithdisabilitiesto1,000students.57Thesegoalsneedtobemonitoredandachievedby2014.WithregardtothereportsoftheMoE,thereisaneedtoscrutiniseandverifythem.TheMoE hasthusfar,providedreportswithmoreofquantitativesurveysandstatisticalfactsonthenumberofschools,whilelittlehasbeendoneonthequalitativepart.Lessattentionhasbeenpaidto theeffectiveness of theeducational institutions. There is alsoaneedto monitorwhetherastudentofgradefourcanreadandwrite,orwhetherastudentofgrade12hasbeentaughtthenecessaryskillstosuccessfullyembarkon furtherstudies,orhowfarisahighschoolgraduatepreparedtosuccessfullyqualifyinthecountry'sgeneralentranceexam.ThesekindsofreportswouldbeusefulnotonlyfortheMoE'supcomingstrategicplans,butalsofortheeducationalinstitutionsthemselvesforassessingtheirstrengthsandweaknessesandwaystoaddresstheshortcomings.57 NESP II (2010-2014). Vivekananda International Foundation India 33Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERIIIProblemsandtheChallenges:BackgroundIn 2002, the Government of Afghanistan had to deal with manyhurdles such as lack of capacity in human resources, broken administrative infrastructure/framework, obsoleteeducationalsystemetc.TheEducationSectorhasbeenoneofthemanysectorsthatsufferedthemost.Historically,asseeninChapterI,theveryinfrastructureofthissectorwasusedasanexploitationtoolbyvariousregimes.Ontopofthis,theTalibanhadalmostdestroyedthisimportantsector.Inadditiontothedestructioninflicteduponthequality,itscivilservantshadlittleexperienceinstrategicplanningandpolicymakingandbudgeting.EventheannualplansoftheMoEwerereportedtobebasedontheMinistryofFinance's(MoF)allocationsforsomeyears.Ithowever,waslaterrealizedthatthisbudgetallocationapproachdidnotatallmatchthegrowingdemandforlearninginthecountry,andtheinternationalaidagenciesadoptedprogrammestouplifttheskillsoftheadministrativestaffoftheMoEbesidesimprovingtheeducationalinstitutions.UNESCOcommitteditsInternationalInstituteofEducationalPlanning(IIEP)toadvisetheMoE with necessary Strategic Planning and Capacity Development. IIEP is a permanentinstitutethatstrengthensthecapacitiesofeducationsectorsworldwide.Concomitantwiththis,AfghanistanwasencouragedbytheUNESCOtointroduceEducationforAll(EFA)programmethatlaterin2009laidthefoundationfortheMoEtoaimatthemembershipinFastTrackInitiative(FTI).EFAisaglobalmovementledbytheUNESCOforbasiclearningofchildrenandadultsaroundtheworld.FTIworksonprovidingadditionalfundingforthedevelopingcountriestoenhanceandhastentheprocessofdevelopmentineducationprogrammes.TheseprojectswerefinanciallysupportedbyanumberofScandinaviancountriesandothers.Despitealltheseefforts,asrepeatedlymentioned,around42percentofschoolagechildrenremainoutofreachofschool,thatconstitute4.5millioninnumber.Themainreasonsforthisarethe rapidincreaseintheschoolagepopulation,lowMoEcapacity,andlackofneededfinancialresources.58Inshort,itcanbesaidthatpriorto,andafterthesecommitmentsmanyplansandprogrammesweretakenthatdemonstratedinternationalcommunity'ssupportrangingfrom'backtoschoolcampaign' to curriculum development, and many other financial, advisory and strategicplanningthatgraduallykeptemerging.Despitehavingreceivedpartnershipsinvariousrealms58 Ministry of Education NESP II (Kabul 2010-2014). Vivekananda International Foundation India 34Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ofeducation,andremarkableprogressinthesector,thereareyet,anumberofhurdles,andproblemsthatneedtobeaddressed.Lackofsecurity,lackofskillsinthefaculty,andattimestheissueofthedistantlocationsoftheschools,unpleasantmethodofimpartingeducationtothe children are some of the daunting problems.59 In addition, economic conditions alsoprevent parents from sending their children to the school. Some of the major problemsconnectedwiththeaboveissuehavebeenoutlinedinthesucceedingparas.PoliticalLeadership,andInstabilityThecurrentpoliticalleadershipofthecountryunderHamedKarzai,hasbeensubjecttomanycriticisms by various groups. Political oppositions condemn it for weak and inconsistentdecisionmakingmechanisms.Othersmaintainthatthedirectionoftheforeignpolicyoftheleadership is unknown.Manysaythat national interest is unidentified. ArmedoppositionsblameitforbeingapuppetgovernmentinthehandsofWesterncountries,andclaimthatweaknesshastakenabodewithinthesystemofthegovernment,andthatitwillsoonhavetocollapse and compromise with insurgents especially, upon the complete drawdownof theforeigntroops.Onthistake,thecivilsocietyforums,andwomengroupsareafraid,lestthegovernment might consequently fall, andtheextremist regimeof Talibanmight takeoveragain,orcivilwarmightbreakout.Theseassumptionsandcomplicationshaveledtoquestionthenationalownership.Thesocietyseemsfragmented.EventhethreebranchesoftheStateareinastateofwarwitheachother.SomevoicesintheparliamentofAfghanistanhavebeenthemostseriouscriticsofthepresentleadership.Attimes,voiceshavebeenraisedwithintheHouseofRepresentativesaskingthePresidenttoresign.TheparliamenthasmanyatimeschargedthePresidentofviolatingthelaws.OneofthemostcontradictorystageofaccusationtookplaceinAugust2011,whenthePresident had ordered the Election Commission to finalize the then disputes among thecandidatesovertheseatsforlowerhouse.SomeatthelowerhouseofParliamentsconsideredthePresident'sorderillegal,andopinedthatheshouldstepdown.ThemajorityintheSenatewashowever,opposedtothisview.60Theseinfights,itisclaimed,haveencouragedinsurgency,andviolence,whichposesaserious59 Dana Holland, Capacity Building through Policy Making: Developing Afghanistan's NESP (AREU 2010), [accessed 20 May, 2012].60 Pazhwak News [accessed 20 May, 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 35http://www.pajhwok.com/node/153358http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Technical_Assistance/pdf/2010/Afghanistan_National_Ed_Strat_Plan2010.pdfhttp://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Technical_Assistance/pdf/2010/Afghanistan_National_Ed_Strat_Plan2010.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012threatto theeducationsector. Insurgencyis acquiringmomentum.Afghancommunities inrural areas are largely disinclined towards education, and don't usually trust the formaleducationsystem.TheTalibanelementstaketheadvantageofthisstateofaffairs,andinturn spread disinformation and carry out propaganda campaign against the western imposededucation system in order to create a legacy of distrust among the populace. Confidencebuildingwithinthesystemofthegovernmentisthus,neededtoleteducationalinstitutionsprosper.Thefrequentchangesintheleadershipoftheministryarealsounpleasantforaconsistentandundeterreddevelopment.AsNESPIImaintains,PoliticalinstabilityingeneralandfrequentchangesintheleadershipoftheMinistrymayhavenegativeeffectsongovernanceandonimplementationofthe[educational]plan.61 Patronagewithinthesystemisanothermajorproblem.TheMoE,as manyothergovernmental institutions, hasbeenblamedof beinga reservoirofpatronage.62Eachministernewlyappointedisallegedtoplacehisownteam,andthismayhavechallengingconsequencesonasmoothgrowthofthesector.CorruptionMuchasinmanyotherplaces,corruptionisatangibleprobleminAfghanistan.Thecountryis rankedfifthfromthebottomonTransparencyInternational(TI's)CorruptionPerceptionIndex(TICPI2008).AccordingtoanOxfambriefingpaperin2006,teacherswerenotpaidontimeorhadtopayabribetoreceivesalary.Also,therewere16,000to20,000ghostteachersthosewhodidnotcometowork,orwereregisteredattwoplaces.63AlthoughtheOxfampaperreflected the state as of 2006, yet it is a common knowledge that even now, in theadministrativeaswellasinstitutionalstructuresofthegovernment,corruptionintheformsofbribeandillegalpracticesiswidespread.Lowpayforteachershasbeenconsideredasacausefor corruption in the education system. The school staff usually can not survive on theirmonthlyincomes,whichencouragesacultureofcorruptionwithintheeducationalsystem.InstitutionalWeaknessAfghanistan lacks professional and appropriately qualified teachers. Apart from this,curriculummakers also usually do not have access to sufficient modern educational andscientifictoolsandresources.Thecapacityforresearchandinternationalresourcesislow,as61 NESP II (2010 2014) p. 13462 Giustozzi, AAN 2011.63 Oxfam International, Free Quality Education for Every Afghan Child (Quality Briefing Paper, 2006) pp.10-11 Vivekananda International Foundation India 36Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012manyofthestaff donothaveadequatelanguageskills,andcomputerliteracy.64 InefficientbureaucracyinthestructureoftheMoEis yetanotherproblem.TheMoEitself hasoftenadmittedthisfactandhasconsidereditasoneofthecauseswhymanygoals,andprogrammesforNESPsremainunattained.65VolatileSecurityConditionThe security situation in the country, as maintained in preceding pages, has steadilydeterioratedfrom2006onwards.Thedeteriorationhasparticularlyworsenedinthesouthernandeasternpartsofthecountry.However,recentlylargerpartofthecountryisunderthreat. Inmanyareas,antigovernmentalelementshaveattackedstudents,teachers,andschools.By2009,sixhundredandninetyschoolswereshutdeprivingover340,000children'srighttoeducation.Atleast,140teacherswerekilledorwounded.66 Itmadeitdifficultforteacherstofunction in insecure places, and had a negative impact on their ability to participate inteaching,andthestudentsinturntoparticipateinlearning.Lackofsecuritycertainlyaffectstheplanningandmanagementoftheeducationsector. It createsdifficultiesincontinuingwithanyconstructiveworkintheareaswheresituationisvolatile.AsreportedbytheWorldBank(WB)/DFIDPublicExpenditureReviewofEducation(PERE),in2007theEducationManagementInformationSystem(EMIS)surveywasunabletocollectdatafromroughly200schoolsandwasnotabletoverifydataonafurther40067duetosecurityconcerns.82percentofschoolsarereportedtobeinruralareaswheremostofthemsufferfromattacksofdifferentnaturesuchasgrenades,arson,explosion,andverbalthreatstoteachers,students,andtheirparents.EventheMoEitselfwasthreatened,thatleditsstafftoshifttodifferent partsofKabulinlate2007.Thedisplacementoftheministry'sdepartmentswassaidtohave caused stagnationinthefunctioningoftheMoEasmanytools,andInternetfacilitieswereabsentforawhile.64 NESP II (2010 2014)65 Morten Sisgaard, Education and Fragility in Afghanistan: A Situational Analysis (INEE Research Paper 2009). cited from MoE report of 2008.66 Marit Glad, Knowledge on Fire: Attacks on Education in Afghanistan (Care 2009). [accessed 20 May 2012].67 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 37http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2009/11/Knowledge_on_Fire_Report.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012TheMostRecentThreatsOn24and27May2012,100and40femalestudentsrespectively,werepoisonedinprovincialcapitalTaloqan(Takhar).68On15May2012,nearly300studentswerereportedtohavebeenpoisonedinIsmailKhildistrictofsouthernKhostProvince.Thestudentshoweversurvivedthemishapafterbeingtakento thehospitals. It wasreportedtobesomeformofair bornematerialthatcausesunconsciousness.ThoughtherewasnoevidencewhethertheTalibanorthewaterintheschoolpremisescausedthisincident,thecasehasnotcertainlybeennewin thecountry.PoisoningcasesinRustaq69,Bamian,KapisaandGhaznihavealsobeenrecorded.On17April2012,tensoffemalestudents,againinTakharwerepoisoned.Intheyears2009and2010thesimilarincidentstookplaceinGhazniandKapisa.Also,on23April2012,50schoolsinGhazniwerereportedtohavebeenshutbytheTaliban.70Itisunfortunatethattheservice delivery and service expansion in education sector in such situations remainchallenged.Asofthelatestreport,currently,upto500schoolsareclosedduetothreatsfromTalibaninprovincessuchasKandahar,Zabul,Nangarhar,Takhar,andGhazni.Femalestudentsareunderthreatmorethanthemalestudents.AfghansecurityofficialschargetheHaqqaniNetwork,andtheMullahDaadullahFront, thetwoactive insurgencygroupsfor poisoningstudents andburningschoolsinAfghanistan.71However,thegovernmenthasinitiatedsomestepstotacklethelackofsecurityforeducationsector. It establishedParent Teachers Associations(PTAs), SchoolManagementCommittees(SMCs), and Security Shuras72 (SS) to ensure security and contribute to the educationalinstitutions' environment. Still mere existence of these mechanisms without a determinedpoliticalleadershiptofighttheTalibanandinsurgencywouldbeofnoavail.Substantivestepsneedtobetakentoprovidesecurityandsafeenvironmentforstudentstopursuetheirstudies.LittleCoordinationbetweenAidAgenciesandtheMoEDuring200506externalbudgetexpendituresconstitutedabout60percentofalleducationexpenses, and more than 80 percent of the core budget was allocated to the operating68 TOLO News, Ministry of Education Urges School Attackers to Stop, (Kabul 2012) [accessed 25 May 2012].69 Rustaq is a district of Takhar northern Province in Afghanistan.70 BBC Persian [accessed 20 May 2012].71 TOLO News (Kabul, 2012).72 Shura in Dari means Council. Vivekananda International Foundation India 38http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/afghanistan/2012/04/120423_k02-ghazni-schools-taleban.shtmlhttp://tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/6345-ministry-of-education-urges-school-attackers-to-stopZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012expenditures,specificallysalaries.TheMoEtherefore,hashadlittleauthorityoversomedonoractivities.PRTsforexamplecarryouteducationrelatedprogrammeswithlittlecoordinationwiththeMoE.73 Thus,interventionsbydonors,theirNGOpartnersandlocalcommunitieshavebeenconstrainedbyfinancial,securityandotherlimitations.TheseeffortshavenotbeenwellcoordinatedwiththeMoE,withoneresultbeingthatinformationisstillinadequateforstrategicdecisionmaking.74TransitofTextbooksPendinginPakistanApartfromtheproblemofthecoordinationbetweenaidagenciesandtheMoE,thetransitof thetextbooksfromPakistanhasrecentlybecomeacontroversialissue.Ithasbeenreportedthatthetransitofover4.5milliontextbookshasbeenkeptonholdinPakistansince75[]thePakistaninegotiatorshaveaskedforafeeof$5,000foreachNATOshippingcontainerandtanker that transits its territory by land into andout of Afghanistan.76 InChicagoNATOSummitofmidMay2012,thePakistaniPresidentwasaskedtolookintotheproblem,andlettheAfghanschooltextbookstransittoAfghanistanshortly.IllequippedEducationalBuildingsOf12,081schools(howeverrecentlyreported14,465),68percent,donothavesurroundingwalls, and15percent needrehabilitationof their boundarywalls. This problemcausesanegativeimpactespecially,ongirls'enrolment,attendanceandcompletionoftheireducationastheyareboundtoadheretotheculturalnormsfortheirprotection.Ahugenumberof latrinesintheseschoolsarealsonotproperlyoperational.77Also,of11,460GeneralEducationSchools, 49percent do not have their ownbuildings that may threaten thecontinuity ofeducationintheirrespectiveareas.78The NESP II has however, envisioned 75 percent of General Schools, TTCs and Islamicclassrooms,100percentofTVETandalleducationdepartmentstohaveusablebuildingsby73 MoE, NESPI74 MoE Education Sector Strategy for the Afghan National Development Strategy (Kabul, 2007)75 TOLO Persian News (Kabul, 25 May 2012).76 The Nation, Pakistan Seeks $5,000 transit fee for each NATO Container (17 May 2012) [accessed 26 May].77 EMIS Afghanistan, 2009/10 Summary Report (Kabul 2010).78 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 39http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/17-May-2012/pakistan-seeks-5-000-transit-fee-for-each-nato-container-wphttp://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/17-May-2012/pakistan-seeks-5-000-transit-fee-for-each-nato-container-wpZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012theendof2014.79RapidIncreaseinDemandforEducationAswenoticedinChapterII,since2001,nearlyaneightfoldincreaseindemandforeducation hastakenplace.Thisrapidincreasehassignificantlyexceededthecapacityofsupply,andhascaused a severe dependence on the international donors. There are almost seven millionchildrenenrolledinschools.However,nearly15percentofthoseenrolledare,duetoweatherproblemorsecurity factorspermanentlyabsent, and42percentofschoolagechildren, asmentionedinprecedingpages,majorityofthemfemales,areoutofschool.80TheMoEneedstoexpanditsplansinordertobeabletoaccommodatetheremainingchildrenintoeducation.ThiscannotbedoneunlesstheNESPIIgoalsandplansaretargeteddidactically,besidesa helpinghandfromotherinstitutions.Privateschools,vocationalcolleges,anduniversitiesareemerging.Morethan360entitiesarealreadyregisteredwiththeMinistryofEducation.Theseentitiesmayinonewayortheother,share the burden of delivery, and help the MoE in meeting the demands, but theysimultaneously,haveanimportantimplicationforeducationpolicyofthegovernmenttoadoptwithinitssystem strongfiscalandadministrativearrangementstoimprovefunctioningoftheseinstitutions,especiallyintheareasofcurriculumdevelopment,equity,crosssubsidizationetc.DisorderandViolenceinSchoolsAlthough, there is norecent andcomprehensivestudyavailable onthefunctioningof theschools, yet there are anecdotal reports about disorder in the management of theseinstitutions.Normsarenotmaintained,themethodsofteachingarenoteffective,physicalpunishmentofstudentsbytheteachersisinvogue.81 Thisproblemismultidimensionalinnature.Someaspectsofitmaybelongtothemanagementoftheinstitutionsincharge,whilesomemayrefertotheveryresponsibilityofthepeople.Violenceinschools,corruptioninthesystemforexamplecannotbeeasilyaddressedwithoutaninitiativefromthelocalcitizenryitself.Thistake,howeverdoesnotbyanymeansoverlooktheroleofaweaksysteminthe governmentasasoundpublicandsocialpolicyandadministrationmayeasilytackletheseproblems.79 NESP II (2010 2014).80 Ministry of Education, 2011 2013 National Education Interim Plan (Kabul, 2011).81 Ministry of Education, Education Sector Strategy for the Afghan National Development Strategy (Kabul, 2007), Vivekananda International Foundation India 40Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ConclusionWeunderstandthefactthatAfghanistanthroughoutitshistory,neverbefore,witnessedthelevel of the internationalhumanitarianaidandassistance that it receives today. However,despitethegenerousinvolvementofdonors,whichhasmadeAfghanistanafocalpointforinternational care, there are questions and growing speculation about the country'sbackwardness ineverysector. Nevertheless, it will behollowandunjustified if wedonotaddressthechallengesthrownupbytheeducationsector.Terrorismandinsurgencyhavebeenaffecting the efforts made towards the development of Afghanistan's infrastructures. TheTalibanelementsneverwishtoleavethecountrypurelyatthehandsoftheorganizationsthatareinstrumentalinusheringinapositivechange.ThemoretheTalibanstayawayfromthescene,thebetter,stronger,andmoreeffectivethecountrywillbecome.ThemoretheTalibanarekeptatbay,themorechancesforwomenandmenwouldbeprovidedtolearn,interact,seekknowledge,anddefendthemselves.TheTalibangroupstherefore,finditimperativetostayactiveandnottoletAfghanistanfallinthehandsoftheknowledgeableandambitious Afghancitizens.Whytheydoso, isaquestionthatneedstobeansweredbycoveringtheregionalaspectsofitsuchastheirsafehavensinneighbouringPakistan. Vivekananda International Foundation India 41Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERIVFutureProspects,andtheWayforward:BackgroundDespitethepoorindicators,andtheproblemsalreadyenunciated,therehavealsobeensomesignsofimprovementinrecentyears.AccordingtotheNationalRiskVulnerabilityAssessmentreport(NRVA2007/8),52percentofchildrenhaveenrolledinprimaryschools.Comparedwith2005enrolment whichwas37percent, the proportionof enrolment has remarkablyincreased.Also,maleliteracyincreasedfromaround30percentforthoseintheirmidtwentiesto 62percent for children in their early teens. Correspondingly, female literacyrose frombelow10percentto37percent.However,inruralareas,thegapbetweenmaleandfemaleliteracyratesisstillmaintained.82Moreover,someofthestudentsusuallyquittheirschoolinthemidstofstudiesanddonotcompletetheirstudiesuptothehighersecondarylevels.ProspectsNecessarystepshavebeentakento addresstheseproblemsinthefuture.Inaddition,theNationalEducationStrategicPlanII(NESP20102014)hasconsideredusinginformationandCommunicationTechnology(ICT)toimprovetheworkingoftheMoE,andenhancethequalityofeducationforchildren.ItisobservedthatapplicationofdigitalcurriculumcontentsfromtheexperiencesofothercountrieswillproveabettereducationalsystemforAfghanistan.TheNESPIIhastherefore,targetedtoequip30percentofGeneralandIslamicschoolsandTeachers'TrainingCentreswithcomputerlabsby2014,andhasalsoplannedtodistributeeducationallaptopsfortenpercentofthestudentsenrolledingrade3uptothegrade6.Secondary schools are also planned to be equipped with computer labs, which will beaccompaniedwithOneLaptopPerChild(OPLC)to10percentofthetotalnumberofstudentsattheprimaryeducationaddingtothealreadydistributedOLPCthathadtargetedelevenschoolsforgrades4,5,and6.83ItwasplannedthattheICTcurriculumbedistributedamongthe10,11,and12gradesin2012academicyear.82 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment report of 2007/8 [accessed 20 May 2012].83 Salim Hayran, MoE Study, (Kabul 2011). Vivekananda International Foundation India 42http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/asia/documents/afgh_brochure_summary_en.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012TheWayForwardAswediscussed,theAfghanistanMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(AMDG),target100percentenrolment for primary education. Based on the current demography, around 8.8 millionchildrenarelikely to require access toprimaryeducationby2020.Tomeet this demand,99,000additionalteachersatanannualcostofUS$232millionarerequired.Inaddition,evenwithsomedropoutrates,uppersecondarylevel(grades712)willalsoincreaseby3million thatwillrequire112,000additionalteachersatanannualcostofUS$263million.84WhatcouldbedonetohelptheAMDGachieveitseducationalgoals?Isitpossibletoachievesuchgoalsby2020?Not,aloneforsure,cantheMoE'sNESPprojectsprovideanalternative.Asmentionedintheprecedingpages,itisimperativetowidenthescopeofinvolvementinthis importantsectorinamoreinclusiveform.Inotherwords,anentrepreneurialenvironmentmustbeencouragedtoflourishandprovidetheplatformforprospectivecitizens:those,whoarepreparedanddeterminedtotakepartincreatingnewideas,andnewsocialinitiatives.Whiletheestablishmentofprivateschoolsisimportant,itisnottheonlysolution.Thiseffort mustbeaccompaniedbyprovidingthechanceandtheplatformtothosewhoengendersocioeconomicprogress. Asocial entrepreneur forexample, understandsthedue importanceofphysical existence of educational institutions in remote areas, and may also understandsecuritythreatsthatmilitateagainsttheirsmoothfunctioningandeventheirexistence.Suchanentrepreneurmaycomeoutwithaninnovativesolutionthatmayneedfinancialsupport.Moreso,therearechancesthatthegovernmentmayitselfbeoccupiedwithimplementationofvariousotherexistingprogrammessuchasgettingthelevelofenrolmentincreased,andtheratio of schools improved, while the quality education, or rural inclusive mechanismssometimesmightgetignored.Ahugeamountofinternationalfinancialaidisbeingprovidedthrough the governmental mechanisms in Afghanistan. In such a context the Afghangovernmentcanatleastallocate,andrecommendsomeamountforinvisibleentrepreneurialthoughtstohelpboostqualityeducationinthecountry.Thegovernmentmayalsoinitiateeducationalpoliciesthatensurethedevelopmentinausefulform.Itcanoffersocialstatustothequestionofeducationtotheareaswheretheverynotionofthephenomenonis absent.Forexample,whatkindofprogrammeshouldbeadoptedtoencouragethosewhoopposegirlseducation?Inruralareaswheretraditionalformoflivingis dominant,orwheregirls'educationisresented,thereisaneedtorunmotivationalcampaigns84 Ibid. Vivekananda International Foundation India 43Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012tohelpthemrealisetheveryimportanceofeducationforbothmenandwomen.Andinplaces whereeconomicbarriersstayasobstaclesforeducation,buttheparentsareinclinedtowards theeducationoftheirchildren,thegovernmentmayallowsomeeconomicschemesthroughtheinternationalandnationalaidagencies.Theeconomicschemesmaybeofferedinvarious forms, a fewof whichwill be discussed in the context of India's policy initiatives in thesucceedingpages.ThisispossiblebecausetheinternationalcommunityhasstayedcommittedinAfghanistan.Asoundallocationoftheflowofaidismandatory.Oneoftheschemescouldbe(apartfromofferingmonthlysupportfortheeducationofchildren),providingmealsasisthecaseinIndianschools,inadditiontoscholarshipawards.Thiscouldencouragethepoorparentsinsendingtheirkidstoschool.Afghanistanisalsoaffectedbythelowqualityofeducation.Thesourceofthisproblemasweobservedinearlierpagesisthelackofqualifiedandskilfulteachers.Afewinitiativescanbe takentohelpremovethisproblem.Oneofthesolutionsmaybepayingteachersaccordingto theirperformance.Thedetailedmechanismonhowtoimplementthisinitiativemaydependonthesituationandtheenvironment.InIndiaforexample,aninitiativehasbeentakento connecttheteachers'performancewithhisqualityofteaching.Basedonhis/herstudents'levelofknowledgetheteachers'salariesgetanincrement.Inthiscase,theteachersareencouragedtopaymoreheedandattentiontothestudents.Thismethodofqualityenhancementwouldbeofnoavailifthestudentsthemselves,don'tmakeeffortsforlearning.Onthestudents'part,RemedialEducationsystemcanbeadopted.Thiscanbeachievedbyprovidingthestudentswithinschoolextratutorialclassesthatcouldassesstheirknowledgeofreadingandwritingorarithmeticskills,andthenassignthemtorespectiveextraclassesthatcouldimpartthemtheneededadditionallessons.AnotherdauntingchallengeinAfghanistanasdiscussedislackofsecurity.Thisproblemhasaffected the whole system. We already discussed at length the results of this challenge.However,abetterwaytotacklethisproblemistobefirmagainsttheTalibanelements. Toovercomethedeficienciesintheeducation;twomeanscanbeusedtoensurelearningintheareaswherephysicalexistenceofschoolisnotpossible.CellphonesandtheRadiocouldbeofconsiderableuseinsuchareas.Radiomaydelivereducationfromalongerdistance.Itmayadopttheschoolcurriculumforteaching.Thiscanbeusedinlieuofcellphonessincethe latter maynot usually, be affordableby the communities, and there maybeareas wheretelephonesignalsareweak. Vivekananda International Foundation India 44Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012MostoftheaboverecommendationsarebasedontheeducationalpoliciesalreadypractisedinIndia.Tohaveaclearpictureoftheseinitiatives,let'sdiscussthemindetailbelow.India'sPolicyInitiatives:Background&AssessmentInlightofthedescriptivetakeonthesituationoftheAfghanEducationSectorinrecentyears, thispartofthepaperstudiestheIndiangovernment'saswellassomecivilsociety'sinitiativesintherealmofeducation.Intoday'sglobalizedenvironment,itisimperativetobeawareofthesystems,situationsandconditionsworldwideinordertoadjustone'sowndevelopmentaccordingly.Thisnotionofferscomparativeknowledge,andhelpsusatleasttogettoknowoftheexogenousphenomenainthecontextofourowncountries.Thatisperhapsthereasonthatthe projects and purposes being implemented in Afghanistan have their internationalimplications.ThemethodsofteachingintheAfghanschoolsthathavebeenpinpointedtobemoredifferentthanthatofthetraditionalonescanbeoneexample.Appreciatingandunderstandingtheoverall effortsof theinternationalpartnersaswell asthoseoftheAfghanistan'sministryofeducationinliteracyenhancementprojects,itis quiteevidentthatmuchmoreisrequiredtobedone.ThereportsandnarrativesaboutthestateoftheAfghanpubliceducationhaveusuallybeenstatistical.Quantityhasbeenmoreofaconcernthanquality.Surveyshavetakenplaceandreportshavebeenprovidedtoshowthepaceofmovementintheratioofstudents,teachers,educationalinstitutions,butlessemphasishasbeengivenonassessingtheroleofeducationinchangingone'sprospects.Forexample,onecould think, how far has the secondaryeducationbeen successful in changing the futureprospectsofthestudents,andwhereliterallythesestudentslandupattheendoftheirstudies,andhowusefultheireducationalexperienceswillproveforthesociety. Severalinitiativesbelowaredrawnwithanattempttoaddmoretothepresentprojectsand initiatives.Afghanistanisveryold,yetayoungcountryintermsofexposingitselftovarioussocial,andformaleducationalcomplexities.Althoughsince2002,varioussectorsofthesocietyhavebeenwitnessingseveralnewexperiments,thereisyet,alongwaytogo.Itisusuallydifficulttoinculcatesomeexogenousphenomenainacountrywheretraditionalmethods of learning have been historically predominant. Many aspects of governance inAfghanistanhavebeenundercriticismclaimingthatthese,havehadtheirexogenouselementsratherthantheendogenousones.Democracyitselfforexample,hasbeenpointedoutbysomethatitwouldneedtobeinstitutionalizedfirstandthenimplemented.Themethodofteaching, Vivekananda International Foundation India 45Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012andsystemofplanningandwayofdevelopingcurriculum,andmethodofimpartingittothe childrenhavealsobeenpinpointedbysome,allegingthatthesedonotmatchtheverynatureofthecountry'straditionalenvironment.Thepolicyinitiativeswithregardtocreatingeducationalmeanslaidhereinarehowever,notexpectedtobeunderanykindof criticism.Thesesamplestudiesaresimple,andmaybeappliedinAfghanistanwhennecessary.Inotherwords,theseschemesmaybeapplicableonlywhen the situation necessitates. A village for example receives encouragement when itschildrenarefedatschoolbesidesstudies.Oraneducationalprogrammethroughradiomaybepleasantforavillagewheresecurityissueshindertheveryphysicalexistenceofaschool.ItwillalwaysbeeffectivetousethelessonsalreadylearntandapplythesameunderAfghanconditions.Itisonlyaftertrialsthatonecanpointouttheefficacyofsuchschemes.Successof suchinitiativeswouldfurthermotivatethepopulaceandthegovernmenttoenlargetheirareaof operations and commit additional funds thus generating a substantive movement forbettermentofeducationsectorinAfghanistan. Pleasenotethattheinitiativesbelowarediscussedindetailandwiththemethoddescriptionoftheirconductinorderforthereaders,tobeabletodrawaclearpictureofthebackgroundandhistoryforeachinitiative.Thiswillhelpustounderstandtheeffectsoftheseinitiativesin IndiaandtheirpossibleapplicationinAfghanistan.MidDayMealScheme:LunchatSchoolsAdevelopingeconomylikeIndiastillhasover3040%ofitspopulationunderthepovertyline.Insuchascenario,therealchallengethatneedstobemetisthatofobliteratingpovertybyencouraging employment. Education and particularly the primary education, is of utmost concern.ThegovernmentofIndiahastherefore,plannedmanyschemestosupportchildrenandtheireducation.Onesuchimportantscheme,whichisimplementedalloverIndia,isthemiddaymealschemeintheschools.SinceamajorproportionoftheschoolgoingchildreninIndia, suffer from problems related to malnutrition, which in turn hinders the academicsuccessratio,thegovernmenthasdecidedtomaketheendsmeetbyprovidingmiddaymealstothechildreninschool.Thisschemehasbeenlaunchedtoprovidebasicnutritionintakeandnormalmentalandphysicalgrowthofchildren. Vivekananda International Foundation India 46Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012Withaviewtoenhancingenrolment,retentionandattendanceandsimultaneouslyimprovingnutritionallevelsamongchildren,theNationalProgrammeofNutritionalSupporttoPrimaryEducation(NPNSPE)waslaunchedasaCentrallySponsoredScheme(CSS)on15thAugust1995,initiallyin2408blocksinthecountry.Today,ithowever,coversaround120millionchildren inover 12.65crores85 schools/EducationGuaranteeScheme(EGS)centres acrossIndia.Initially,theschemecoveredthechildrenintheprimaryleveleducation,whichbelongedtothegovernmentaidedschools.Thisschemewashowever,expandedin2002toincludethe childrenstudyingintheEGS,and(AlternativeandInnovativeEducation(AIE)centres,thatentailed free supply of food at 100 grams per child per school day, and subsidy fortransportationoffoodgrainsuptoamaximumofRs.50perquintal.Thisschemewaslaterimprovedin2006toincludethecookingcosts.Ayear later,itwasfurtherexpandedtocoverthemealcostsofthechildrenintheupperprimaryclasses(6to8)in theEducationally BackwardBlocs (EBBs). Since 2008, this schemealso looks after thephysicalwelfareofthechildrenstudyinginGovernment,LocalBody,andGovernmentaidedprimary and upper primary schools and the EGS/AIE centres including Madrasas, andMadrasassupportedunderSarvaShikshaAbhiyan(SSA)ofallareasacrossthecountry.Thecalorificvalueofamiddaymealatupperprimarystagehasbeenfixedataminimumof700calories,and20gramsofproteinbyproviding150gramsoffoodgrains(rice/wheat)perchild/schoolday.CookingcostexcludingthelabourandadministrativechargeshasbeenRs.2.50forprimaryandRs.3.75forupperprimarychildren.Thecosthasbeenhowever,subjecttochangefromtimetotime.Today,MidDaymealschemeisservingtheprimaryandupper primaryschoolchildreninentirecountry.24hundredthousandcooksareengagedand110millionchildrenaresupportedunderthisschemein120millionschools.86PoorfamiliesinAfghanistansremoteareasandelsewhereverybadlyneedsuchascheme.Apartfromthestudents'familiesneed,providingfoodforchildrencangiveasenseofhonourtounderprivilegedstudentsinadditiontomuchneedednutritionandstudies.FinancingEducationthroughVouchersThe school voucher is used to finance the education of the poor. It is provided by thegovernmenttocoverthefullorpartialcostofeducationofthestudentathis/herschool.The85 Crore is a unit in the South Asian numbering system equivalent to ten million. 86 Ministry of Human Resource Development, Mid Day Meal Scheme, at [accessed 20 May 2012]. The description on Mid Day Meal Scheme provided in this paper has been inspired by the information available at the Ministry of HRD website. Vivekananda International Foundation India 47http://mdm.nic.in/Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012schoolscollectvouchersfromthestudentsanddepositthemwiththeirbanks.Thebankscredittheschoolaccountequivalentmoney,whiledebitingtheaccountofthegovernment.Nomoneyactuallychangeshands,onlythevouchermovesfromthestudenttotheschool,andbackto thegovernment.Thevouchersystemmakestheschoolsaccountabledirectlytothestudentssincetheypayfortheireducationthroughcoupons.87Thisschememaybeveryusefultocountrieswherethecapacityofgovernmentalschoolsintermsofprovidingfaculty,institutionalbuildings,andclassseatsislow.Insteadofmakingtheirinstitutionsovercrowded,thegovernmentmaysendthestudentstoprivateschoolsandfinancetheirstudiesequivalenttotheamountspentontheminpublicinstitutionssuchasonfaculty,land,etc.Afghanistan'spublicinstitutions,largelylackthecapacitytohostallstudents,and even when it is possible to host all, the classes go over crowded, and the learning environment suffers. This problem is although, more dominant at the tertiary level ofeducation,wherethousandsofstudents cannotgetadmissionsandthusaredeprivedofbenefits of education at this level. Those students, who cannot afford to get themselvesenrolledinprivateinstitutions,thevouchersystemdiscussedabovemaytherefore,actasanalternative.ApartfromIndia,anumberofothercountriesincludingChile,Columbia,CotedIvoire,CzechRepublic, Denmark, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom(England, &Wales), and the United States have been successfully experimentedwith theschoolvoucherscheme.88LaadliScheme:ScholarshipsforBabyGirlsInapatriarchalsociety,thewomensufferagreatdealbecauseofgenderbias.Unfortunately,inIndia,thesegenderdifferenceshaveoftentaken uglyandinmostcases,violentformsoffemalefoeticide,childmarriageetc.TheLaadlischemeisaplanwhichenvisagescurbingsuchproblems.Theschemeinvolvesgrantingaprescribedsumofmonetaryallowancetothegirl childatthetimeofherbirthandthenatvariousstagesofhereducation.Theschemeaimsat enhancingthesocialstatusofgirlchildinthesocietyaswellinthefamily,ensuringpropereducationtomakethegirlsselfreliant,ensuringhereconomicsecurityandprotectingthemfromdiscriminationanddeprivation. This scheme is currently, operational in the national87 Interview with Shantanu Gupta, Advocacy Senior Coordinator, Centre for Civil Society (New Delhi, April 2012).88 School Choice Campaign, Global Experiments in School Voucher [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 48http://schoolchoice.in/globalexperience.phpZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012capitalDelhi,butfundingissaidtobeavailableforfamiliescomingfromoutsidethecityaswell.Theamountofgrantvariesfromplacetoplacethough.HowdoestheMoneygototheChild?TheamountofmoneyprovidedbytheLaadlischemeiskeptinthebankaccountofthechildasafixeddeposit tillthegirlchildgrowsup.Thisschemehowever,hascertaintermsandconditions,whichcheck anymisuse.Theschemeonlyallowsthesupportofmaximumtwogirlchildrenperfamily,andensuresthatthegirlchildisaresidentofDelhifromthreeyears precedingthebirthdate.Also,it isimportantthatthefamilyincomebebelowtheslabofrupees1,00,000perannum,inordertoavailbenefitsofthisscheme.89Historically,ithasbeenusualtoimplementoverwomenvariousformsofsocialandculturaldiscriminations.Indianwomenforexamplehavehadtodealwithmanyformsofproblemssuchassati,childmarriage,foeticideetc.Eventoday,babygirlsaretreatedasburdeninmanyIndianfamiliesasaresultofculturaltraditionssuchasexpensivedowryformarryingtheir daughtersoff.[...]Nearly50,000femalefetusesareabortedeverymonthanduntoldnumbersofbabygirlsareabandonedormurdered.90 Laadliisonesuchschemethataimsathelpingparentsremovetheimpressionofburdenontheirdaughters,andexpectstocreateasenseofencouragementamongfamiliestoensuregoodtreatmentoftheirbabygirlsbyprovidingthemeducation.ThecaseofAfghanistanmaybeculturallydifferent,yetaschemelikeLaadlimaycontributeinencouragingthefamiliestosupporttheeducationoftheirdaughters.ToimplementsuchaschemeinAfghanistanhowever,requiresasourceoffundingwhichwillremainachallengeforsometimetocome.GalliGalliSimSim:UsingMediaforEducationTheIndiangovernmenthasalsolaidgreatemphasisonspreadinginnovativewaysofprovideeducationto thebackwardand illiteratesectionof thesociety. This stephas largelybeenimplementedwiththehelpofmedia.OnesuchinitiativeistakenbyaninstitutionnamedGalliGalli Sim Sim (GGSS). This institution provides quality educational experiences throughmedia.GGSSnowisbroadcastonthreeleadingchannelsinIndiaDoordarshan,Cartoon89 Interview with Shantanu Gupta, CCS (New Delhi, April 2012). Also see [accessed 20 May 2012].90 Alan B. Goldberg and Sean Dooley, Disappearing Daughters: Women Pregnant with Girls Pressured Abortion (ABC News, 2011) [accessed 24 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 49http://abcnews.go.com/Health/women-pregnant-girls-pressured-abortions-india/story?id=15103950#.T7524rQtgyIhttp://abcnews.go.com/Health/women-pregnant-girls-pressured-abortions-india/story?id=15103950#.T7524rQtgyIhttp://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2011/03/ladli-scheme-india/http://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2011/03/ladli-scheme-india/Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012Network,andPOGO.Itisreportedly coveringnearly22millionviewersthroughouturbanandruralIndia.GGSSprovidescognitiveandsocioemotionaldevelopmentthroughenjoyablelearning. This didactic programme has also, been supported by some celebrities, whosometimes conduct the programmemaking it more attractive for the children. The showalsofeaturesliveactionfilms,music,storiesandarttakenfromvariouselementsofIndianculture and the region of the country. Besides, literacy andnumericallearning, the showdwells on moral issuessuch as empathy, appreciation of differences, a sense of civicresponsibility,promotinghygiene,andhealthyhabits.Theprojectalsoextendstheshowfurthertothemarginalizedandunderprivilegedpopulationsthroughoutreachinitiatives.Itworksthroughmobilecommunityviewingstoreachthelargestproportionofchildren,andintroduceseducationalmodulesinlocalbalwadis.91Additionally,GGSSprovidesthemuchneededlessonstothecaregiversbyinstructingtheminthenewerandmoreinterestingmethodsofimpartingeducation.Educationalmaterialsincludingbooks,pamphlets,posters,educationalgames,andelectronicmediaarenotonlydirectedtochildren, but to parents and caregivers as well, and to those who may not haveaccess to thetelevisions.GGSSprogrammeisthus,ratedamongtopfiveregularlywatchedchildren'sshowsinIndia.92WiththeadventofthenewgovernmentinAfghanistan(2002),theatmospherewasopenedfortheestablishmentofvariousTVchannels.TheseTVshaveactedasasourceofmotivationforthepublicindifferentareasincludingculture,politics,governance,educationetc.Thereishowever,asevereneedtolaunchamoreinclusiveformofeducationalprogrammesthatcanbeaccompaniedwithformalstructureinaccordancewiththecurriculataughtinschools.MeenaRadio:EducatingKidsthroughRadioMeenaradioisaneducationalprojectundertakentocurbsocialevilssuchaschildmarriageandpromotefemaleeducation.Itcanbeconsideredasoneofthestepstocurbilliteracyina country where a majority of young women are denied access to proper education. ThisprogrammehasbeennamedafteragirlcalledMeena,whoseyoungerbrotherwaspermittedtoattendschool,whereassheasagirlwasnot.Theprogrammeisanexampleofhersuccessandhercouragetoovercomeallfamilialoddsinordertobecomeeducated.Thisnineyearold91 Balwadis in Hindi refers to kindergartens, or nursery schools. 92 Galli Galli Sim Sim [accessed 02 May 2012]. The information on GGSS laid herein is inspired by its website. Vivekananda International Foundation India 50http://www.galligallisimsim.com/aboutus.htmlZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012girl hasbecomethevoiceforthemanyvoicelessgirls,whodonothavetheprivilegeforschooling.Radiohasnotonlybeenapopularsourceofentertainment,butalsotheoldestandtheonewhichiseconomical. Thisradioprogrammeisbroadcastfivedaysaweek,withtheaimofpromotingawarenessonissuesofhealth,empowerment,nutritionandeducationforeverychild.TheIndiangovernmenthasequippedschoolswiththefacilityoftheMeenaradioandhasalsotrainedteachersandotherstafftooperateitasateachingdevice.Alsoaccompanied withthisradio,therearethestagedprogrammesandeventssuchastheMeenaManch(aformofstreettheatre),songsandcartoons,whereinthepersonifiedfigureofMeenaisprojectedtothemillionotheryounggirlsandboys,installinginthemthehopetooutwitsocialevilsandacquiredecentstandardsofeducationforthemselves.FirstlaunchedontheWomansDayinthedistrictsofLucknowandLalitpurinUttarPradesh(UP),theradioisapartnershipbetweenUNICEF,theUttarPradesh(UP)governmentandAllIndia Radio.It is said to eventually be introduced to seven other districts in (UP)93.ThepopularityofthisradiocanalsobewitnessedintheneighbouringcountriesofIndia,includingSri Lanka, PakistanandBangladesh. Quite evidently, the outcomeof this radio has beentremendous since the radio programme has developed reflective and observational skills within theadolescent children, whoareall gearedup to tackle problemsrelated to their country,asnoticedintheirinterviewsonhowtheyfeelaboutthiseducationalplan.94Thereisaseriousneedtoembarkoncampaigningforatleastequalinclusionofgirlsfor educationinmanypartsofAfghanistan.Inseveraltraditionallypronepartsofthecountry, girls'educationiscontradictedbyvariousreasons.Oneofthesolidreasonshowever,liesonthe extent of the insecurity of the environment. Nevertheless, motivating trainings andprogrammesviaradiowouldbeyet,anothersourcetowidenthescopeofeducationandavoidanyphysicalthreattostudents,atleastuntilthesituationforthephysicalexistenceofschool atinsecureplacesameliorates.SMC:InvolvingCommunityinSchoolManagementSchool Management Committees (SMC) help the community's representatives be theguardiansattheschoolswheretheirchildrenstudy.Therepresentativesmayconstituteparentsor local authorities. These people are admitted in the school to monitor how the school93 UP refers to a State in India.94 UNICEF, Meena Radio, Website [accessed 02 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 51http://www.unicef.org/india/media_6119.htmZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012functions.TheSMCplaysavitalroleinpreparingandrecommendingdevelopmentalplansforthe institutions. It also helps the parents involved, work closely with the school staff. Inaddition, it works as a watchdog to increase the focus of school on poor parents andcommunitiesforeducation.95SimilarcommitteesarealreadybeingpractisedinAfghanistan,buttheyhavemoreofsecurityconcernratherthanthequalityone.Thesecurityproblemhasbeenplayinganimpedingroleinthepathofeducationdevelopment,andhassince,stoodasapriorconcernforthepolicymakersandadvisersinthecountry.PerformancelinkedPay(PLP):ForTeachers'QualityofPerformanceThisschemeisaninitiativeofthestategovernmentofAndhraPradesh(AP)96inIndia.Itaimsat strengthening the roots of education by developing more serious participation of theteachersinacademicteachingprogrammes.Thisprogrammepaysattentiontoprovidingpayandincentivestotheteachersbasedonthequalityoftheirperformance.Theperformancelinkedpayprogrammeisexpectedtoinvolvemorenumberofteachersthanbeforeastheideaofpayingaccordingtotheabilitysoundspromisingtomostoftheteachers.Besides,itwillalsoendurethestudentteacherrelationshipandwillencouragetheteacherstotakeinterestinotherschoolactivitiesandpositionswhichareotherwisedifficult fortheschoolstaff toperform.Forexamplepayingmoreheedtotheneedsofthestudents.Itisoftenseenthatthelower the wages of the teachers, the poorer the quality of teaching would be. Financialincentivestherefore,doplayaroleinupliftingthequalityofteachinginteachers.SurveysdoneintheIndianstateofAPaccountedforthefactthatmajority(80%)ofthe teachers werecontent withthis schemeandout of them45%expressedhighsatisfactionlevels.Besides, it madetheteachersmoreawareof their efficiencies, thuscausingbetter results in students performance. Although the inclination of the teachers towards theperformancelinkedpayschemesshowssignsofdeteriorationalongtheirage,yetitopensup newandfreshvistasforthenewtalentsandamateurorprofessionalteacherstoparticipate.Likewise, any problem of financial or positional discrepancies is also resolved, and theeducationalsector ismadetofunctionintheabsenceofasmanyflawsorobstructionsaspossible.9795 Interview with Shantanu CCS, New Delhi96 AP refers to a State in India.97 Karthik Muralidharan, and Venkatesh Sundararaman, Teacher Opinions on Performance Pay: Evidence from India ( 2010)Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012TheapplicationofsuchaninitiativeinAfghanistanmightbeslightlydifferent.Afghanistanasobservedearlier,stillsuffersfromlackofprofessionalfacultyineducationalinstitutions.Withexceptionsinanumberofinstitutions,majorityofschoolsundergounprofessionalteachingand learning. The PLP may however, be a sample to initiate alternatives for even theunprofessionalteachersonhowtofirstdeveloptheirskillsinupliftingtheknowledgeofthestudents.Basedonthecurrenthumanresources,thissystemmaybeplannedandimplementedwithasituationalformofALP. ActivityBasedLearning(ABL):JoyfulTeachingTheActivityBasedLearning(ABL) programmewas introducedto theclasses one to four.Firstly,itcovered260schoolsoftheCorporationofChennaifrom2003to2006.FromJune2007, it has been expanded to the government and government aided schools.98 In thisscheme,studentshappentolearnandwritethroughtheirownactiveinvolvementintheclass.Italsoinvolvestheteacher'sskilltointerweavesomethingboringinawaythatengagesandfascinatesstudents.Forexample,bringingcookiesintheclassanddoingarithmeticontheminsteadofalwaysusingchalksandtheboards.Thiskindoflearningmethodology,isexpectedpromotetheideaofchildrenasactive,ratherthanpassivelearners.Itattemptstogeneratetheir creativity, and to make them independent. Students are likely to be encouraged for learningbetterunderthisplan.99TheABLwasfirsttakenupinthestateofTamilNadu,inthesouthernpartofIndia.Itwasdevelopedonlyasatrialplanin2003intheprimaryschools,butitssuccesswasmeasured highlyandwasheretoforetakenupbymanyotherSouthIndianstates. TheUNICEFalsosupportedtheeffortstobringtheABLprogrammestothegovernmentschools.TheABLis,asmentionedlargelybasedonfunlearningthroughcolours,music,gamesetc.Itdoesnothinderthechildscreativity;instead,itproffersitthroughencouragementandfun.Unliketheotherschools,wherethechild,incaseofabsenteeism,isleftonhis/herowntocoverthemissedcourse,childrenatABLcentresaretaughttheportionoftheirlearningwhichtheymissed,ininterestingways.100df> [accessed 20 May 2012].98 Base Line Report of 2007-2008 on Activity Based Learning Report [accessed 20 May 2012].99 S. Anandalakshmy, A Report on An Innovative Method in Tamil Nadu (2007) [accessed 20 May 2012].100S. Anandalakshmy, A Report on An Innovative Method in Tamil Nadu (2007) [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 53http://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/Docu/ABL-Report-by-Dr.Anandhalakshmi.pdfhttp://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/Docu/ABL-Report-by-Dr.Anandhalakshmi.pdfhttp://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/Docu/ABL-Report-by-Dr.Anandhalakshmi.pdfhttp://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/Docu/ABL-Report-by-Dr.Anandhalakshmi.pdfhttp://www.educationforallinindia.com/evaluation-of-activity-based-learning-of-tmail-nadu.pdfhttp://www.educationforallinindia.com/evaluation-of-activity-based-learning-of-tmail-nadu.pdfhttp://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Articles/Articles_23feb12/Muralidharan_Teacher_Opinions_on_Performance_Pay.pdfhttp://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Articles/Articles_23feb12/Muralidharan_Teacher_Opinions_on_Performance_Pay.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012Thechildrenoftenfindittoboringtogotoschool.Theyfinditboringonlywhentheyareforcedtolearn.IndevelopingcountrieslikeAfghanistan,forcingthechildtomemorise,orinstilthelessonintomindisinvogue.Thestudentscanevenfacephysicalpunishmentsincasetheteacherisnotsatisfied.TheimplementationofprogrammeslikeABLmaytoagreaterextent,offerthechildrenthezestandzealtolearn.Childrenneedtobefascinatedifexpectedthemtodothefavourforus.Same,canwedobymakingteachingandlearningjoyful.Such considerateandcaringapproachtowardslearningmaytherefore,provehelpfulfordevelopingthechildren'sinquisitivemindaswellastheirinteresttolearn.RemedialEducation:ProvidingSupportClassesPoverty,illiteracy,genderinequalityandcopiousothersocialproblemshavebeenrecognizednotonlybythegovernmentbutalsobymanyNGOs,whichworkeitherindependentlyorwiththesupportof thegovernment, for improvinglivingconditionsinneedycountries. Inthiscontext, it will be worthwhile to examine in short, the role of Pratham, an NGO basedinitiativeinenhancingandensuringliteracy.Prathamoffersaprogrammethatoffersteachingaftertheschoolclassesforchildrenwhofallbehindtheirfellowstudentstolearnbasicwriting and reading in the primary classes. Pratham first launched in Mumbai in 1994, workedtowardstheeducationoftheslumchildren.In2005and2006,AssessmentSurveyEvaluationResearch,India(ASER),foundoutthatasignificantpercentageofchildrencouldnotread,andwrite,ordobasicarithmetic.Prathamthereforelauncheditsflagshipprogramme,namedReadIndiain2007toinculcatereadingandwritingcapabilitieswithinthestudentsofagebetween6and14,andatleastmatchtheirlearningskillsandknowledgetothatofthechildrenattendingprivateschools.TheReadIndiaprogrammehassince,beenworkingtowardsitsaimwiththehelpof theschoolteachers, NGOsandotherindividualvolunteers. Effortshavebeenmadetocatalysethestandardsineducationbothwithintheschoolsandoutside.Theprogrammealsoinvolvesparticipationofthechildrensparents.In20092010,theReadIndiamissionspreaditsideologyfromashorttermtrainingprogrammetoamoreextensive,almostpermanentlearningprocess.Thismeantworkingconstantlyinthevillagesandotherbackwardareasthatcouldameliorateeducationalstandards.Theprogrammehashadphenomenalresponse.In2008,theReadIndiacampaigncovered305,000outofthe600,000villagesandmobilized450,000volunteers,andtrained Vivekananda International Foundation India 54Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012over600,000teachersandgovernmentworkers.In2008/09,thecampaignreached33millionchildrenacross19states.101TheProgrammehasalsoencouragedparticipationofmorewomanvolunteers,andinthiswayhas made efforts at overcoming the problems of gender inequality.A tutor (balsakhi)102,usuallyayoungwomanistherefore,recruitedfromthelocalcommunityandpaidafractionofthecostofcivilserviceteachers($1015permonth).Sheisthentrained,andpreparedtoworkwiththestudentsofprimaryschools.Theschoolchildrenareprovidedextrateachinghours, other than their usual school hours, in which theyare urged to acquire the basiclearningandmathematicalskills.Acomparisontochecktheefficiencyoftheprogrammewasalsocarriedout,inwhichthegradesandtheperformancesofthelevelthreestudentswerecomparedwiththoseofthestudentswhowereallottedwithatutor.Substantialpositiveimpactsonchildrensacademicachievementweremade.Scoresontestsadministeredaftertheprogrammeshowedthat,thetest scores were remarkably improved, with the biggest gains in maths. The number of students in the bottom three of programme classes, who passed basic competency testsincreasedbynearly8percent,whilethoseinthetopthreeincreasedby4percent.103Suchaprogrammeisnecessaryforchildrenespecially,whentheysufferfromdyslexia,oranyformofprobleminreadingandwritingeasily.Afghanistanisamongthecountriesinwhichattentionhasnotbeengiventodyslexia.Anumberofstudentsquitschoolwhentheyarequestionedandpunishedfornotbeingabletoeasilylearnthelessonsimpartedtothem.Fair considerationis requiredregardingthis. Evenstudentswithoutdyslexicproblemmayfaceproblems in learning the lessons in the initial go. Most of these students feel, they aredisqualifiedfortheclassesandtheyadheretonootheroptionexcepttoquit,orsufferstayingbehind other class fellows. As far as the programmes of Remedial Education system isconcerned,itbecomesimportanttoprovidesupportclassesinschoolsforstudentswhofallbehindtheirclassmates.ThiskindofprogrammemaybeeasilyimplementedinAfghanistan, providedtheEducationManagementInformationSystemoftheMinistryofEducationfirst,assessestheabilityofthestudentsinreadingandwriting,thewaythequantitativesurveyshavebeenheld.101 Please see [accessed 20 May 2012].102 Balsakhi in Hindi refers to the friend of a child.103 See also, Abhijeet Berjee, et al., Balsakhi Remedia Tutoring in Vadodara and Mumbai, India [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 55http://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/balsakhi-remedial-tutoring-vadodara-and-mumbai-indiahttp://www.pratham.org/M-19-3-Read-India.aspxZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012Mobile&ImmersiveLearningforLiteracyinEmergingEconomies,(Millie)TeachingLanguageonMobilePhonesThe progenitor of the programme wasDr. Mathhew Kam, who undertook the idea ofdevelopingeducationalgamesoncellphonestomakelearningarupturingprocessfortheschoolchildren.Thisconceptwasobviouslyaimedatimprovingqualityineducationandwaspart of Kams Ph.D thesis in2004at theUniversityof California. Hewassupportedbyacommittee and this concept went beyond the traditional boundaries of computer science,development economics, or language literacy studies. Mathew joined Carnegie MellonUniversityin2008asanAssistantProfessorwhereheexpandedMillieintoIndia,China,subSaharanAfrica,andsomeotherregions.104Mathewbecameinterested in implementingtheproject in India,whenhenoticed lackof English literacyamongchildren. Kamfound the real picture to be quite different in thatchildrenwereincapableofwritingeventheirnames.Byusingentertaininggamesonthecell phoneandintroducingthemtothebackwardareasinIndia,theprojectinitiateddevelopmentattwolevels:firstly,itnurturedinterestamongstudentswhowereotherwisereluctanttobepart of a very perfunctory and less advanced English learning environment, secondly toactivelystudyEnglish.Moreover,itmadethechildrenandtheirparentstechnologicallymuchawareandadvanced.Withboththechildrenandtheirparentswillingtolearn,theinitiativebecamepopulartosuchanextentthattheparentswouldoftenvisittheschoolstoencourageadmissionsoftheirchildrenthemselves.105This internationally applied initiative seems to be useful for language learning. Although,English language is imparted in much higher level at public schools in Afghanistan, theapplicationofsuchaprogrammemaybeofgoodusebasedonthesituation,thelevel,andsubjectoflearning.AssessmentAfewsimilarprogrammesasabovehavebeenexperimentedinAfghanistan.TheBBCWorld'sServiceTrust'sAfghanEducationProjects(AEP),forexample,hasbeenrunningradiodrama,radiotalkshows,andcartoonstoaddresseducation,returnofrefugees,mineawareness,andgoodgovernanceissues.Ithasbeenrunningeducationalprogrammessince1994,andhas104 See Millie Website [accessed 20 May 2012].105 Also see Mobile Active, [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 56http://mobileactive.org/millee-learning-english-through-games-small-screenhttp://www.millee.org/Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012benefitedmenandwomen,childrenandadults.Thiseducationalprogrammewasverymuchwellreceivedduringthewar.Evenafterwar,accordingtoBBCreportin2008,48%ofthe populationlistenstotheradiodramaeveryweek.OnasimilarscaleSavetheChildrenUK'sradio programme incorporates girls with educational programmes.106 The MoE's radio asdiscussedabovehasalsobeenfunctioningtogenerateencouragementtocoverthestudents' learningthroughradio.Applicationof someof the India's initiatives discussedrequiresgreatamountof efforts inAfghanistanforseveralreasons.Politicalstability,economicprosperity,andsecuritythatarenotlargelyonthepartofthecountryplayaroleinimplementingsuchinitiatives.Atthesametime,theseinitiativescanhelpbringthecountryoutofpoliticalinstability,economicdisparity,andinsecurity.Takingintoaccounttherangeofpositivechangesthathavethusfarbeenmadeinatleastsomeformsince2002intheeducationsectorofAfghanistan,thesekindsofpolicy initiativesifimplemented,couldhaveaddedmoretothealreadyeffortsmadeintherealmofliteracy enhancement. Although, bringing forward India's sample initiatives does notnecessarilymeantheabsenceofusefuleducationalpolicyinitiativesinAfghanistanyet,byreadingadifferentcountry'swhereaboutsof innovativeprojects,that isIndia'seducationalprogrammes,wecanofferauniqueapproachinprovidingthethinkingforanewandbetterideaofeducationalpolicydevelopmentinawarstrickencountrylikeAfghanistan.Itishowever,worthnotingthatthediscussionofthepolicyinitiativeshasbeendescriptiveinthispaper.Criticalobservationoftheseschemeshasbeenignored.Theremaybeormaynotbeascheme,thatprovesflawless,yettheremayhappentobeaprobleminthemanagementorintheimplementingmechanismoftheprogramme.LaadliSchemeforexample,hasbeenagreat initiative,butitmightsufferfromproblemsofmisuseandviolation.ConsideringtheprevalentcorruptionintheIndianbureaucraticadministrativemachinery,itwillbedifficulttosayhowmuchjusticecanbedonewiththisplan.Intheabsenceofanystrictvigilanceorlaw,the amountofmoneybeingallottedforbabygirls,ispronetobemisappropriated.Thepracticeof nepotismisstill,anotherinscrutableissuewhichmayimpedetheprogressofthegirlchildrenbelongingtothepoorfamilies;assuchmisuseofthegovernmentfundscanleadtoshortageof money,thusaddingmoretotheprevalentpenuriousconditionsofwomen.107106 BBC (2008), and Save the Children (2007) cited by Morten Sisgaard, Education and Fragility in Afghanistan: A Situational Analysis INEE research paper (2009).107 Also see [accessed 20 May 2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 57http://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2011/03/ladli-scheme-india/Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012ConclusionThe Afghan Constitution, the Afghan Education Law, the Afghan National DevelopmentStrategy(ANDS),theAfghanMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(AMDG),theAfghanNationalEducationStrategicPlans(NESPI,andNESPII),EducationforAll(EFA)Goals,allemphasisetheimportanceofeducation.ThesehaveconfirmedtheroleofeducationinshapingthefutureofAfghanistan,andclaimtoworkforitsbetterment.TheArticle43ofthe2005Constitutionforexample,considerseducationuptothelevelofbachelor'stobeprovidedfree,andastheright of all citizens of Afghanistan. It obliges the state to devise balanced expansion ofeducation all over the country, and compels it to provide compulsory intermediate leveleducation,andteachthenativelanguages intheareaswherespoken.TheEducationLawfurther emphasizes on equity of participation for education, and a more disinterestedcurriculumthatcould impartnonpartisanelements inspiredbytheacademicnotions(seeappendixI).TheANDS,theAMDG,andtheNESPsI,IItoo,havekeptthedevelopmentofeducationsectorinAfghanistanasamatterofgraveconcern,andhave,processedtheireffortstoachievewhatisneeded.In the wake of the collapse of the Taliban regime for instance, over 80 percent of thepopulationwereilliterateandathirdofthecountry's8,000schoolshadbeendestroyed.Theextraordinaryreturntoschoolin2002a400percentincreaseinenrolmentexceededall nationalandinternationalexpectationsandgavethewartorncountryasenseofhopeandstability.However,[]simplyreturningtoschoolhasnotbeenenough.108Focusingonqualitydevelopment of education is equally important. Afghan surveys on education provideinformationthequantitativeaspectbutaresilentonthequalityofeducationbeingprovided.Muchhasbeenknownabouttheratioofstudents,andeducationalinstitutions,whilelittlehas beensaidaboutthequalitystandards.Moreover, as observed in Chapter II, the MoE has thus far, emphasized more on thedevelopmentofprimary,andsecondarylevelsofeducation,whereastheformalstructuringofpreprimaryleveltoanextent,hasbeenkeptaside.Onlyintheplanof20132015,hasthe MoElaidgreateremphasisontheempowermentof this level of schooling.Thechildhoodperiod,especiallythefirstsixyearsofakid'slifeareacknowledgedasthemostcriticalyearsfortheirsounddevelopment.Theireducationaldestinycanbeassignedfromthisperiod.OfthetotalpopulationofAfghanistan,nearlyhalfconstitutesschoolagechildren,manyofwhomarebelow7yearsofage.Ifthebasisofeducationortheinitialphaseoflearningforthesechildrenisensuredwell,theirupbringingwouldbemuchmoreeffective.108Jeaniene Spink, Education, Reconstruction, and Statebuilding in Afghanistan, (journal, no date). Vivekananda International Foundation India 58Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012APPENDIX IEDUCATIONLAWINTHENAMEOFALLAHTHEMOSTCOMPASSIONATE,THEMOSTMERCIFULIslamicRepublicofAfghanistanMinistryofEducationEducationLaw109Decree # 56Date 31/04/1386Official Gazette Serial # (955)109 Please note that this is the copied form of education law. For the original version, please refer to the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan, and or any respective educational departments. Vivekananda International Foundation India 59Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERONEGENERALPROVISIONSFoundationArticleOne:Thislawisenactedinaccordancewiththeprovisionofarticleseventeenth,fortythird,fortyfourth, fortyfifth, fortysixthand fortyseventhof theconstitutionof the IslamicRepublicofAfghanistan,inordertoregulateeducationalaffairsinthecountry.ObjectivesArticleTwoThemainobjectivesofthislawareasfollow:1. EnsureequalrightsofeducationandtrainingforthecitizensoftheIslamicRepublicofAfghanistanthroughpromotionanddevelopmentofuniversal,balancedandequitableeducationalmanner.2. StrengthenIslamicspirit,patriotism,nationalunity,preservationofindependence,anddefenseofterritorialintegrity,protectionofinterest,nationalpride,andloyaltytotherepublicsystemofAfghanistan.3. Educate children, youth and adolescents as pious, Afghans and useful and soundmembersoftheSociety.4. Develop and improve moral, sentimental, mental, physical nurturing capacities andsociablespiritofthestudents.5. Strengthen the spirit of respect to human rights, protection of the women rights,democracyandeliminationofeverykindofdiscrimination,inlightoftheIslamicvaluesandpreventionofadductiontonarcotics.6. Strengthen the spirit of individual, social responsibilities and observance of law byteachers, lecturers, Modrasan, and the rest of the employees of the ministry ofeducation. Vivekananda International Foundation India 60Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 20127. Provideopportunityfortheparticipationofthestudentsparents/guardiansandothermembers of the society in the management affairs, and obtaining the moral andfinancialcooperationforthepromotionanddevelopmentofeducation.8. Educateandtraincitizensbyactiveparticipationtopromoteeconomyandsocialaffairsinreductionofpovertyinthecountry.9. Ensure intermediate (basic) compulsory education and to provide grounds forsecondaryeducation,inaccordancewiththerequirementsofthesociety.10. EnsureandDeveloppreschooleducationinaccordancewiththeneedsofthecountryschildren.11. Ensure and develop teachers training education, Islamic education, technicalprofessional,vocationalandartisticeducationinthecountry.12. Eliminate illiteracyandprovidegrounds for accelerated learning for the childrenandadultswhoareleftbehindfromtheschoolinthecountry.13. Developand improve thequalityofeducationbyapplyingmodernexperiencesof thecontemporary world, in accordance with the countrys needs, Islamic and nationalvalues.14. Promoteandimproveacademicandprofessionallevelofteachers,lecturers,Modrasan,directors,andtherestoftheemployeesoftheministryofeducation.15. Developunifiededucationalcurriculum, inaccordancewiththecontemporaryanduptodatestandards.16. Establish, expand, promote, build, repair and mobilize schools, Madrasas and othereducationalinstitutionsoftheministryofeducation.EqualRightsineducationArticlethreeThecitizensoftheIslamicRepublicofAfghanistanhaveequalrightstoeducationwithoutanykindofdiscrimination. Vivekananda International Foundation India 61Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012FreeandCompulsoryEducationArticleFour1. Theintermediate(basic)educationinAfghanistaniscompulsory.2. Preschool educational level, intermediate (basic) education, secondary, technicalprofessional,vocational,artistic,formalIslamiceducation,highereducation,(thirteenthandfourteenthgrades) teachers training, literacyandbasicpracticaleducationin thepubliceducationalandtraininginstitutionsareprovidedforfree.EnrolmentAgeArticlefive1. Children, fromage six to the completionof agenine, are compulsory enrolled in theintermediate(basic)educationschoolslevel.2. Children, whose ages are over kindergarten and lower than the school enrolmentage,shallbeenrolledinthepreschooleducationlevel.3. Educational and training opportunities for children and youth, over age nine, areprovidedinaccordancewithitsrelatedrule.AdministrationandmanagementArticlesixThe ministry of education is the highest authority to design policies, administer, direct andapply educational objectives, stated in article two of this law and is responsible to manageissues related to educational and training levels and lower than the bachelor degree in thecountry.DutiesandAuthoritiesArticlesevenTheministryofeducationhasthefollowingdutiesandauthorities:1. Organize preschool education plan, intermediate (basic) education, secondary,technicalprofessional, vocational, artistic, and formal Islamic education, teacherstraining,literacyandbasicpracticaleducation,unattendededucationandeducationbycorrespondence. Vivekananda International Foundation India 62Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 20122. Establishschools,Madrasasesandteacherstraininginstitutions,technicalprofessional,vocationalandartisticandcenterforliteracy,withorwithoutdormitory,inaccordancewiththecommunitysneeds.3. Establishandequippublicschoolsfortheoutstanding,giftedandtalentedstudentsandstudentswithspecialneeds.4. Issue license to establish private domestic educational, combined and internationalinstitutionsandsupervisetheiractivities.5. Provideteachingandsupplementaryteachingmaterials.6. Establish libraries, laboratories, cultural centres, information technology,playgrounds,andprovidesportsequipments,inaccordancewitheducationalinstitutionsneeds.7. Issue graduation certificate to the graduates of different educational levels, stated inthislaw.AcademicCouncilArticleEight1. In order to issue academic, educational and professional advises, in command ofdrafting policies, drafting appropriate strategies, schemes, and reforms in theeducationalandtrainingsystem,curriculum,teacherstrainingandscientificresearches,theacademiccouncilshallbeestablishedintheministryofeducation.2. Combinationandnumberofmembersofeducationacademiccounciland itsactivitiesshallbearrangedinaccordancewithitsrelatedrules.3. The members of the academic council are eligible to receive adequate attendanceprivilegefromthebudgetoftheministryofeducation.Establishmentofschools,MadrasasandeducationalinstitutionsArticleNine1. The ministry of education shall establish schools, Madrasas, educational institutions,and educational courses of different levels mentioned in this law considering socialneedsandthefinancialcapabilityofthestate,inaccordancewitheducationalrulesand Vivekananda International Foundation India 63Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012standards.2. Education and training of nomads' children, shall take place in the established andmobileschools.Theministryofeducation,withinitsfinancialcapabilitiesshallprovidefacilitiestotheKochichildren,byestablishingdormitories.EstablishmentofDormitoriesArticleTenTheministry of education, inorder to ensure accessof the society to thedifferent levelsofeducation stated in this law, shall establish needed educational dormitories, within thegovernmentfinancialcapabilities,inaccordancewithitsrelatedrules.EstablishmentofPrivatedomestic,CombinedandInternationalinstitutionArticleEleven1. National and foreign natural and legal persons can establish private, combined andinternationaleducational institutions,withnationalandinternationalstandards inthedifferenteducationallevelsinaccordancewithitsrelatedregulationfortheAfghanandforeigncitizens.2. Curriculum, educational plan and their activities mentioned in paragraph (1) of thisarticleandtheconditionsofadmissionofthestudents,lecturers,teachersandIslamicteachersshallbearrangedinaccordancewithitsrelatedregulation.EducationalStandardsArticleTwelve1. Thebeginningandclosingof theschoolyear, in thedifferentclimaticallyregions, thenumberofweeklyteachinghours,thenumberofthestudentsintheclass,curriculum,educationalplan,evaluationsystemandexaminationofdifferenteducationallevels,aresetforth,inaccordancewithitsrelatedrules,bytheministryofeducation.2. Admissionrequirements,number, levelofeducationalstandardsof teachers, lecturers,andModrasan,andtheprinciplemethodofevaluationandexaminationandtheirotheracademic,professionalandspecializationaresetforthbytheministryofeducationwithitsrelatedrules. Vivekananda International Foundation India 64Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012UnattendededucationandeducationbycorrespondenceArticleThirteenTheministryofeducationshallprovidetheopportunityofexpansionofunattendededucationand education by correspondence of different educational levels mentioned in this law inaccordancewithitsrelatedregulation.PreschooleducationArticleFourteenPreschooleducationshallbeprovidedinordertopreparechildrenfor intermediate(basic)educationinaccordancewithitsrelatedrules.EducationofspecialneedpersonArticlefifteenEducation of children and adults who needs special educational and training, and due todifferent reasons are left behind fromeducation and training, shall be provided indifferenteducationallevels,inaccordancewithitsrelatedrules.EducationalandtrainingradioandTVprogramsArticlesixteenTheministryofeducationinordertopromotedifferentlevelsofeducation,statedinthislawshall provide and publicize educational , entertainment, public awareness educational andtrainingradioandTVprogramsforchildrenandadults,inaccordancewithitsrelatedrules. Vivekananda International Foundation India 65Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERTWOINTERMEDIATE(BASIC)EDUCTIONArticleSeventeenIntermediate (Basic) educational level comprises grade first to the end of grade ninth,provided free and compulsory in a balanced and equitable manner, in accordance with theeducationalstandards,consideringthenumberofpopulationandKochiesresidinginthearea.TheObjectivesoftheintermediate(basic)educationlevelArticleEighteenObjectivesoftheintermediate(basic)educationare:1. UnderstandthebasicprinciplesandcommandmentsofthesacredreligionofIslamandstrengthen Islamic belief and values. NonMuslim students are exempt from thisprovision.2. Improve and strengthen Islamic sensation and spirit of patriotism and unity andnationalsolidarity, justice,equality,peacefulcoexistence,peaceloving,tolerabilityandselfreliance.3. Improveandstrengthenrespectingtothehumanandwomanrights.4. Aware the students to the importance of the protection of the environment and itsproperuseandstrengthenthespiritofadduction.5. Improve and strengthen the spirit of social responsibility, law abiding, order anddiscipline,socialbehaviour,respectingparents,elder,teachers,lecturers,Modrasanandeffective participation in the family, schools and societal affairs and spirit of mutualassistance,kindness,andcooperation.6. Develop and strengthen physical, spiritual, moral, mental, affection and socialsoundnessofthestudents.7. Develop and expand training physical education, cultural and artistic programs inaccordancewiththeIslamicvalues.8. Acquirefunctionalliteracyanddevelopskillsinreading,writing,speakingandlistening Vivekananda International Foundation India 66Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012inthenationalandinternationallanguages.9. Developandstrengthenthehabitandcultureofreading.10. Acquirebasicknowledgeofsocialandnaturalsciences.11. Develop and Strengthen the sense of initiation, intelligence and identifying problemsandseekinglogicalsolution.12. Preparethestudentsforthesecondaryeducationallevel. Vivekananda International Foundation India 67Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERTHREESECONDARYGENERALEDUCATIONArticleNineteenThe secondarygeneral education level comprisesgrades ten, elevenand twelve, is providedfree in a balanced and equitable manner, in accordance with educational and trainingstandards, considering the number of population and Kochies residing in the area for thegraduatesoftheninthgradesoftheintermediate(Basic)educationallevel.ObjectivesofthesecondarygeneraleducationArticleTwentyThe objectives of the secondary general educational level, in addition to the objectives ofarticleeighteenofthislaware:1. Ddevelop and strengthen understanding and solidify Islamic belief and values of thestudents.NonMuslimstudentsareexemptfromthisprovision.2. Develop and strengthen the spirit of loyalty to the homeland, the system of IslamicRepublic of Afghanistan, preservation of independence, defending territorial integrityandnationalvalues,protectingpropertiesandpublicassets,consolidatingdemocracy,inconformitywithIslamicvaluesandnationallyacceptedtraditions.3. Developandexpandcultureofpeaceandequality.4. Awarestudentsoftheharmsoftobacco,drugs,intoxication,dangerofAIDS,terrorism,war,violence,discrimination,andeverykindsofprejudicesandotherprohibitions.5. DevelopandexpandIslamicknowledge,socialandnaturalsciencesandmathematics.6. Developandstrengthenskillsinnationalandinternationallanguages.7. Useofcontemporarytechnology,includinginformationtechnology.8. Developandexpandthehabitandcultureofreading,thinkingandanalysingacademicresearchesandselfevaluation.9. Preparestudentsforcontinuingandhighereducationandtradeandoccupation. Vivekananda International Foundation India 68Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERFOURISLAMICEDUCATIONLEVELArticleTwentyone1. Islamicformaleducationallevelcomprisesgradetenthtotheendofgradefourteenth,provided and expanded free in the public educational Madrasas, in a balanced andequitablemanner,inaccordancewiththenumberofpopulationandKochisresidingintheareaandeducationalandtrainingstandardsforthegraduatesoftheninthgradesofintermediate(basic)educationlevel.2. Education inDarulhefazes comprises gradeone to the endof grade twelve, providedandexpandedfreeinthepublicDarulhefazes.ObjectivesoftheIslamiceducationlevelArticleTwentytwoThe objectives of the formal Islamic education level and Darulhefazes, in addition to theobjectivessetforthinarticleseighteenthandtwentiethofthislaware:1. Gain principles, rules, religious precepts, academic and ethical orders of the sacredreligion of Islam, and use them in the individual and social life, effective and usefulparticipationinthehousehold,Madrasaandthecommunitylife.2. Train scholars, orators, preachers, Modrasan, and (memorizers) Hafezes of the HollyQuran,forteaching,preaching,propagating,directingandleadingprayers(Imam).3. Train professional teacher for Islamic knowledge and Arabic language to teach inMadrasasandpublicandprivateeducationalinstitutions. Vivekananda International Foundation India 69Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERFIVETECHNICAL,PROFESSIONAL,VOCATIONALANDARTISTICEDUCATIONArticleTwentyThree1. Technicalprofessional,vocationalandartisticeducationlevelcomprisesgradetenthtotheendofgradefourteenth,providedandexpandedinpubliceducationalinstitutionsinabalancedandequitablemanner,consideringthenumberofpopulationandKochisresiding in the area and educational and training standards for the graduates of theintermediate(basic)educationalschools.2. Technicalprofessionalvocationalandartisticeducationcompriseshorttermscoursesinordertodevelopandprovideprofessionalskillsinaccordancewithsocietalneeds,intheeducationalinstitutionsoftheministryofeducation.ObjectivesoftheTechnicalProfessional,VocationalandArtisticeducationlevelArticleTwentyFourTheobjectivesoftechnicalprofessional,vocationalandartisticeducationallevel,inadditiontotheobjectivessetforthinarticletwentiethofthislaw,are:1. Train human resources in the technical professional, vocational and artistic fieldsneededbythesocietyandinternationalmarketconsideringnationalandinternationalstandards,withspecialconcerntothewomanneeds.2. Developandexpandknowledgeandskillsinthetechnicalprofessional,vocationalandartisticsection,throughtheoreticalandpracticalmanner,intheneededfields.3. Providespecialeducationfortheblindanddisabledstudentsinappropriateandneededfields.4. Preparestudentsforadmissionintotheeducationalinstitutionsanduniversities. Vivekananda International Foundation India 70Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERSIXTEACHERS'TRAININGEDUCATIONALLEVELArticleTwentyFiveTeachers training educational level comprises grade tenth to the end of grade fourteenth,providedandexpandedfree,inabalancedandequitablemanner,consideringthenumberofpopulation and Kochi residing in the area in accordance with the educational and trainingstandards,forthegraduatesoftheintermediate(basic)andsecondaryeducationalschools.ObjectivesoftheTeachersTrainingeducationallevelArticleTwentysixTheobjectivesoftheteacherstrainingeducationlevelare:1. Train pious teachers, lecturers and Modrasan, with knowledge in highly professionalstandards skills, in order to acquire intermediate (basic), and secondary educationobjectives,statedinthislaw,inaccordancewitheducationalnecessityandeducationalandtrainingsystem.2. Increasethenumberofprofessionalteachers,lecturersandModrasan.3. Promoteknowledgeandprofessionalskillsofteachers,lecturesandModrasan.4. Providegroundsfortakingthenationalskillsexamofteachers,lecturersandModrasanwhileinservice.ProgramsforonthejobtrainingandpreadmissiontotheserviceArticleTwentySevenTheministryofeducationconsidering theneedsof thedifferenteducational levels stated inthis law, shall provide and apply effective training programs for teachers, lecturers andModrasanwhileinserviceandpriortoadmissionintotheservice. Vivekananda International Foundation India 71Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERSEVENCENTREFORSCIENCEANDEDUCATIONALANDTRAININGTECHONOLGOYArticleTwentyEightInordertoimprovethequality,expandanddevelopandacademicresearchesinscientificandmathematicseducation,learninginformationtechnologyanditsapplicationintheschoolandeducational and training institutions the centre for science and educational and trainingtechnology shallbeestablished. Issues related to thecentre for scienceandeducationalandtrainingtechnologyanditsdutiesandauthoritiesofacademicmembers,shallbesetforthinaccordancewithitsrelatedrules.ObjectivesoftheCentreforScienceandEducationalandTrainingTechnologyArticleTwentyNineTheobjectivesofthecentreforscienceandeducationalandtrainingtechnologyare:1. Ensurestudentsofall fields in thedifferenteducational levels tohaveaccess to learnquality and contemporary scientific and mathematics education and informationtechnology.2. Enhance levelofacademicandprofessionalknowledgeand improvepracticalskillsofteachersandlecturersinscience,mathematicsandinformationtechnology.3. Use and applicationof educational and training technology andprovide teaching aidmaterial inscience,mathematics,andinformationtechnologysubjectsforthepurposeof theoretical andpractical quality learningandprovideanduse contemporaryaudiovisualeducationandtrainingtechnology.4. Reviewthetextbooksofscienceandmathematicsandinformationtechnologythroughscientificresearches.5. Equiplaboratoriesforscienceandmathematics,preparemobilelaboratories(Kits)andexperimentallaboratoriesguidebooks.6. Preparegroundfortrainingspecializedandprofessionalcadres inthefieldofscience,mathematicsandinformationtechnology. Vivekananda International Foundation India 72Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTEREIGHTEDUCATIONALCURRICULUMUnifiedEducationalCurriculumArticleThirtieth1. Unified educational curriculum, is the standard which sets forth general and specificobjectives of education and training and based on that, the ministry of educationprovidesandorganizes thecontentofeducational textbooks,methodof teachingandevolution,teachingmaterialanditsauxiliary.2. Aunifiededucationalcurriculumshallapply inallpublicandprivateeducationalandtraininginstitutions.Privateinternationaleducationalinstitutions,statedinarticle(11)ofthislaw,areexemptedfromthisprovision.Prepare,DraftandDevelopEducationalCurriculumArticleThirtyOne1. Theministryofeducation,inordertoprepareanddraftdevelopeducationalcurriculumand teaching materials and arrange its related affairs, shall establish the academicboardandthedevelopingeducationalcurriculum,teachingmaterialsanditspublishingoffice.Thecomposition,dutiesandauthorityofthisofficeshallbesetforthinseparaterules.2. Unifiededucationalcurriculumforlevelsofintermediate(basic),secondary,technicalprofessional, vocational, and artistic, formal Islamic education, teachers training,literaryandbasicpracticaleducation,preschooleducation,andunattendededucationand education by correspondence, shall be continuously reviewed and developed, inaccordance with the needs of the society and considering internationally acceptedacademicstandards,preparedanddraftedbytheboardsmentionedinparagraph(1)ofthisarticleandbyobservingacquiredexperiences.(3) Educational curriculum stated in paragraph (2) of this article, shall apply after theratification of the academic council of the ministry of education and approval of theminister. Vivekananda International Foundation India 73Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012LanguageofTeachingArticleThirtytwo1. Teaching in the public educational institutions, stated in this law, national privateeducationalinstitutionsandeducationalandtrainingprogramsandcentersforliteracyand basic practical education, shall be taught in one of the state official languages(Pashto and Dari). Language of teaching shall be selected from one of the two stateofficial languages, based on the current language spoken by the majority of thepopulationresidinginthearea,inaccordancewithitsrelatedrule.2. Learning Pashto and Dari languages in the schools and educational institutions iscompulsory.3. In theareaswhere spoken languageof themajorityof thepeople is the thirdofficiallanguage in the country ( Uzbiki, Turkmani, Pashai, Nooristani, Balochi, Pamiry andother languages), in addition to teach Pashto and Dari languages, opportunities forteachingofthethirdlanguageasateachingsubjectshallbeprepared.Inordertoteachthe third official languages of the country, the ministry of education in the field ofteachers training, textbooks, teaching materials, shall provide and apply effectiveprograms.4. Teachingintheinternationaleducationalinstitution,shallbetakenplaceinalanguagethat has been selected by the educational institutions and with the agreement of theministryofeducation.Teachingoneoftheofficiallanguages(PashtoandDari),basicsand commands of the secret religion of Islam for the Afghan students in theseeducational institutionsshallbeprovidedinaccordancewiththeseparateprocedures,preparedandorganizedbytheministryofeducation.5. Foreign languages in the educational institutions stated in this law and private andpublic educational and training programs, shall be taught in conformity with theeducationalcurriculum. Vivekananda International Foundation India 74Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERNINEEXTRACURRICULAACTIVITIESImplementationofExtraCurriculaActivitiesArticleThirtythree(1) The ministry of education, in order to promote students personality and educationallevel with having the spirit of unity, harmony, equality, sense of understanding,assistance,humanism,patriotism,respecttohumanandwomansrights,acquaintancetodiverse cultures,participation in socialand cultural affairsof the community, shallorganize and apply the following extra curricula activities under the guidance ofteachers,lecturersandModrasan:1. EncourageandabetstudentstoperformobligatorydutiesandobeyIslamicethics.2. Participate actively and voluntarily in the social works including helping needycompatriots,preserveliving,environment,cleaningandgreeneryaffairs,constructandrehabilitateinsideandoutsideoftheeducationalinstitutionpremises.3. Participateactivelyinfieldtripsforthepurposeofacquaintancewiththecompatriots,cultureandrichhistoryofthecountryandstrengthennationalunity.4. Participate actively in competition, gatherings and academic conferences, artistic,literaryandsportinginandoutsideofthecountry.5. Createstudentsexchangeprogramsforthepurposeofacademiclearning,withIslamicandotherfriendlynations.6. Organize workshops and seminars for understanding the charter of the UN, basicdeclarationofthehumanrightandrespecttohumandignity.7. Organize other extra curricula activities resulting mental, intellectual, physical andpersonalbehaviorenhancementofthestudents.(2)Participateintheactivitiesstatedinparagraph(1)ofthisarticleshalltakeplacewiththeapprovalofthestudentsparents.EstablishmentofBoysScoutArticleThirtyfourInorderto improvequality,effectiveness,orderanddiscipline intheeducational institutionsstatedinthislawandperformingvoluntaryandsocialserviceswhenneeded,thedepartmentoftheboysscouts,shallbeestablishedandexpanded.ThemethodactivitiesoftheBoyScottsshallbesetforthinaccordancewithitsrelatedrules. Vivekananda International Foundation India 75Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERTENLITERACYANDBASICEDUCATIONLiteracyandBasicEducationArticleThirtyfiveLiteracy and basic practical education comprises reading, writing, counting and learningknowledgeofbasicpracticalskills,vocationalandprofessionaloccupationalskillsthatshallbeprovidedinabalancedandequitablemannerforthedeprivedadults,adolescentandyouths,whoareleftbehindfromeducationalinstitutionsinthecountry.TheObjectivesofliteracyandBasicPracticalEducationArticleThirtysixTheobjectiveoftheliteracyandbasicpracticaleducationare:1. ObservetheordersofthesecretreligionofIslamrelatedtoliteracyandknowledge.2. Provide grounds for reading, writing, counting and acquiring knowledge in basicpractical and vocational skills for illiterate and less literate and prepare them forcontinuingeducation.3. Provide the opportunity for continuing education stated in this law for adult andchildrenwhoareleftbehindfromeducation.CompulsoryLearningofLiteracyandBasicPracticalEducationArticleThirtySeven1. Teach literacy and basic practical education to the illiterate and less literate forcontractorofemployeesofthepublicandprivateorganizationsarecompulsory.2. Theministriesandpublicandprivateorganizations shallprovidegrounds for literacyandbasicpracticaleducationprogramswithcooperationoftheministryofeducationintheirrelateddepartments.3. Method to implement literacyandbasicpractical educationprograms in their relatedministries and private and public departments, shall be prepared in accordance with Vivekananda International Foundation India 76Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012separateruleandbeapprovedandorganizedbytheministryofeducation.4. Ministriesandpublicandprivateorganizations stated inparagraph(2)of thisarticleareobligedtoprovidethestationary,placetoteachandemploytheliteracyandbasicpracticaleducationteachers.5. The ministry of education shall prepare and provide books, learning materials andgroundsoflearningforliteracyandbasicpracticaleducationteachersoftheministriesandpublicandprivatedepartments,statedinparagraph(2)ofthisarticle.6. Theministry of education, basedon societalneeds andpossibilityof the governmentfinancial capabilities, shall set up and conduct national literacy and basic practicaleducation programs, considering priority of the deprived people of the society, in abalancedandequitablemanner,inaccordancetoitsrelatedprocedure.AdministerandManage,LiteracyandBasicPracticalEducationArticleThirtyeight1. In order to draft and apply national programs in the domain of literacy and basicpractical education, obtain resources, manage, lead and supervise the process ofimplementationoftheaforementionedprograms,thehighcommissionofliteracyandbasicpracticaleducation,shallbeestablishedintheministryofeducation.2. Compositionofthemembersandmethodofcommissionsactivitiesstatedinparagraph(1)ofthisarticleshallbesetforthinaccordancewithitsrelatedprocedure. Vivekananda International Foundation India 77Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012CHAPTERELEVENMISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONSProhibitionofPhysicalandPsychologicalPunishmentArticleThirtyNineEverykindofphysicalandpsychologicalpunishmentof students isprohibitedevenfor theircorrection and chastisement. Violators shall be prosecuted in accordance with the legalprovisions.ProhibitionofPoliticalActivitiesArticleForty1. Politicalandpartisanactivitiesofthestudents,teachers,lecturers,Modrasanandotheremployeesof theministryofeducation in thepremisesof theeducational institutionsandeducationalandtrainingprogramsstatedinthislaw,areforbidden.2. Individuals, organizations and political parties, are prohibited to use educationalinstitutionsstatedinthislawandeducationalandtrainingprogramsforachievingtheirpoliticalpurposes.UniformsArticleFortyOneStudents, teachers, lecturersandModrasanof theeducational institutions stated in this law,wearuniforms,whichitstypesshallbeconsideredinaccordancewiththeclimaticandculturalrequirementsofthedifferentregionsofthecountryandbedeterminedbyitsrelatedrules.IncentivePayArticleFortyTwoIn order to motivate teachers, lecturers, Modrasan, authors, researchers, academic andprofessionalmembersofteacherstraininginstitutions,centreforscienceandeducationalandtraining technology, develop educational curriculum and publications, Islamic formaleducation,Darulhefazesand technicalprofessionaleducation, shall receive incentivepay, inaccordancewithitslegislativedocument.WorkScheduleArticleFortyThreeAttendance, off and work time for teachers, lecturers, authors, researchers and other Vivekananda International Foundation India 78Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012educationalemployees, shallbe set fortbyobserving theprovisionsof the labor lawand itsrelatedrules.RetirementArticleFortyFourTeachers,lecturers,Modrasan,authorsandresearchers,academicandprofessionalmembersinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthelaw,shallbenefitfromretirementrights.Incaseoftheadministrative exigencies and employees willingness that has working ability, theiremploymentdurationshallextendedforanothertenyears.NationalTeachingSkillExaminationArticleFortyfiveAny individual can be employed as a teacher, who, in addition to possesses employmentqualificationofthecivilservicelaw,successfullypassesthenationalteachingskillexamination,inaccordancewithitsrelatedprocedure.AssistanceArticleFortySixThe ministry of education, in order to materially and morally assist teachers, lecturers,Modrasan,authors,researchersandotherrelatedemployeesshalldesignandimplementandcreate effective programs including, teachers assistance account and cooperatives inaccordancewiththefinancialcapabilityofthegovernment.Methods and conditions of using teachers assistance account and cooperatives shall be setforth,inaccordancewithitsrelatedrule.UseofScholarshipsandFellowshipsArticleFortySevenThe ministry of education, in order to improve and expand academic, professional, andspecializationoftheacademicandrelatedadministrativeemployees,shallprovidethesuitablegrounds to use domestic and foreign scholarships and fellowships and participation in thecourses, seminars, workshops, conferences and symposiums, in accordance with its relatedrules,inabalancedandequitablemannerinthecountry.CounciloftheParents,Students,TeachersandtheCommunityPeopleArticleFortyEight(1) The council of the representatives of students parents, teachers and local residents, to Vivekananda International Foundation India 79Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012achieve the following objectives, shall be established, in the public and private schools andeducationalinstitutions:1. Active participation of the students parents, teachers and the local residents in theprocess of education and training, in order to resolve educational and trainingproblems, improvingeducationaland trainingquality,preventionofmisuse, legalanddisciplinaryviolationsofstudents,teachersandemployeesoftheministryofeducation.2. Overseeandsupervise fromeducation,moral,edificationandsocial interactiveof thestudentsandemployeesoftheministryofeducation.3. Protectthestudentsandeducationalpersonnelsfromviolenceanddestructiveactivitiesinthefamily,insideandoutsideoftheeducationalinstitution.4. Active participation inmanagementand implementationofdevelopment programsofthe ministry of education for improvement of education and training system in thecountry.(2)Organizationandmethodofactivityofthecouncilstatedinparagraph(1)ofthisarticleshallbesetforthinaccordancewithitsrelatedrule.OrganizingotherAdministrativeAffairsArticleFortyNineEnrollment conditions, promotion, graduation examinations, grounding, transfer, dismissaland discharge of the students from the educational institutions and other educational andtraining programs stated in this law, shall be regulated in accordance with its relatedlegislativedocuments.GraduationCertificateArticleFiftyGraduatesfromthedifferenteducationallevelsstatedinthislawandeducationalandtrainingprograms are entitled to receive graduation certificates from the ministry of education.Conditions, specification and types of graduation certificates shall be determined inaccordancewithitsrelatedrules. Vivekananda International Foundation India 80Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012EnactingRulesandproceduresArticleFiftyOneTheministry of education, for the better implementationof the provisions of this law, shallproposeregulations,enactandapplyrulesandprocedures.EnforcementArticleFiftyTwoThis law, from the date of its endorsement shall be enforced and published in the officialgazette.Byitsenforcement,theeducationlawpublishedintheofficialgazetteNo.796dated29thofMoharamalharam1422H.Q.andotherprovisionscontrarytothislawshallberepealed. Vivekananda International Foundation India 81Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012BIBLIOGRAPHY AlanB.GoldbergandSeanDooley,DisappearingDaughters:WomenPregnantwithGirlsPressuredAbortion(ABCNews,2011)[accessed24May2012]. Anandalakshmy S., A Report on An Innovative Method in Tamil Nadu (2007)[accessed20May2012]. Base Line Report of 20072008, Activity Based Learning Report[accessed20May2012]. BBCPersianService[accessed20May2012]. Benerjee, Abhijeet et al., Balsakhi Remedia Tutoring in VadodaraandMumbai, India[accessed20May2012]. CentreforCivilSociety,SchoolChoice(NewDelhi)[accessed20May2012]. Deyo,Lisa,AfghanistanNonformalEducation,GlobalMonitoringReport2008,Education forAllby2015:WillWeMakeit?(UNESCO,2007). EMISAfghanistan,2009/10SummaryReportofEducationSituation,(Kabul2010). GalliGalliSimSim[accessed20May2012]. GiustozziDr.Antonio,,NationBuildingIsNotforAllBlackiston,ThePoliticsofEducation Vivekananda International Foundation India 82http://www.galligallisimsim.com/aboutus.htmlhttp://schoolchoice.in/delhivoucher.phphttp://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/balsakhi-remedial-tutoring-vadodara-and-mumbai-indiahttp://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/balsakhi-remedial-tutoring-vadodara-and-mumbai-indiahttp://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/afghanistan/2012/04/120423_k02-ghazni-schools-taleban.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/afghanistan/2012/04/120423_k02-ghazni-schools-taleban.shtmlhttp://www.educationforallinindia.com/evaluation-of-activity-based-learning-of-tmail-nadu.pdfhttp://www.educationforallinindia.com/evaluation-of-activity-based-learning-of-tmail-nadu.pdfhttp://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/Docu/ABL-Report-by-Dr.Anandhalakshmi.pdfhttp://abcnews.go.com/Health/women-pregnant-girls-pressured-abortions-india/story?id=15103950#.T7524rQtgyIhttp://abcnews.go.com/Health/women-pregnant-girls-pressured-abortions-india/story?id=15103950#.T7524rQtgyIZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012inAfghanistan(AAN2010). Glad,Marit,MaritGlad,KnowledgeonFire:AttacksonEducationinAfghanistan(Care2009).[accessed20May2012]. Hayran.MohamedSalim,AStudyofAfghanistanICTinEducationRegionalConferenceonPromotionofGoodPracticesinICTforEducationinCentralandWesternAsiaRegion(MinistryofEducation,2011[accessed20May2012]. Holland,Dana,CapacityBuildingthroughPolicyMaking:DevelopingAfghanistan'sNESP(AREU2010)[accessed20May,2012]. Karlson,Pia,andMansoryAmir,IslamicandModernEducationinAfghanistanConflictualorComplementary?(StockhulmUniveristy,nodate). Millie[accessed20May2012]. MinistryofEducation,20112013NationalEducationInterimPlan(Kabul,2011). MinistryofEducation,Afghanistan,EducationforAllGlobalMonitoringReport(Kabul,2011). MinistryofEducation,EducationSectorforAfghanistanNationalStrategicDevelopment(Kabul,2007). MinistryofEducation,NationalEducationStrategicPlan,NESPII(Kabul20102014). MinistryofEducation,TheDevelopmentofEducation,(NationalReport2008),[accessed20May2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 83http://www.ibe.unesco.org/National_Reports/ICE_2008/afghanistan_NR08.pdfhttp://www.millee.org/http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Technical_Assistance/pdf/2010/Afghanistan_National_Ed_Strat_Plan2010.pdfhttp://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Technical_Assistance/pdf/2010/Afghanistan_National_Ed_Strat_Plan2010.pdfhttp://english.moe.gov.af/attachments/084_Afghanistan%20ICT%20Study%20Report.pdfhttp://english.moe.gov.af/attachments/084_Afghanistan%20ICT%20Study%20Report.pdfhttp://english.moe.gov.af/attachments/084_Afghanistan%20ICT%20Study%20Report.pdfhttp://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2009/11/Knowledge_on_Fire_Report.pdfZahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012 MinistryofHumanResourceDevelopment,India,MidDayMealScheme,[accessed20May2012]. MobileActive,Millie[accessed20May2012]. MortenSigsgaard, EducationandFragilityinAfghanistan:ASituationalAnalysis INEEresearchpaper(2009). Muralidharan,KarthikandSundararaman,Venkatesh, TeacherOpinionsonPerformance Pay: Evidence from India (Paper, 2010),[acessed20May2012]. NRVA,NationalRiskandVulnerabilityAssessmentreportof2007/8[accessed20May2012]. Ono,Yumikoetal.,SupportingTeacherstoEducateMarginalizedChildren:TeachersandTeacherEducationinAfghanistan(2007). OxfamInternational,FreeQualityEducationforEveryAfghanChild(QualityBriefingPaper,2006). OxfamInternational,TheCostofWar:AfghanExperiencesofConflict,19782009(Afghanistan,2009). PazhwakNews[accessed20May,2012]. Pourzand,Niloufar,EducationinAfghanistan,AGenderedIdeologicalTerrain(Journal,2004),[accessed02May2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 84http://www.wluml.org/sites/wluml.org/files/import/english/pubs/pdf/wsf/03.pdfhttp://www.pajhwok.com/node/153358http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/asia/documents/afgh_brochure_summary_en.pdfhttp://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/asia/documents/afgh_brochure_summary_en.pdfhttp://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Articles/Articles_23feb12/Muralidharan_Teacher_Opinions_on_Performance_Pay.pdfhttp://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Articles/Articles_23feb12/Muralidharan_Teacher_Opinions_on_Performance_Pay.pdfhttp://mobileactive.org/millee-learning-english-through-games-small-screenhttp://mobileactive.org/millee-learning-english-through-games-small-screenhttp://mdm.nic.in/Zahirpour: The State of Public Education in Afghanistan 2012 Pratham, Remdial Education, [accessedMay202012]. SamadiR.Saif,EducationandAfghanSocietyintheTwentiethCentury,(UNESCO,Paris2001). Spink,Jeaniene,Education,Reconstruction,andStatebuildinginAfghanistan(Journal,nodate),[accessed20May2012]. SultaniTorpekai,TheCurrentSituationofBasicEducationinAfghanistan(Paper,nodate),[accessed20May2014]. TheNation,PakistanSeeks$5,000transitfeeforeachNATOContainer(17May2012)[accessed26May2012]. TOLONews,MinistryofEducationUrgesSchoolAttackerstoStop,(Kabul2012)[accessed25May2012]. UNESCO URL_ID=9031&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html>[accessed20May2012]. UNICEF,MeenaRadio,[accessed20May2012]. Vivekananda International Foundation India 85http://www.unicef.org/india/media_6119.htmhttp://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=9031&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlhttp://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=9031&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlhttp://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=9031&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlhttp://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phphttp://tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/6345-ministry-of-education-urges-school-attackers-to-stophttp://tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/6345-ministry-of-education-urges-school-attackers-to-stophttp://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/17-May-2012/pakistan-seeks-5-000-transit-fee-for-each-nato-container-wphttp://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/17-May-2012/pakistan-seeks-5-000-transit-fee-for-each-nato-container-wphttp://www.criced.tsukuba.ac.jp/pdf/04_Afghanistan_Sultani.pdfhttp://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/EducationSupplement/09.pdfhttp://www.pratham.org/M-19-3-Read-India.aspxVivekananda International Foundation is a recently established multi-disciplinary Think- Tank and has within a few months of its being set up, established itself as a important institution, with special interest in Civilisational and Security Studies as well as Foreign Policy related issues. It is an independent, non-partisan institution that promotes quality research on key national and international issues to help improve governance, strengthen national security and integrate Indias foreign policy towards the objective of nation building. Indias leading security experts, diplomats, scholars and philanthropists under the aegis of Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari, collaborate towards the functioning of this foundation. Details of VIF and its activities are available on its website www.vifindia.org Vivekananda International Foundation 3, San Martin Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi - 110021 Ph:+91-(0)11-2412-1764, Fax: +91-(0)11-4311-5450 Email : info@vifindia.org Web : www.vifindia.org http://www.vifindia.org/http://www.vifindia.org/ABOUTH THE AUTHORACKNOWLEDGEMENTLIST OF ACRONYMSPREFACEPURPOSECHAPTER IEducation in Afghanistan: Historical PerspectiveFormal Education in the 20th CenturyEducation Policy of 1930sPolicy of the First Republic 1970-78Policy of the Democratic Republic 1978-92The Islamic State 1992-96The Taliban Emirate 1996-2001ConclusionCHAPTER IIAfghanistan in the 21st Century: Education BackgroundCurrent StatusGirls' EducationPrivate and Cross Border SchoolsInclusive EducationDistance EducationLevels of Public EducationBasics, Intermediate, Secondary, and TechnicalCategories of EducationGeneral Education (GE)Teachers' Training Centre/College (TTC)Islamic Education (IE)Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET)Non-formal/Community-based Education (CBE)ConclusionCHAPTER IIIProblems and the Challenges: BackgroundPolitical Leadership, and InstabilityCorruptionInstitutional WeaknessVolatile Security ConditionThe Most Recent ThreatsLittle Coordination between Aid Agencies and the MoETransit of Textbooks Pending in PakistanIll-equipped Educational BuildingsRapid Increase in Demand for EducationDisorder and Violence in SchoolsConclusionCHAPTER IVFuture Prospects, and the Way forward: BackgroundProspectsThe Way ForwardIndia's Policy Initiatives: Background & AssessmentMid Day Meal Scheme: Lunch at SchoolsFinancing Education through VouchersLaadli Scheme: Scholarships for Baby GirlsHow does the Money go to the Child?Galli Galli Sim Sim: Using Media for EducationMeenaRadio: Educating Kids through RadioSMC: Involving Community in School ManagementPerformance-linked Pay (PLP): For Teachers' Quality of PerformanceActivity Based Learning (ABL): Joyful TeachingRemedial Education: Providing Support ClassesMobile & Immersive Learning for Literacy in Emerging Economies, (Millie)AssessmentConclusionAPPENDIX IBIBLIOGRAPHY

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