World History STAAR Review Spring 2013. Ancient Civilizations Tab.

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    26-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • World History STAAR Review Spring 2013
  • Slide 2
  • Ancient Civilizations Tab
  • Slide 3
  • Ancient Civilizations Tab (Continued on back)
  • Slide 4
  • Ancient Civilizations Map goes on the Ancient Civilization tab Color the ancient river valley civilizations different colors so that your notes can be color coded.
  • Slide 5
  • Ancient Civilizations Add timeline 8,000 B.C. Neolithic Revolution- Transition from food gathering to food producing 3,000 B.C. Sumerian writing, bronze, wheel, plow Egyptian civilization begins 2500 B.C. Indus Valley Civilizations 1800 B.C. Babylonian Empire 700 B.C. Rise of Greek city-states
  • Slide 6
  • Egyptian Civilization (3100 B.C.-330 B.C.) Nile river supported the Egyptians who built their civilization along its banks Wrote in hieroglyphics on papyrus (first paper) Great pyramids housed mummified remains of pharaoh Superior math, science, medicine, and technology
  • Slide 7
  • Mesopotamia (3100 B.C.- 540 B.C.) The land between two rivers Sumer/Sumerians considered the first civilization that lived in this region Cuneiform- first writing system developed by Sumerians Invented the first wheel and irrigation Code of Hammurabi- Babylonian king wrote first laws in history Persians finally ended Babylonian rule
  • Slide 8
  • Indus River Valley (3300 B.C. 500 A.D.) Third ancient river valley civilization; developed near Indus River Two advanced cities: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Laid out on a grid with advanced drainage and sewage system Aryan invaders brought the writing of Sanskrit and philosophy of Hinduism 600 B.C.- Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism 321 B.C. Mauryan Empire established by Chandragupta; Golden Age of India
  • Slide 9
  • Ancient Chinese Civilizations (1600 B.C.- 220 A.D.) Developed near the Huang He/ Yellow River in China 1600-1046 B.C.- Shang dynasty produced silk, bronze, and first language of China 1045-256 B.C.- Zhou dynasty replaced Shang dynasty stating that they had lost the Mandate of Heaven, or that God has given them the right to rule.
  • Slide 10
  • World Religions Tab
  • Slide 11
  • ReligionFounderSymbolTextLocation/ Sites Mono/ polytheist Connections ChristianityJesusBibleMiddle East, Israel, Jerusalem Mono JudaismAbrahamTorah & Talmud Middle East, Israel, Jerusalem MonoAbraham patriarch of all three mono religions IslamMuhammadKoranMecca, Medina, Jerusalem Mono5 Pillars: Belief Worship Charity Fasting Pilgramige
  • Slide 12
  • World Religions Tab ReligionFounderSymbolTextLocation/ Sites Mono/ polytheist Connections HinduismUniversal ruler Vedas & Upanishads IndiaPolytheistBoth Hindus & Buddhists believe in reincarnation BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama/ Buddha 4 Noble Truths/ 8 Fold Path IndiaWay of living/ philosophy 3 religions originate in India Confucian- ism ConfuciusAnalectsChinaWay of living/ philosophy SikhismGuru NanakGurmukhiIndiaWay of living/ philosophy
  • Slide 13
  • Classical Era Tab Pre-Columbian Civilizations
  • Slide 14
  • Pre-Columbian Civilizations Color the areas of the map different colors to represent where the Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs lived Map should go in the Classical Era tab
  • Slide 15
  • Pre-Columbian Civilizations IncaMayaAztec Time Period1200-1572AD400BC-1517AD1200-1521AD EconomyFarming (corn, cotton, potatoes), terraces Farming (corn, beans, squash), trade Farming (corn, beans, squash, tomatoes) ReligionMany gods, some human sacrifice Many gods, sacrificed animals, some humans Many gods (sun god), lots of human sacrifice GovernmentKing at center, war is for conquest Well organized city- states with kings, war is for tribute Powerful king, highly centralized, war for captives and tributes TechnologyTerraces, irrigation, medicine, roads Writing, math, architecture, calendar Architecture, calendar, chinampas End of civilizationCivil war & Spanish invasion Abandoned cities, disappeared Spanish invasion
  • Slide 16
  • Classical Era Tab Rome & Greece
  • Slide 17
  • Greece & Rome Greece (c. 750BC) Location: Balkan peninsula Religion: Greek mythology, many gods Arts: Theatre (Drama), sculpture, philosophy Democracy- rule by the people Persian Wars- series of wars between Greece & Persia (5 th century B.C. Peloponnesian War- war between Greece & Sparta (Sparta won) Philosophers: Aristotle, Socrates, Plato Alexander the Great- conquered the largest empire of the ancient world Hellenistic- blend of cultures with Greek after Alexanders conquests
  • Slide 18
  • Greece & Rome Rome c. 500 B.C. Location: West side of Italy Government: Senate w/ 2 consuls Punic Wars- 3 wars between Rome & Carthage; Hannibal is Carthages greatest general First Triumvirate- Caesar + Crassus + Pompey, try to reform Rome, broke apart Fall of Rome: civil war/unrest, division of empire, corruption, invaders Eastern half of empire (Byzantine) flourished
  • Slide 19
  • Middle Ages/Renaissance Tab
  • Slide 20
  • Middle Ages Religion Church is a unifying force Religion affects daily lives Crusades-wars to regain holy land (resulted in expanded trade, decline of popes power, king stronger) Empire Building When the Roman Empire fell, Europe dissolved into small kingdoms Charlemagne & Otto Power/Authority Feudalism- lords with estates hold power/ exchange land for services Power struggle between political leaders & pope Magna Carta- limited Kings authority
  • Slide 21
  • Middle Ages Bubonic Plague- deadly disease that swept through Europe & killed 1/3 of population Hundred Years War- conflict between England & France on French soil (1337-1453)
  • Slide 22
  • Renaissance Vocab Humanism- focus on human potential & achievements Secular- worldly/concerned with here & now Notable Works Machiavellis The Prince Shakespeare Gutenbergs printing press Leonardo da Vinci Raphael Mores Utopia Northern Art: Christianity, church, God, nature Southern (Italy) Art: Greek & Roman mythology, gods
  • Slide 23
  • Reformation Reformation- movement for religious reform King Henry VIII broke with Catholic church & became head of Church of England 1529 He wanted a divorce since his first wife didnt give him a son Renaissance challenged church authority Martin Luther, with 95 Theses, challenged church Luthers ideas spread, created their own group (Lutherans) Protestants- non-catholic Christians
  • Slide 24
  • Age of Exploration
  • Slide 25
  • Columbian Exchange- exchange of goods & ideas between the old and new world Diseases from Europe killed millions of Native Americans Atlantic Slave Trade- buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas. By 1870 ~9.5 million Africans imported as slaves Renaissance prompted exploration for God, Gold, & Glory VOCAB Favorable Balance of Trade- sell more goods than you buy Joint-stock- investors pool their wealth for a common purpose & share profits Mercantilism- countrys power depends on its wealth
  • Slide 26
  • Age of Exploration Notable Explorers Chris Columbus- tried to find a new trade route to Asia; landed in the Caribbean instead Amerigo Vesupucci- travelled around South America Hernando Cortes- defeated the Aztecs & their emperor, Montezuma II Francisco Pizarro- conquered Incas European nations created a trading empire in Africa, India & SE Asia Pilgrims & Puritans came to the New World seeking religious freedom French & Indian War- conflict between French & British over land claims in N. America Asia During Exploration Advances under Ming & Qing dynasties left China self-contained & uninterested in European contact Zheng He led 7 exploration voyages in 1405 Tokugawa regime unified Japan & began a 200 year period of isolation, autocracy, & economic growth Japanese practiced a type of feudalism where the daimyo is the figureheads
  • Slide 27
  • Chinese Dynasties
  • Slide 28
  • Shang 1600-1046BC Writing, bronze, pottery, silk Zhou 1045-256BC Loose central government Feudal power held by strong nobles Confucius Qin 221-206 BC Military dictatorship Desroyed nobles feudal power Taxation Great Wall and Terra Cotta Warriors
  • Slide 29
  • Han 206-220AD Expanded empire & trade Buddhism Civil service system Tang 618-906AD Reunited China Education & government reforms Song 960-1279AD Paper money, compass, printing, porcelain, gunpowder
  • Slide 30
  • Yuan/Mongol 1259-1368AD Mongols (central Asian nomads) conquer Asia; Genghis & Kublai Khan Ming 1368-1644AD Overthrew Mongols Encouraged trade with Europe Qing 1644-1912AD British imperialism, opium wars, western pressure Ended with Chinese republic (Mao Zedong)
  • Slide 31
  • Chinese Dynasties Tab India, Africa & Muslim World
  • Slide 32
  • Muslim World Expands The Ottomans established a Muslim empire that combined many cultures & lasted more than 600 years Art, literature, astronomy, architecture, history, mathematics
  • Slide 33
  • India Mughal Empire brought Turks, Persians & Indians together in a vast empire Arabs invaded India; then Mongols invaded Central power in India weakened while Western Europeans began to exploit them Caste System
  • Slide 34
  • Africa North & Central Africa developed hunting-gathering societies, stateless societies, & Muslim states West Africa contained several powerful empires & states (Ghana, Mali) Gold & Salt Arabic world significantly influenced West Africa East & South African states gained wealth & power through trade Mansa Musa went on a hajj & left behind significant wealth on his journey
  • Slide 35
  • Age of Revolutions
  • Slide 36
  • Age of Revolutions (Top half of Flap) French Revolution Enlightenment Ideas Discontent of 3 rd estate Social/economic injustice French Revolution 1789-1799 Execution of monarchs Rise of Napoleon Decline of French Power Radical social & political turmoil Absolute monarchy collapsed for ideas on liberty, equality & fraternity ~40,000 people killed during Reign of Terror Napoleon rises to power, considered a great military general for conquering a large part of Europe Ended with an establishment of a constitutional monarchy
  • Slide 37
  • Age of Revolutions (Top half of flap) American Revolution Taxation w/o representation No longer identify with British Enlightenment ideas American Revolution 1776-1781 A democratic republic established Bill of Rights/ Constitution American Nationalism 13 colonies join to break from British empire Articles of Confederation led to weak national government Constitution & Bill of Rights focus on Enlightenment
  • Slide 38
  • Age of Revolutions (Top half of flap) Latin American Revolutions 1789-1900 Spurred by discontent & Enlightenment ideas, peoples in Latin America fought colonial rule Haiti- first successful slave revolt Simon Bolivar- Venezuelan general liberated most of South American countries from Spanish rule
  • Slide 39
  • Age of Revolutions Bottom Half of Flap
  • Slide 40
  • Age of Revolutions-Bottom half of flap Scientific Revolution Scientists question accepted beliefs Renaissance inspired curiosity Reformation ideas Scientific Revolution Mid-1500s New model of universe (Galileo) Newton explains law of gravity Enlightenment
  • Slide 41
  • Age of Revolutions Enlightenment A revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans view of government & Society
  • Slide 42
  • Age of Revolutions Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution- output of machine-made goods; began in England during 18 th century. Revolutionized agriculture, textile industry, & transportation Growth of cities, overcrowded Poor working conditions Emerging social classes
  • Slide 43
  • Economics/Political Theory
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Types of Government Monarchy- power rests with a single individual (king/queen) Constitutional Monarchy- monarch has a role, but limited political power Oligarchy- rule by few Fascism- dictator led government based on nationalism Republic- power rests with the people (democratic); exercised by chosen representatives
  • Slide 46
  • WWI/WWII/20 th Century
  • Slide 47
  • WWI/Great War (1914-1918) Vocab Nationalism- loyalty to ones country Militarism- glorifying military power Triple Alliance- Germany, Italy, & Austria-Hungary Triple Entente- Russia, France, & Britain Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand set off a chain reaction within the alliance system that resulted in the largest war in Europe. In Europe, military buildup, nationalistic feelings, & rival alliances set the stage for continental war Nations take sides: Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany) & Allies (G.B., France, Russia) War was fought on two fronts in trenches New weapons (poison gas, machine guns, tanks airplanes, submarines) Continued on next slide
  • Slide 48
  • WWI Total war- countries used all their resources America joined after Germans sank Lusitania Russia withdrew from the war after their revolution in 1917 End of War Treaty of Versailles (1919) League of Nations Germany loses territory Germanys military restricted Sole responsibility on Germany New nations created, Ottoman empire abolished Lost generation of men Russian Revolution (1917) Long term social unrest in Russia erupted in revolution, ushering in the first communist government
  • Slide 49
  • WWII (1939-1945) Vocab Great Depression- severe economic collapse of U.S. stock market 1929 Winston Churchill- British prime minister Holocaust- mass extermination of non-Aryans, mostly Jews Genocide systematic killing of an entire people
  • Slide 50
  • Sept. 1939 Germany invades Poland; WWII begins Jun. 1940 France surrenders; Battle of Britain Jun. 1941 Germany invades Soviet Union Dec. 1941 Attack of Pearl Harbor Jun. 1944 Allies invade Europe on D-Day May 1945 Germany surrenders Continued on next slide..
  • Slide 51
  • Aug 1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Japan Sep 1945 Japan surrenders
  • Slide 52
  • Cold War (1947-1991) Vocab Cold War- diplomatic hostility between the 2 superpowers after WWII NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization; defensive military alliance between N. America + W. Europe Warsaw Pact- a defensive military alliance between Soviet states
  • Slide 53
  • Cold War The conflicting aims between the U.S. & S.U. led to a global competition Iron Curtain came to represent Europes division b/w communist & democratic Europe The Cold War flared into actual wars (Korea & Vietnam) After WWII, Chinese communists defeated Nationalist forces and communist China emerged Cold war superpowers supported opposing sides in Latin American & Middle Eastern conflicts Cold War finally began to thaw as the superpowers entered an era of uneasy diplomacy
  • Slide 54
  • Good luck on all of your exams! I know you will all do very well!

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