Writing Paraphrases and Summaries

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Chapter 8: Paraphrase and Summary

Aurora TsaiChapter 8:Paraphrase and SummaryParaphrase and SummaryWhats the difference?LengthA paraphrase is almost as long as the original text you are citingA summary is usually much shorter and only includes the MAIN ideas and important points

Take caution . . .Original: People have long wished for a universal international language that speakers all over the world could understand (Kispert).Paraphrase 1: For many years, people have dreamed of setting up an international universal language which all people could speak and understand (Kispert).Paraphrase 2: Some people have wished for a universal international language that speakers all over the world could understand (Kispert).One of these paraphrases would be considered plagiarized! Which one?Take Home messageOriginal: People have long wished for a universal international language that speakers all over the world could understand (Kispert).Paraphrase 1: For many years, people have dreamed of setting up an international universal language which all people could speak and understand (Kispert).When you make a summary or paraphrase, you have to change more than just a few words Problem 1One major problem is maintaining astronauts physical health. Medical treatment may be days or even weeks away, as there may not be a doctor on board. Illnesses such as appendicitis or ulcers, routinely treated on Earth, could be fatal in space because of the delay in getting to a doctor. From Manned Mars Flight: Impossible Dream? Patrick Clinton, Space Science Magazine, Oct. 15, 2003, p. 16Helpful Steps for Writing Paraphrases and SummariesRead the original passage several times until you fully understand it. Look up unfamiliar words and find synonyms for them if possible.Underline the most important ideasOptional: take notes only a few words for each ideaPut the original down and try to remember the main ideas. Without looking at the original, write down a paraphrase or summary in your own words.Check your paraphrase/summary with the originalMake sure you havent changed the meaning of the original!Add an in-text citation (e.g. (Kisper))

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