Chapter 3 writing better sentences
1.Writing Better SentencesGrade 102. Writing Better SentencesIn this chapter you will learn to write better sentences by choosing better words. Better sentences will help your readers understand your ideas quickly and easily. Words that are carefully chosen move your writing in the right direction. Specific words add interest to this plain sentence:I rode the bus to school.On Saturday, I rode the early bus to art school.The added words give details. They state the idea more clearly. As you read this chapter, you will learn to use nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases in your sentences3. Goals for LearningTo replace nouns with pronounsTo use plural and possessive nouns correctlyTo improve sentences by adding adjectives and adverbsTo use adjectives and adverbs to make comparisonsTo use prepositional phrases in sentences4. Key Vocabulary WordsAntecedent The noun that a pronoun replacesMasculine Relating to malesFeminine Relating to femalesGender Masculine or femininePossessive noun A word that shows ownership or a relationship between two thingsPersonal pronoun A pronoun that refers to a person or a thing5. Key Vocabulary WordsApostrophe () A punctuation mark that you use to show a noun is possessiveAdjective A word that describes a noun or pronounThesaurus A book that lists words and their synonymsSynonym A word that has the same meaning as another wordAdverb A word that answers questions about a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; it tells when, how, how often, where, or to what degree6. Key Vocabulary WordsPositive form The form of an adjective or adverb that you use to describe one person or thingComparative form The form of an adjective or adverb that you use to compare two people or things; formed by adding erto the positive form or by adding the word moreSuperlative form A form of an adjective or adverb that you use to compare three or more people or things; formed by adding estto the positive form or by adding the word mostPrepositional phrase A group of words made up of a preposition and a noun or pronoun; it works like an adjective or an adverb in a sentencePreposition A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun (its object) and other words in a sentence7. Replacing Nouns with PronounsLesson 3-18. ObjectivesTo use pronouns to replace nouns in sentencesTo identify the antecedent of a pronounTo recognize the gender of a noun or pronounTo identify singular and plural nouns and pronouns9. Replacing Nouns with PronounsWhen you speak or write, you use nouns to name people, places, things, and ideas. It would be awkward to use the same noun several times in a sentence. Instead, you use a pronoun. A pronoun replaces a noun in a sentence. An antecedent is the noun that the pronoun replaces.EXAMPLE 1Amber and Ambers mother go to pottery class.Amber and her mother go to pottery class.The pronoun her replaces Ambers. The antecedent is Ambers.10. Replacing Nouns with PronounsYou cannot use a pronoun until you have identified the noun. If there is no antecedent, the listener or reader will not know who or what you are talking about.EXAMPLE 2No Antecedent GivenBrandon saw it yesterday.(saw what?)Antecedent GivenBrandon saw the movie yesterday. He liked it.In the second sentence, you know what Brandon saw. The pronoun it has an antecedent. The antecedent is movie. The pronoun is not always in the same sentence as the antecedent.11. Replacing Nouns with PronounsThere are two rules to remember:Rule 1 A pronoun must have an antecedent.Rule 2 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent.12. Practice AFind the antecedent for each pronoun in bold. Write the pronoun and its antecedent on your paper.Derek read about a national park in Kentucky. It is called Mammoth Cave.I would like to see this cave, he said.Tell me about it, Brandon said.A river runs through the caves lowest level, Derek told him.We should plan to visit this cave, Brandon said.13. Gender and NumberNouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas. Some nouns that name people show gender. Gender tells if the noun is masculine or feminine. Masculine nouns refer to males. Feminine nouns refer to females. Some pronouns are also masculine or feminine.EXAMPLE 3MasculineBrandon, man, boy, uncle, father, he, him, hisFeminineSonia, woman, girl, aunt, mother, she, her, hersNo Gendertable, mountain, city, pencil, it, they14. Gender and NumberRule 3 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender.EXAMPLE 4Derek went to the movies. He saw a comedy.Amber has a dog named Rex. She loves that dog!The bell rang. It signaled that class had begun.15. Gender and NumberReplace plural nouns with they, them, or their. It does not matter whether the noun is a group of men, women, or things.EXAMPLE 5Ten families came. They brought their own food.The store is open now. It stays open all night.16. Practice BChange the words in bold to pronouns. Write the new sentence on your paper.Amber and Sonia went to Amber and Sonias class.Ms. Ruiz had given Ms. Ruizs class an assignment.Did everyone do the assignment? asked Ms. Ruiz.Amber did, Sonia said. Derek has Dereks work, too.Arent Amber and Derek wonderful, laughed Luis.17. Gender and NumberRule 4 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. If the antecedent is singular, the pronoun is singular. If the antecedent is plural, the pronoun is plural.Singular Pronouns:I, you, he, she, itPlural Pronouns:we, you, they18. Practice CIn each sentence, a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent. Write each sentence correctly on your paper.Springfield has a park that their people love.The park is off Main Street. They are behind the pool.Three fields are there. It is for playing soccer.The coaches are nice, and everyone likes it.Each team should bring their own equipment.19. Subject, Object, or Possessive NounNouns have different purposes in sentences. The pronoun that replaces a noun depends on the nouns purpose. You can use a noun as a subject or an object. You can also use the possessive form of a noun. A possessive noun shows ownership or a relationship between two things.EXAMPLE 6SubjectSonia enjoys music.She enjoys music.ObjectAmber e-mailed Sonia.Amber e-mailed her.PossessiveThe violin is Sonias.The violin is hers.20. Subject, Object, or Possessive NounThe table below lists personal pronouns. A personal pronoun refers to a person or a thing. Use the table to find the correct pronoun to replace a noun. A pronoun that replaces a possessive noun is called a possessive pronoun.21. Practice DDecide which pronoun completes each sentence. Refer to the table above. Write the new sentence on your paper.Derek and Brandon are friends. ____ enjoy soccer.What time should ____ leave? asked Brandon.What time is good for ____? Derek replied.The coach told ____ to be at the field at 6:00.____ likes to start practice on time.22. Lesson 3-1 ReviewReplace the noun in bold with the correct pronoun. Write the new sentence on your paper.Until Derek was a junior in high school, Derek did not study enough.Amber told Derek to study harder to get better grades.Amber told him the work was worthwhile.Derek found a quiet place where Derek like to study.With all of these effort, Dereks grades improved a lot.23. Lesson 3-1 ReviewDecide which pronoun completes each sentence. Write the sentence on your paper.Derek and Brandon live in Springfield. ____ like their town.Derek and ____ family have lived there for many years.Sonia Moreno enjoys the violin. She plays ____ in the orchestra.Amber, Derek, and Brandon love soccer. ____ play as much as possible.Sonias cousin Luis is fun to be around. ____ is always telling jokes.24. Using Plural and Possessive NounsLesson 3-225. ObjectivesTo identify possessive nouns and plural nounsTo write possessive nouns and pronouns correctly26. Using Plural and Possessive NounsPeople often confuse the possessive and plural forms of a noun because they sound alike. A possessive noun shows ownership or a relationship between two things. Always use an apostrophe () when you write a possessive noun.EXAMPLE 1Plural NounPossessive NounThe members meet here.A members house is nearby.My cousins live in Toronto.My cousins house is brick.27. Practice ADecide if each noun in bold is plural or possessive. Write plural or possessive on your paper.Both teams met at the stadium.Where is the poodles leash?Everyone in Elizas class liked learning Spanish.These are my running shoes.Californias weather is usually warm.28. Using Plural and Possessive NounsHere are the rules for writing possessive nouns:Rule 1 Make a singular noun possessive by adding s.EXAMPLE 2Brandons book is gone.Ms. Ruizs class meets in the morning.The principals office is a busy place.29. Using Plural and Possessive NounsRule 2 Make a plural noun possessive by adding only an apostrophe.EXAMPLE 3The students papers are not finished.The boys locker room needs to be cleaned.Both cities problems are the same.30. Using Plural and Possessive NounsRule 3 If a plural noun does not end in s, add an s after the apostrophe.EXAMPLE 4Peoples opinions about this vary.Our childrens jackets still fit them.The womens team is practicing.31. Practice BDecide whether each bold possessive noun is singular or plural. Write singular or plural on your paper.Brandons room is painted green.What time is the teachers meeting?The students answered the teachers questions.Mens shirts are on sale.The dancers feet hurt.32. Using Plural and Possessive NounsA possessive pronoun does not have an apostrophe.EXAMPLE 5The dogs bone is buried.Its bone is buried.I love Brandons house.I love his house.Amber and Sonias friend came.Their friend came.33. Practice CReplace each bold possessive noun with the correct possessive pronoun. Write the new sentence on your paper.Where are Dereks running shoes?Brandon looked everywhere for Ambers car keys.The players equipment was scattered everywhere.Rex lost Rexs tennis ball.Luiss and Sonias mothers are sisters.34. Practice DWrite each sentence on your paper. Add the correct possessive pronoun.After school, Derek goes to ____ job at the gas station.It is a good job, and the workers like ____ boss.Ms. Lenz started ____ business five years ago.She has six employees on ____ staff.The station is open late. ____ closing time is 10 PM.35. Practice ERead each pair of nouns. The first one is singular, and the second one is plural. Write the possessive form of each word on your paper.Example:loaf, loavesAnswer:loafs, loaveschild, childrenman, menfamily, familiesshelf, shelvesgoose, geese36. Lesson 3-2 ReviewEach sentence has a mistake in the use of possessive and plural nouns. Write the sentence correctly on your paper.The Tuckers home is on Third Street.Both teams were ready for the big event.Childrens toys were on the floor.My neighbors cat climbed a tree.The fire department brought some ladders.37. Lesson 3-2 ReviewReplace each possessive noun in bold with the correct possessive pronoun. Write the new sentence.Ambers dog Rex chased her neighbors cat up a tree.The cats fur stood on end.Derek heard the cats meowing from across the street.Mrs. Chin is Amber and her mothers neighbor.The fire department will rescue Mrs. Chins cat.38. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsLesson 3-339. ObjectivesTo use adjectives and adverbs in sentencesTo choose specific adjectives and adverbsTo know the purpose of a thesaurus40. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsAn adjective describes a noun or pronoun. An adjective tells how many, what kind, or which ones. Look at the adjectives in Example 1. Thing about the question each adjective answers.EXAMPLE 1How Many?one book, few athletes, three flowersWhat Kind?heavy book, strong athletes, purple flowersWhich Ones?Mias book, those athletes, other flowersMias is the possessive form of Mia. A possessive noun act as an adjective.41. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsAdjectives add details to sentences. Adjectives often appear in front of the words they describe.EXAMPLE 2The teenager ate a plate of food in gulps.The hungry teenager ate a huge plate of hot food in four gulps.42. Practice AThe nouns in each sentence are in bold. Write the sentence again. Add an adjective for each noun.The family planted a tree in the yard.In class, the girl did a somersault.Sonia likes apples with peanut butter on them.The man ate the sandwich.The dog ate a bowl of food.43. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsHelp your readers form sharp pictures by using specific adjectives. Specific means exact or detailed. Avoid vague adjectives such as good, nice, bad, and pretty. Vague means general.EXAMPLE 3VagueSpecificIt was a nice day.It was a sunny, breezy day.The fruit tasted good.The fruit tasted juicy and fresh.44. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsA thesaurus is a book that lists words and their synonyms. A synonym is a word with the same meaning as another word. A thesaurus can help you find more specific words to replace a vague word.Choose the synonym that has the meaning you want.EXAMPLE 4VagueMore Specific Synonyms for Bada bad stormdangerous, threatening, severea bad dogmischievous, stubborn, viciousa bad tastesickening, bitter, sour45. Practice BReplace each adjective in bold with a more specific one. Use a thesaurus if possible. Write the new sentence on your paper. Use your imagination!My best friend is nice.The sky looks nice.Write a good sentence.The team had a bad game.Those flowers are pretty.46. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsAn adverb tells more about a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs often give details about actions. An adverb can tell when, how, how often, or where. Look at the adverbs in Example 5. Thing about the questions each adverb answers.EXAMPLE 5When?Today we will shop early and eat later.How?Read slowly and carefully. Write clearly.How Often?Fees are paid weekly. Check in daily.Where?Put your umbrella there. We will go outside.47. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsEach adverb in Example 5 tells more about a verb. Adverbs also answer questions about an adjective or another adverb. Such adverbs tell about degree.EXAMPLE 6To What Degree?Amber was extremely worried. Rex ran too quickly. He was almost lost.48. Practice CEach adverb is in bold. Decide what question each adverb answers. Write one of these choices on your paper: when, how, how often, where, or to what degree.Immediately, the door slammed shit.The bell rings hourly.That group is especially busy.The baby smiled happily.We looked everywhere for the keys.49. Adding Adjectives and AdverbsYou can add variety to sentences by moving adverbs around. Notice the adverb in the sentences in Example 7.EXAMPLE 7Turtles oftenmove slowly.Often, turtles move slowly.Turtles move slowly, often.50. Practice DFind the adverb in each sentence. Move the adverb to a different place in the sentence. Write the new sentence on your paper.The Tennis Tournamentby Brandon TuckerI entered the tennis tournament and actually thought I might win.My serve has been strong lately.I will certainly win at least a few games, I told myself.The match was over quickly.I lost, but my friends immediately congratulated me for trying.51. Lesson 3-3 ReviewComplete the sentences by adding specific adjectives. Write the new sentences on your paper.The ____ artist created a ____ sculpture.I am looking for ____ shoes.The morning air feels ____ and ____.Would you like some ____ bread?Some dancers can do ____ jumps.52. Lesson 3-3 ReviewFind the adverb in each sentence. Move the adverb to a different place in the sentence. Write the new sentence.Amber gracefully danced across the stage.Brandon sometimes does his homework in his room.Rex, the beagle, bravely guarded the house.The book disappeared mysteriously.Sonia has not been to the movies lately.53. Comparing with Adjectives and AdverbsLesson 3-454. ObjectivesTo use adjectives and adverbs to make comparisonsTo use the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbsTo recognize irregular adjectives and adverbsTo avoid double comparisons55. Comparing with Adjectives and AdverbsYou can use adjectives and adverbs in your sentences to make comparisons. Each adjective and adverb has three forms: positive, comparative, and superlative.Rule 1 Use the positive form to describe one person or thing. Use the comparative form when you compare two people or things. Use the superlative form to compare more than two people or things.PositiveBrandon is tall.ComparativeBrandon is taller than Derek.SuperlativeBrandon is the tallest one in his family56. Comparing with Adjectives and AdverbsRule 2 For most one-syllable and two-syllable words, add eror estto the positive form.PositiveComparativeSuperlativeyoungyoungeryoungestwisewiserwisestfastfasterfastesthappyhappierhappiest57. Comparing with Adjectives and AdverbsRule 3 For words of more than one syllable, use more and most or less and least.PositiveComparativeSuperlativebeautifulmore beautifulmost beautifulexpensiveless expensiveleast expensive58. Comparing with Adjectives and AdverbsRule 4 When an adjective ends in y, change the y to I and add eror est.PositiveComparativeSuperlativeeasyeasiereasiestsillysilliersilliestprettyprettierprettiestearlyearlierearliest59. Practice AChoose the correct form of the adjective in parentheses. Write the sentences on your paper.That dress is the ____ one I have ever seen. (beautiful)That dress is ____ that the on the one. (expensive)Soccer is ____ than tennis, said Brandon. (easy)Derek is the ____ runner on his team. (fast)Fruit is ____ than cookies. (healthy)60. Irregular Adjectives and AdverbsA few adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.PositiveComparativeSuperlativegood, wellbetterbestbad, badlyworseworstmany, muchmoremostlittlelessleastEXAMPLE 1IncorrectToday I feel even badder than yesterday.CorrectToday I feel even worse than yesterday.61. Irregular Adjectives and AdverbsThe words good and well have different meanings as adjectives. You use good when you mean something is desirable or likeable. You use well when you mean the opposite of sick. Well is also an adverb. However, do not use good as an adverb. It is only used as an adjective.EXAMPLE 2The Adjective WellI feel well today.The Adjective GoodI thought the poem was good.The Adverb WellI played well in todays game.Incorrect Use of GoodI played good in todays game.62. Practice BChoose the correct form of the word in parentheses. Write the sentence on your paper.Of these three books by Agatha Christie, I liked this one ____. (good/well)That was the ____ movie ever made! (bad)Luis played very ____ in the chess tournament. (good/well)____ rain fell this month that last month. (little)____ rain falls in July than in December. (many/much)63. Avoiding Double ComparisonsAvoid double comparisons. Add either the ending eror the word more, but not both. Add either the ending estor the word most, but not both. Do not add an ending if you are using less or least to make a comparison.EXAMPLE 3IncorrectThis car is the most cleanest its ever been!CorrectThis car is the cleanest its ever been!IncorrectWhich instrument is less noisier?CorrectWhich instrument is less noisy?64. Practice CFind the mistake in each sentence. Write the sentence correctly on your paper.Todays lunch was more gooder than yesterdays.Summer is the most laziest time of the year.Which of these two brands is more cheaper?The worsest storm of the year hit the coast.Stores hire more people for their most busiest season.65. Lesson 3-4 ReviewFind the mistake in each sentence. Write the sentence correctly on your paper.Brandons tennis serve is more better than Dereks.Does Computer Village have the most lowest prices?Which of these two computers is least expensive?Amber is older than Sonia, but Sonia is the tallest.I just had the horriblest day of my life, announced Sonia.66. Lesson 3-4 ReviewFind the mistake in each sentence. Write the sentence correctly on your paper.Celery tastes deliciouser than broccoli.My puppy is young, but Ambers puppy is youngest.Who is the wiser of them all?These decorations are the fancier ones weve ever had!Amber writes more good than most people do.67. Adding Prepositional PhrasesLesson 3-568. ObjectivesTo identify prepositional phrases in sentencesTo recognize the parts of a prepositional phraseTo use prepositional phrases in sentences69. Adding Prepositional PhrasesA prepositional phrase is a group of words made up of a preposition and a noun or pronoun. A prepositional phrase works like an adjective or adverb in a sentence.A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition. A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between a noun or a pronoun and other words in a sentence.70. Adding Prepositional Phrases71. Adding Prepositional PhrasesA prepositional phrase begins with a preposition. It ends with a noun or a pronoun.EXAMPLE 1over the riverfrom a friendin the middleWhen you use a preposition with a pronoun, the pronoun must be the object form.EXAMPLE 2to himfrom themwith her72. Adding Prepositional PhrasesOther words may come between the preposition and the noun or pronoun.EXAMPLE 3He woke up during the cold, dark, and rainy night.A sentence may include more than one prepositional phrase.EXAMPLE 4A letter from my cousin in Montreal appeared in my mailbox.73. Practice AWrite each prepositional phrase on your paper. Some sentences have more than one.The girl in the middle of that photo is my sister.Look for prepositional phrases in this sentence.Derek put his tools under the car in the garage.He works at the gas station two days a week.Sonia left a message for him on his answering machine.74. Adjective PhrasesPrepositional phrases are also called adjective phrases and adverb phrases. An adjective phrase describes a noun or pronoun in a sentence.EXAMPLE 5AdjectiveThe middle boy is my cousin.Adjective PhraseThe boy in the middle is my cousin.The phrase in the middle describes the noun boy.75. Practice BEach sentence contains an adjective phrase in bold. Find the noun that the adjective phrase describes. Write the noun on your paper.We read a poem by Edgar Allan Poe.The letter from Karen was short.How often is the rodeo in Centerville held?A house near a highway can be noisy.Would you like fruit salad with peaches?76. Practice CThink of a prepositional phrase to add after each noun in bold. The phrase must describe that noun. Write the new sentence on your paper.Example:That man is my uncle.Answer:The man in the blue suit is my uncle.George Washington was the first president.The capital is Quebec City.The man won the race.The building is 10 stories high.Amber received a birthday card.77. Adverb PhrasesAn adverb phrase answers a question about a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.EXAMPLE 6AdverbHe arrived later. (arrived when?)Adverb PhraseHe arrived at night.(arrived when?)78. Practice DThe verb of each sentence is in bold. Find the adverb phrase that answers a question about the verb. Write the adverb phrase on your paper.Example:Amber met Rene at the mall.Answer:at the mallWe read the poem by ourselves.Columbus reached the island in 1492.The girls drove to Centerville.The dog walked with a limp.He arrived by plane.79. Adverb PhrasesAn adverb phrase can also be an adverb of degree.EXAMPLE 7AdverbWe are verysorry.(sorry to what degree?)Adverb PhraseWe are sorry beyond measure.(sorry to what degree?)80. Practice EThink of a prepositional phrase to add after each verb or adjective in bold. The phrase must tell where, how, how often, when, or to what degree. Write the new sentence on your paper.Amber walked.Her dog Rex barked.She arrived late for dinner.Amber called Sonia.Their homework was difficul!81. Adverb PhrasesThink about where you place prepositional phrases in your sentences. In general, place an adjective phrase close to the word it describes. Vary your sentences by putting adverb phrases in different positions.EXAMPLE 8Amber Choy went to her locker between classes.Between classes, Amber Choy went to her locker.82. Adverb PhrasesPlace a prepositional phrase where it will not confuse the reader.EXAMPLE 9ConfusingWe learned how to use a mirror to reflect light in our science class.ClearIn our science class, we learned how to use a mirror to reflect light.83. Practice FFind the prepositional phrase in each sentence. If the sentence is clear, write clear on your paper. If the sentence could be confusing, move the prepositional phrase and rewrite the sentence.The smells are wonderful in Grandmothers kitchen.The friends talked about the party in the hallway.The audience left the theater after the first act.The apartment has a big hall closet with two bedrooms.A woman spoke to our class from Sweden.84. Lesson 3-5 ReviewFind the prepositional phrases in the sentences. Some sentences have more than one. Write each phrase.Amber bought a thesaurus at a store in Springfield.A thesaurus has lists of words in alphabetical order.Words with similar meanings are synonyms.A thesaurus gives synonyms for each word.It may list words with opposite meanings, too.85. Lesson 3-5 ReviewEach prepositional phrase is in bold. Decide whether it is an adjective phrase or adverb phrase. Write adjective phrase or adverb phrase on your paper.Amber scored a goal during the soccer game.The other players on the team cheered.The team was happy about winning.The coach took them to a pizza place.They celebrated their victory with joy.