Demonstrating, regulating and celebrating community forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

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Dr. D. Andrew Wardell Presentation for the conference on Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry Montpellier France March 24-26, 2010

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1. Demonstrating, Regulating and Celebrating Community Forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea Dr. D. Andrew Wardell Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry Where do we go from here? CIFOR/CIRAD/IRD, Montpellier 24-26 March 2010 Norad grant GLO 4244, INS 09/010/Rockefeller Foundation grant 2009 COR 202 2. Outline Why community forestry and REDD? Cambodia Indonesia Papua New Guinea Concluding remarks 3. Case study framework Focus on a two year period (2007-2009); work in progress; REDD still being invented. Context Forestry/decentralization reforms Progress with community forestry REDD readiness and projects Case study a REDD project or an event 4. Why community forestry and REDD? Community forestry not yet performing well Custodians of the land/resources? Moving out of poverty? Limits of decentralization in practice REDD financing the missing link? Early optimism and cautionary notes 5. 6. Community forest management State-granted privileges and management by restriction, exclusion and fear Legal pluralism and the negotiation of access and rights Untying rights to resources from the territorial claims of the state Rents of non-enforcement Contradictory forest policies? 7. Invites Parties to further strengthen and support ongoing efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation on a voluntary basis; 3. Further encourages Parties to explore a range of actions, identify options and undertake efforts, including demonstration activities , to address the drivers of deforestation relevant to their national circumstances. Decision 2/CP.13 8. War - commodification of forests Peace accord, 1991 Moratorium on forest concessions, (3.4m ha), 31.12.2000 Commune Sangkat Law, 2001 Economic Land Concessions, 2005 Annual Bidding Coupes w/e 2007 Organic Law, 2008 Global Witness, 1999-Oct. 2009 Cambodia - Context 9. Sub-Decree on CF, 2003 prakas 8-step CF process CF training materials and mapping services 124 CF sites protected by law (15 years + 15) Community vs. conservation forestry ( Rectangular Strategy II, Nov. 2008) 2 million ha CF by 2020 (19% of national forest estate) Cambodia Community Forestry 10. 11. Two demonstration projects Oddar Meanchey Seima BCA Sar Char Nor 699, May 2008 R-PIN, March 2009 UN-REDD Observer, Nov. 2009 REDD Task Force, Jan. 2010 Replication CF REDD in Siem Reap (37 CF sites) Cambodia REDD readiness 12. Bundled 13 CF sites economies of scale Avoided mosaic deforestation METH dual validation (VCS) Co-benefits (CCB Standard) Cancellation/conversion of ELCs Secure tenure for CF groups Border dispute with Thailand Benefit-sharing/distribution Oddar Meanchey CF REDD Project 13. Cambodia - strengthening CF? 14. 130m ha of state forest land Land rights weakly-recognized in 1960 Agrarian Law Dominance of forest concession model (timber, plywood, pulp and paper and potentially, REDD), 1960s to present Recentralizing while decentralizing do forests or communities benefit? Ministry of Forestry a vertically-integrated bureaucracy Indonesia - Context 15. Regulation 6/2007 (34/2002 and 1/2004) 4 options, viz. Village Forestry Community Forestry Peoples Plantation Forests Partnerships between communities and concessionaires Less than 40% of all properties with title (BPN - Sertipikat ) Very few ulayat (collective) tenure rights recognized Historical CF focus in Java 2.1 million ha by 2010 (1.6% of forest estate) Indonesia Community Forestry 16. Community forestry - Java 17. IFCA process (pre-COP.13) A plethora of MOF regulations P. 36 (11 benefit-sharing models) National MRV system(s) R-Plan endorsed UN-REDD Fast track funds, 2009 Inter and intra-institutional factionalism ca. 25 REDD projects Indonesia REDD readiness 18. Ecosystem Restoration License High carbon density forests Avoided Planned Deforestation METH dual validation (VCS) Community benefits Puter/FPP MOF vs provincial regulations Spatial planning Environmental Impact Assessments A new generation of concessionaires? Katingan peat forest REDD Project 19. Katingan peat forest REDD project 20. Indonesia a geographic disconnect? 21. Customary ownership of PNGs land (97%) Dominance of (Malaysian) logging industry PNG Forest Authority FMAs negotiated with Incorporated Land Groups and concessionaires PNGFAs 34 step process Papua New Guinea - Context 22. State of PNGs Forests, 1972-2002 Subsistence agriculture (45.6%) Logging (48.2%) Mining (6%) Forest fires (4.4%) Plantations (1%) Logging, Legality and Livelihoods Creation of OCC (NEC 56/2008) and proposed structures (TAB, NAB and IAB) PNG Context 2 23. PNG log exports, 1978-2007 24. Systematic failure of ICDPs Earlier efforts to develop CF and PES (FORCERT and Eco Forestry Forum, 2007-09) Community-based forest enterprises (mobile sawmills) Village REDD concept (WCS) Potential of provincial forest governance (EHP and Medang Provinces) PNG Community Forestry 25. COP.11 to COP. 13 National vs. sub-national REDD Coalition of Rainforest Nations OCC-ES and OCC-CT 3-tier structure proposed Suspension of Exec. Director/OCC Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee investigation No credible projects PNG REDD readiness 26. CRFN 3 representatives only Maya Lin, Vivienne Westwood, Bianca Jagger, some large conservation NGOs et al 5 awards (WIM Foundation) Absence of a PNG REDD project Edelman PR (on behalf of CRFN) McKinsey & Company (Jan. 2010) Carbon is my government now PNG REDD+ Gala Event, COP.15 27. PNG - celebrating REDD on the worlds stage? 28. Need to align forest sector reforms more closely with broader decentralization reforms Rights to land = rights to trees = rights to carbon? Moving beyond the REDD project approval culture governance of future benefit-sharing and distribution mechanisms Concluding Remarks

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