Activities to promote higher order thinking skills and provide differentiated instruction
- 1. ENGAGING ALL LEARNERS WITHSTUDENT-CENTERED ACTIVITIES Practical strategies and applications that support HOTS(higher order thinking skills) anddifferentiationPresented by DHS SIOP CoachesBeth Amaral and Carla HuckMarch 12, 2013
2. Researchers have found that of theapproximately 80,000 questions the averageteacher asks annually, ___ percent of themare at the Literal or Knowledge level (Gall,1984; Watson & Young, 1986). This isespecially problematic with English learners.As students are acquiring proficiency inEnglish, it is tempting to rely on simplequestions that result in yes/no or other one-word responses.--Echevarria, Vogt and Short, 2010, Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary English Learners:The SIOP Model, p. 105. 3. Content Objectives: Participants will be able to use three strategies cubing, think dots, and canned questions toprovide differentiated instruction for all students. Participants will be able to develop engaging smallgroup activities based on specific contentinformation, Blooms Taxonomy of questioning, andstudent needs.Language Objectives: Participants will formulate content-specificquestions that promote higher order thinking. Participants will describe and share successfulstrategies and tools to promote student-centeredlearning. 4. SIOP UMBRELLA 5. WHY DIFFERENTIATION?In Non-DifferentiatedIn DifferentiatedClassrooms:Classrooms: The teacher is the one who Both the teacher and the studentsknows the objectives for the know clearly the content andlesson.language objectives. Whole-class teaching prevails; Grouping of students is frequent anddesks are all in a row. flexible. Assignments, texts, and tasksare the same for all the students. A variety of texts, tasks, and options is evident. The preponderance of talk is theteachers. Talk is shared between students and High-level thinking questionsteacher.and tasks are reserved for High-level thinking questions andhighest-achieving students.tasks are the norm for all students. 6. BLOOMS TAXONOMY AND HOTSORIGINAL TERMSNEW TERMS EvaluationCreating Synthesis Evaluating AnalysisAnalyzing Application Applying Comprehension Understanding Knowledge Remembering () 7. BLOOMS REVISED TAXONOMY CREATING GENERATING NEW IDEAS, PRODUCTS, OR WAYS OF VIEWING THINGSDESIGNING, CONSTRUCTING, PLANNING, PRODUCING, INVENTINGEVALUATING JUSTIFYING A DECISION OR COURSE OF ACTION CHECKING, HYPOTHESISING, CRITIQUING, EXPERIMENTING, JUDGING ANALYSINGBREAKING INFORMATION INTO PARTS TO EXPLORE UNDERSTANDINGS AND RELATIONSHIPS COMPARING, ORGANIZING, DECONSTRUCTING, INTERROGATING, FINDING APPLYING USING INFORMATION IN ANOTHER FAMILIAR SITUATIONIMPLEMENTING, CARRYING OUT, USING, EXECUTING UNDERSTANDING EXPLAINING IDEAS OR CONCEPTSINTERPRETING, SUMMARIZING, PARAPHRASING, CLASSIFYING, EXPLAININGREMEMBERINGRECALLING INFORMATION RECOGNIZING, LISTING, DESCRIBING, RETRIEVING, NAMING, FINDING 8. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY: CUBING Description: Cubing is an instructional strategy designed to help students think about a topic or idea from many different angles. A cube includes 6 commands, one on each of its six faces, followed by a prompt that describes the task the students should do related to the command. A concrete visual of a cube is used to consider multiple dimensions of a topic or levels of questioning according to Blooms Taxonomy. Students can roll the cube, or you can number each side and assign tasks to groups or individual members. What are the advantages to using Cubing? It is a simple way to differentiate, while still instructing each student on the same topic or skill. Each cube may contain the same commands, but the tasks on the cubes will be different according to the needs of the various groups. Rolling the die adds excitement and anticipation. It takes what may be a boring assignment and makes it fun and engaging. Cubing is an excellent strategy for the tactile/kinesthetic learners. 9. CUBING SUGGESTED FORMATS The Six Sides of the Cube: 1. Describe it (including color, shape, size (if applicable) How would you describe the issue/topic? 2. Compare it (what it is similar to or different from)Its sort of like 3. Associate it (what it makes you think of )How does the topic connect to other issues/subjects? 4. Analyze it (tell how it is made or what it is composed of) How would you break the problem/issue into smaller parts? 5. Apply it (tell how it can be used)How does it help you understand other topics/issues? 6. Argue for/against it (take a stand and support it)I am for this because/This works because/I agree because . . . 10. CUBING SHOW ME AN EXAMPLE SCIENCE (Cells) Multiple ways of exploring one topic: 1. Describe: cell parts (structure) and function 2. Illustrate: a cell with organelles and functions 3. Analyze: how each cell part is related to others 4. Compare: location of the organelle with its functions and relationships 5. Connect: how interrelationships among organelle functions are like other interrelationships in life 6. Apply: what youve learned to predict how organism functions are like cell functions. Variations: Develop your own activities and questions using six levels of Blooms Taxonomy (*see our sample cubes) 11. CUBING SHOW ME AN EXAMPLE MATH (Fractions) 1. Locate: In two minutes, make a list of all of the places in which we find fractions in every day life. Have your partner time you. 2. Define: What is a fraction? How would you explain what a fraction is to a first grader? 3. Solve: Complete fraction problems 1-10 on page 65. Have your partner check your work. 4. Analyze: What are the parts of a fraction? Define each part and describe their relationships to one another. 5. Think About: When dividing fractions, why do we have to invert and multiply? Show your thinking on paper. 6. Illustrate: Create a childrens picture book about fractions. Use Give Me Half! as an example. 12. CUBING How are cubes designed to support differentiation? Use more than one cube. Each cube should contain commands and tasks that are aligned with the ability levels of the different groups. Create 1 average ability cube first. Then, use those tasks as a guide to create 2 other cubes- low ability and high ability. Differentiate cubing questions by color-coding the cubes. But remember to change the colors periodically to align with different levels so that students do not get labeled as the low blue group, etc Differentiating by Interest or Learning Profile: Create many cubes for learning or review activities. 2-3 sides of all the cubes can have the same task. The remaining 3-4 sides can have tasks related to specific interests or learning profiles. 13. CUBING Example of how a command and task can be related to the same topic, but differentiated in order to meet the needs of lower ability and higher ability students: 1.Lower Question- Describe the desert using as much information as you can, and involve your five senses in the description. 2.Higher Question- Describe how your life would change if you moved to the desert. Use your senses and explain why changes would occur. Where can I find questions for cubes? Quizzes Worksheets Textbooks Study Guide Problems Teacher Generated/Student Generated 14. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY: THINK DOTS Description After presenting a unit of study, Think Dots activities are used to lead students into deeper exploration of content knowledge, concepts and skills. This differentiation tool enables students to review, demonstrate, and/or extend their thinking according to levels of readiness, learning styles or interests. Teachers create six questions on an activity mat or on cards held on a ring, with corresponding dots. Students roll the die and complete related activities. What are the advantages of Think Dots? Students have the opportunity to explore concepts deeply while utilizing different levels of Blooms Taxonomy. Activities can be tiered in a number of ways and across subject areas. Student can apply and demonstrate what they have learned in a variety of ways (use Think Dots as an alternative assessment) Think Dots can be used in cooperative learning groups. 15. THINK DOTS SHOW ME AN EXAMPLE 16. THINK DOTS SHOW ME AN EXAMPLE 17. THINK DOTSVariations:Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate differentreadiness levels, interests or learning styles.Have student work in pairs.Assign a number value that will determine how many activities astudent chooses to complete. For example, if 12 is assigned, astudent could complete 6,5,1 or 5,4,2.Create an activity sheet to correspond to each set of think dots, foreasy recording and management. (See Fractions example)Have students roll to complete a specific number of activitiesrather than the entire set. 18. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY:CANNED QUESTIONS Description: Canned Questions is a strategy to assist students in answering questions on increasingly sophisticated levels of cognition. Write (on strips of paper) a variety of questions related to the particular topic being studied. The questions should range from lower to higher levels of thinking. Place the question strips in a can. Group students as partners or in small groups (to lower anxiety and to scaffold). The teacher draws out the questions, one by one, and students work together to answer them. What are the advantages? All students gain exposure to questions of varied cognitive levels, even though they are only responsible for answering the questions that are appropriate for their level of proficiency. 19. CANNED QUESTIONS SHOW ME AN EXAMPLELevel 1: (Remembering/Understanding)What is air pollution? (Sci)What form of government does the USA have? (SS)What happens to Hamlet at the end of the play? (Eng)Can you explain the rules of golf? (PE)How would you describe a triangle? (Math)How would you summarize Picassos Blue Period? (Art)Level 2: (Applying/Analyzing)What are the historical and sociological causes of air pollution?(Sci)What are the advantages and disadvantages of a democratic formof government? (SS)Why did Hamlet take so long to act in revenge for his fathersdeath? (Eng)Why has golf become such a popular sport? (PE)How do triangles contribute to modern society? (Math)Why is Picasso seen by many as an influential figure in art history?(Art) 20. CANNED QUESTIONSLevel 3: (Evaluating/Creating)What cultural changes are necessary to stop air pollution? (Sci)Why is democracy an important form of government? (SS)Was Hamlet a good son? (Eng)Does golf have a future as one of Americas most popular sport?(PE)Why is geometry an important area of study? (Math)How does Picassos art represent current human experience? (Art)Variations:Students may also (individually or in groups) submit questions tothe Question Can. These can be drawn for other students toanswer.Teachers can teach students how to ask higher order questionsusing sentence frames. 21. YOUR TURN! Choose a station (you may work with a partner )Step 1 Read directions provided at that station Select a topic from your standards-based curriculum / unit of studyStep 2 Develop your higher order questions Using the materials and models provided, create an instructional tool to use in classStep 3 Consider variations/adaptations 22. TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Did we meet our objectives? Howis our work today connected to SIOP? WhichMarzano design questions did we address? 23. Content Objectives: Participants will be able to use three strategies cubing, think dots, and canned questions toprovide differentiated instruction for all students. Participants will be able to develop engaging smallgroup activities based on specific contentinformation, Blooms Taxonomy of questioning, andstudent needs.Language Objectives: Participants will formulate content-specificquestions that promote higher order thinking. Participants will describe and share successfulstrategies and tools to promote student-centeredlearning. 24. SIOP COMPONENTS Strategies13. Ample opportunities for students14. Scaffolding techniques15. Variety of question types/higher order thinking skills Interaction16. Opportunities for interaction17. Grouping configurations Practice / Application20. Hands-on materials and manipulatives21. Application of content language22. Language skills (read, write, listen, speak) 25. MARZANOS DESIGN QUESTIONSADDRESSED TODAY:Domain 1: Classroom Strategies and Behaviors DQ3: Helping Students Practice and Deepen New Knowledge DQ5: Engaging Students DQ9: Communicating High Expectations for All StudentsDomain 2: Planning and Preparing Planning and Preparing for Lessons and Units Planning and Preparing for the Needs of English Language Learners Planning and Preparing for the Needs of Students Receiving SpecialEducation Planning and Preparing for the Needs of Students Who Lack Supportfor Schooling 26. YOUR TICKET OUT Take a turn and roll one of our exit dice. Share your responses within your group. Report out to the whole group. 27. THANK YOUFOR YOURPARTICIPATION!