Enhancing writing skills for librarians and information professionals

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  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 1

    Enhancing Writing Skills for Librarians and Information Professionals

    Philippine Association of Academic/Research Librarians, Inc. Crown Legacy Hotel, Baguio City

    Sept 20, 2016 Nap Apolinario, Jr.

    Our Objectives

    YOU should know how to create an engaging project proposal

    for a library-related project or program

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 2

    Schedule

    9:00 10:30 AM Lecture 10:30 10:45 AM Q&A 10:45 11:00 AM Thinking Break 11:00 11:30 AM Workshop: Writing 11:30 12:00 NN Workshop: Presentation

    Why do we need library programs?

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 3

    CHANGE

    This is a remarkably challenging and invigorating time to work in library and

    information services. The entire model upon which libraries

    were established is being fundamentally challenged by the digital revolution. This is not

    only redefining the way that knowledge and information is created and distributed, it is

    also redefining the way that it is accessed and used. (Martyn Wade, 2012)

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 4

    library and information services must respond by similarly challenging and redefining their own ways of working and achieve this at a time when there are significant reductions in

    funding... However, if libraries do not rise to this

    challenge, they are likely to be increasingly marginalized by commercial organizations which can use the ubiquity of the internet to provide

    services, without necessarily providing the quality of content or equality of access.

    (Martyn Wade, 2012)

    Why Do We Need Library Programs

    Strategic alignment

    Operating necessity

    Competitive necessity

    Sacred cow

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 5

    Library Programs

    Can you give examples of library programs in your respective libraries?

    Definition of a Project

    A project delivers unique results A project is temporary

    definite beginning and end the output usually outlives the project

    A project has progressive elaboration

    Details are broad at the start then become more specific as the project progresses

    Definition adapted from PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 6

    Projects & Operations

    Similarities Both are performed by people Both consume resources Both are planned, executed, and controlled Both have desired goals

    Differences Projects are temporary and unique. Operations

    are ongoing and repetitive. Projects are terminated when the goal is

    achieved. In operations, new goals are set when goals are achieved.

    Which of the Following are Projects?

    1. Conducting an inventory count of the collection

    2. Cataloguing 20 books 3. Marketing library services 4. Learning commons duties

    Project Operations Conducting an inventory count for the first time

    Conducting the quarterly inventory count

    Cataloguing 20 books written in a rare language

    Cataloguing books everyday

    Conducting an aggressive marketing blitz to let people know of a newly opened section of the library

    Marketing library services through announcements on Facebook, Twitter, learning management system/s, and bulletin boards

    Renovating the library to accommodate the learning commons

    Day-to-day management of the learning commons

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 7

    Where do we start?

    Lets write a project proposal!

    Why do Projects Fail

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 8

    Project Proposal

    The terms of reference of the proposed project

    Decision makers will use this as the basis for their GO/NO-GO decision

    It is oftentimes considered as the first cut of the project plan

    Includes the ff: Summary Rationale (problem or opportunity statement) Objectives and Output execution strategy, budget, resources needed,

    schedule, risks

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 9

    The problem or opportunity

    You are a librarian at an arts and engineering university and your library is

    due for repair works and renovation. You were tasked by the head librarian to come up with a proposal to repair and

    renovate the library.

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Project Summary

    Title: Description and objectives: Duration: Key Stakeholders: Proposed Budget:

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 10

    The problem or opportunity

    Lets take advantage of the opportunity.

    Lets not just renovate but lets redesign the library!

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Project Summary

    Title: Project Evolve Description and objectives: The project aims to provide a redesigned library which caters to the evolving needs of the universitys students. Three new spaces will be constructed within the current reference section. Additionally, the whole library building will be repaired and renovated. Duration: 9 months Key Stakeholders: Head librarian, librarians and library staff, faculty, students, 3rd parties (architect, contractor, vendors) Proposed Budget: 5,000,000 pesos

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 11

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Why is the project needed?

    What is the problem being addressed?

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Components of a Project Proposal

    EXAMPLE:

    The library needs of our students are evolving. Aside from needing a place for research and accessing information, students now need a venue wherein they can think, collaborate, communicate, and create with their fellow students.

    In addition, the library is in need of a long due repair and renovation as the building is already showing signs of age and neglect.

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 12

    Components of a Project Proposal

    What are the outputs/ deliverables of the project?

    What impact or benefit will the project have?

    SMART Specific Measurable Assignable Realistic Time-bound

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Components of a Project Proposal EXAMPLE: Project Evolve aims to redesign the offerings of the library as well as repair and renovate the library building. The project will determine the needs of the university population, plan ways of address those needs, and address those needs. Three new spaces will be created, specifically the Fab space, the Collab space, and the Lab space. The makerspaces are expected to enhance the critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creation skills of the students. In addition, the rest of the library building will undergo repair and renovation to keep the building in excellent shape and to align its design to the current architectural design theme of the university.

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 13

    Components of a Project Proposal

    What are included? What are not included? Some tools for defining

    and refining the project scope: Product Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Work Breakdown

    Structure (WBS)

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Product Analysis

    Redesigned library

    1. Renovated building and

    rooms

    2. Redesigned library offerings

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 14

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Stakeholder Analysis

    Redesigned library

    1. Renovated building and

    rooms

    2. Redesigned library offerings

    3. New equipment

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Work Breakdown Structure It subdivides the work into more manageable work

    packages

    It breaks down the project deliverables into more specific sub-deliverables with the associated work packages

    Redesigned library

    1. Renovated building and

    rooms

    2. Redesigned

    library offerings

    3. New equipment

    1.1 Acquire architect

    and contractor

    services

    1.2 Move books,

    shelves, and

    furniture/ equipment

    1.3 Renovate building

    and rooms

    1.4 Move in books,

    shelves, and

    furniture/ equipment

    2.1 Determine

    needs of the students and faculty of the

    university

    2.2 Design new library offerings

    based on the determined

    needs

    2.3 Develop marketing strategy

    2.4 Implement new library

    offerings and marketing strategy

    3.1 Discuss eqpt reqtswith the

    dean of the coll. of engg

    3.2 Acquire equipment

    3.3 Deliver and install

    new equipment

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 15

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Work Breakdown Structure

    2nd Level

    1st Level Redesigned library

    1. Renovated building and

    rooms

    2. Redesigned library offerings

    3. New equipment

    2nd Level

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Work Breakdown Structure

    3rdLevel

    1. Renovated building and rooms

    1.1 Acquire architect and

    contractor services

    1.2 Move out books, shelves, and furniture/

    equipment

    1.3 Renovate building and

    rooms

    1.4 Move in books, shelves, and furniture/

    equipment

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 16

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Work Breakdown Structure

    2nd Level

    3rdLevel

    2. Redesigned library offerings

    2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the

    university

    2.2 Design new library

    offerings based on the

    needs

    2.3 Develop marketing strategy

    2.4 Implement new library

    offerings and marketing strategy

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Work Breakdown Structure

    2nd Level

    3rdLevel

    3. New equipment

    3.1 Discuss equipment

    requirements with the dean of the colleges of engineering &

    architecture

    3.2 Acquire equipment

    3.3 Deliver and install new equipment

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 17

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Work Breakdown Structure Redesigned library

    1. Renovated building and

    rooms

    2. Redesigned

    library offerings

    3. New equipment

    1.1 Acquire architect

    and contractor

    services

    1.2 Move out books,

    shelves, and

    furniture/ equipment

    1.3 Renovate building

    and rooms

    1.4 Move in books,

    shelves, and

    furniture/ equipment

    2.1 Determine

    needs of the students and faculty of the

    university

    2.2 Design new library

    offerings based on the determined

    needs

    2.3 Develop marketing strategy

    2.4 Implement new library

    offerings and marketing strategy

    3.1 Discuss eqpt reqts with the

    dean of the coll. of engg

    & archi

    3.2 Acquire equipment

    3.3 Deliver and install

    new equipment

    Components of a Project Proposal Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) in outline format 1. Renovated building and rooms 1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services 1.2 Move books, shelves, and furniture/equipment 1.3 Renovate building and rooms 1.4 Move back books, shelves, and furniture/equipment 2. Redesigned library offerings 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the uni ersity 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 2.4 Implement new library offerings and marketing strategy 3. New Equipment 3.1 Discuss equipment requirements with the dean of the college

    of engineering and college of architecture 3.2 Acquire equipment 3.3 Deliver and install new equipment

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 18

    Refine the Scope

    Some reminders when developing the WBS Find the right level of detail which will work for

    your project; Not too microscopic and not too general

    Details can be progressively added as the project progresses

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Who will be involved in the project and what will be their responsibilities with the project?

    How will they be organized?

    Steps List down the activities or work

    packages from the WBS

    Assign resources to each work package

    Develop project org structure

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Scope

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 19

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Resources

    Activity University Librarian

    Librarian I

    Library staff

    Janitorial services

    Others

    1. Renovated building and rooms

    1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services X

    1.2 Move books, shelves, and furniture/equipment

    X X X

    1.3 Renovate building and rooms Contractor

    1.4 Move back books, shelves, and furniture/equipment

    X X X

    2. Redesigned library offerings

    2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university

    X Research assistants,

    Faculty, students

    2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs

    X X

    2.3 Develop marketing strategy X

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Resources

    Activity University Librarian

    Librarian I Library staff

    Janitorial services

    Others

    3. New Equipment 3.1 Discuss equipment requirements with the dean of the colleges of engg & archi

    X

    3.2 Acquire equipment College of

    Engineering

    3.3 Deliver and install new equipment

    Vendors (c/o College of

    Engineering)

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 20

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Project Organization

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Scope

    Project Manager/ Librarian I

    Internal Providers

    External Providers

    Project Steering Committee

    Components of a Project Proposal

    What is the project timeline and when will important dates, such as project milestones, be completed?

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Scope

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 21

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Steps Estimate effort and duration for

    each activity

    Determine dependencies Draw the project network and

    identify the critical path

    Review constraints and revise the schedule as necessary

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Scope

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Schedule Estimate the effort and duration for each activity

    Research on Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) duration estimation methods

    Activity Duration

    2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university

    2 months

    2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs

    1 month

    2.3 Develop marketing strategy 1 month

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 22

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Schedule Determine dependencies

    Activity Duration Pre-requisite

    2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university

    2 months -

    2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs

    1 month 2.1

    2.3 Develop marketing strategy 1 month 2.2

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Schedule Develop the actual schedule

    Oct

    2016 Nov 2016

    Dec 2016

    Jan 2017

    Feb 2017

    Mar 2017

    Apr 2017

    May 2017

    2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 23

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Schedule Review constraints and revise schedule as

    necessary

    Oct 2016

    Nov 2016

    Dec 2016

    Jan 2017

    Feb 2017

    Mar 2017

    Apr 2017

    May 2017

    2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Assign costs to the following: Human resources Purchased, rented, or leased

    equipment, materials, and services

    Administrative expenses

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Scope

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 24

    Components of a Project Proposal

    When/how often do we update those concerned (both internal and external parties)?

    What do those concerned need to know?

    Who is responsible for each type of communication?

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communication Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Scope

    Components of a Project Proposal Sample Communication Plan

    Stakeholder Information Needs Timing Medium Head Librarian General project cost

    schedule showing planned vs. actual figures

    Monthly - Every 1st Monday of the month

    Written report Management Meeting

    General project progress in a Gantt chart showing planned vs. actual activities

    Weekly Every Monday morning

    Written report to be emailed

    Issues affecting the schedule and/or requiring action from management

    Non-critical issues Weekly

    Critical issues - ASAP

    Non-critical - written report to be emailed Critical written or verbal

    Finance Department

    Detailed project cost schedule showing planned vs. actual figures

    3 days before any major purchase

    Excel spreadsheet (project cost yymmdd.xls) to be emailed

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 25

    Components of a Project Proposal Risks an uncertain even or

    condition which can have negative or positive impact to the project if it happens

    The Risk Management Plan details how you will manage risks, both good and bad

    Some sources of risk Poorly defined and/or

    miscommunicated scope, schedule, quality, cost, roles, etc

    Wrong estimates, human uncertainties

    Changes in project scope, schedule, environment

    Project Summary

    Project Rationale

    Project Objectives & Output

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    Project Scope

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Other parts of a Project Proposal Procurement Plan

    Make or buy What type of contract/s will be used in procuring

    products or services Procurement schedule

    Quality Plan Which quality standards are relevant to the

    various elements of the project How will the project satisfy them Tools research, benchmarking, cost-benefit

    analysis

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 26

    Tips and Reminders

    GET MANAGEMENT SUPPORT: No one will move a finger if management doesnt support the project.

    PLAN AND SCOPE PROPERLY: The more time you invest in planning, the better and less mistakes your project will have. Do not skip the work breakdown structure. Set deadlines.

    COMMUNICATE: Project stakeholders do not want to guess whats is going to happen in the project. Provide and get feedback.

    CLARIFY ROLES: Make sure that roles are very clear for each project team member

    BE REALISTIC!

    How to make it more engaging?

    Make it short and sweet Provide summarized information; Do not put every detail in the body

    Aesthetically pleasing Easy to read formatting and layout Graphs and illustrations should be straight to the

    point and easy to understand Grammatically correct Accurate content It should touch the heart

  • Nap Apolinario, Jr. 2009-2016 27

    Components of a Project Proposal

    Project Summary

    Rationale

    Objectives & Output

    Scope

    Resources

    Schedule

    Cost

    Communications Plan

    Risk Management Plan

    These are also the components

    of the project plan!