1. Paragraph Structure Cause and Effect "If you prove the cause, you at once prove the effect; and conversely nothing can exist without its cause."(Aristotle, Rhetoric) Debbie Lahav Business English Ruppin Academic Center
2. Showing Causes and Effects The cause is the reason an event happens. The effect is the result of the cause. You can write about the causes of an event or action. You can write about the effects of a cause.
3. Organization 1: Writing about Causes Topic sentence: statement of the effect and overview of the causes Body: causes, arranged in chronological or logical order Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 Conclusion: restatement of effect, summary of causes call for action
4. Organization 2: Writing about Effects Topic sentence: statement of cause and overview of the effects Body: effects, arranged in chronological or logical order Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3 Conclusion: restatement of cause, summary of effects call for action
5. Class Task: Read the paragraph. How is the information organized by cause or by effect? Prepare a table or flow chart to show the cause-effect relationship.
6. Task 1
In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural communities.