Political violence

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1. TeamDinesh kumarSneha GhoshMohit VaishnavNikita BansalDantu Neeraj 2. 2Political violenceA common means used by People and Governmentsaround the world to achieve Political…


1. TeamDinesh kumarSneha GhoshMohit VaishnavNikita BansalDantu Neeraj 2. 2Political violenceA common means used by People and Governmentsaround the world to achieve Political Goals.“organized violent activity for political goals.”-UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 3. 3Claim :“The right to use force “– in the name of:Survival, self-defenceOrderJusticeFreedomPossession of resources (land, water, people, etc.)?Access to markets? 4. 4Many groups and individuals believe that their political systems will neverrespond to their political demands.As a result, they believe that violence is not only justified but alsonecessary in order to achieve their political objectives.Many governments around the world believe they need to use violence inorder to intimidate their populace into acquiescence. 5. 5Governments use force in orderto defend their country from outside invasion or other threats of force,andto coerce other governments or conquer territory.Non-action on the part of the government can also be characterized as aform of political violence.Introducing… 6. 6WAR Guerilla WarHuman Rights ViolationWar Crimes(International)Terrorism 7. 7Genocide is commonly defined asthe deliberate and systematicdestruction, in whole or in part, ofan ethnic, racial, religious,or national group"The Holocaust is the historicalexample of genocide. It was themass murder of approximately 6million Jews during World War IIby the Germans.Its Form: Genocide 8. 8Human Rights ViolationOccur when actions by state (ornon-state) actors abuse, ignore, ordeny basic human rights(including civil, political, cultural,social, and economic rights).Occur when any state or non-stateactor breaches any part ofthe Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights.Its Form: Human Right Violation 9. 9Its Form: WarWar is a state of organized,armed, and often prolonged conflictcarried on between states, nations,or other parties typified by extremeaggression, social disruption, andusually high mortality.War is an intentional andwidespread armed conflict betweenpolitical communities, and thereforeis defined as a form of politicalviolence 10. 10Its Form: WarWorld War II (1939-45)Death toll of, estimated at 60million plus, by far thedeadliest.Marked by the use ofnuclear weapons in warfare.It is estimated that 378,000people died due to war eachyear between 1985 and 1994. 11. 11Its Form: TortureTorture is the act of inflicting severepain (whether physical orpsychological) as a means ofpunishment, revenge, forcinginformation or confession, or simply asan act of cruelty.Torture cases continue to arise such asthe 2004 Abu Ghraib torture andprisoner abuse committed by militarypolice personnel of the United StatesArmy. The acts of sodomy andhomicide were committed in theprisons. 12. 12Its Form: TortureLynndie England holding aleash attached to a prisonerPrisoner at the U.S.’Abu Ghraibconcentration camp is being subjected tosleep deprivation torture 13. 13Its Form: Police BrutalityPolice Brutality is a civil rightsviolation that occurs when a policeofficer acts with excessive force byusing an amount of force with regardsto a civilian that is more thannecessary.Police brutality and the use ofexcessive force are present throughoutthe world and in the United Statesalone, 4,861 incidences of policemisconduct were reported during 2010 14. 14Its Form : Brutality by Armed ForcesArmed Forces are frequently accused of civilian casualties( civilian or non-combatant persons killed, injured, orimprisoned)Persistent complaints about raiding, checking,molestation and harassment of civilians by the armypersonnel.“More than 500 members of Indias armed forcesare accused of human rights abuses”-BBC News India (6 December 2012) 15. 15In NutshellPolitical violence has significant short and long term effectson the society in terms ofphysical and psychological trauma,financial losses,migration of families, andfurther division of society into identifiable communitieswhich may prolong the conflict. 16.  Took place on 27 February 2002 Series of incidents starting with the Godhra trainburning and the subsequent communal violencebetween Hindus and Muslims Sabarmati Express train was attackedat Godhra by a Muslim mob 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were ultimatelykilled and 223 more people were reportedmissing. 536 places of worship were damaged:273 dargahs, 241 mosques, 19 temples, and 3churches. 17.  58 Hindus including 25 women and 15 children, Hindu pilgrims (KarSevaks) returning by the Sabarmathi express train from Ayodhya wereburnt alive in a railway coach by a large Muslim mob. The forensic report has contradicted the police version of Godhraincident."The inspection of the tracks and burn patterns on theexterior of the coach confirm that the inflammable liquid didnot come from outside," 18.  The report was compiled by a government forensic laboratory and wasprepared by forensic experts who re-enacted the attack In their re-enaction using water, the experts found that only 10 to 15 percent of the liquid thrown from outside a coach went inside while the restspilled onto the tracks 19. “How did the Modi government handle the riots?”Fairly and effectively - 61%In a parpartisan manner - 21%Incompetently - 15% 20. “WHAT CAUSED THE MARCH RIOTS?” Godhra incident- 64 % Muslim extremists- 18 % State sponsored riots – 7 % Miscreants on both sides -7 % Hindu extremist groups – 3 %Godhraincident- 64 %Muslimextremists-18 %Statesponsoredriots – 7 %Miscreants onboth sides -7%Hinduextremistgroups – 3% 21. CASE STUDY 2: ARAB UPRISING 22. ARAB UPRISING The Arab Spring is a revolutionary waveof demonstrations, protests, and civilwars occurring in the Arab world thatbegan on 18 December 2010. Many Arab Spring demonstrations havebeen met with violent responses fromauthorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have beenanswered with violence from protestors insome cases. A major slogan of thedemonstrators in the Arab world hasbeen Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam ("thepeople want to bring down the regime"). Death(s): 88,408 – 93,421+ (Internationalestimate, ongoing; 23. CAUSES Authoritarianism Political corruption Human rights violations Inflation Kleptocracy Sectarianism Unemployment Self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi 24. STATUS: ONGOING Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Aliousted, and government overthrown. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ousted, and government overthrown. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign militaryintervention, and government overthrown. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, and hands power to a nationalunity government. Syria experiences a full-scale civil war between the government and oppositionforces. Civil uprising against the government of Bahrain, despite government changes. Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in response toprotests. Morocco, Jordan implementing constitutional reforms in response to protests. Ongoing protests in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania and some other countries 25. QUESTIONSIs political violence ethically correct?Bhagat singh, Rebels in syria?Holocaust, Gujarat riots?“Enhanced” Interrogation?Where do you draw the line?Should we look at alternatives?Can we answer these questions? 26. WHERE DO WE DRAW THE LINE Genocide War crimes Communal violence Torture Punishment Nationalist movements 27. NORMATIVE THEORIES OF ETHICS The Scenario Virtue Ethics (Aristotelianism)“ones actions are a mere reflection of ones innermorality”“Focus is on being rather than doing” Fighting wars for good?? What about collateral damage? 28. CONTD.. Deontological ethics“morality of an action based on the actionsadherence to a rule or rules” Specifically lets talk about kantian ethics“Nothing is intrinsically good without qualificationexcept Goodwill”Categorical Imperative-“Actions should becomeuniversal laws”“Treat humanity not simply as a means but as anend in itself” 29. CONTD.. Act and rule Utilitarianism“Act utilitarianism maintains that an action is right if itmaximises utility; rule utilitarianism maintains thatan action is right if it conforms to a rule thatmaximises utility”. Opposite outcomes 30. ALTERNATIVES Peace and Non-violence Gandhian way? Egypt, Syria… Successful but time-consuming. Ultimate question is the means important or the endresult? Other practices :1. Pray for miracles…may be Jesus will help you2. Witchcraft can help too… 31. THANK YOU….QUESTIONS