• 1. PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE 2014 ! Week 2: Reputation & Persuasion ! DR KANE HOPKINS
  • 2. 1 Reputation Persuasion 3 Propaganda 2
  • 3. Factoid: Which one is correct? • • • • • • • • Swallowing chewing gum takes seven years to digest The Great Wall of China is visible from the Moon Goldfish have a memory span of just a few seconds Daddy-longlegs are the most venomous spider in the world You are supposed to drink eight glasses of water a day Men think about sex every seven seconds People only use ten percent of their brains Whitetail spiders are poisonous
  • 4. Reputation “All companies have a reputation. It may be positive or negative, clear or diffuse, strong or weak – but it’s always there. A company’s reputation is an indicator of the level of confidence the company enjoys among vital target groups.” (Madland & Wara, 2002)
  • 5. What is their reputation?
  • 6. What is their reputation?
  • 7. What is their reputation?
  • 8. What is their reputation?
  • 9. What is their reputation?
  • 10. What is their reputation?
  • 11. NZ 2013 Corporate Reputation Index 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Toyota New Zealand.! Heinz-Wattie's.! Air New Zealand.! New Zealand Post.! Fisher & Paykel.! Foodstuffs.! Hewlett-Packard New Zealand.! The Warehouse.! ASB.! Goodman Fielder.
  • 12. Harris Reputation Quotient 2013 1. amazon.com! 2. Apple! 3. The Walt Disney Company! 4. Google! 5. Johnson & Johnson! 6. The Coca-Cola Company ! 7. Whole Foods Market! 8. Sony! 9. Procter & Gamble Co.! 10. Costco
  • 13. The 360 • The way we see ourselves! • The way others see us! • The way we think others see us
  • 14. The two components of reputation IDENTITY IMAGE
  • 15. Image v Identity • Image – the view of the organisation by different stakeholders ! • Identity – The organisation’s personality, the way it presents itself to the public, and the it wants to be regarded.
  • 16. What Is Reputation? • Image: – Exists in the minds of publics – Picture, impression, appearance: the way you are seen – Implies lack of fit with reality – A large part of communication people’s role
  • 17. What Is Reputation? • Identity: – For ethical organisations implies fit with reality – Coordinates disparate elements truthfully – Exists as a goal in the minds of organisation – Consists of a culture, and shared symbols which reflect, anchor and build that culture • Name, logo, “personality”
  • 18. Who needs to consider reputation? • • • • • • Companies Non-profits organisations Political parties Political leaders Countries Anyone who cares about what other people think
  • 19. In other words… • Reputation management is the conscious management of image and (for ethical organisations) identity • Image and identity must align
  • 20. Benefits of a good reputation • • • • • • • • • • Increased productivity and morale! Increased stockholder confidence! Lower marketing and distribution costs! Less hostility from government and regulators! Customers will feel better about staff and products! Higher perception of product quality! More favourable media attention! Greater access to new global markets! Fewer risks of crisis! Reputations can be lost more easily than they are created
  • 21. What is Persuasion?
  • 22. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience.
  • 23. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision
  • 24. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision 2. Getting people to follow through and take ! action
  • 25. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision 2. Getting people to follow through and take ! action 3. Getting people to change their actual beliefs and attitudes about something
  • 26. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision 2. Getting people to follow through and take ! action 3. Getting people to change their actual beliefs and attitudes about something 4. Good persuasion relies on solid evidence ! rather than faulty reasoning.
  • 27. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles
  • 28. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience!
  • 29. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience!
  • 30. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things
  • 31. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things
  • 32. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 3. Principle of familiarity and trust – we buy ideas only from those we trust; we are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals, companies or organisations that we regard as credible.! ! Unless the listener has confidence in the speaker, the listener is not likely to listen or believe 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things
  • 33. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things 3. Principle of familiarity and trust – we buy ideas only from those we trust; we are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals, companies or organisations that we regard as credible.! ! Unless the listener has confidence in the speaker, the listener is not likely to listen or believe
  • 34. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 4. Clarity principle – the situation must be clear to us, not confusing. The thing we read, observe, see or hear, the things that proceeds our impressions, must be clear, not subject to interpretations. People tend to see things as black and white To communicate, you employ words, symbols or stereotypes that the receiver comprehends and responds to. 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things 3. Principle of familiarity and trust – we buy ideas only from those we trust; we are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals, companies or organisations that we regard as credible.! ! Unless the listener has confidence in the speaker, the listener is not likely to listen or believe
  • 35. Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • 36. Propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state. Noam Chomsky
  • 37. PROPAGANDA
  • 38. The Big Lie This theory states that: • No matter how big the lie, people will believe it if you repeat it enough! • Everyone tells small lies • Very few have the guts to tell huge lies • Because a big lie is so unlikely, people will come to accept it
  • 39. What is Propaganda?
  • 40. What is Propaganda? • The most general definition of propaganda is: any attempt to persuade anyone of any belief. Hummell and Huntress, (1949) • Propaganda is an expression of opinion or action by individuals or groups deliberately designed to influence the opinions and actions of other individuals or groups with reference to a predetermined end. The Institute For Propaganda Analysis, (1938)
  • 41. Recent Definition Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist. ! Jowett & O'Donnel. (2006) 
  • 42. The Invasion of Iraq
  • 43. The Invasion of Iraq B IG T A F S R A I L • The alleged linkage of Saddam Hussein with Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda and weapons of mass destruction • Saddam Hussein's development of nuclear weapons • America would be safer
  • 44. Propaganda Appeals Name-calling! • Giving an idea a bad or emotive label • Using “loaded” terms • Diverting attention from the message to the messenger • Discrediting the messenger with information totally unrelated to the issue ! Examples: terrorist, flip flopper, fake, bully, liar
  • 45. Characteristics of Propaganda Glittering generalities! • … elicit strong emotional responses through the use of vague and hollow, though perceptually meaningful, words and phrases • A common element of glittering generalities are intangible nouns that embody ideals, such as: • dignity • freedom • patriotism
  • 46. Characteristics of Propaganda Transfer! • A process of association; the good of one thing rubs off onto something else – Appropriation of symbolic objects, e.g. flags, national anthem – Sponsorship; appropriation of athlete’s qualities – Celebrity endorsement: transfer of celebrity’s qualities
  • 47. Characteristics of Propaganda Testimonial! • Actual endorsement as opposed to transfer device. – Commonly used in advertising – Usually involves athletes or celebrities encouraging people to buy
  • 48. Characteristics of Propaganda Calling upon the support of “plain folks”! • Trying to show that a person or product is good for “ordinary” people, because a person is “just like you” and understands you • Politicians’ “middle New Zealand” • Average Joe • … not what Kiwis do • The American people
  • 49. Characteristics of Propaganda Card Stacking! • Manipulates an audience’s perception of an issue by emphasising one side and repressing another • Slanted selection of material for presentation • Movie ads cite only ‘good’ review, out of context
  • 50. Characteristics of Propaganda The Band Wagon! • Convincing us to accept someone or something because of its popularity – Everybody is doing it • “the people’s choice” • “Nobody doesn’t like Sara Lee” • “the Pepsi generation”
  • 51. Characteristics of Propaganda Fear appeals/threats! • Plays on deep-seated fears • Warns the audience that disaster will result if they do not follow a particular course of action – insurance companies ! What about Quit smoking campaigns???
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Public Relations Practice 2014: Week 2

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Public Relations Practice 2014: Week 2
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  • 1. PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE 2014 ! Week 2: Reputation & Persuasion ! DR KANE HOPKINS
  • 2. 1 Reputation Persuasion 3 Propaganda 2
  • 3. Factoid: Which one is correct? • • • • • • • • Swallowing chewing gum takes seven years to digest The Great Wall of China is visible from the Moon Goldfish have a memory span of just a few seconds Daddy-longlegs are the most venomous spider in the world You are supposed to drink eight glasses of water a day Men think about sex every seven seconds People only use ten percent of their brains Whitetail spiders are poisonous
  • 4. Reputation “All companies have a reputation. It may be positive or negative, clear or diffuse, strong or weak – but it’s always there. A company’s reputation is an indicator of the level of confidence the company enjoys among vital target groups.” (Madland & Wara, 2002)
  • 5. What is their reputation?
  • 6. What is their reputation?
  • 7. What is their reputation?
  • 8. What is their reputation?
  • 9. What is their reputation?
  • 10. What is their reputation?
  • 11. NZ 2013 Corporate Reputation Index 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Toyota New Zealand.! Heinz-Wattie's.! Air New Zealand.! New Zealand Post.! Fisher & Paykel.! Foodstuffs.! Hewlett-Packard New Zealand.! The Warehouse.! ASB.! Goodman Fielder.
  • 12. Harris Reputation Quotient 2013 1. amazon.com! 2. Apple! 3. The Walt Disney Company! 4. Google! 5. Johnson & Johnson! 6. The Coca-Cola Company ! 7. Whole Foods Market! 8. Sony! 9. Procter & Gamble Co.! 10. Costco
  • 13. The 360 • The way we see ourselves! • The way others see us! • The way we think others see us
  • 14. The two components of reputation IDENTITY IMAGE
  • 15. Image v Identity • Image – the view of the organisation by different stakeholders ! • Identity – The organisation’s personality, the way it presents itself to the public, and the it wants to be regarded.
  • 16. What Is Reputation? • Image: – Exists in the minds of publics – Picture, impression, appearance: the way you are seen – Implies lack of fit with reality – A large part of communication people’s role
  • 17. What Is Reputation? • Identity: – For ethical organisations implies fit with reality – Coordinates disparate elements truthfully – Exists as a goal in the minds of organisation – Consists of a culture, and shared symbols which reflect, anchor and build that culture • Name, logo, “personality”
  • 18. Who needs to consider reputation? • • • • • • Companies Non-profits organisations Political parties Political leaders Countries Anyone who cares about what other people think
  • 19. In other words… • Reputation management is the conscious management of image and (for ethical organisations) identity • Image and identity must align
  • 20. Benefits of a good reputation • • • • • • • • • • Increased productivity and morale! Increased stockholder confidence! Lower marketing and distribution costs! Less hostility from government and regulators! Customers will feel better about staff and products! Higher perception of product quality! More favourable media attention! Greater access to new global markets! Fewer risks of crisis! Reputations can be lost more easily than they are created
  • 21. What is Persuasion?
  • 22. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience.
  • 23. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision
  • 24. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision 2. Getting people to follow through and take ! action
  • 25. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision 2. Getting people to follow through and take ! action 3. Getting people to change their actual beliefs and attitudes about something
  • 26. What is Persuasion? The use of messages to influence an audience. 1. Getting people to make a decision 2. Getting people to follow through and take ! action 3. Getting people to change their actual beliefs and attitudes about something 4. Good persuasion relies on solid evidence ! rather than faulty reasoning.
  • 27. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles
  • 28. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience!
  • 29. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience!
  • 30. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things
  • 31. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things
  • 32. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 3. Principle of familiarity and trust – we buy ideas only from those we trust; we are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals, companies or organisations that we regard as credible.! ! Unless the listener has confidence in the speaker, the listener is not likely to listen or believe 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things
  • 33. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things 3. Principle of familiarity and trust – we buy ideas only from those we trust; we are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals, companies or organisations that we regard as credible.! ! Unless the listener has confidence in the speaker, the listener is not likely to listen or believe
  • 34. Cutlip, Center & Broom’s four guiding principles 4. Clarity principle – the situation must be clear to us, not confusing. The thing we read, observe, see or hear, the things that proceeds our impressions, must be clear, not subject to interpretations. People tend to see things as black and white To communicate, you employ words, symbols or stereotypes that the receiver comprehends and responds to. 1. Identification principle – most people will ignore an idea, opinion or a point of view unless they can clearly see that it affects their personal fears and desires, hopes or aspirations. ! ! Your message must be stated in terms of the interest of your audience! 2. Action principle – people seldom buy ideas separate from action – either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or the action of the people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea! ! Unless a means of action is proved, people tend to shrug off appeals to do things 3. Principle of familiarity and trust – we buy ideas only from those we trust; we are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals, companies or organisations that we regard as credible.! ! Unless the listener has confidence in the speaker, the listener is not likely to listen or believe
  • 35. Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • 36. Propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state. Noam Chomsky
  • 37. PROPAGANDA
  • 38. The Big Lie This theory states that: • No matter how big the lie, people will believe it if you repeat it enough! • Everyone tells small lies • Very few have the guts to tell huge lies • Because a big lie is so unlikely, people will come to accept it
  • 39. What is Propaganda?
  • 40. What is Propaganda? • The most general definition of propaganda is: any attempt to persuade anyone of any belief. Hummell and Huntress, (1949) • Propaganda is an expression of opinion or action by individuals or groups deliberately designed to influence the opinions and actions of other individuals or groups with reference to a predetermined end. The Institute For Propaganda Analysis, (1938)
  • 41. Recent Definition Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist. ! Jowett & O'Donnel. (2006) 
  • 42. The Invasion of Iraq
  • 43. The Invasion of Iraq B IG T A F S R A I L • The alleged linkage of Saddam Hussein with Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda and weapons of mass destruction • Saddam Hussein's development of nuclear weapons • America would be safer
  • 44. Propaganda Appeals Name-calling! • Giving an idea a bad or emotive label • Using “loaded” terms • Diverting attention from the message to the messenger • Discrediting the messenger with information totally unrelated to the issue ! Examples: terrorist, flip flopper, fake, bully, liar
  • 45. Characteristics of Propaganda Glittering generalities! • … elicit strong emotional responses through the use of vague and hollow, though perceptually meaningful, words and phrases • A common element of glittering generalities are intangible nouns that embody ideals, such as: • dignity • freedom • patriotism
  • 46. Characteristics of Propaganda Transfer! • A process of association; the good of one thing rubs off onto something else – Appropriation of symbolic objects, e.g. flags, national anthem – Sponsorship; appropriation of athlete’s qualities – Celebrity endorsement: transfer of celebrity’s qualities
  • 47. Characteristics of Propaganda Testimonial! • Actual endorsement as opposed to transfer device. – Commonly used in advertising – Usually involves athletes or celebrities encouraging people to buy
  • 48. Characteristics of Propaganda Calling upon the support of “plain folks”! • Trying to show that a person or product is good for “ordinary” people, because a person is “just like you” and understands you • Politicians’ “middle New Zealand” • Average Joe • … not what Kiwis do • The American people
  • 49. Characteristics of Propaganda Card Stacking! • Manipulates an audience’s perception of an issue by emphasising one side and repressing another • Slanted selection of material for presentation • Movie ads cite only ‘good’ review, out of context
  • 50. Characteristics of Propaganda The Band Wagon! • Convincing us to accept someone or something because of its popularity – Everybody is doing it • “the people’s choice” • “Nobody doesn’t like Sara Lee” • “the Pepsi generation”
  • 51. Characteristics of Propaganda Fear appeals/threats! • Plays on deep-seated fears • Warns the audience that disaster will result if they do not follow a particular course of action – insurance companies ! What about Quit smoking campaigns???
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