• 1.Rainwater Harvesting (RWH): A quantitativeanalysis of world publications during2001-2012Adithya Kumari, H, Associate ProfessorHydar Ali, Research ScholarMahadevamurthy, M, Research ScholarDepartment of Studies in Library and Information Science,University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,Mysore - 570006
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONAll the known civilizations have flourished with water source as thebase and it is true in the present context too. Availability of drinking waterand provision of sanitation facilities are the basic minimum requirements forhealthy living. Water supply and sanitation, being the two most importanturban services, have wide ranging impact on human health, quality of life,environment and productivity. Despite the technological advancements, theglobal scenario still remains grim, as all the inhabitants of the world do nothave access to safe water and adequate sanitation.Rapid population growth, combined with industrialisation,urbanisation, agricultural intensification and water intensive lifestyles isresulting in a global water crisis. In 2000, at least 1.1 billion of the world’speople – about one in five – did not have access to safe water. Asia contains65 per cent of the population without safe water and Africa 28 per cent.During the 1990s, there were some positive developments: about 438 millionpeople in developing countries gained access to safe water but due to rapidpopulation growth, the number of urban dwellers lacking access to safe waterincreased by nearly 62 million(6).Cont...
  • 3. Among the various technologies to augment freshwaterresources, rainwater harvesting and utilisation is a decentralised,environmentally sound solution, which can avoid many environmentalproblems often caused by conventional large-scale projects usingcentralised approaches. Rainwater harvesting is a technology used forcollecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rockcatchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well asmore complex techniques such as underground check dams. Water isessential for the environment, food security and sustainabledevelopment.Cont...
  • 4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To examine the growth of Rainwater harvesting literatureover the period [2001-2012] To study the geographical distribution of the researchoutput To study the research profile most productive authors To examine the pattern of output according to prolificInstitutions and the impact of the output as seen byRelative citation Impact (RCI) and Average Citation perpaper (ACPP) To study research output in context of different subjectcategories.
  • 5. METHODOLOGY AND SOURCESFor analyzing the worldwide Rainwater harvestingliterature, the Web of Science database was used to retrievepublication data published during the period 2001–2012. Weused the term "Rainwater harvesting" to search through WOSdatabases. A total of 370 publications were identified in WOSdatabase as being Rainwater harvesting research. Finally, theevaluation was based on parameters including authors, citation,countries, institutions, growth rate, document types, and subjectareas.
  • 6. RESULTSType of documents publishedDuring 2001-2012 scientists contributed 370 items under7 different document categories. Of these 339 (81.08%) werearticles, 40 (10.81%) were proceedings papers and 17 (4.60%)were reviews. Remaining 4 document categories were publishedas meeting abstracts (5), editorial materials (3), letters (3) andNews Items (2).
  • 7. Growth pattern of Publication output4 41815192628204556528301020304050607080902001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Fig 1 - Grouth pattern of Publication output
  • 8. World Output and Ranking of productive countries inRainwater harvesting researchRank Country TP % of TP ICP TC ACPI1 India 66 17.84 18 412 6.242 USA 42 11.35 20 285 6.793 South Africa 38 10.27 7 132 3.474 China 35 9.46 8 228 6.515 Australia 29 7.84 11 105 3.626 England 26 7.03 12 61 2.357 Netherlands 23 6.22 19 98 4.268 South Korea 18 4.87 4 30 1.679 Taiwan 14 3.78 4 37 2.6410 Bangladesh 13 3.51 9 67 5.1511 Canada 12 3.24 5 86 7.1712 Spain 10 2.70 4 47 4.7013 Germany 9 2.43 5 77 8.5614 Kenya 9 2.43 6 125 13.8915 Tanzania 9 2.43 7 49 5.4416 Zimbabwe 9 2.43 5 61 6.78TP= Total Publications, ICP=International Collaborative Papers, TC=Total Citation, ACCI Average Citation Per Item
  • 9. The most publishing authorsSl. No Authors TP % of TP TC ACPI1 VAN RENSBURG LD 11 2.97 10 0.912 HENSLEY M 10 2.70 12 1.203 BUTLER D 8 2.16 27 3.384 HAN M Y 8 2.16 18 2.255 HAN M 7 1.89 10 1.436 LI XY 7 1.89 57 8.147 MEMON FA 7 1.89 22 3.148 ROCKSTROM J 7 1.89 80 11.439 LE ROUX PAL 6 1.62 9 1.5010 SAVENIJE HHG 6 1.62 64 10.6711 TAIGBENU AE 6 1.62 44 7.3312 WARD S 6 1.62 18 3.00
  • 10. Relative Citation Impact (RCI)This indicator was developed by ISI to measures both theinfluence and visibility of a nation’s research in globalperspective. RCI= A Country’s share of world citation/Country’sshare of world publication. RCI=1 indicates that country’s citationrate is equal to world citation rate; RCI>1 indicates that country’scitation rate is higher than world’s citation and RCI<1 indicatesthat country’s citation rate is less than world’s citation rate (3). Inthe present case the indicator has been used for examining theimpact of performing sectors and most prolific institutions andthe country has been replaced with performing sector orinstitution.
  • 11. Most prolific institutions and the impact of theiroutputRank Author Affiliation TP % of TP TC RCI ACPI1 University of the Free State, South Africa 28 7.57 28 0.21 0.402 Seoul National University, South Korea 15 4.05 28 0.39 1.873 UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Netherlands 12 3.24 66 1.15 5.504 Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 12 3.24 81 1.42 6.755 Lanzhou University, China 9 2.43 113 2.63 12.566 DELFT University of Technology, Netherlands 8 2.16 68 1.78 8.507 University of Exeter, UK 8 2.16 27 0.71 3.388 Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain 7 1.89 22 0.66 3.149 Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania 7 1.89 46 1.38 6.5710 Indian Institute of Technology, India 6 1.62 54 1.89 9.00RCI= Relative Citation Impact
  • 12. Subject-wise break-up of publications RainwaterharvestingSl. No. Web of Science Categories TP % of TP1 Water Resources 220 59.462 Environmental Sciences 109 29.463 Environmental Engineering 63 17.034 Multidisciplinary Geosciences 55 14.875 Engineering Civil 53 14.326 Agronomy 51 13.787 Meteorology Atmospheric Sciences 30 8.118 Chemical Engineering 12 3.249Public Environmental OccupationalHealth 12 3.2410 Limnology 11 2.9711 Multidisciplinary Agriculture 9 2.4312 Architecture 7 1.8913 Soil Science 6 1.6214 Construction Building Technology 5 1.3515 Ecology 5 1.3516 Environmental Studies 5 1.3517 Plant Sciences 5 1.3518 Forestry 4 1.0819 Microbiology 4 1.0820 Other Subjects 38 10.54
  • 13. Findings and conclusionScientometric techniques are being used for a variety ofpurposes like determination of various scientific indicators,evaluation of scientific output, selection of journals for librariesand even forecasting the potential of a particular field. Thepresent study reveals that the highest number of articles areappeared in the area of in Water resources. Similarly most of thecontributions are from India with 17.84%, while foreigncontribution is less. The study revealed that the highestcontributions were from University of Orange Free State andSeoul National University with 15 (4.05%) each.
  • 14. References1. An Introduction to Rainwater Harvesting. (n.d.). GDRC | The Global DevelopmentResearch Center. Retrieved February 19, 2013, from http://www.gdrc.org/uem/water/rainwater/introduction.html2. Chiu, W., & Ho, Y. (2007). Bibliometric analysis of tsunami research.Scientometrics, 73(1), 3-17. Retrieved December 5, 2012, fromhttp://link.springer.com/article/ 10.1007/s11192-005-1523-13. Garg, K. C., Kumar, S., dutt, B., & Chakraborty, o. (2010). scientometric profile ofgenetics and heredity research in India . Annals of library and Informationstudies, 57, 192-206.4. Ho, Y. (2008). Bibliometric analysis of biosorption technology in water treatmentresearch from 1991 to 2004. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 34(1-4), 1-13. RetrievedDecember 4, 2012, from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge database.5. Kademani, B. S., Sagar, A., Kumar, V., & Gupta, B. M. (2007). Mapping of IndianPublications in S&T: A Scientometric Analysis of Publications in Science CitationIndex. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 27(1), 17-34.6. Rainwater Harvesting - Solution to water crisis - Technology and Systems. (n.d.).Rainwater Harvesting - Solution to water crisis - Technology and Systems.Retrieved February 19, 2013, from http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/7. Sangam, S. L., & Girji, R. M. (2008). Indian science and technology in ascientometric perspective. Current Science, 95(10), 1383-1383.
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    • 1.Rainwater Harvesting (RWH): A quantitativeanalysis of world publications during2001-2012Adithya Kumari, H, Associate ProfessorHydar Ali, Research ScholarMahadevamurthy, M, Research ScholarDepartment of Studies in Library and Information Science,University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,Mysore - 570006
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONAll the known civilizations have flourished with water source as thebase and it is true in the present context too. Availability of drinking waterand provision of sanitation facilities are the basic minimum requirements forhealthy living. Water supply and sanitation, being the two most importanturban services, have wide ranging impact on human health, quality of life,environment and productivity. Despite the technological advancements, theglobal scenario still remains grim, as all the inhabitants of the world do nothave access to safe water and adequate sanitation.Rapid population growth, combined with industrialisation,urbanisation, agricultural intensification and water intensive lifestyles isresulting in a global water crisis. In 2000, at least 1.1 billion of the world’speople – about one in five – did not have access to safe water. Asia contains65 per cent of the population without safe water and Africa 28 per cent.During the 1990s, there were some positive developments: about 438 millionpeople in developing countries gained access to safe water but due to rapidpopulation growth, the number of urban dwellers lacking access to safe waterincreased by nearly 62 million(6).Cont...
  • 3. Among the various technologies to augment freshwaterresources, rainwater harvesting and utilisation is a decentralised,environmentally sound solution, which can avoid many environmentalproblems often caused by conventional large-scale projects usingcentralised approaches. Rainwater harvesting is a technology used forcollecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rockcatchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well asmore complex techniques such as underground check dams. Water isessential for the environment, food security and sustainabledevelopment.Cont...
  • 4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To examine the growth of Rainwater harvesting literatureover the period [2001-2012] To study the geographical distribution of the researchoutput To study the research profile most productive authors To examine the pattern of output according to prolificInstitutions and the impact of the output as seen byRelative citation Impact (RCI) and Average Citation perpaper (ACPP) To study research output in context of different subjectcategories.
  • 5. METHODOLOGY AND SOURCESFor analyzing the worldwide Rainwater harvestingliterature, the Web of Science database was used to retrievepublication data published during the period 2001–2012. Weused the term "Rainwater harvesting" to search through WOSdatabases. A total of 370 publications were identified in WOSdatabase as being Rainwater harvesting research. Finally, theevaluation was based on parameters including authors, citation,countries, institutions, growth rate, document types, and subjectareas.
  • 6. RESULTSType of documents publishedDuring 2001-2012 scientists contributed 370 items under7 different document categories. Of these 339 (81.08%) werearticles, 40 (10.81%) were proceedings papers and 17 (4.60%)were reviews. Remaining 4 document categories were publishedas meeting abstracts (5), editorial materials (3), letters (3) andNews Items (2).
  • 7. Growth pattern of Publication output4 41815192628204556528301020304050607080902001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Fig 1 - Grouth pattern of Publication output
  • 8. World Output and Ranking of productive countries inRainwater harvesting researchRank Country TP % of TP ICP TC ACPI1 India 66 17.84 18 412 6.242 USA 42 11.35 20 285 6.793 South Africa 38 10.27 7 132 3.474 China 35 9.46 8 228 6.515 Australia 29 7.84 11 105 3.626 England 26 7.03 12 61 2.357 Netherlands 23 6.22 19 98 4.268 South Korea 18 4.87 4 30 1.679 Taiwan 14 3.78 4 37 2.6410 Bangladesh 13 3.51 9 67 5.1511 Canada 12 3.24 5 86 7.1712 Spain 10 2.70 4 47 4.7013 Germany 9 2.43 5 77 8.5614 Kenya 9 2.43 6 125 13.8915 Tanzania 9 2.43 7 49 5.4416 Zimbabwe 9 2.43 5 61 6.78TP= Total Publications, ICP=International Collaborative Papers, TC=Total Citation, ACCI Average Citation Per Item
  • 9. The most publishing authorsSl. No Authors TP % of TP TC ACPI1 VAN RENSBURG LD 11 2.97 10 0.912 HENSLEY M 10 2.70 12 1.203 BUTLER D 8 2.16 27 3.384 HAN M Y 8 2.16 18 2.255 HAN M 7 1.89 10 1.436 LI XY 7 1.89 57 8.147 MEMON FA 7 1.89 22 3.148 ROCKSTROM J 7 1.89 80 11.439 LE ROUX PAL 6 1.62 9 1.5010 SAVENIJE HHG 6 1.62 64 10.6711 TAIGBENU AE 6 1.62 44 7.3312 WARD S 6 1.62 18 3.00
  • 10. Relative Citation Impact (RCI)This indicator was developed by ISI to measures both theinfluence and visibility of a nation’s research in globalperspective. RCI= A Country’s share of world citation/Country’sshare of world publication. RCI=1 indicates that country’s citationrate is equal to world citation rate; RCI>1 indicates that country’scitation rate is higher than world’s citation and RCI<1 indicatesthat country’s citation rate is less than world’s citation rate (3). Inthe present case the indicator has been used for examining theimpact of performing sectors and most prolific institutions andthe country has been replaced with performing sector orinstitution.
  • 11. Most prolific institutions and the impact of theiroutputRank Author Affiliation TP % of TP TC RCI ACPI1 University of the Free State, South Africa 28 7.57 28 0.21 0.402 Seoul National University, South Korea 15 4.05 28 0.39 1.873 UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Netherlands 12 3.24 66 1.15 5.504 Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 12 3.24 81 1.42 6.755 Lanzhou University, China 9 2.43 113 2.63 12.566 DELFT University of Technology, Netherlands 8 2.16 68 1.78 8.507 University of Exeter, UK 8 2.16 27 0.71 3.388 Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain 7 1.89 22 0.66 3.149 Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania 7 1.89 46 1.38 6.5710 Indian Institute of Technology, India 6 1.62 54 1.89 9.00RCI= Relative Citation Impact
  • 12. Subject-wise break-up of publications RainwaterharvestingSl. No. Web of Science Categories TP % of TP1 Water Resources 220 59.462 Environmental Sciences 109 29.463 Environmental Engineering 63 17.034 Multidisciplinary Geosciences 55 14.875 Engineering Civil 53 14.326 Agronomy 51 13.787 Meteorology Atmospheric Sciences 30 8.118 Chemical Engineering 12 3.249Public Environmental OccupationalHealth 12 3.2410 Limnology 11 2.9711 Multidisciplinary Agriculture 9 2.4312 Architecture 7 1.8913 Soil Science 6 1.6214 Construction Building Technology 5 1.3515 Ecology 5 1.3516 Environmental Studies 5 1.3517 Plant Sciences 5 1.3518 Forestry 4 1.0819 Microbiology 4 1.0820 Other Subjects 38 10.54
  • 13. Findings and conclusionScientometric techniques are being used for a variety ofpurposes like determination of various scientific indicators,evaluation of scientific output, selection of journals for librariesand even forecasting the potential of a particular field. Thepresent study reveals that the highest number of articles areappeared in the area of in Water resources. Similarly most of thecontributions are from India with 17.84%, while foreigncontribution is less. The study revealed that the highestcontributions were from University of Orange Free State andSeoul National University with 15 (4.05%) each.
  • 14. References1. An Introduction to Rainwater Harvesting. (n.d.). GDRC | The Global DevelopmentResearch Center. Retrieved February 19, 2013, from http://www.gdrc.org/uem/water/rainwater/introduction.html2. Chiu, W., & Ho, Y. (2007). Bibliometric analysis of tsunami research.Scientometrics, 73(1), 3-17. Retrieved December 5, 2012, fromhttp://link.springer.com/article/ 10.1007/s11192-005-1523-13. Garg, K. C., Kumar, S., dutt, B., & Chakraborty, o. (2010). scientometric profile ofgenetics and heredity research in India . Annals of library and Informationstudies, 57, 192-206.4. Ho, Y. (2008). Bibliometric analysis of biosorption technology in water treatmentresearch from 1991 to 2004. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 34(1-4), 1-13. RetrievedDecember 4, 2012, from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge database.5. Kademani, B. S., Sagar, A., Kumar, V., & Gupta, B. M. (2007). Mapping of IndianPublications in S&T: A Scientometric Analysis of Publications in Science CitationIndex. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 27(1), 17-34.6. Rainwater Harvesting - Solution to water crisis - Technology and Systems. (n.d.).Rainwater Harvesting - Solution to water crisis - Technology and Systems.Retrieved February 19, 2013, from http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/7. Sangam, S. L., & Girji, R. M. (2008). Indian science and technology in ascientometric perspective. Current Science, 95(10), 1383-1383.
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