1. Warning Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are warned that this presentation contains images of people who have passed away
2. Mathematics and academia inside and outside the classroom An emerging academic perspective Personal reflection By Rebecca Richards
3. My academic pathway • Winkie and Nepabunna Primary • Glossop High School • BA (Hons) in Anthropology and Psychology, University of Adelaide • MPhil in Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford • PhD in Anthropology, University of Adelaide 3
4. Everyday knowledge growing up on a fruit block mustering wild goats Dad with a fence and gate he installed near Yuramalka, Mt Serle Station. Drying apricots pruning sultanas
5. Riverland Musical Society,1994-2004 Extracurricular activities Street theatre Country MusicMusical Theatre Painting
6. At Malkai art site Picking mayaka At Ngutanha Mai Ambatanga Women’s Dreaming Site At Terapena waterhole Making a wurley at WinkieRock art with cousin Aboriginal Education The importance of Aboriginal education, knowledge and skills and learning about country
7. Flinders Ranges My Adnyamathanha and Barngarla homelands Top L-R: Rosalie Richards (Mum), Leroy Richards (Dad), Rebecca Richards (me), and Amanda Richards (sister)
8. Ochre Mine, Custodianship and Native Title My first visit to Pukatu area with my Dad, Uncle, Dr Dorothy Tunbridge, etc in the early 1990s. My Dad took me along to Pukatu when he took the Head of Anthropology at the South Australian Museum, Dr Philip Jones, in 2000 Nearing the site – here overlooking Wilpena Pound
9. National Museum Australia Cadetship Working in summer holidays for 3 months each year, 2007-2011 Cadetship with Margo Neale working on the Barks, Birds and Billabongs: Exploring the Legacy of the 1948 Australian-American Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land International Symposium, 2009 Viewing Bark paintings at the NMNH, Washington DC, June 2010 From left: NMNH Curator of Globalisation, Dr J. A. Bell, and Rebecca Richards
11. Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) Natural History Research Experience, Washington DC, 2010 Digital Repatriation Viewing photos at the National Anthropological Archives, Washington DC, 2010 From left: Vincent Gumurdul and Joseph Neparranga Gumbula Consultation with community Viewing Bark paintings at the NMNH, Washington DC, 2010 From left: Lori Richardson, Vincent Gumurdul, Martin Thomas, Thomas Amagula, Joseph Neparranga Gumbula and Jake Homiak Culturally appropriate storage and handling of objects Building storage cabinets for Arnhem Land Bark paintings The Kluge-Rue Aboriginal Art Collection, the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 2010
12. Observations on Bark Paintings collected in Arnhem Land, Northern Australia 1948 Rebecca Richards Sponsor: Dr. J.A. Bell, Anthropology Department The Expedition, 1948. Photo attributed to Frank Setzler. Courtesy of the NationalAnthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution,Seztler Photographs, Box 36, Lantern slides, arnhem_land002
13. Aboriginal engagements today Repatriation: 1. Returning physical anthropology 2. Returning audiovisual materials 3. Attribution of objects/photographs to individual Aboriginal people https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gcs3ydFvzVE Figure 15. Victor Gumurdul of Gunbalanya (left), Thomas Amagula of Groote Eylandt and Joe Gumbula of Galiwinku (right) with human remains as they leave the Smithsonian, 2009. Photo by Adis Hondo
14. The 1948 Australian-American Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land (AASEAL): • March to November 1948. • Multi-institutional – the US National Museum, National Geographic, the Australian Museum, and the Australian Institute for Anatomy • Cross-disciplinary – included seventeen non-indigenous researchers from disciplines such as cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology, botany, ornithology, ichthyology and nutrition. • Multi-sited – The Expedition collected over 50,000 archaeological, ethnographic, and natural history specimens. This included approximately 13,500 botanical specimens, 30,000 fish, 850 birds, 460 mammals, and over 2000 ethnographic artefacts. – Objects collected by the Expedition are dispersed throughout institutions throughout Australia and the US. Map of 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition camps (cited in the NationalMuseum of Australia, 2009).
15. Differing interpretations? From NMNH card: "two scorpions. Painted by Burawanda” Thomas Amagula (informant) 2010: “Head lice” Marika (1948). Crucifixion of Jesus as told by the Aboriginal people. Yirrkala. Mountford (1948, September21). Field notes on a painting by M. Marika entitled the "crucifixion". Yirrkala.
16. Distribution of Expedition Collection Figure 9. Distribution of Expedition Collection (Richards, 2010)
17. Expedition Natural History Figure 10. Herbarium specimen Melaleuca magnifica collected from Bickerton Bay, Photograph by Lynne McCarthy, 2009. Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha. Collection: ● 13,500 botanical specimens ● 30,000 fish ● 850 birds ● 460 mammals ● 2000 ethnographic artefacts
18. Smithsonian collections IV zoology: 30; Macarthy, Miller, Basset-Smith and Johnson Botany: 203; Specht Fishes: 932; Miller; Blitner; natives Amphibians and reptiles: 567; (John Bray) Birds: 547; Deignan Botany: 203; Specht Archaeology: 51; Setzler Ethnology: 400; Setzler and Mounford Physical Anthropology: 56 (43 deaccessioned); Setzler and McCarthy
19. Fieldnotes Figure 12. Robert Miller’s 1948 field books (Fishes department, 2014) Figure 11. Dave Johnson’s 1948 field books (Mammals department, 2014)
20. Applying for the Rhodes scholarship Rhodes’ vision in founding the Scholarship was to develop outstanding leaders who would be motivated to "esteem the performance of public duties as their highest aim." His will outlines four criteria to be used in the election of Scholars: 1. literary and scholastic attainments 2. energy to use one's talents to the full 3. truth, courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and protection of the weak, kindliness, unselfishness and fellowship 4. moral force of character and instincts to lead, and to take an interest in one's fellow beings.
21. MPhil Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography at Magdalen College • 2 years (1 year of study followed by 1 year of research) • Spencer and Gillen Collection at the Pitt Rivers Museum and Tasmanian Aboriginal collection at the British Museum The Rhodes scholarship • Established in 1902 • 83 Scholars selected each year from Germany, the US, and participating Commonwealth and African countries. • A Rhodes scholarship covers all fees and living expenses for up to three years The Pitt Rivers Museum, 2010The Pitt Rivers Museum, circa 1900 Oxford’s Pitt Rivers MuseumStudying at Oxford
22. Kittewar and Drinene had six children. They were one of the few families to have children on Flinders Island. All of their children died young. The longest living child, Moriarty, is shown in this portrait. Drinene and Moriarty died within a year of each other, Drinene in 1851 following the removal of six-year-old Moriarty to the Orphan School in Hobart in 1847. Moriarty died at the Orphan School, probably of pleurisy, in 1852. Prout, (1845e) ‘Drine.ne’s wife Kittewer with little Bobby [Amelia and her little Bobby, Cape Grim]’. British Museum. Prout (1845d) Drinene or Merappe [Neptune and his son Moriarty]. British Museum.
23. The last 6 months • Summer Institute of Museum Anthropology • Archival research at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and National Geographic • Graduation from Oxford • Graduate Certificate in Indigenous Research and Leadership, University of Melbourne 23
24. My Research Aims 1. Information sharing between with American and Australian museums and archives 2. Communication with Australian Aboriginal people regarding information and photographs/objects collected on these expeditions
25. 25 Expedition Arnhem Land, 1948 Nepabunna, 1931 Mountford, politics & anthropology Archival institutions Smithsonian & National Geographic State Library of SA & South Australian Museum Aboriginal institutions Buku-Larrnggay Mulka Art Center, Yirrkala Nepabunna Community Centre, Iga Warta & Umeewarra Media Figure 2. Schematic representation of thesis content/historical data
26. Nepabunna, 1931-37 Figure 4. Albert Wilton of Nepabunna Mission Station, Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia, with a net for catching wallabies, c1937, Mountford, State Library of South Australia Figure 5. Aboriginal man at Nepabunna, Photograph of Aboriginal man, possibly Joe Elliot, taken at Nepabunna Mission Station, Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia, c. 1937
27. Media Figure 13. Biro advertisementfeaturing the American-Australian Scientific Expedition,cited in the Adelaide Advertiser (1948, March 17) Figure 14. Arnhem Land explorers at Parafield, shiver after Arnhem Land, cited in the News (1948, November 17, p. 7).
28. Returning physical anthropology
29. Returning audiovisual materials Expedition films https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R09Cy0CMi-c http://aso.gov.au/titles/documentaries/aborigines-of-the-sea-coast/clip1/ Expedition radio documentaries
30. 1. Framing Aboriginal objects as art rather than primitive crafts 2. Fostering Aboriginal fine art economies 3. Recognising the Old Masters and their techniques 4. Agency and individual identity to the people depicted Attribution of objects/photographs to individual Aboriginal people Figure. Mountford (1948). Painting technique. Yirrkala.
31. Any questions? 31
32. Acknowledgements Many thanks to: • All my primary and high school teachers • Staff at the University of Adelaide and University of Oxford Anthropology departments • Wilto Yerlo, University of Adelaide • Dr Joshua Bell and Dr Candace Green, Recovering Voices, Anthropology Department, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History • Staff at the National Museum of Australia 32
33. References Aboriginal Art Directory 2010, Map showing major Aboriginal language groups. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from http://www.aboriginalartdirectory.com/images/map-artregion- vendors/map-artregion-vendors.gif May, S 2010, Collecting cultures: myth, politics, and collaboration in the 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition. Lanham, AltaMira Press. Setzler, F 1948, October, Our camp and personnel. Oenpelli. Suitland: National Anthropological Archives, Setzler Photographs, File 36, Box 8, Oenpelli, Glass Plate Negative 13. Thomas, M 2007, 'Taking Them Back: Archival Media in Arnhem Land Today', Cultural studies review, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 20–37. Thomas, N 2009, Entangled objects: exchange, material culture, and colonialism in the Pacific, Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Vogel, S 1988, 'Art/artifact', African Art in Anthropology Collections. Center for African Art. New York, Prestel Verlag. 33
34. Reference Lehman, G. (2013) ‘Coming to terms with Tasmania’s forgotten war’, The Conversation, accessed 10 February 2013, https://theconversation.edu.au/coming-to-terms-with- tasmanias-forgotten-war-1133 McFarlane, I., (2003) ‘Cape Grim’. In Manne R., (ed) (2003) Whitewash: On Keith Windschuttle’s Fabrication of Aboriginal History. Melbourne: Black Inc, pp. 277–298. Prout, J. S., (1845d) ‘Drine.ne or Me.rap.pe [Neptune and his son Moriarty, Circular Head]’ [water colour], Flinders Island, Tasmania, Oc2006, Drg.24. London: British Museum Department of Africa, Oceania & the Americas. Accessed 31 August 2012. Richards, R., (2012) The Historians’ Dilemma: Moral arbiter or objective observer? History Council of SA. Adelaide. Windschuttle, K., (2002) The Fabrication of Aboriginal History I: Van Diemen's Land 1803-1847. Sydney: Macleay Press.
35. Aborigines of the Sea Coast 35 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seh0-_JMBuQ
36. Mayang 36
37. Birds and Billabongs 37
38. Aboriginal Homecoming 38
39. The American Clever Man 39
40. Aboriginal remains back home 407:30 report NT, (ABC 2011)
41. “A Return to Love” by Marianne Williamson Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness that most frightens us. We ask ourselves, Who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, fabulous? Actually, who are you not to be? Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. As we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.