Systemic Design Principles & Methods ISSS 2014

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Research paper presentation at ISSS 2014: Design Research Methods for Systemic Design: Perspectives from Design Education and Practice

The recent development of systemic design as a research-based practice draws on long-held precedents in the system sciences toward representation of complex social and enterprise systems. A precedent article, published as Systemic Design Principles for Complex Social Systems (Jones, 2014) established an axiomatic and epistemological basis for complementary principles shared between design reasoning and systems theory. The current paper aims to establish a basis for identifying shared methods (techne) and action practice (phronesis). Systemic design is distinguished from user-oriented or industrial design practices in terms of its direct relationship to systems theory and explicit adoption of social system design tenets. Systemic design is concerned with higher-order socially-organized systems that encompass multiple subsystems in a complex policy, organizational or product-service context. By integrating systems thinking and its methods, systemic design brings human-centered design to complex, multi-stakeholder service systems as those found in industrial networks, transportation, medicine and healthcare. It adapts from known design competencies - form and process reasoning, social and generative research methods, and sketching and visualization practices - to describe, map, propose and reconfigure complex services and systems.

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PeterJones,PhD OCADUniversity,Toronto Institutefor21st CenturyAgoras ISSS2014July31,2014 DesignResearchMethods forSystemicDesign PeterJones,PhD OCADUniversity,Toronto Institutefor21st CenturyAgoras ISSS2014July31,2014 Beforemethods,contexts. Systemssciencehaspreferredtheoriesforsystemdescription (explanation),prediction(control),&intervention(change). Contributionsofmoderndesigndisciplines industrial, information,servicedesign aremarginalatbest. Designasproblemsolving,oraprocessofsystemdesign Socialsystemsdesignasatemplatefordesignthinkingin complexsociallyconstructeddomains. Whichare(now)everything. 22 DesignerHughDubberly(&Nelson) arguesthatdesignprocessesare embodimentsofsystemsthinking. Banathy (&Gharajedaghi) advocateadesigning orientationtosocialsystems asdesigning. Compatiblephilosophies,differentgenerations. Generation: First Second Third Fourth Philosophy Rational 1960s Pragmatic 1970s Phenomenological 1980s Generative 2000s Methods Movement fromcraftto standardized methods Instrumentality, Methods customizedto context Designresearchand stakeholder methods Designcognition Generative, empathic & transdisciplinary Authors &trends Simon,Fuller Design Science, Planning Rittel,Jones Wickedproblems, Evolution Schon,DonNorman Usercentered& ParticipatoryDesign Reflectiveaction Dubberly,Sanders GenerativeDesign ServiceDesign Systemicdesign Systems influences Sciences, OR Cybernetics Naturalsystems Systemdynamics Systems engineering Systemdynamics Socialsystems Softsystems Complexity Socioecological Dialogic Participatory Designdoesntreallyintegratesystemsthinking. Tendencytoadoptsystemthinkingasmethod. Systems thinking influencedmanagementpracticessimilarly. Systemdynamicstoopositivist,analyticalfordesign. Externalizessystemsasbehaviors,butnotartifactual Senge,Meadowsignoreddesignthinking Incompatiblewithsocialsystems Ackoffschoolwasnotmethodological,ordesignendorsed Designersinpracticeoftenusewhatworks &donotcareaboutthepedigree 25 Designthinkingalsodealswithcomplexity. Designmustbecomemoresystemic asweconfrontwickedproblems. Complexdomainshave>stakeholders Design1.0 Craftdesign,Advertising Design2.0 Industrial,Products,Web Design3.0 Organizational&institutional Design4.0 Distributedsocialsystems Mixedstakeholders What are equivalent units in systems theory? 10Shared DesignPrinciples DesignPrinciple DesignMethodologies 1. Idealization Iteration 2. AppreciatingComplexity Sensemaking 3. Purposefinding Saliency Meaningmaking 4. Boundaryframing Provocationandstrangemaking 5. Requisitevariety Multipleperspectives 6. Feedbackcoordination Modeling 7. Systemordering Structuring 8. Generativeemergence Futureprojection 9. Continuousadaptation Multiplereasoningmodes 10. Selforganizing Cocreation Guidanceforcomplexsystemsdesignfrom systems,cybernetic &complexity principles. Foundationforpractitionerstoenhance engagementandevolvebetterpractices. Elicitedfromsystemstheoreticconcepts,but proposenonewtheory. Elementstoformnetnewframeworks enablingintegrationofotherconceptsfor specificdesigncontexts. Theprimaryaimthetwosystemsofthoughtsharetodayisenablingorganizedhigh leverageactioninincreasinglycomplexandsystemicproblemsasdesignsituations. Designmethodsbyoutcomeintent Modes Designmethodsassociatedwithprinciples Principle DesignMethodologies 1. Idealization Framing,Iteration 2. AppreciatingComplexity Sensemaking 3. Purposefinding Saliency Meaningmaking 4. Boundaryframing Provocationandstrangemaking 5. Requisitevariety Multipleperspectives 6. Feedbackcoordination Modeling 7. Systemordering Structuring 8. Generativeemergence Futureprojection 9. Continuousadaptation Multiplereasoningmodes 10. Selforganizing Cocreation Wemightalsoobservedesign of:Time(4),Space(3),Information(3) (Some) systemicmethodsbyprinciples Principle SystemsMethodologies 1. Idealization Dialogicdesign,Idealizeddesign 2. AppreciatingComplexity Problematique 3. Purposefinding Functionhierarchy 4. Boundaryframing Criticalsystemheuristics 5. Requisitevariety Systemmodeling 6. Feedbackcoordination Systemdynamics 7. Systemordering Processmodels 8. Generativeemergence Cellularautomata 9. Continuousadaptation Intervention(leveragepoints) 10. Selforganizing Dialogicdesign,DevelopmentalEval Possiblesystemmethodsindesignprocess 31 Design/Systems pairs D4.0 Policy/ DialogicDesign D3.0OrgProcess/ SocialSystems,Panarchy D2.0Practice&Information/ ServiceSystems D1.02.0Product,Comm / ActivitySystems GIGAMAPPING 32 Copyright 2012, Peter Jones ActivitySystemsAnalysis/asServiceJourney S O - O C C R R I ServiceSystemDesign/AsWorkDomainAnalysis 34 Adaptivecyclesinorganizationaldesign 35 DialogicDesigninPolicyMaking 36 Whatdowe(stakeholdersselectedforrequisitevariety)agreearethedeep driversresistingchangeintheCanadianhealthcaresystem? Sharedwayview /systemics&designthinking Framing Refrainingfromprematureproblemsolving Iterativeinquiry Dialogicprocesseselicitdepthofparticipation Byparticipantswithstakeinoutcome Selectedforrequisitevarietytotheproblem Humancentered acrosscontexts Complexityembracedasrealityinfuzzysituations Multipledesignactionsovertime Temporalityiscriticaltodecision/intervention Understandingsystemicsdoesnotassumedesignoraction. Designactionsneednotbesystemicineverycase! Rheinfrank,J.andEvenson,S. FromWinograd,Terry.1996.Bringingdesigntosoftware.NewYork:AddisonWesley. DesignLanguages forSystemsMethods Rheinfrank,J.andEvenson,S. FromWinograd,Terry.1996.Bringingdesigntosoftware. 39 Thoughahandfuldesignthinkershavemadesome substantialcontributionstosystemsthinkingingeneral, hardlyanybodyhasdevelopedasystemspracticefrom withindesign,speciallyinformedbydesignthinking anddesignpractice.Thisisremarkablewhenwe compareuswithotherfieldswhereproprietary adaptationsofsystemsperspectivesarenormal. BirgerSevaldson,OsloSchoolOfArchitecture&Design GigaMapping:Visualisation ForComplexity&SystemsThinkingInDesign NordicDesignResearchConference2011 whyhasSystemsThinkingignored Design?