T shape perspectives 20150819 v2

  • Published on
    21-Feb-2017

  • View
    816

  • Download
    6

Transcript

Perspectives on T-shapes

T-shape PerspectivesAugust 2014

Tsummit.org

Source: http://tsummit.org/t2

Source: http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer/spohrer-icer-20150810-v13

Source(s): http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer4

Source(s): http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer

5

Source(s): http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer6

Basics

ResearcherDepthBreadth

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-shaped_skills

7

Employers

ResearcherProblemSolvingCommunications

Reference: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4240.html8

Government Priorities:Entrepreneurial Researchers

ResearcherResearcherEntrepreneurial

Reference: http://cen.acs.org/articles/90/i34/Researchers-Want-Entrepreneurs-Need-Know.html9

Academic Priorities:Liberal Arts + STEM

ResearcherSTEMLiberal Arts

Reference: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/top_performers/2015/06/the_t-shaped_curriculum_liberal_arts_technical_education_or_both.html

Others:https://www.eab.com/research-and-insights/continuing-and-online-education-forum/studies/2014/t-shaped-professionals

http://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/7610/download

http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/top_performers/2015/06/the_t-shaped_curriculum_liberal_arts_technical_education_or_both.html

http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2014/nsf14602/nsf14602.htm

https://www.eab.com/research-and-insights/continuing-and-online-education-forum/studies/2014/t-shaped-professionals

10

Design Thinking:Customer Empathy + Problem Solving

ResearcherProblemSolvingCustomerEmpathy

Reference: http://chiefexecutive.net/ideo-ceo-tim-brown-t-shaped-stars-the-backbone-of-ideoae%E2%84%A2s-collaborative-culture/11

Expertise Theory:Interactional + Contributory

ResearcherContributoryInteractional

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactional_expertise12

Need for T-Shaped Professionals: ICT-enabled deep expert-thinking and broad complex-communicationsScience and EngineeringMath and Operations ResearchComputer Science & Info. SystemsIndustrial and Systems EngineeringBusiness and ManagementEconomics and Social SciencesBusiness Anthropology and DesignOrganizational Change & LearningBroad

Deep

Broad across many

Deep in at least one

13One thing we can do is advance an emerging discipline known as Service Science, Management and Engineering Service Science for short.

Similar to the forces that created computer science as a discipline, companies like IBM need people with a new skill set.

We often refer to them as T-shaped people professionals who have deep knowledge in one or two fields, but also have a broad knowledge across other fields critical to solving complex service sector challenges. These individuals blend technical, management and social science skills.

We also need more research in how to optimally measure and construct complex service systems that govern much of our everyday lives such as banking, healthcare, energy, retail, military, transportation and education systems.

The America COMPETES Act required a study to look into how the federal government should support Service Science through education, training and research. And I strongly endorse this critical first step.

Changing Nature of Work: Increasing demand for expert thinking and complex communicationICT tools augment human performance in these two key areas

Levy, F, & Murnane, R. J. (2004). The New Division of Labor:How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press.Based on U.S. Department of Labor Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

Expert ThinkingComplex CommunicationRoutine ManualNon-routine ManualRoutine CognitiveIncreasing usage of descriptive terms

14We even had a name for the pattern T-shaped people.

T-Shaped ProfessionalsMany disciplinesMany systemsDeep in at least one disciplineDeep in at least one systemMany projects, award winning in at least one(challenge: improve a real-world system)ICT augments human performance: problem solving (deep) and communication (broad)

SSMED T-shaped professionals are adaptive innovators

Social Science (People)

Management(Business)

Engineering (Technology)

ExpertThinkingComplex Communications Across Fields

Tower of BabelBiggest problem in businessis people dont know how to talk to other people in the language they understand.Charles Holliday, CEO Dupont

Based on slides by Jean Paul Jacob, IBMAcross industriesAcross culturesAcross functionsAcross disciplines=More experiencedMore adaptiveMore collaborativeDesigned together

2005 IBM Corporation

Service Research and Innovation | Almaden Research Center 2007 IBM Corporation16Summary of I and T shaped professionalsOn I and T shaped professionals, generalists, specialists, interactional expertise, and contributory expertise -- and the needs of the future workforce----------------------------------------------------------

I-shaped professionals are deep specialists. Specialist is a synonym for I-shaped people. The world needs them and will always need them. I-shaped does not go away. From a discipline perspective, specialists are said to have "contributory expertise" as they can contribute to the development of the field, and solve the hard problems that the discipline has compiled a body of knowledge to solve.

A generalist is said to have "interactional expertise," so they can talk with someone and understand the terms and concepts, but does not have deep knowledge to solve problems or contribute new knowledge to the field. Generalists are needed to connect specialists (or I-shaped professionals) who might not otherwise talk with each other.

T-shaped professional are deep specialists ("contributory expertise" in their home discipline), but also have "interactional expertise" across a wide range of disciplines and business functions. T-shaped professionals have all the advantages of a I-shaped professional combined with a generalist. T-shaped tend to be rarer than I-shaped. T-shaped tend to be more flexible in working on teams than I-shaped. T-shaped tend to learn new areas faster than I-shaped (though not always, depends on the learning skills of the I-shaped).

The major author on Interactional Expertise and Contributory Expertise is Harry Collins.http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/contactsandpeople/academicstaff/C-D/professor-harry-collins-overview.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactional_expertise

The major author on the study of the right ratio of generalists to specialists in an organization is Kathleen Carley, CMUhttp://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/bios/carley/carley.htmlhttp://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/events/conferences/2000/pdf/Marcelo-Cataldo.pdf

===================================On I and T shaped professionals, generalists, specialists, interactional expertise, and contributory expertise -- and the needs of the future workforce----------------------------------------------------------

I-shaped professionals are deep specialists. Specialist is a synonym for I-shaped people. The world needs them and will always need them. I-shaped does not go away. From a discipline perspective, specialists are said to have "contributory expertise" as they can contribute to the development of the field, and solve the hard problems that the discipline has compiled a body of knowledge to solve.

A generalist is said to have "interactional expertise," so they can talk with someone and understand the terms and concepts, but does not have deep knowledge to solve problems or contribute new knowledge to the field. Generalists are needed to connect specialists (or I-shaped professionals) who might not otherwise talk with each other.

T-shaped professional are deep specialists ("contributory expertise" in their home discipline), but also have "interactional expertise" across a wide range of disciplines and business functions. T-shaped professionals have all the advantages of a I-shaped person combined with a generalist. T-shaped tend to be rarer than I-shaped. T-shaped tend to be more flexible in working on teams than I-shaped. T-shaped tend to learn new areas faster than I-shaped (though not always, depends on the learning skills of the I-shaped).

The major author on Interactional Expertise and Contributory Expertise is Harry Collins.http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/contactsandpeople/academicstaff/C-D/professor-harry-collins-overview.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactional_expertise

The major author on the study of the right ratio of generalists to specialists in an organization is Kathleen Carley, CMUhttp://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/bios/carley/carley.htmlhttp://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/events/conferences/2000/pdf/Marcelo-Cataldo.pdf

The practical starting point for all science and engineering disciplines interested in service research is to add course material that helps their students understand the growth of the service economy and the innovation needs related to service systems eventually specific service science and service systems engineering degrees will be offered.

Perspective: Every discipline can prepare their students better to be innovators in the service economy make them T-shaped! Both deep and broad.

For example, CMU Kathleen Carleys computational organization theory experiments around specialists and generalists shows the more change in the world the more the breadth helps improve adaptiveness and performance.

Service scientists are both deep and broad. They speak the language of many disciplines, and are deep in at least one area.-------------------Today, Services Research is the fastest growing part of IBM Research the number of people focused on service innovation has increased by more than a factor of ten over the last three years, and now accounts for more than 1/6 of the over 3000 researchers in IBM Research. When we started the first service research group totally focused on services three and half years ago in IBM Research, it immediately became clear that service research is multidisciplinary in nature. To be successful, wed need to attract more t-shaped people who had both depth in some area relevant to service innovation, but breadth as well so they could speak the languages of business, technology, and social-organizational change.Source: Peter BruegelThe Tower of Babel (1563)