What did you say? mindful interculture communication [201608 icgse]

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What Did You Say? Mindful (Intercultural) CommunicationGreetings! I am pleased to see that we are different. May we together become greater than the sum of both of us. Surak in the Savage Curtain episode of Star Trek Frederick Zarndt frederick@frederickzarndt.com @cowboyMontanamailto:frederick@frederickzarndt.comMindfulnessMindfulness is being in touch with and aware of the present moment, as well as taking a non-evaluative and non-judgmental approach to it.Mindfulness vs. mindfulnessWhen the mind is not mindful and attentive, it follows its habitual patterns of liking, disliking, rejecting, pursuing, projecting, and being for and against things. Clear attentiveness is awareness that is free from the process of reacting, without adding or subtracting anything from the experience.Self aware a clear perception of your personality, including strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, beliefs, motivation, and emotions allows you to understand other people, how they perceive you, your attitude and your responses to them in the moment.A Wandering Mind Is an Unhappy MindMany philosophical and religious traditions teach that happiness is to be found by living in the moment, and practitioners are trained to resist mind wandering and to be here now. These traditions suggest that a wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Are they right?Matthew A. Killingsworth and Daniel Gilbert. A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, Nov 2010. http://www.sciencemag.org/1. Be mindful and (self) aware 2. Be impeccable with your word 3. Dont take anything personally 4. Dont make assumptions 5. Always do your bestAdapted from The Four Agreements by don Miguel RuizThe single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.George Bernard Shaw,1925 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature.? I most enthusiastically recommend this candidate with no qualifications whatsoever.What did you say? In my opinion you will be very fortunate to get this person to work for you.What did you say? Please revert as soon as possible.What did you say?What does this mean?Finefor Parking HereWhat do you see?The young girlis turning away...The old womanis very sad...What do you see?Why (better) communication is necessaryA survey of 752 IEEE members conducted by IEEE Spectrum and The New York Times discovered that "just 9 percent of 133 respondents whose organizations currently offshore R&D reported 'No problem'. The biggest headache was 'Language, communication, or culture' barriers, as reported by 54.1 percent of respondents." (http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/feb07/4881) In a March 2007 web poll conducted by the Computing Technology Industry Association "nearly 28 percent of the more than 1,000 respondents singled out poor communications as the number one cause of project failure". (http://www.comptia.org/pressroom/get_pr.aspx?prid=1227) Nilay Oza et. al. in their study Critical Factors in Software Outsourcing: A Pilot Study of top Indian outsourcing firms named cultural differences and language as the 2 most difficult among the 5 difficulty factors identified in outsourcing relationships. In their 2006 study Crticial factors in establising and maintaing trust in software outsourcing relationships presented at the International Conference on Software Engineering, Nguyen, Babar, and Verner identified communication and cultural understanding as the 2 factors most critical to maintaining trust relationships. Huang and Trauth identified three themes as major cross-cultural challenges: "...the complexity of language issues in global virtual work, culture and communication styles and work behaviors, and cultural understandings at different levels." (Cultural influences and globally distributed information systems development: Experiences from chinese IT professionals)Why (better) communication is necessaryhttp://www.spectrum.ieee.org/feb07/4881http://www.comptia.org/pressroom/get_pr.aspx?prid=1227http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1029997.1030011http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1134285.1134377http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1235000.1235008projects are about communication, communication, and communication"B. Elenbass. Staging a project: Are you setting your project up for success?. Proceeding of the Project Management Institute Annual Seminars & Symposiums. 2000.Wiio's laws of (mis-)communicationOsmo A Wiio in Wiion lait - ja vhn muidenkin cf. http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/wiio.html1. Communication usually fails, except by accident 1.1.If communication can fail, it will 1.2.If communication cannot fail, it still most usually fails 1.3.If communication seems to succeed in the intended way, there's a misunderstanding 1.4.If you are content with your message, communication certainly fails 2. If a message can be interpreted in several ways, it will be interpreted in a manner that maximizes the damagehttp://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/wiio.html4. There is always someone who knows better than you what you meant with your message. 5. The more we communicate, the worse communication succeeds. 5.1.The more we communicate, the faster misunderstandings propagate. 6. In mass communication, the important thing is not how things are but how they seem to be. 7. The importance of a news item is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. 8. The more important the situation is, the more probably you forget an essential thing that you remembered a moment ago.Osmo A Wiio in Wiion lait - ja vhn muidenkin cf. http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/wiio.htmlWiio's laws of (mis-)communicationhttp://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/wiio.htmlExercise: Introductions Introduce yourself and say where you were born Say one thing about you that you really like Say one thing about you that you dont so much like Tell one unique thing shared by all / most members of your native culture that is different from other cultures Do this is 2 minutes or less!GoalsPersonal goal: Through my behavior in thought, word, and deed to be and to become a better person Business goal: Everyone wins as measured by the 4 way test* 1. Is it the truth? 2. Is it fair to all concerned? 3. Will it build goodwill and better friendships? 4. Will it be beneficial to all concerned?* Adapted from Herbert Taylors 4 way test. See http://www.rotary.orghttp://www.rotary.orgGoalsPersonal goal: Through my behavior in thought, word, and deed to be and to become a better person Business goal: Everyone wins as measured by the 4 way test* 1. Is it the truth? 2. Is it fair to all concerned? 3. Will it build goodwill and better friendships? 4. Will it be beneficial to all concerned?Your goals?* Adapted from Herbert Taylors 4 way test. See http://www.rotary.orghttp://www.rotary.orgThe basic humanGenetic difference at most 0.5% Estimated number of neurons in an adult human brain 10,000,000,000 (1011)* Estimated number of synapses in an adult human brain:100,000,000,000,000 (1014) Estimated number of synaptic connections for each neuron: 7,000 Number of combinations of n (1011) neurons with s (7000) synapses C (n, s) = C (1011, 7000) is very large (for example, the number of combinations of n (52) cards taken 5 at a time C (52,5) is 2,598,960 * Another estimate is 86 x 109 total neurons, 16.3 x 109 in the cerebral cortex and 69 x 109 in the cerebellum.Genes, neurons, and synapses: How humans are different Humans have about 3,000,000 nucleotides. Maximum genetic variation based on single nucleotide polymorphism is 0.1% or 1 difference in 1000 base pairs copy number variation resulting from deletions, insertions, inversions, and duplications is 0.4% Total maximum genetic difference between two randomly selected humans is ~0.5%. Genetic difference between human and chimpanzee is ~4%. Genes, neurons, and synapses: How humans are alikeReticular activating systemThe Reticular Activating System (RAS) is a diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness. RAS filters data coming to your mind so that your perception of events agrees with your past experience. Everything you see, hear, smell, feel and touch is a message entering your brain. RAS filters through all these messages and decides which ones will get attention from your consciousness.MidbrainPonsRASMedullaExercise (+)Noise (+)Basic human naturePhysical Vehicle comprised of meat body and its needs. (Latin physica things relating to nature.)Emotional Motivational force for human activities. (Latin emovere move.)Mental Sets goals, creates problems, solves problems. (Latin mens mind, Indo-European / Sanskrit revolve in the mind, think.)Spiritual Relationship to creator. (Latin spirare breathe.)Regardless of culture, humans have 4 basic natures. With only slight racial and geographic differences, the physical body is the same for all cultures. How humans meet their physical needs -- water, food, shelter, procreation -- and fulfill their emotional, mental, and spiritual natures differs from culture to culture and from person to person.Basic human activitiesRelationship Manner in which one connects to and interacts with other humans. (Latin referre bring back.)Work Physical and mental activity intended to achieve a purpose or result or to create something.Recreation Activities done for enjoyment and to re - create oneself. (Latin recreare to create again, renew.)Devotion Activities to fulfill and develop spiritual nature. (Latin devotionem to dedicate by a vow.)Basic physical needs -- water, food, shelter, procreation -- are fulfilled in variety of culture specific ways. Once these needs are met, humans from every culture engage in 4 fundamental activities.Culture is like the color of your eyes: You cannot hide it and can change it only with difficulty, and although you yourself cannot see it, it is always visible to others when you interact with them. Culture Any knowledge passed from one generation to the next, not necessarily with respect to human beings. Culture is a collective phenomenon shared with people within the same social environment. Culture is learned, it is not innate. Culture is different from personality but the border between culture and personality is fuzzy.Definitions of cultureCulturePersonalityHuman NatureLearnedInherited and LearnedInheritedSpecific to IndividualSpecific to GroupUniversalLevels of mental programmingCultural expectationsCultures similar Cultures differentBehaviors and valuesPerceptionTo become conscious of or aware of through the senses (Latin perceptin or perciptio: comprehension, taking in)realize that there is no color in the natural world and no sounds nothing of this kind; no textures, no patterns, no beauty, no scent. the world out there is synthesized in our consciousness. Sir John Eccles,1963 Nobel Peace Prize for Medicine.Process of perception1. Sensation (observation) 2. Awareness (interpretation) 3. Evaluation (judgement)That manis runningPerception: ObservationHe mustbe late...Perception: Interpretation?Those foreignersare always ina hurry!Perception: JudgementPerceptionMuch of what you think happened or what you think you heard is based on misperceptionPerception Mother and daughterPerception Mother and daughter Innocence Project Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing. Exonerated 342 wrongfully convicted men in USA (as of Jul 2016)Perception Mother and daughter Crab Nebula supernova In 1054 a star in the region of what is now know as the Crab Nebula exploded. For several days it was the 3rd brightest object in the sky, bright enough to be seen in daytime. The supernova was observed and recorded by Chinese, Japanese, and Arab astronomers and by native Americans. There are few and very obscure recorded European observations. Innocence Project Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing. Exonerated 342 wrongfully convicted men in USA (as of Jul 2016)Exercise: MisperceptionsThink of one of your own misperceptions or a misperception that you witnessed. It may have been the result of your own personal or cultural programming or the result of your assumptions about a situation, relationship, or the circumstances.Stereotype (definition): an idea that is used to describe a particular type of person or thing, or a person or thing thought to represent such an idea. a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thingCulture stereotypesAdvantages of stereotypes Disadvantages of stereotypesPrediction of cultural behaviors Stereotypical behavior does not match real behaviorIlluminates intent Expected intent disguises real intentHelps one avoid giving offenseAbility to put things in conceptual categories is fundamental to perception.Exercise: Cultural stereotypeThink of a cultural stereotype from your own or from another culture. Think of advantages, disadvantages, and dangers of the stereotype.Cultural models Richard Lewiss Cultural Categories Hofstedes 5 Dimensions of Culture Trompenaar and Hamden-Turners Cultural Dimensions Others ...Richard Lewiss cultural categoriesLinear-active cultures tend to be task-oriented, highly organized planners who complete action-chains by doing one thing at a time, preferably in accordance with a linear agenda. Multi-active cultures are loquacious, impulsive, like to do many things at the same time, and attach great importance to feelings, relationships and people-orientation. Reactive cultures rarely initiate action or discussion, preferring first to listen to and establish the others position, then react to it and formulate their own. Reactive cultures listen before they leap. Adapted from Richard D LewisExercise: Classify your cultureUsing Richard Lewiss cultural categories - linear-active, multi-active, and reactive - classify the culture you lived in as a child. If you think that your personality is different from your native culture, classify it, too. If it is different, why is it different?Cultural types modelFigure copyright Richard D LewisCulture category statisticsLinear-active 600,000,000Multi-active 3,300,000,000Reactive 1,700,000,000Hybrid (multi-active and reactive) 290,000,000Total (approx.) 6,000,000,000Adapted from Richard D LewisExercise: What will you do?You must fly to a business meeting in another country. You ask your very good friend to drive you to the airport. Whilst driving to the airport, your friend hits and seriously injures a pedestrian. S/he drives on without stopping. Later the police catch her/him and expect you to testify about the incident in court. What can your good friend expect you to say?Geert Hofstedes 5 dimensions of culture Model was first based on survey data from 100,000 employees in 50 IBM subsidiaries around the world. Value survey modules (VSM) have been administered by others with similar results. Each dimension has opposite extremes.Some more equal than others: Power distancePower distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of an organization within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.Adapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Small power distanceDirectorEmployeeLarge power distanceDirectorEmployeeSmall power distance Large power distanceInequalities among people should be minimized Inequalities among people are expected and desiredHierarchy in organizations means an inequality of roles, established for convenienceHierarchy in organizations reflects existential inequality between higher and lower levelsManagers rely on their own experience and on subordinates Managers rely on superiors and on formal rulesSubordinates expect to be consulted Subordinates expect to be told what to doPrivileges and status symbols are frowned upon Privileges and status symbols are normal and popularManual work has the same status as office work White-collar jobs are valued more than blue-collar jobsThere are fewer supervisory personnel There are more supervisory personnelParents treat children as equals Parents teach children obedienceTeachers are experts who transfer impersonal truths Teachers are gurus who transfer personal wisdomAdapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Power distance cultural differencesSmall Power Distance Large Power DistancePower distance cultural differencesSmall Power Distance Large Power DistanceExercise: The emperors new clothesYou are an engineer with 3 years experience. For the last year, you have been part of a 5 person team of equally experienced engineers at the Tweedle Dee Corporation. One day during a team meeting, the team leader asks the team to change the software development methodology. The new way is very different from the old way and appears promising but is unproven. What do you do? [2]I, we and they: Individualism and collectivismIn individualistic cultures ties between individuals are loose, everyone is expected to look after himself or herself. In collectivistic cultures people from birth onward are i n teg ra ted i n to s t rong , cohesive in-groups, which throughout peoples lifetimes continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.Adapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Collectivist IndividualistPurpose of education is learning how to do Purpose of education is learning how to learnEmployees are members of in-groups who will pursue their in-groups interestEmployees are economic men who will pursue employers interest if it coincides with their interestEmployer-employee relationship is basically moral, like a family linkEmployer-employee relationship is a contract between parties on the labor marketRelationship prevails over task Task prevails over relationshipHigh-context communication prevails Low-context communication prevailsOn personality tests, people score more introvert On personality tests, people score more extrovertHarmony should be maintained and direct confrontations avoidedSpeaking ones mind is a characteristic of an honest personInterdependent self Independent selfOccupational mobility is lower Occupational mobility is higherAdapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.in-group out-groupin-group out-groupPerception of relationshipsINDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURESCOLLECTIVISTIC CULTURESmore perceivedless perceivedintercultural distanceintercultural distanceIndividual / collective cultural differencesMore individualism More collectivismIndividual / collective cultural differencesMore individualism More collectivismExercise: Who is responsible?A new employee joins an experienced production team. The employee receives the usual training (the same training that all production teams receive) and passes a proficiency exam. During her/his 1st week on the production line, s/he makes a mistake that cause several days of production to be recalled. Who is responsible?He and she, masculine and feminine, tough and tenderA culture is masculine (tough) when emotional gender roles are clearly distinct; men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success, whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. A culture is feminine (tender) when emotional gender roles overlap: both men and women are allowed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life.Adapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Masculine FeminineChallenge, earnings, recognition, and advancement are important Relationships and quality of life are importantMen should be assertive, ambitious, and tough Both men and women should be modestWomen are supposed to be tender and take care of relationshipsBoth men and women can be tender and focus on relationshipsBrides need to be chaste and industrious, grooms dont Bridegrooms and brides are held to the same standardsPeople live in order to work People work in order to liveResolution of conflicts by letting the strongest win Resolution of conflicts by compromise and negotiationThere is a lower share of working women in professional jobsThere is a higher share of working women in professional jobsStudents overrate their own performance; ego-boosting Students underrate their own performance; ego-effacementWomen shop for food, men for cars Women and men shop for food and carsAdapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Masculine / feminine cultural differencesMore masculine More feminineMasculine / feminine cultural differencesMore masculine More feminineEducationCo-educative schools, same content of classes for girls and boys, same qualification for men and women.High professional qualification is most important for men.CareerEqual professional opportunities for men and women are necessary.Career and professional advancement is less important for women than for men.HomeAll housekeeping is done by both parties to a marriage in equal shares.Housekeeping is primarily the duty of the woman.DecisionsNeither partner dominates; solutions do not always follow the principle of finding a concerted decision.In case of conflict, man has the last say, for example, in choosing the place to live, choice of school for children.ChildrenMan and woman share equally in raising children.Woman is the primary care giver.Exercise: Agree or disagreeWhat is different is dangerous: Uncertainty avoidanceUncertainty avoidance is the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations, often expressed through nervous stress (anxiety) and in a need for predictability.Adapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Weak uncertainty avoidance Strong uncertainty avoidanceMore changes of employer, shorter service Fewer changes of employer, longer serviceThere should be no more rules than necessary There is an emotional need for rules, even if these will not workHard-working only when needed There is an emotional need to be busy and an inner urge to work hardThere is tolerance for ambiguity and chaos There is need for precision and formalizationFocus on decision process Focus on decision contentLow stress and low anxiety High stress and high anxietyWhat is different is curious What is different is dangerousTop managers are concerned with strategy Top managers are concerned with daily operationsTeachers may say I dont know Teachers are supposed to have all the answersAdapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Exercise: Risk seekers / Risk averseThe year is 2050. A company headquartered on Mars has sent you a very attractive and lucrative employment offer. The offer requires a minimum commitment of 5 years on Mars. Under what conditions (if any) would you accept employment? Fact for this exercise: More than 21,000 people have emigrated to Mars and about one hundred children have been born on Mars.Uncertainty avoidance cultural differencesStrong uncertainty avoidance Weak uncertainty avoidanceUncertainty avoidance cultural differencesStrong uncertainty avoidance Weak uncertainty avoidanceYesterday, now, or later: Long- and short-term orientationCultures with long-term orientation foster virtues oriented toward future rewards, in particular, perseverance and thrift. Cultures with short-term orientation foster virtues related to the past and present, in particular, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations.Adapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Long-term orientation Short-term orientationPerseverance, sustained efforts toward slow results Efforts should produce quick resultsRespect for circumstances Respect for traditionsConcern with personal adaptiveness Concern with personal stabilityWillingness to subordinate oneself for a purpose Concern with social and status obligationsLeisure time is not important Leisure time is importantFocus is on market position Focus is on bottom lineMain work values include learning, honesty, adaptiveness, accountability, and self-disciplineMain work values include freedom, rights, achievement, and thinking for oneselfInvestment in lifelong, personal networks Personal loyalties vary with business needsMarriage is a pragmatic arrangement Marriage is a moral arrangementAdapted from Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind.Long-term / Short-term orientationLong-term orientation Short-term orientationLong-term / Short-term orientationLong-term orientation Short-term orientationExercise: What will you do?A distant, wealthy relative recently died. In his will he left you USD $10,000. There are no conditions on the inheritance except that you must invest or spend the money as follows: Invest the money in the XYZ hedge fund* or spend the money on a holiday in Hawaii. What would you do and why? *The hedge fund is 10 years old and has had an average historical annual return that exceeds inflation.Culture and emotions Universal emotions such as anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are common to all cultures. Individualistic cultures tend to direct attention to inner states and feelings (such as positive or negative affects). Collectivistic cultures tend to direct attention to outer sources (adhering to social norms or fulfilling ones duties). The correlation between life satisfaction and the prevalence of positive affect is higher in individualistic cultures, whereas in collectivistic cultures affect and adhering to norms are equally important for life satisfaction.What is this man feeling?AngerDisgust Neutral FearJoySurprise SadnessWhat is this man feeling?Anger Disgust Neutral FearJoy Surprise SadnessAdapted from The Four Agreements by don Miguel Ruiz1. Be mindful and (self) aware 2. Be impeccable with your word 3. Dont take anything personally 4. Dont make assumptions 5. Always do your bestBe mindful and self aware Mindfulness is being in touch with and aware of the present moment, as well as taking a non-evaluative and non-judgmental approach to it. When the mind is not mindful and attentive, it follows its habitual patterns of liking, disliking, rejecting, pursuing, projecting, and being for and against things. Clear attentiveness is awareness that is free from the process of reacting, without adding or subtracting anything from the experience.Be mindfulBasic communication principlesSimple Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS principle)Repeat Say it twice in different waysListen Repeat what you hearRespect Respect yourself and othersSimple communication principles When we speak to others in a language that is not our own, we often unconsciously transfer elements from our own language into the other. When someone speaks your language, you tend to assume that they also share your thoughts and assumptions. Unless you understand proverbs from a language that is not your own very well, dont use them. Humor does not translate well! Conversational taboos usually include religion and politics as well as questions about health, age, weight, income. Effective verbal communication is expected to be explicit, direct, and unambiguous. Say what you mean as precisely and straightforwardly as possible. Some western cultures view a person who is being indirect as tricky, deceptive, and of questionable integrity. At best indirect communication is viewed as a waste of time. Some eastern cultures view a person who is being direct as rude and of questionable honor. At best direct communication is viewed as impolite.What does it mean to be impeccable with your word?Be impeccable with your word Take responsibility for your words and actions. Respect others and yourself. Be mindful of your intent. Consider the effect that your words will have on those who hear them. Do not lie to yourself or to others. Do not gossip.What does it mean to not take anything personally?Dont take anything personally To take stuff personally is expression of selfishness: You assume that everything is about you. Nothing others do is because of you: It is because of the others programming. Act, dont react: When you take stuff personally, you feel offended by others words and your reaction is to defend your beliefs thus creating conflict.William Ury , co-founder of Harvard's Program on Negotiation and Senior Fellow of the Harvard Negotiation Project. Humans are reaction machines. When you are angry, you will make the best speech you will ever regret.What does it mean to not make assumptions?Dont make assumptions The human has the need to explain and understand everything. It doesnt matter if the explanation is correct -- the explanation by itself makes us feel safe. Problem with assumptions is that we believe they are the truth. Do not assume that your partner (business or personal) knows what you think and therefore you dont have to say what you want. Do not assume that others think the way we think, feel the way we feel, and judge the way we judge. Stop making assumptions: Have courage to ask questions! Make sure communication is clear. Even then dont assume you know everything about a situation. Communicate This is what I want. That is what you want. Why (better) communication is necessaryNo communication ... Why (better) communication is necessaryNo communication ... Little communication ... Why (better) communication is necessaryNo communication ... Little communication ... Poor communication ... Why (better) communication is necessaryNo communication ... Little communication ... Poor communication ... Reduced communication ... Why (better) communication is necessaryNo communication ... Little communication ... Poor communication ... Reduced communication ... ... all result in more assumptions about What does it mean to always do your best?Always do your best Do no more or less than your best. Reasonable balance. Your best changes one moment to next. Dont beat yourself up when you fail to do your best.Why (better) communication is necessary Because effective communication results in better understanding and ... Better understanding of each others personal / business needs leads to ... Better personal / business relationships which in turn leads to ... More harmony in personal / business relationships, and ... Understanding is more fun than misunderstanding!Exercise: Direct or indirect?Some western cultures view a person who is being indirect as tricky, deceptive, and of questionable integrity. At best indirect communication is viewed as a waste of time. Some eastern cultures view a person who is being direct as rude and of questionable honor. At best direct communication is viewed as impolite. Do you favor direct or indirect communication?Open-minded people seek out (more) information before making a decision Close-minded people see only a narrow range of possibilities and ignore the rest Most cultures produce close-minded people!Exercise: Close-minded or not?Do you agree or not agree with the statement that most cultures produce close-minded people? Why?Non-verbal communicationNon-verbal communicationCommunication is at most 20% verbal! Remainder - 80% or more - is comprised of gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, posture, odors, ... Telephone communication removes gestures, facial expressions, posture, odors, etc. Only words and tone of voice remain. Written communication - email, letters, etc - removes all modes of communication save for words.Your body language shapes who you areAmy Cuddy June 2012 Ted talk. Amy Cuddy is a professor and researcher at Harvard Business School, where she studies how nonverbal behavior and snap judgments affect people from the classroom to the boardroom. Amy Cuddy. Your body language shapes who you are. Ted Talks. https://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are. (Accessed July 2016)https://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_areExercise: Invent a gestureInvent a gesture that a driver can use to apologize for unintentionally cutting off another driver. The gesture must be usable in any country. [2]Frederick Zarndt Coronado CA 92118 USA frederick@frederickzarndt.com @cowboyMontanaWhere there is light in the soul, There is beauty in the person. Where there is beauty in the person, There is harmony in the home. Where there is harmony in the home, There is honor in the nation. Where there is honor in the nation, There is peace in the world.mailto:frederick@frederickzarndt.com