International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 364 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTIN GWALIOR CITY, INDIA Vaishali Sahu1 & Naveen.B.P2 1 Assistant Professor, ITM University, Gurgaon, Haryana Email:email@example.com 2 Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is one of the most vital issues in the contemporary urban environments particularly in developing countries. Municipal solid waste generation is continually increasing problem at global, local and regional levels. MSW consists of putrescible and non-putresciblewaste materials generated by various activities of the society. Unsafe disposal and improper management of solid wastes pollute all the vital components of the living environment (i.e., air, land and water) at regional and global levels. Solid waste management practices in the city of Gwalior (2614 N latitude and 7810E longitudes ) in Madhya Pradesh were examined and an integrated solid waste management plan is proposed based on the study results. The municipal area of the city is 177.3sq.km and is divided into 60 municipal wards and 20 sanitary zones. The total waste generation in the city is found to be 283 ton/day, but the waste collected by Municipality is about208 ton/day, which implies that almost 75-80 ton/day of solid waste generated remains uncollected. The Municipal Corporation of Gwalior spends nearly 50% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 30% on transportation, and 20% on final disposal arrangements. Hence the present study was taken to identify the current status of waste management in Gwalior city in terms of collection, transportation and disposal. Attempt has been made to suggest the various alternatives available for efficient management of waste in the light of environmental impact associated with the current and envisaged practices. Keyword: Collection, Municipal Solid Waste, Municipal Corporation, Transportation
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 365 1.0 Introduction: Rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth have led to severe waste management problems in several cities of developing or under developed world like India, Malaysia, Nepal, Bangladesh. Although municipal solid wastes (MSWs), a vital part of any society, does not have the catastrophic potential of either global warming or stratospheric ozone depletion, has long posed threats to environmental quality and human health. According to Union Health Ministry , India is an agriculturally based country having present population of about 1020 million. Due to uninterrupted relocation of peoples from rural and semi urban areas to towns and cities from long time, in India the share of urban population has increased from 10.84% in 1901 to 26.15% in 1991 . As a result, the 677 Class I cities and Class II towns existing in 1991 have increased to more than 700 by 2001 . The increase in population of Class I cities is very high as comparedto that of Class II. The urban population accounts for almost one fourth of the total population and is increasing at a faster rate than the rural population in India. The population in the urban areas is likely to double by 2010, while the quantity of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) generated is expected to triple . The number of Class I cities with population exceeding 1, 00,000 has increased from 212 to 300 during 19811991 .Accelerating urbanization accompanied with increasing per capita incomes have also led to rapid increases in MSW generation and the tremendous increase in the amount of municipal solid waste has been reported in the cities due to an improved lifestyle and social status . There is an urgent need to work towards a sustainable solid waste management system, which is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. Waste to energy generation option can be an alternative for sustainable management of this waste and will be helpful in tackling this huge quantity of waste. 1.2 Study area Gwalior city lies along 26 14 N latitude and 78 10 E longitudes on Indo-Gangtic plains in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The city has a population of about 927849 (GMC, 2006). Gwalior Municipal Corporation (GMC) is responsible for the management of the MSW generated in the city. The city is divided into 60 sanitary wards as shown in fig 1 and the entire operation of solid waste management (SWN) system is performed under four heads, namely, cleaning, collection, transportation and disposal. In the city area of about 177.3 km2 ,
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 366 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Population Years 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Totalwastegeneration Year the public health wing of GMC is performs the cleaning and collection operations; while the transportation wing of GMC is performing transportation and disposal of MSW. In Gwalior city the cleaning and collection process involves collection of MSW from the street in wheel barrows and thereafter, it is dumped into depots. MSW is then loaded into the transportation vehicles, which transport the waste to different disposal sites. 2.0 SOLID WASTE GENERATION The inhabitants of the Gwalior city generate approximately 280 tons of MSW daily. It is estimated that the annual per capita growth rate for MSW generation is 2.33% and the quantity of MSW from 1971 to 2021 is forecasted in fig 1 and fig 2. Fig.1: Projected Population for next 20 years Fig.2: Projected Total waste generation for next 20 years
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 367 3.0 WASTE COMPOSITION IN GWALIOR CITY The average physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the city are shown in the Fig 3 and Table 1 respectively. Fig. 3: Average composition of waste Table 1: Chemical characteristics of waste Parameter Average Ph 7.70 Electrical conductivity 4.8 Loss on ignition 23.42 Moisture 39.1 Organic carbon 11.37 Organic matter 19.6 Total Nitrogen 0.57 C/N Ratio 19.94 Total Phosphorus 17.20 Total Potassium 19.4
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 368 4.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN GWALIOR CITY 4.1 Field survey was carried out in different wards In the first phase of the study, samples of MSW from different wards were collected during January 2007-February 2007 to determine its characteristics. The sampling and analysis of MSW were carried out as per standard procedures described in IS-9234 Standards. Ten samples were randomly collected from wards. In the second phase of the study, a questionnaire survey was carried out on 240 randomly selected houses covering various categories viz high-income group, medium and low-income group. A questionnaire was prepared and using door-to- door surveying in order to obtain data about MSW quantity, daily disposal, availability of containers, collection frequency and satisfaction level, etc was done. The data collected from the survey was analyzed. Further, the per capita generation rate was evaluated from the population taken into account during survey work and the quantity of MSW generated as follows. 4.2 The public conception of the problem has been analyzed through the questionnaire. Storage of waste is mainly done in plastic/metal container 84% households store their waste in metal / plastic container, whereas 6% and 10% household store their waste in paper bag /box and plastic bag respectively. Segregation of waste into various categories as organic, recyclable, inorganic etc. shows that 41% households recycle the waste through vendors, 4% segregate the waste whereas 17% do not segregate the waste at all. In all the households the waste is either disposed by them or by some self appointed person. 39% household disposes their waste by themselves, 50% household have self-appointed person to dispose off waste from house to further disposal. Municipal Corporation collects waste from 11 percent of household. Collection of waste is done by three methods namely by door-to-door collection, curbside container system or simply outside their house. Waste collected through door to door collection is 33%, 29% household dispose their waste to curbside container, 17% dispose the waste outside their houses. Regarding the preference of the collection method, 58% have given preference to door to door collection, 21% households have given preference to the curbside container system whereas 21% households feels the need of both the system. The problem as conceived by the people is lack of collection facilities, unsatisfactory collection and transport. The problem identification as per users shows that 24% households are worried for the number of garbage container, 23% have infrequent collection problem,
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 369 21% household are worried about the location of the container, 17 and 15% household have unsanitary condition and odour problem respectively. Information regarding where households complain regarding problematic situation, 30% households complain to Corporate, 23% complain to Society Secretary, 17% complain to ward Officer, 17% households dont complain whereas 13% households dont know where to complain. Nearly 62% are aware of the solid waste management in their locality whereas 38% do not even known about proper handling of waste, solid waste collection, etc. the public is ignorant about the existing rules and regulation for solid waste management. Type of information required shows that 54% households need information regarding proper handling of different kinds of waste while 23% households seek information on solid waste collection schedule and where to complain. Almost 100% are in a need to known about the SWM rules and authorities for implementing these rules. Priority to environmental related problem shows that 23% households gave first priority to Inadequate Sanitation problem. Second priority is air pollution, whereas Solid Waste Management related issues are given third priority. Mode of payment of solid waste management charges shows that 75% households pay solid waste related tax with common society charges and 17% households pay separately to the Municipal Corporation whereas 8% do not pay any amount. Monthly Solid Waste Management charges paid by the household shows that 17% households do not pay. 17% and 53% households pay less than Rs.10 and Rs.10 to Rs. 30 to Rs. 50.willingness to pay for effective Solid Waste Management shows that 67% are ready to pay Rs.10 to Rs.30for an effective Solid Waste Management, 21% and 4% households are willing to pay Rs. 30 to Rs. 50 and more than Rs.50 respectively while 8% are not willing to pay at all. 4.3 Interaction with Public The present system is not in conformity with the MSW (Handling & Management) Rules 2000 in reference to collection, transportation and disposal. The waste is being openly dumped at various places creating nuisance and unsanitary condition. No suitable treatment and disposal facilit8ies are available and sanitary land filling is not followed. During survey and interaction with the public is was observed that Collection bins are insufficient. Scavengers, animals etc scatter the waste around the bins Street sweeping and transport of waste from storage points is not regular. Except in some localities the segregation is not practiced.
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 370 Manpower is not adequate. From the above description it is clear that the system is neither efficient nor sustainable, it needs complete overhauling. 4.4 Sources and Quantity of Municipal Solid Waste in Gwalior city Primary collection of MSW Sweepers collect the MSW from the roads/streets and carry it to the nearest collection points (depots or community bins). MSW produced from individual households is taken to the collection point or just deposited on the adjacent roadside from where it is collected when the roads are swept. This type of collection is called primary collection. Methods of storage of MSW GMC has provided 460 community bin containers for MSW storage of capacities 2.5 m2 , 4.5 m3 and 5.5 m3 . The average spacing of dustbin is 3.5 km, through visits and observation it is found that nearly 15% of the bins are not in good condition. Secondary collection of MSW In Gwalior city the disposal site is generally within 15 km of the collection points, hence, transfer stations are not in use and the collection vehicle from the collection points to the disposal site directly hauls the MSW. There are total 796 vehicles used for transportation and collection of the waste. A dumper placer and tractor carrier system is used to carry the large size of community bins (4.5 m3 and 5.5 m3 ) containing MSW from its fixed point to the disposal site where it is unloaded mechanically by a hydraulic arm. Then, the empty container is brought back from the disposal site to its original point. GMC has deployed nearly 1300 sweepers for collection of waste from waste bin/waste pile/waste heaps and for street sweeping. Sweepers between 6 A.M. to 11 A.M. carry out street sweeping. The average road length per sweeper is 500 km, the labour is provided with 25 trolleys and 750 handcarts No prescribed routes have been made yet; they lift the container as per their conformability and convenience as show in fig 4.
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 371 Fig. 4: Waste collection system in Gwalior city Transportation and disposal Gwalior does not have a sanitary landfill for proper disposal of MSW. Presently waste is disposed off at LaxmanTalaiya dumping site. During the visits and survey it was found that all waste is simply dumped at the site and to principle of sanitary land filling to followed thus requiring large land area and creating nuisance in the neighboring area. Treatment and processing Presently there is no facility for processing and treatment of MSW except that some material is recycled through private vendors at source or from dumping site. A compost pant of 120 TPD capacities was installed by M.P. State Agro Industries Development Corporation but was closed in 2000 due to poor quality of compost. 4.5 Current practice of Solid Waste Management in Gwalior For the solid waste management all the four functional elements i.e. storage and collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal have to be addressed. The approach to solid waste management focuses on: Segregation of waste at source or at transfer station to biodegradable, non- biodegradable, hazardous, construction/demolition, bulky etc. Appropriate waste collection and storage Transfer and transport of waste to or at transfer station (TS) or disposal site Processing and treatment of MSW. Minimizing the waste to be disposed by sanitary landfilling. Public-Private Partnership for economic sustainability and proper handling and management waste. Bioconversion of biodegradable waste to compost as to utilize its nutrient value.
International Conference on Waste Management for Sustainable Development,21-23 March, 2014,N.S.S.College of Engineering(NSSCE),Palakkad,Kerala,India, organized by Dept. of Civil Engg., NSSCE: LaBISHaS,Govt. of Kerala & IEI 372 Revenue earning from recyclables, reusable waste; for sustainability of the project revenue should be earned through the sale of recyclable and reusable material and the compost as well as charging the propercess from the public. Waste producers has to pay approach is to be followed. System shall be reviewed after every five years as the solid waste is flexible and the life structural changes affect it. 5.0 CONCLUSIONS The segregation of waste at source and promotion of recycling or reuse of segregated materials reduces the quantity of waste and the burden on landfills, and provides raw materials for manufacturers. The composition shows mostly organic matter (49.8%), so composting and vermin- composting is a good method for the treatment and production of soil amendment. The rapid increase in the quantities of MSW and the inability to provide daily collection service cause a nuisance and health hazards in the city. The study presents the current scenario of MSWM, which will be helpful in creating awareness among the people. For slaughterhouse more vehicle are proposed, as the present is insufficient. For carcass disposal a carcass lifting vehicle and a mobile incinerator is proposed. For the effective implementation of the proposal IEC (information, education and communication) and training is necessary for the sanitary workers and staff and also for the general public. REFERENCES  Union Health Ministry Report, 2004..  CPHEEO. Manual on municipal solid waste management. New Delhi: Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development; 2000.  CPCB. Central Pollution Control Board.Management of Municipal Solid Wastes, New Delhi, India; 2002.  Bhinde AD. Strategies for improvement of urban solid waste management in India. New Delhi: Touchstone Publishers and Printers; 1999.  Sharholy M, Ahmad K, Vaishya R, Gupta R. Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India. Waste Management 2007; 27(4):4906.