Lean & Agile Enterprise Frameworks: For Managing Large U.S. Government Cloud Computing Projects
Lean & AgileEnterprise FrameworksFor Managing Large U.S. GovtCloud Computing ProjectsDr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSEP, ACP, CSM, SAFeTwitter: @dr_david_f_ricoWebsite: http://www.davidfrico.comLinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidfricoFacebook: http://www.facebook.com/david.f.rico.9Agile Capabilities: http://davidfrico.com/rico-capability-agile.pdfAgile Resources: http://www.davidfrico.com/daves-agile-resources.htmAgile Cheat Sheet: http://davidfrico.com/key-agile-theories-ideas-and-principles.pdfAuthor BACKGROUND Govt contractor with 32+ years of IT experience B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys. Large govt projects in U.S., Far/Mid-East, & Europe2Career systems & software engineering methodologist Lean-Agile, Six Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, DoD 5000NASA, USAF, Navy, Army, DISA, & DARPA projects Published seven books & numerous journal articles Intnl keynote speaker, 100+ talks to 11,000 people Adjunct at GWU, UMBC, UMUC, Argosy, & NDMU Specializes in metrics, models, & cost engineeringCloud Computing, SOA, Web Services, FOSS, etc.Lean & Agile FRAMEWORK? Frame-work (frm'wrk') A support structure, skeletal enclosure, or scaffolding platform; Hypothetical model A multi-tiered framework for using lean & agile methodsat the organization, program, and project levels An approach embracing values and principles of lean thinking, product development flow, & agile methods Adaptable framework for collaboration, prioritizing work, iterative development, & responding to change Tools for agile scaling, rigorous and disciplined planning & architecture, and a sharp focus on product quality Maximizes BUSINESS VALUE of organizations, programs, & projects with lean-agile values, principles, & practicesLeffingwell, D. (2011). Agile software requirements: Lean requirements practices for teams, programs, and the enterprise. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.3How do Lean & Agile INTERSECT?4 Agile is naturally lean and based on small batches Agile directly supports six principles of lean thinking Agile may be converted to a continuous flow systemWomack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press.Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas.Reagan, R. B., & Rico, D. F. (2010). Lean and agile acquisition and systems engineering: A paradigm whose time has come. DoD AT&L Magazine, 39(6).Economic ViewDecentralizationFast FeedbackControl Cadence& Small BatchesManage Queues/Exploit VariabilityWIP Constraints& KanbanFlow PrinciplesAgile ValuesCustomerCollaborationEmpoweredTeamsIterativeDeliveryRespondingto ChangeLean PillarsRespectfor PeopleContinuousImprovement Customer ValueRelationshipsCustomer PullContinuous FlowPerfectionValue StreamLean Principles Customer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty Team authority, empowerment, and resources Team identification, cohesion, and communicationLean & Agile Practices Product vision, mission, needs, and capabilities Product scope, constraints, and business value Product objectives, specifications, and performance As is policies, processes, procedures, and instructions To be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanes Initial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimization Batch size, work in process, and artifact size constraints Cadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecks Workflow, test, integration, and deployment automation Roadmaps, releases, iterations, and product priorities Epics, themes, feature sets, features, and user stories Product demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogs Refactor, test driven design, and continuous integration Standups, retrospectives, and process improvements Organization, project, and process adaptability/flexibilityBasic SCRUM FrameworkSchwaber, K., & Beedle, M. (2001). Agile software development with scrum. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Created by Jeff Sutherland at Easel in 1993 Product backlog comprised of needed features Sprint-to-sprint, iterative, adaptive emergent model5Basic SCRUM-XP HybridAugustine, S. (2008). Certified scrum master training: Not just how, buy why. Herndon, VA: LitheSpeed. Created by Sanjiv Augustine of Lithespeed in 2008 Release planning used to create product backlog Extends Scrum beyond Sprint-to-sprint planningInitial Planning Sprint CycleDiscovery Session Agile Training Project Discovery Process Discovery Team Discovery Initial BacklogRelease Planning Business Case Desired Backlog Hi-Level Estimates Prioritize Backlog Finalize BacklogProduct Backlog Prioritized RequirementsSprint Planning Set Sprint Capacity Identify Tasks Estimate TasksSprint Review Present Backlog Items Record Feedback Adjust BacklogDaily Scrum Completed Backlog Items Planned Backlog Items Impediments to ProgressSprint Backlog List of Technical Tasks Assigned to a SprintPotentially Shippable ProductWorking Operational SoftwareSprint Select Tasks and Create Tests Create Simple Designs Code and Test Software Units Perform Integration Testing Maintain Daily Burndown Chart Update Sprint BacklogSprint Retrospective6Layton, M. C., & Maurer, R. (2011). Agile project management for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing. Created by Mark Layton at PlatinumEdge in 2012 Mix of new product development, XP, and Scrum Simple codification of common XP-Scrum hybrid7Simplified AGILE PROJECT MGT F/WAgile ENTERPRISE FRAMEWORKS8 Dozens of Agile project management models emerged Many stem from principles of Extreme Programming All include product, project, & team managementSchwaber, K. (2007). The enterprise and scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.Ambler, S. W., & Lines, M. (2012). Disciplined agile delivery: A practitioner's guide to agile software delivery in the enterprise. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Thompson, K. (2013). cPrimes R.A.G.E. is unleashed: Agile leaders rejoice! Retrieved March 28, 2014, from http://www.cprime.com/tag/agile-governanceeScrum- 2007 -SAFe- 2007 -LeSS- 2007 -DaD- 2012 -RAGE- 2013 -Product MgtProgram MgtProject MgtProcess MgtBusiness MgtMarket MgtStrategic MgtPortfolio MgtProgram MgtTeam MgtQuality MgtDelivery MgtBusiness MgtPortfolio MgtProduct MgtArea MgtSprint MgtRelease MgtBusiness MgtPortfolio Mgt InceptionConstruction IterationsTransitionBusinessGovernancePortfolioProgramProjectDeliveryEnterprise Scrum (ESCRUM)Schwaber, K. (2007). The enterprise and scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. Created by Ken Schwaber of Scrum Alliance in 2007 Application of Scrum at any place in the enterprise Basic Scrum with extensive backlog grooming9Scaled Agile Framework (SAFE) Created by Dean Leffingwell of Rally in 2007 Knowledge to scale agile practices to enterprise Hybrid of Kanban, XP release planning, and Scrum10Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Large Scale Scrum (LESS) Created by Craig Larman of Valtech in 2008 Scrum for larger projects of 500 to 1,500 people Model to nest product owners, backlogs, and teams11Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.Product OwnerProduct Backlog AreaProduct OwnerAreaProduct BacklogSprintBacklogDaily Scrum15 minutesProduct Backlog Refinement5 - 10% of Sprint2 - 4 Week Sprint1 DayFeature Team +Scrum MasterSprint Planning II2 - 4 hoursSprintPlanning I2 - 4 hoursPotentially ShippableProduct IncrementSprintReviewJointSprintReviewSprint RetrospectiveDisciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) Created by Scott Ambler of IBM in 2012 People, learning-centric hybrid agile IT delivery Scrum mapping to a model-driven RUP framework12Ambler, S. W., & Lines, M. (2012). Disciplined agile delivery: A practitioner's guide to agile software delivery in the enterprise. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Recipes for Agile Governance (RAGE) Created by Kevin Thompson of cPrime in 2013 Agile governance model for large Scrum projects Traditional-agile hybrid of portfolio-project planning13Thompson, K. (2013). cPrimes R.A.G.E. is unleashed: Agile leaders rejoice! Retrieved March 28, 2014, from http://www.cprime.com/tag/agile-governanceAgile Enterprise F/W COMPARISON Numerous lean-agile enterprise frameworks emerging eScrum & LeSS were 1st (but SAFe & DaD dominate) SAFe is the most widely-used (with ample resources)14Rico, D. F. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) comparison. Retrieved June 4, 2014 from http://davidfrico.com/safe-comparison.xlsFactor eScrum SAFe LeSS DaD RAGESimple Well-Defined Web Portal Books Measurable Results Training & Cert Consultants Tools Popularity International Fortune 500 Government Lean-Kanban SAFe REVISITED Proven, public well-defined F/W for scaling Lean-Agile Synchronizes alignment, collaboration, and deliveries Quality, execution, alignment, & transparency focus15Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe). Retrieved June 2, 2014 from http://www.scaledagileframework.comPortfolioTeamProgramSAFeScaling at PORTFOLIO Level Vision, central strategy, and decentralized control Investment themes, Kanban, and objective metrics Value delivery via epics, streams, and release trains16Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.AGILE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT Decentralized decision making Demand-based continuous flow Lightweight epic business cases Decentralized rolling wave planning Objective measures & milestones Agile estimating and planningStrategy InvestmentFundingGovernance ProgramManagementSAFeScaling at PROGRAM Level Product and release management team-of-team Common mission, backlog, estimates, and sprints Value delivery via program-level epics and features17Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.AGILE RELEASE TRAINS Driven by vision and roadmap Lean, economic prioritization Frequent, quality deliveries Fast customer feedback Fixed, reliable cadence Regular inspect & adapt CIAlignment CollaborationSynchronization ValueDeliverySAFeScaling at TEAM Level Empowered, self-organizing cross-functional teams Hybrid of Scrum PM & XP technical best practices Value delivery via empowerment, quality, and CI18Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.AGILE CODE QUALITY Pair development Emergent design Test-first Refactoring Continuous integration Collective ownershipProductQualityCustomerSatisfactionPredictability SpeedSAFe BENEFITS19Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) case studies. Denver, CO: Leffingwell, LLC.Rico, D. F. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) benefits. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://davidfrico.com/safe-benefits.txt Cycle time and quality are most notable improvement Productivity on par with Scrum at 10X above normal Data shows SAFe scales to teams of 1,000+ peopleBenefit Nokia SEI Telstra BMCTrade StationDiscount TireValpak MitchellJohn DeereSpotify Comcast AverageApp Maps Trading DW IT Trading Retail Market Insurance Agricult. Cable PoSWeeks 95.3 2 52 52 52 52 51People 520 400 75 300 100 90 300 800 150 120 286Teams 66 30 9 10 10 9 60 80 15 12 30Satis 25% 29% 15% 23%Costs 50% 10% 30%Product 2000% 25% 10% 678%Quality 95% 44% 50% 50% 60%Cycle 600% 600% 300% 50% 300% 370%ROI 2500% 200% 1350%Morale 43% 63% 10% 39%SAFe CASE STUDIES Most U.S. Fortune 500 companies adopting SAFe Goal to integrate enterprise, portfolios, and systems Capital One going through end-to-end SAFe adoption20John Deere Spotify Comcast Agricultural automation 800 developers on 80 teams Rolled out SAFe in one year Transitioned to open spaces Field issue resolution up 42% Quality improvement up 50% Warranty expense down 50% Time to production down 20% Time to market down 20% Job engagement up 10% Television cable/DVR boxes Embedded & server-side 150 developers on 15 teams Cycle time - 12 to 4 months Support 11 million+ DVRs Design features vs. layers Releases delivered on-time 100% capabilities delivered 95% requirements delivered Fully automated sprint tests GUI-based point of sale sys Switched from CMMI to SAFe 120 developers on 12 teams QA to new feature focus Used Rally adoption model 10% productivity improvement 10% cost of quality reduction 200% improved defect density Production defects down 50% Value vs. compliance focusLeffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) case studies. Denver, CO: Leffingwell, LLC.Rico, D. F. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) benefits. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://davidfrico.com/safe-benefits.txtSAFe SUMMARY Lean-agile frameworks & tools emerging in droves Focus on scaling agility to enterprises & portfolios SAFe emerging as the clear international leader21Rico, D. F. (2014). Dave's Notes: For Scaling with SAFe, DaD, LeSS, RAGE, ScrumPLoP, Enterprise Scrum, etc. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://davidfrico.comSAFe is extremely well-defined in books and InternetSAFe has ample training, certification, consulting, etc.SAFe leads to increased productivity and qualitySAFe is scalable to teams of up to 1,000+ developersSAFe is preferred agile approach of Global 500 firmsSAFe is agile choice for public sector IT acquisitionsSAFe cases and performance data rapidly emergingDaves PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES22SoftwareQualityMgt.TechnicalProjectMgt.SoftwareDevelopmentMethodsOrganizationChangeSystemsEngineeringCostEstimatingGovernmentContractingGovernmentAcquisitionsLeanKanbanBig Data,Cloud, NoSQLWorkflowAutomationMetrics,Models, & SPCSixSigmaBPR, IDEF0,& DoDAFDoD 5000,TRA, & SRAPSP, TSP, &Code ReviewsCMMI &ISO 9001InnovationManagementStatistics, CFA,EFA, & SEMResearchMethodsEvolutionaryDesignValuation Cost-Benefit Analysis, B/CR, ROI, NPV, BEP, Real Options, etc.Lean-Agile Scrum, SAFe, Continuous Integration & Delivery, DevOps, etc.STRENGTHS Data Mining Gathering & Reporting Performance Data Strategic Planning Executive & Manage-ment Briefs Brownbags & Webinars White Papers Tiger-Teams Short-Fuse Tasking Audits & Reviews Etc. Action-oriented. Do first (talk about it later). Data-mining/analysis. Collect facts (then report findings). Simplification. Communicating complex ideas (in simple terms). Git-r-done. Prefer short, high-priority tasks (vs. long bureaucratic projects). Team player. Consensus-oriented collaboration (vs. top-down autocratic control).PMP, CSEP,ACP, CSM,& SAFE32 YEARSIN ITINDUSTRYBooks on ROI of SW METHODS Guides to software methods for business leaders Communicates the business value of IT approaches Rosetta stones to unlocking ROI of software methods http://davidfrico.com/agile-book.htm (Description) http://davidfrico.com/roi-book.htm (Description)23Backup SlidesAgile for EMBEDDED SYSTEMS 1st-generation systems used hardwired logic 2nd-generation systems used PROMS & FPGAs 3rd-generation systems use APP. SW & COTS HW25Pries, K. H., & Quigley, J. M. (2010). Scrum project management. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Pries, K. H., & Quigley, J. M. (2009). Project management of complex and embedded systems. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.Thomke, S. (2003). Experimentation matters: Unlocking the potential of new technologies for innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Short Lead Least Cost Lowest Risk 90% Software COTS Hardware Early, Iterative Dev. Continuous V&V Moderate Lead Moderate Cost Moderate Risk 50% Hardware COTS Components Midpoint Testing Some Early V&V Long Lead Highest Cost Highest Risk 90% Hardware Custom Hardware Linear, Staged Dev. Late Big-Bang I&TAGILESoftware Model- MOST FLEXIBLE -NEO-TRADITIONALFPGA Model- MALLEABLE -TRADITIONALHardwired Model- LEAST FLEXIBLE -GOAL SHIFT FROM LATE HARDWARE TO EARLIER SOFTWARE SOLUTIONRISKEmbeddedSystemsMore HWThan SWSTOPCompetingWith HWSTARTCompetingWith SWIterations,Integrations,&Validations SAFe rapidly evolving & adapting to market needs A draft version was made for systems engineering SoS, Lean, Kanban, and continuous flow system focus26Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe). Retrieved April 8, 2015 from http://www.scaledagileframework.comAgile for SYSTEMS ENGINEERINGSoSSystemSub-Sys27Kovacs, K. (2015). Comparison of nosql databases. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://kkovacs.euSahai, S. (2013). Nosql database comparison chart. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://www.infoivy.comDB-Engines (2014). System properties comparison of nosql databases. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://db-engines.comRank Database Year Creator Firm Goal Model Lang I/F Focus Example User Rate KPro2007 Steve Francia10gen Gener-alityDocument C++ BSON Large-scale Web AppsCRM Expedia 45% 482008 Avinash LakshmanFacebook Relia-bilityWide ColumnJava CQL Fault-tolerant Data StoresMission Critical DataiTunes 20% 152009 Salvatore SanfilippoPivotal Speed Key Value C Binary Real-time MessagingInstant MessagingTwitter 20% 142007 Mike CarafellaPowerset Scale Wide ColumnJava REST Petabyte-size Data StoresImage RepositoryEbay 10% 82004 Shay BanonCompass Search Document Java REST Full-text SearchInformation PortalsWiki-media 5% 7Real-time, Distributed, Multi-tenant, Document-based, Schema-free, Persistence, Availability, etc.8Redis10HBase14Rapid-prototyping, Queries, Indexes, Replication, Availability, Load-balancing, Auto-Sharding, etc.Distributed, Scalable, Performance, Durable, Caching, Operations, Transactions, ConsistencyReal-time, Memory-cached, Performance, Persistence, Replication, Data structures, Age-off, etc.Scalable, Performance, Data-replication, Flexible, Consistency, Auto-sharding, Metrics, etc.16Elastic SearchMongoDB5Cassandra3 - $10MGen AppReliableLow Cplx2 - $100MSchemaDist P2PMed Cplx1 - $1BLimitedSin PoFHigh CplxAgile Scaling w/CLOUD COMPUTING 1st-generation systems used HPCs & Hadoop 2nd-generation systems used COTS HW & P2P 3rd-generation systems use APP. SW & COTS HW AWS is most popular cloud computing platform Scalable service with end-to-end security & privacy AWS is compliant & certified to 30+ indiv. S&P stds.28Barr, J. (2014). AWS achieves DoD provisional authorization. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://aws.amazon.comDignan, L. (2014). Amazon web services lands DoD security authorization. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://www.zdnet.comAmazon.com (2015). AWS govcloud earns DoD CSM Levsl 3-5 provisional authorization. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://aws.amazon.comAnalytics DatabaseSSAECrossServiceCompute &NetworkingSOCApplicationServicesDeployment &ManagementStorage &Content Del.DoD CSM DIACAP FedRAMP FIPSCOBIT CSAAICPAFISMAGLBAHITECHSASITAR ISO/IEC ISAE HIPAANIST MPAAPCINoSQL Sols MongoDB Cassandra HBaseAgile Scaling w/AMAZON WEB SVCS Created by Jez Humble of ThoughtWorks in 2011 Includes CM, build, testing, integration, release, etc. Goal is one-touch automation of deployment pipeline29Humble, J., & Farley, D. (2011). Continuous delivery. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Duvall, P., Matyas, S., & Glover, A. (2006). Continuous integration. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.Ohara, D. (2012). Continuous delivery and the world of devops. San Francisco, CA: GigaOM Pro.CoQ 80% MS Tst 8/10 No Val $24B in 90s Rep by CD Not Add MLKAgile Scaling w/CONTINUOUS DELIVERY Goal of continuous delivery is releases vs. build/tests Market-driven releases creates rapid business value Assembla went from 2 to 45 monthly releases w/CD30Singleton, A. (2014). Unblock: A guide to the new continuous agile. Needham, MA: Assembla, Inc.62x FasterU.S. DoDIT Project3,645x FasterU.S. DoDIT ProjectAgile Scaling at ASSEMBLA Google early adopter of agile methods and Scrum Google also uses agile testing at enterprise scale 15,000 developers run 120 million tests per day31Micco, J. (2013). Continuous integration at google scale. Eclipse Con, Boston, MA.Whittaker, J., Arbon, J., & Carollo, J. (2012). How google tests software. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. 440 billion unique users run 37 trillion searches each year Single monolithic code tree with mixed language code Submissions at head One branch All from source 20+ code changes/minute 50% code change/month 5,500+ submissions/day 120 million tests per day 80,000 builds per day 20 million builds per year Auto code inspections For low defect density 10X programming productivity improvement $150 million in annual labor savings (ROI as a result)Agile Scaling at GOOGLE Amazon adopted agile in 1999 and Scrum in 2004 Using enterprise-scale continuous delivery by 2010 30,000+ developers deploy over 8,600 releases a day32Atlas, A. (2009). Accidental adoption: The story of scrum at amazon.com. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 135-140.Jenkins, J. (2011). Velocity culture at amazon.com. Proceedings of the Velocity 2011 Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA.Elisha, S. (2013). Continuous deployment with amazon web services. Proceedings of the AWS Summit 2013, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Software deployment every 11.6 seconds (as of 2011) 24,828 to 86,320 releases per Iteration 161,379 to 561,080 releases per Quarter 645,517 to 2,244,320 releases per Year Automatic, split-second roll-forward & backward 75-90% reduction in release-caused outages (0.001%) Millions of times faster (than traditional methods) 4,357,241 to 15,149,160 per traditional release Thousands of times faster (than manual agility) 161,379 to 561,080 per Scrum/SAFe release Used agile methods long before U.S. government (1999)Agile Scaling at AMAZONAgile LEADERSHIP ModelsRico, D. F. (2013). Agile coaching in high-conflict environments. Retrieved April 11, 2013 from http://davidfrico.com/agile-conflict-mgt.pdfRico, D. F. (2013). Agile project management for virtual distributed teams. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.davidfrico.com/rico13m.pdfRico, D. F. (2013). Agile vs. traditional contract manifesto. Retrieved March 28, 2013 from http://www.davidfrico.com/agile-vs-trad-contract-manifesto.pdf 33Personal Project Enterprise Don't Be a Know-it-All Be Open & Willing to Learn Treat People Respectfully Be Gracious, Humble, & Kind Listen & Be Slow-to-Speak Be Patient & Longsuffering Be Objective & Dispassionate Don't Micromanage & Direct Exhibit Maturity & Composure Don't Escalate or Exacerbate Don't Gossip or be Negative Delegate, Empower, & Trust Gently Coach, Guide, & Lead Customer Communication Product Visioning Distribution Strategy Team Development Standards & Practices Telecom Infrastructure Development Tools High-Context Meetings Coordination & Governance F2F Communications Consensus Based Decisions Performance Management Personal Development Business Value vs. Scope Interactions vs. Contracts Relationship vs. Regulation Conversation vs. Negotiation Consensus vs. Dictatorship Collaboration vs. Control Openness vs. Adversarialism Exploration vs. Planning Incremental vs. All Inclusive Entrepreneurial vs. Managerial Creativity vs. Constraints Satisfaction vs. Compliance Quality vs. Quantity Power & authority delegated to the lowest level Tap into the creative nuclear power of teams talent Coaching, communication, and relationships key skillsAgile ORG. CHANGE ModelsHeath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York, NY: Random House.Patterson, K., et al. (2008). Influencer: The power to change anything: New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2013). Decisive: How to make better choices in life and work. New York, NY: Random House. Change, no matter how small or large, is difficult Smaller focused changes help to cross the chasm Shrinking, simplifying, and motivation key factors34SWITCH Follow the bright spots Script the critical moves Point to the destination Find the feeling Shrink the change Grow your people Tweak the environment Build habits Rally the herdDirect the RiderMotivate the ElephantShape the PathINFLUENCER Create new experiences Create new motives Perfect complex skills Build emotional skills Recruit public personalities Recruit influential leaders Utilize teamwork Enlist the power of social capital Use incentives wisely Use punishment sparingly Make it easy Make it unavoidableMake it DesirableSurpass your LimitsHarness Peer PressureFind Strength in NumbersDesign RewardsChange EnvironmentDRIVEPurposeAutonomyMastery Purpose and profit equality Business and societal benefit Share control of profits Delegate implementation Culture and goal alignment Remake society and globe Be accountable to someone Self-selected work tasks Self-directed work tasks Self-selected timelines Self-selected teams Self-selected implementation Experimentation and innovation Align tasks to abilities Continuously improve abilities Elevate learning over profits Create challenging tasks Establish high expectationsDECISIVEVillains of Good Decisions Narrow framing Confirmation bias Short term emotion Over confidenceWiden Your Options Avoid a narrow frame Multi-track Find someone who solved problemReality Test Assumptions Consider the opposite Zoom out & zoom in OochAttain Distance Overcome short-term emotion Gather more info & shift perspective Self-directed work tasksPrepare to be Wrong Bookend the future Set a tripwire Trust the processAgile ACQUISITION-CONTRACT ModelRico, D. F. (2011). The necessity of new contract models for agile project management. Fairfax, VA: Gantthead.Com.Rico, D. F. (2013). Agile vs. traditional contract manifesto. Retrieved March 28, 2013 from http://www.davidfrico.com35Dynamic Value Performance Based Target Cost Optional Scope Collaborative Business & Mission Value OVER Scope, Processes, & Deliverables Personal Interactions OVER Contract, Auditor, & Legal Interactions Conversations and Consensus OVER Contract Negotiations & Control Collaboration & Co-Dependency OVER Methodology & Adversarialism Exploration, Evolution, & Emergence OVER Forecasting & Control Early Continuous Quality Solutions OVER Late, Long-Term Deliveries Entrepreneurialism & Openness OVER Compliance & Self-Interest Customer Satisfaction and Quality OVER Policies & Governance Communication, cooperation, and interaction key Shared responsibility vs. blame and adversarialism Needs greater focus on collaboration vs. legal termsKey Agile SCALING POINTERS One must think and act small to accomplish big things Slow down to speed up, speed up til wheels come off Scaling up lowers productivity, quality, & business value36Rico, D. F. (2014). Dave's Notes: For Scaling with SAFe, DaD, LeSS, RAGE, ScrumPLoP, Enterprise Scrum, etc. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://davidfrico.com EMPOWER WORKFORCE - Allow workers to help establish enterprise business goals and objectives. ALIGN BUSINESS VALUE - Align and focus agile teams on delivering business value to the enterprise. PERFORM VISIONING - Frequently communicate portfolio, project, and team vision on continuous basis. REDUCE SIZE - Reduce sizes of agile portfolios, acquisitions, products, programs, projects, and teams. ACT SMALL - Get large agile teams to act, behave, collaborate, communicate, and perform like small ones. BE SMALL - Get small projects to act, behave, and collaborate like small ones instead of trying to act larger. ACT COLLOCATED - Get virtual distributed teams to act, behave, communicate and perform like collocated ones. USE SMALL ACQUISITION BATCHES - Organize suppliers to rapidly deliver new capabilities and quickly reprioritize. USE LEAN-AGILE CONTRACTS - Use collaborative contracts to share responsibility instead of adversarial legal ones. USE ENTERPRISE AUTOMATION - Automate everything with Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, & DevOps.