Presentation at the 2011 Massachusetts Environmental Education Workshop
A7: Map Navigation: Teaching Orienteering Barbara Bryant New England Orienteering Club
Todays workshop What is orienteering? Sample curriculum: team navigation Variations on the theme Orienteering exercise Resources for educators
What is orienteering? A navigation sport A treasure hunt with a map
Orienteering is acompetitive sport
Orienteeringhelps kids learn things they need to know
Orienteering Adventure September, 2010 6
Components of Orienteering Activities Map Navigation Teamwork Learn Plan Execute Reflect Developed over several years in collaboration with teachers
Junior High Orienteering Map Navigation Teamwork (1) Classroom lecture. (1) Make team ground rulesLearn (2) Homework. (2) Role-play potentially difficult (3) Test. situations Plan Teams plan routes. Distribute tasks. (1) Slow map walk to relate map to woods.Execute (2) Teams collect tickets at controls. (3) Tickets can be spent on prizes.Reflect How did we do? What did we learn?
Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 9
Classroom Lecture Team challenge goal Reading a map Navigating with a map Field trip information Schedule Team mission rules What to bring Safety Homework: Planning a route 10
Team Challenge Goal Using a map and compass, and working as a team, find controls in the woods. Each team will get tickets for finding controls. The tickets can be exchanged for prizes. 11
Estimating distance 1:10,000 scale: One centimeter on the map is 10,000 centimeters (___ meters) on the ground. Hint: 100 centimeters = 1 meter A pace is two steps. Roughly how many of your paces make 100 meters? 26
NORTH Directions of the EASTWEST compass SOUTH 27
Telling someone where you are on the North map EastWest 250m 28 South
Navigating with the map 29
Orienting the map 30
Orienting the map 31
Orienting the map 32
Orienting the map 33
Ways of orienting the map Match features around you Use your compass Use the sun (the sun is to the south of us in the middle of the day, if we are in the northern hemisphere) 34
When to orient the map Orient the map at every control to make sure you head in the right direction. Try to keep your map oriented at all times. Thumb the map as you walk: keep your thumb roughly pointing to where you are on the map. 35
Field trip schedule 8:45 Take bus to Middlesex Fells 9:30 Training map. 10:30 TEAM CHALLENGE. 12:30 Deadline to return to Finish 12:45 Return to buses. 1:00 Return to school 36
Map Walk 1 37
TEAM CHALLENGE:Landmark Controls 38
TEAM CHALLENGE: Team Controls (Envelopes are marked with team letter and control number so we can clean up any remaining controls after the event.) 39
Licensing Teams may choose to become Licensed to Navigate To become licensed, teams must demonstrate Knowledge of navigation (written test) A good plan for tackling the Team Challenge (individual homework and team work in class) Trustworthiness and readiness (teacher assessment) Why be licensed? The glory, the fame Useful feedback on skills the team needs to work on. Can choose to go without an adult chaperone 1 bonus ticket/person for taking the test 40
TEAM CHALLENGE: Prizes Getting tickets 4 tickets at each team control 1 ticket for each landmark control 1 ticket for each person taking the Licensing exam 2 tickets for picking up garbage in the woods 2 tickets for team prepared to get on the bus 1 ticket for each person completing a course at a local NEOC orienteering meet Late penalty Lose 1 ticket for each minute late Tickets can be exchanged for prizes and snacks at the Finish 42
Bring to the woods: Watch (at least 1 per team) Cell phone (1 per team) Team packet (folder with maps, plan) Backpack Snack Lunch Water Suitable clothing Long-sleeved shirt; long pants Sweater, raincoat Insect repellant (optional) 43
Safety Teams carry cell phones. Numbers distributed to all adults. Safety numbers (mine, 911, ) Safety bearing is west. Teams must always stay together. Return to the Finish location by 12:30 at the latest. Watch where you step. Practice communicating location Preparation: route planning, team dynamics, 44
SafetyBearingisWEST to theroad, thenalong theroad to theparking lot. 45
Poison Ivy 3 leaves STAY AWAY! 47
Watch your step! 48
Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 49
ROUTE PLANNING 50
Route planning advice Use trails as much as possible Big trails are faster than little trails Use landmark controls 51
Plan route from 2 to 3 52
Straight Line distance from 2 to 3 53
Draw in a route from 2 to 3 Pick up landmark controls along the way. 54
Which landmark controls will you visit? Answer: 120, 118, 117, 106 55
Which additional landmark controls can you get if you have extra time? What would be a good lunch spot? 56 How much time will you need to get from there to the finish?
Describe the route from 2 to 120From To Description2 120 Start by orienting the map and heading toward 120 (west). Distance: 0.5 cm on the map = 50 m on the ground = 35 paces Come down off the knoll. Pass the cliff on the right. The control feature is a trail junction. 57
Describe the route from 120 to 118 Distance = 2 cm = 200 m = 140 paces Orient the map and head south toward 118 along the trail. Make sure to take the left trail, not the one on the right. Cross a trail at about 60 paces. Pass a cliff on the right as we go up-hill. The control feature is a trail junction 58
Describe the route from 118 to 117Distance = 2 cm = 200 m = 140 paces Orient the map and head west along the big trail.Fence will be on our left.Trail will bend to the right at about 70 paces.At about 100 paces, there will be a large trail going off to theright.At the next trail junction, go right and we should see thecontrol.The control is at a trail junction. 59
Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 60
Working as a Team 61
Working as a Team: Ground Rules Make your own Examples One person speaks at a time, and the others listen We make decisions by consensus (everyone has to agree on the decision) In discussions we do not have to agree - we want to hear everyones ideas We use respectful language with each other We value constructive feedback. We will avoid being defensive and give feedback in a constructive manner. 62
Working as a Team: Goals Make your own Examples Everyone understands how to orient a map We will get all the team controls and 5 landmark controls We will have fun We will work well together as a team Everyone gets a chance to navigate 63
Working as a Team: Possible Roles Possible Roles Navigation: reading contours, matching features to the map, distance estimation, map orientation Teamwork: facilitator, timekeeper, route selection Garbage collector 64
Working as a Team: Dealing with Problems What problems might come up? Role playing exercise Examples Disagreement about which way to go A team member wants to go faster; others do not A team member is disrespectful of another team member 65
Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Reflections Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 66
What preparations did your team make that were really important to your success on this trip? Teamwork. Listening. Planning our route. (Prevented arguments.) Marking the route on the map. Studying the map. Ground rules. Discussed what to do if one person got out of hand; if someone did not follow the rules. Assigning roles. Learning to orient the map. Practicing orienting the map. Acting out possible situations. Someone getting hurt. Someone not following the ground rules. Having someone keep time. Agreed on how fast we would go. Planning what to wear. What to bring for food. Getting licensed. Orienteering homework packet was useful.
Students Personal High Points Finding team controls. Finding the first team Knowing we were close to the finish. control. Finishing. Finishing on time. Starting off. Rush of excitement. Socializing at the end. Socializing on the bus; Working hard. sharing stories of the day. Earning tickets. Getting prizes. Tickets Working as a team. Coming together as a showed how hard we worked. team over the course of the day. Sense of accomplishment. Pride. Getting a high score. The views. Seeing a snake. Just going into Bushwhacking. the woods. Having a license. Recovering from being lost. Coming up with names for the team. Gaining confidence from finding the first Realizing that the team controls were little control; over time. envelopes. Learning more and more how to read the Seeing who could find the envelope first map over the course of the day. once we were in the area. Knowing where we were on the map and Finding a control after looking for it for about where we were going. Not getting lost. 20 minutes. Being on a roll finding controls. Leading other groups to the finish; helping Cheering my teammates up. other groups.
Summary of Key Skills Map reading Topography Legend Describing where you are Planning a route Navigation Orienting the map Distance estimation Matching map features to terrain Recovering from errors Team work Including everyone Resolving disagreements Having fun
Working with Staff and Parents Staff Three before-school meetings with staff Full partnership Parent chaperones Coordinator Recruitment, CORI forms, communication Pre-reading Assigned roles Invited to classroom sessions Meeting at the woods before kids arrive Debriefing afterwards
Variations on the theme Map Navigation TeamworkLearn PlanExecuteReflect Developed over several years in collaboration with teachers
Variation: 1st grade mix-in 72
Variation: 1st grade mix-in
Variation: 1st grade mix-in
Practice map reading atnearby parks
5th Grade at Fresh Pond Map Navigation Teamwork Students specialize in distance A team leader learns facilitationLearn estimation, map features or and role plays situations. compass. Plan Teams plan routes. Achieve consensus. (1) Street orienteering to get to Fresh Pond.Execute (2) Execute plan to collect controls. (3) Put puzzle together to find the prize.Reflect How did we do? What did we learn?
Variation: 5th grade trip to Fresh Pond
Variation: 5th grade trip to Fresh Pond Single-session training: (1) skills (2) team
Variation: Harbor Island Orienteering and Citizen Science Dr. Jessica Rykken
We learned about invertebrate diversity at Harvard
1st & 2nd graders
We planned our routefrom school to the T station.
We colored the land and navigation buoys in a harbor map.
On the boat
Variation: 4th graders and science
4th grade Fells Trip: Erosion
What shaped these rocks?
(But the living things were more interesting!)
Variation: Scout-O See Daves writeup (handout)
Variation: Orienteering Meet See NEOC.org for upcoming schedule!
Resources for educators (SEE HANDOUT) www.neoc.org www.orienteeringusa.org
Appendix: Learning Frameworks
Frameworks: Science Earth and Space Science Standard for K-2 1. Recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on the earths surface. Life Science Standards PreK-2: Differentiate between living and nonliving things. Group both living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share. 3-5: Classify plants and animals according to the physical characteristics that they share. 6-8: Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom.
Frameworks: Math Number sense standards from PreK-K K.M.2 Make and use estimates of measurements from everyday experiences. K.M.3 Use nonstandard units to measure length, area, weight, and capacity. Exploratory concepts and skills for 1-2 Geometry Create mental images of geometric shapes using spatial memory and spatial visualization. Recognize geometric shapes and structures in the environment and specify their location. Identify relative positions, e.g., closer, farther, higher, lower, etc. Find and name locations on maps and express simple relationships, e.g., near to, far away from.
Frameworks for 3-5 Earth and Space Science 4. Explain and give examples of the ways in which soil is formed (the weathering of rock by water and wind and from the decomposition of plant and animal remains). 12. Earths surface changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
Frameworks for 6-8 Learning Standard, Earth and Space Science Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earths common physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps. Learning Standards, Math 6.G.9 Match three-dimensional objects and their two- dimensional representations 6.M.3 Solve problems involving proportional relationships and units of measurement, e.g., same system unit conversions, scale models, maps, and speed.