Teaching 2.0 Learning & Leading in the Digital Age

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Presentation given on technology in educational leadership at 2009 NAESP convention.


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Teaching 2.0Learning & Leading In the Digital AgeWhat is technology?DefinitionMINDSETMaking work easier to do or understandConnections6 degrees of separation6 of Separation:

Kevin Bacon Human WebSixdegrees.orgPeople/Ideas/ObjectsSmall WorldThe World is FlatFreidman, 2005)

Come Full Circle:We tried that 20 years ago.This is just the new thingHere we go again

Students today depend on paper too much. They dont know how to write on a slate without getting chalk all over themselves. They cant clean a slate properly. What will they do when they run out of paper?

Principals Publication (1815)My class has sadly taken to the pen!. They dont know how to use a pen knife to sharpen a pencil. Pen and ink will never replace the pencil.

NEA Journal (1907)

Many children dont know how to make their own ink. When they run out, they will be unable to write words or ciphers until their next trip to the settlement. This is a sad commentary on modern education.

Rural American Teacher (1928)Ballpoint pens will be the ruin of education in our country. Students use these devices and then throw them away. The American values of thrift and frugality are being discarded. Businesses and banks will never allow such expensive luxuries.

Federal teachers Union, (1951)

Mechanical pencilMimeographOverhead ProjectorWhite BoardsLaminatorTools of the Tradewebsites, email, phishing, computer virusesmobile phones were rare and expensivea Sony Walkman was state of the artCDs were pretty coolWiFi was almost unknownMySpace was my unit or apartment!Few or no experiences with....1997

TechnologyMavis BeaconPower PointExcel/GraphingForWithPedometersH/H ComputersVideo ProjectorSmart Board

Key Tools

Key Tools

More Better

Smart Boards+ Interactive Screen+ Many Resources+ Direct Print$$$$W/T? Training/Use

Hand-Held Computers+ Very Flexible+ Low $ PP+ SimpleRapidly OutdatedDurability? Texting/Security Issues

+ $+ Strong Lang. Arts+ Spec. Ed+ Works w/ P.E.T.+ No TrainingCloser to Entertainment? Time to Set Up

MP3 Players

+ Most Versatile+ No TrainingAssociated $$? Battery/Recharge

Digital Cameras

Video Cameras

+ 1 Per School+ Secure Testing+ Teacher Doc.Varied Training$$$? Cassette/HD

Video Projectors+ Universal+ Entertainment+ Larger Activities$$$$Coveting? Gateway tech? Mounted/Mobile

+ High Engagement+ Ease of Use+ Multi-PurposeInitial $$$Replacement Iss.? Time Investment

Student Response Programs

Overhead Projector

Digital Microscope



Education & Gaming

Tangential Learning

Consoles+ Instant Motivation+ Grant FriendlySmall Group/Cntrs.Software $? Standard/Ed. Vers.? Limited Apps.

Wii The People

Digital Learners

Communities of practice are the shop floor of human capital, the place where the stuff gets made.

Tom Stewart

6061Free range learners

Free-range learners choose how and what they learn. Self-service is less expensive and more timely than the alternative. Informal learning has no need for the busywork, chrome, and bureaucracy that accompany typical corporate training. Less is more.

Lee IococaCitation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group61


Nodes Top-down DistributedHow Networks Evolveas communication costs drop

Citation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group65Human Governance

BandsDemocracyKingdomCitation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group6667Business

ProprietorFranchiseBussiness WebCitation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group6768

Learning68Interpersonal/informalDirect Instruction1-on-1

Citation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group68Blooms Taxonomy

New Version:Graphic represents the NEW verbage. Note the change from Nouns to Verb FormsNote that the top two levels are essentially exchanged from the Old to the New version.

Old Version

Source: http://www.odu.edu/educ/llschult/blooms_taxonomy.htm

Melanie Gehrens, 200869

Observing EngagementRather than Evaluating Work

Learning for what?Address complex and fuzzy problemsProvide multiple perspectivesIdentifying relevance(Making connections)Join in conversation and communitiesAdapt to accelerating changeMaking sense of the world

Citation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group72SPECIAL EDUCATION & TECHNOLOGYWeb 2.0


Jay Cross, Internet Time GroupParticipatory Web CultureWeb 2.0 culture: PullSchool culture: Pushlearner-driveninstructor-drivenProcess focusEvent focusContent defined by learners perception of needContent mandated by others perception of needRelationships, conversationCourses, workshopsACTIVEPASSIVE77Principles of Web 2.0E Pluribus UniversisE Pluribus Unum* Web 2.0 content adapted from presentation by Satyajeet SinghThere are no products, only solutions

Not what learners wants but why they want

A problem solving approach

Simple Solutions

No Products but ServicesEvery individual is uniqueSome people want to be differentAllow him to choose instead of forcing him to use what you have madeMake him feel homee.g.My yahoo, Google Homepage, myspaceFirefox extensions


Network effects from user contribution are the key to market dominance in Web 2.0 era

The Wisdom of crowds Users add value

Amazon, ebay - User reviews, similar items, most popular, Wikipedia content can be added/edited by any web user,Flickr tagging images Cloudmark Spam emails

Harnessing Collective IntelligenceSystems designed to encourage participation

Pay for people to do it gimme five

Get volunteers to perform the same taskInspired by the open source community

Mutual benefits e.g. P2P sharing

Harnessing Collective Intelligence..But only a small percentage of users will go to the trouble of adding value to your applications via explicit means.

Therefore web 2.0 companies set inclusive defaults for aggregating user data and building value as side effect of ordinary use of the application.

It requires radical experiment in trustwith enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow - Eric RaymondHarnessing Collective Intelligence

Type & HuntExplicitUser Selected FavoritesOLD SEARCHING:New Searching:RecommendationsUser ProfilesFeedbackUsers Helping UsersP2PEvery significant application to date has been backed by a specialized databaseE.g. Amazon, Google, Ebay

Database management is the core competency of Web 2.0 companies

infoware rather than merely softwareSpecialized DatabaseControl over data has led to market control and oversized financial returnsIt will provide a sustainable competitive advantage to the companyEspecially if data sources are expensive to create or amenable to increasing returns via network effectsRace is to own certain classes of core data e.g. naukri.com, 99acre, yahoo

Who owns the data?Release Early and Release Often

Perpetual BETA

Daily operations must become a core competency

Software will cease to perform unless it is maintained on a daily basisEnd of the Software Release CycleAutomate the maintenance process

Real time monitoring of user behavior

Microsoft upgrades every 2-3 yr

Flickr- Deploy new build up to every half hr

End of the Software Release Cycle..Recruitment:Due to the cutting-edge underlying technologies and usability-focused interfaces (the cool factor)Organisations adopting Web 2.0 tend to attract sophisticated, high-caliber technical candidates.

Reduced cost: Not only are Web 2.0 offerings low-cost, but the same techniques can also be applied to existing (non-Web 2.0) products and services, lowering costs.For example, wikis can enable your users to build documentation and knowledge base systems, with relatively little investment from yourself.

Benefits of Web 2.0LoyaltyThe open, participatory Web 2.0 environment encourages user contribution, enhancing customer loyalty and lifespan.

Marketing/PR. By taking advantage of the aforementioned benefits, marketing and PR teams can implement low-cost, wide-coverage, viral strategies.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)Web 2.0 delivery mechanisms - such as Blogs and RSS - significantly enhance search engine exposure through their distributed natureBenefits of Web 2.0No products but solutionsCustomization abilityFocus on long tailUsers add valueSpecialized DatabasePerpetual BetaSoftware above the level of single device

Summing UpThe Net Generation creates its own mediaIdentity Production in a Networked Culture: Why Youth Heart MySpace Danah Boyd http://www.danah.org/papers/AAAS2006.html The dynamics of identity production play out visibly on MySpace. Profiles are digital bodies, public displays of identity where people can explore impression management.

Stephen DownesICOE 2007 Taipei, Taiwan13 June 2007Blogs and Wikis

"Never have so many people written so much to be read by so few..." -- Katie Hafner NY Times.

Blogger - Live Journal - Movable Type - WordpressEducational Blogging article Educational Weblogs - Edublogs.org

Wikipedia as compared to Britannica by Nature

Stephen DownesICOE 2007 Taipei, Taiwan13 June 2007Photos, Podcasting and Vodcasting

Flickr Podcasting - wikipedia iPodder - Odeo Liberated Syndication

Youtube - video

Podcasting in Learning Ed Tech Talk - Ed Tech Posse - FLOSSE Posse Bob Sprankle - Education Podcast Network

Stephen DownesICOE 2007 Taipei, Taiwan13 June 2007

Twitter is a social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read other users' updates known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 bytes in length U.S. Senators 2008 Pres. Candidates Super Bowl TeamsNow, every person is his or her own publisher and/or her own editor or her own reporter... The discipline that should go with being able to communicate is gone. Brian Williams, NBC Nightly News


Paperless OfficeFrom Gutenberg

To the expresso$50,000 vendingmachine with aconceivably infinitelibrary - is consumerready, and is debutingin 10 to 25 librariesand bookstores in2007.

CTLA ConferenceJudy OConnell, 23 May 2007We need libraries to matter in a web-savvy world.

Is your library already using wikis, blogs, podcasting,folksonomies, social networking, or other Internetmedia?

Is your library blogging, using Instant Messenger, RSS,promoting services through Flickr and MySpace, orusing a customized OPAC complete with user reviewsand electronic book enrichment?Academic, school, public, and special libraries areincorporating Library 2.0 technologies? ........Reading materials for pleasure and studyInformation retrieval and critical analysissupportLearning activities - Social activitiesAcademic writing guidanceSpecial education learning supportInformation technology supportMultimedia design and productionTraditional bibliographic services24/7 Learning supportcreativity NOT productivity

Blogs & wiki - everyone can communicate RSS - everyone can read about it Del.ici.ous - sharing favorite web pages Flickr - sort, store and share your snaps Office Tools - Gliffy, Writely, Slideshare.... Video Sharing - Google Video, TeacherTube... Podcasting - mulitiple literacies in action Wiki - Power of the crowd Online Friends - MySpace, Ning, Beebo, FaceBookMedia Center ToolsCTLA ConferenceJudy OConnell, 23 May 2007E-Learning 2.0The idea is that learning is not based on objects and contents that are stored, as though in a library

Stephen DownesICOE 2007 Taipei, Taiwan13 June 2007Rather, the idea is that learning is like a utility - like water or electricity - that flows in a network or a grid, that we tap into when we want.

Stephen DownesICOE 2007 Taipei, Taiwan13 June 2007Learner centeredLearning is centered around the interests of the learner

Learning is owned by the learnerThis implies learner choice of subjects, materials, learning stylesStephen DownesICOE 2007 Taipei, Taiwan13 June 2007

Web 1.0 was CommerceWeb 2.0 is People- Ross Mayfield

Web 2.0 seems to be like Pink Floyd lyrics: It can mean different things to different people, depending upon the your state of mind.- Kevin Maney

Wiki SpacesBubbleshareShare elementary artworkSlidesharePowerpoints in a wikiInnertoobGrading podcastsOdeoRecording podcastsTeacherTubeFirefox 2 (has spell check)Meebo Me (office hours!NewsMap the way to read the news!iTunesFor ListeningLibriboxTo download free booksGrazrMake RSS reader and embed it on a website for your teachers (see horizon)ClassblogmeisterSkypeToondoo www.toondoo.comGoogle Notebook Term PapersOffice 2007 Graphic organizers!Supercool Tools for SchoolsSee - http://www.techlearning.com/blog/2006/11/i_am_thankful_for_these_websit.php 118Online Learning at the Crossroads On the one hand we have developed tools and systems intended to support traditional classroom based learning

On the other hand we could (should?) be developing tools and systems to support immersive learning. We should be developing for dynamic, immersive, living systemsWeb 3.0?Web 3DYou can go places that we cannot take field trips!Overcome stereotypes (the avatar)Student collaborationAuthentic Assessment/ Project Based LearningRole PlayingGroup SynergiesStorage, Legacy and a Global AudienceScenario SimulationDigital Storytelling (Machinima)

Why Web 3D has potentialHow the 3D web could benefit education

You can go places that cannot be visited today.

Take a look at this tour of ancient Rome and see how much you learn.

We show videos about the background of the times of history because we know that pictures and videos can teach in 30 minutes what we can spend weeks telling our students. The impact of video.

Well, let me ask you. What if the students could interact with such things? What if they could go to ancient Rome and what if we could go there as well? What if we could see some ways that some of the pyramids could have been built or visit an Aztec village and be part of the crowd when Montezuma arrives? What if we can experience the American revolution and be with the troops in Valley Forge? How much would we learn if we can go there virtually? How much can we teach the students.

If experience is the greatest teacher, what if we could give our students a SAFE way to experience such things! Think of the potential!

You can overcome stereotypes

The creation of an avatar can allow students to escape the stereotypes of their daily lives. We could ask them to be certain things to experience how it feels. We could take role play to a much higher level than ever before but we can also help students who are struggling break out of what others "think" they should be based upon what type of tennis shoes they wear to class and let them just be.

I know that a "utopian wonderland of no stereotypes" will not be possible as long as humans are humans, however, I would relish the opportunity to have such a level playing field between my students and students in other classes.

Student Collaboration

I would have loved having an "Oscar-like" presentation in Second Life at the conclusion of the Flat Classroom project where we screened the videos and discussed them with people around the world.

Students can come together in unique, fascinating ways. They can look at common websites, work on common electronic objects of any kind (even wikis), discuss, talk, connect, and chat. But even more, they can fly. They can transport to multiple 3D worlds instantaneously. Just think!

Authentic Assessment / Project Based Learning Possibilities

We look at project based learning. What if students had to research and create a village as it did in the time of Shakespeare. Even further, what if a whole school district or schools around the world created this. How much would they learn?

Role PlayingOur students can role play and become what we want to teach. Court cases (like the one shown above), decision making, character development, plot, metaphors, and so many things can be taught in such an environment.

Potential for group synergiesWe as educators spend so much time "reinventing wheels." What if we can share these resources and build on the work of one another? What if we can truly create common curricular environments with the standards built in? What if these places are exciting tools that will help the classroom teacher?

Storage, Legacy, and Global AudienceSo, my child created a great project about the ecosystem of a swamp. It took us weeks. We did it last November and just threw it away last weekend amidst tears from both of us. It was a great project. It had an audience of her class and that is it. Why did that project that so many could have learned from have to disappear into our local landfill? Why?

Well, in 3D environments, she could literally create an ecosystem of a swamp that other kids could tour. The other kids could have dove under water and spent hours looking at the under swamp life. They could have flown overhead and seen morning fog rise from the still waters. They could see an alligator basking in the sun, an a frog catching a fly with his long tongue. And it could remain for the next class to add upon. Nothing to throw away. A legacy to leave behind. Perhaps that swamp could have remained and evolved for her children to "play in" when they got into elementary school!

Scenario SimulationWe first tell our kids in chemistry not to mix the chemicals. There are online experiments, but what if we could go to a virtual science lab. Mix it all! Drink it. Throw it in your own eyes. See what happens. Learn from it. You cannot die. Do experiments.

Then, go offline into your real science lab and do the correct experiment and see how it works. These online experiments exist today but what if they were in one place. You could conduct high level scientific experiments that a high school could not afford. (Splitting atoms anyone? Open up the brain?)

Or, how about observing the cycles of change. Watching the life cycle of a frog in a shorter time. You can look at it, pick it up, measure it at each point. You can handle it without killing it. You can do an animal a day in the span of 30 minutes. Watch it grow. Forward it and go backwards. What if you could go inside the frog and dissect it at each point. Put it back together and watch it grow a little more.

How about the exploration of inhospitable environments? Wouldn't you like to take your kids to Mars or the moon? How about the North Pole? Or how about a weather station deep in the Antarctic? What about the wreckage of the Titanic? Critical points in history?

Digital StorytellingMachinima is the act of making real movies in virtual worlds. Your students can role play, you can film and share it and critique it. The possibilities are unlimited!

Unlimited possibilities! What potential we have with this!

121Virtual Learning EnvironmentVLE




Standardized Assessment..

CTLA ConferenceJudy OConnell, 23 May 2007The learner has Evolved

Evolution does not necessarily mean improvementsimply alignment with ones environment.Information Literacy:

Students who can identify and find needed information.

A.A.S.LA.E.C.T.Learned how to learn

CTLA ConferenceJudy OConnell, 23 May 2007

131P=p-iPerformance = (potential interference)CAR-vs-ROAD


Poor filtration policiesAdministratorsTime limitationsPoor communicationsLimited understandingTeachersAttitudes$$$$$TeachersStudentsTools availableSites availableAdministratorsDistrict Pride & SuccessP(erformance) = p(otential) i(interference)136District ImplementationEvaluate & RefineAdapted from John F. LebronWhat should beS - q = NWhat is(status Quo)What youNEEDTeacher Student DualityRoadworkModelingAcceptance/SupportRisk TakerSales PersonRole/Responsibility as Leader


FasterEasierMore ThoroughPrevents Problems

Academic software


Administrative SoftwareGradesBehaviorGrants/AYP/Scholarships/Proposals/Protection

Idea Starters for using Technology in the Classroomways to include a technology aspect into your lessons Brochures | Newsletters | Databases and Spreadsheets| Word Documents | Management IdeasTask Card (example)Integrated Technology Lesson PlansLinks verified 12/21/07 Internet4Classrooms a collaborative project developed by Susan Brooks and Bill Byles

LINKMelanie Gehrens, 2008150National Average = 20/1

Urban Districts = 67/1

If you think education is expensive, try ignorance- Anatole FranceComputers with I.A.McDonalds Cash RegisterWiredSafety.org the world's largest Internet safety and help group Internet Safety

LINKLINKSchool Board- PolicyAdmin. - EnforcementStaff - EducationParents - ExtensionsStudents - UseMelanie Gehrens, 2008152Exposure Breeds Opportunity

Homo ZappiensActive processors of informationSkilled problem solversEffective communicatorsNetwork with friendsSee school as largely irrelevantWant control of what they doShort attention span, hyperactivityLearns via human and technical networksHomo zappiens are digitalSchool is analogCitation: Jay Cross, Internet Time Group154Future society needs people who can address complex and fuzzy problems from different angles and come up with unexpected solutions. Acquiring content as the main goal of education will be less important, replaced instead by meaning and relevance.

Technology Integration should:Explore technology resources. Utilize technology as a curriculum teaching tool. Develop student learning activities that incorporate utilization of technology. Evaluate student learning activities that integrate technology. Enforce responsible, ethical and legal use of technology. As defined by the International Society of Technology in Education, 1994.

Technology StandardsNETS.S Student Profiles

Melanie Gehrens, 2008156Curriculum First!We treat curriculum first because we believe that curriculum, above all else should drive technology integration.

Too often, peripheral considerations give birth to costly technology initiatives, frequently with disastrous results John F. LebronTechniques for integration:Hands-on ExercisesInteraction & review of software packagesExamples of well designed units/lessonsInstruction on finding/evaluating resourcesStudents tools role play (internet & research)Instruction in creation of resources: webpageTechnology MentorsStudentInvolvementIncentivesHome-GrownExpertsResource Provider skillfully aligning people, building, and training to achieve the vision.

Instructional Support engaging in classrooms, staying current & sharing information.

Communicator conveying to all the clear sense of purpose and how the schools programs meet that purpose.

Visible Participant engaging in daily, evident use and interaction with students and staff.4 Roles of the Administrator: What is the purpose of Going Digital? What needs will be addressed? What programs will be put into place ? What faculty will be involved? What kinds of hardware, software, furnishing? What kinds of staff are needed? What promotion and training is needed? How will you measure success?Key QuestionsWhy should the public spend its scarce resources in technology for education?

How can we best support the development of students knowledge and skill in a changing society?Be Prepared To Answer.Not Spend, But InvestKnowledge is future capitol/ think India162

You dont always get to pick The wave you surf;

Sometimes the wave picks you.Digital Kids:

ThanksAdditional Resources:AASL (American Assoc. of Lib.) Technology Center for Children and Technology Early Childhood Tech Literacy Project -Montgomery County Public Schools Technology Integration tips with Linda Burkhart McRel - Technology in Education resources NCREL - Technology in Education



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